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Sample records for early fast-roll inflation

  1. Radiative corrections from heavy fast-roll fields during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2015-06-09

    We investigate radiative corrections to the inflaton potential from heavy fields undergoing a fast-roll phase transition. We find that a logarithmic one-loop correction to the inflaton potential involving this field can induce a temporary running of the spectral index. The induced running can be a short burst of strong running, which may be related to the observed anomalies on large scales in the cosmic microwave spectrum, or extend over many e-folds, sustaining an effectively constant running to be searched for in the future. We implement this in a general class of models, where effects are mediated through a heavy messenger field sitting in its minimum. Interestingly, within the present framework it is a generic outcome that a large running implies a small field model with a vanishing tensor-to-scalar ratio, circumventing the normal expectation that small field models typically lead to an unobservably small running of the spectral index. An observable level of tensor modes can also be accommodated, but, surprisingly, this requires running to be induced by a curvaton. If upcoming observations are consistent with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio as predicted by small field models of inflation, then the present study serves as an explicit example contrary to the general expectation that the running will be unobservable.

  2. Preinflationary and inflationary fast-roll eras and their signatures in the low CMB multipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destri, C.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2010-03-01

    We study the entire coupled evolution of the inflaton ϕ(t) and the scale factor a(t) for general initial conditions ϕ(t0) and dϕ(t0)/dt at a given initial time t0. The generic early Universe evolution has three stages: decelerated fast roll followed by inflationary fast roll and then inflationary slow roll (an attractor always reached for generic initial conditions). This evolution is valid for all regular inflaton potentials v(ϕ). In addition, we find a special (extreme) slow-roll solution starting at t=-∞ in which the fast-roll stages are absent. At some time t=t*, the evolution backwards in time from t0 reaches generically a mathematical singularity where a(t) vanishes and the Hubble parameter becomes singular. We determine the general behavior near the singularity. The classical homogeneous inflaton description turns to be valid for t-t*>10tPlanck well before the beginning of inflation, quantum loop effects are negligible there. The singularity is never reached in the validity region of the classical treatment and therefore it is not a real physical phenomenon here. Fast-roll and slow-roll regimes are analyzed in detail including the equation of state evolution, both analytically and numerically. The characteristic time scale of the fast-roll era turns to be t1=(1/m)V(0)/[3M4]˜104tPlanck, where V is the double-well inflaton potential, m is the inflaton mass, and M the energy scale of inflation. The whole evolution of the fluctuations along the decelerated and inflationary fast-roll and slow-roll eras is computed. The Bunch-Davies initial conditions are generalized for the present case in which the potential felt by the fluctuations can never be neglected. The fluctuations feel a singular attractive potential near the t=t* singularity (as in the case of a particle in a central singular potential) with exactly the critical strength (-1/4) allowing the fall to the center. Precisely, the fluctuations exhibit logarithmic behavior describing the fall to t

  3. CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Wang, Lingfei

    2013-10-01

    The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.

  4. Inflation in the early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1998-04-01

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. The author calculates the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the big bang. The result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  5. Inflated reward value in early opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Linker, Kay E; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-03-01

    Through incentive learning, the emotional experience of a reward in a relevant need state (e.g. hunger for food) sets the incentive value that guides the performance of actions that earn that reward when the need state is encountered again. Opiate withdrawal has been proposed as a need state in which, through experience, opiate value can be increased, resulting in escalated opiate self-administration. Endogenous opioid transmission plays anatomically dissociable roles in the positive emotional experience of reward consumption and incentive learning. We, therefore, sought to determine if chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal produces a disruption in the fundamental incentive learning process such that reward seeking, even for non-opiate rewards, can become maladaptive, inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption and irrespective of need. Rats trained to earn sucrose or water on a reward-seeking chain were treated with morphine (10-30 mg/kg, s.c.) daily for 11 days prior to testing in withdrawal. Opiate-withdrawn rats showed elevated reward-seeking actions, but only after they experienced the reward in withdrawal, an effect that was strongest in early (1-3 days), as opposed to late (14-16 days), withdrawal. This was sufficient to overcome a negative reward value change induced by sucrose experience in satiety and, in certain circumstances, was inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption. Lastly, we found that early opiate withdrawal-induced inflation of reward value was blocked by inactivation of basolateral amygdala mu opioid receptors. These data suggest that in early opiate withdrawal, the incentive learning process is disrupted, resulting in maladaptive reward seeking. PMID:25081350

  6. Nontrivial dynamics in the early stages of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.; El Hasi, C.

    1995-03-01

    Inflationary cosmologies, regarded as dynamical systems, have rather simple asymptotic behavior insofar as the cosmic baldness principle holds. Nevertheless, in the early stages of an inflationary process the dynamical behavior may be very complex. In this paper, we show how even a simple inflationary scenario, based on Linde's ``chaotic inflation'' proposal, manifests nontrivial dynamical effects such as the breakup of invariant tori, the formation of cantori, and Arnol'd's diffusion. The relevance of such effects is highlighted by the facts that even the occurrence or nonoccurrence of inflation in a given universe is dependent upon them.

  7. Gravitino condensates in the early universe and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-05-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local super-symmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) super-symmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the super-symmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass.

  8. Inflation.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, A H

    1993-01-01

    A short review of inflation is given, starting with a description of the underlying mechanism and the scenario of events. Four variations--old inflation, new inflation, chaotic inflation, and extended inflation--are discussed. It is claimed that the inflationary model provides a plausible explanation for (i) the large number of particles in the universe, (ii) the Hubble expansion, (iii) the large-scale uniformity of the universe, (iv) the nearness of the universe to a critical density, (v) the absence of magnetic monopoles, and (vi) the scale-invariant spectrum of microwave background fluctuations observed by COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer). Finally, it is argued that the plausibility of inflation is enhanced by the fact that inflation is eternal. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607402

  9. Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    The basic workings of inflationary models are summarized, along with the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. I describe the quantum origin of density perturbations, giving a heuristic derivation of the scale invariance of the spectrum and the leading corrections to scale invariance. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. Although inflation is generically eternal into the future, it is not eternal into the past: it can be proven under reasonable assumptions that the inflating region must be incomplete in past directions, so some physics other than inflation is needed to describe the past boundary of the inflating region. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique.

  10. The Early Universe: Searching for Evidence of Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as "inflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  11. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, David F

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED). Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduction to the world's urological community. This article is, for the most part, the observations of one who was “there” in the early and mid-1970's and was a witness to the history of this remarkable marvel of creativity, engineering, design, and to the personalities involved. PMID:25432494

  12. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there.

    PubMed

    Mobley, David F

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED). Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduction to the world's urological community. This article is, for the most part, the observations of one who was "there" in the early and mid-1970's and was a witness to the history of this remarkable marvel of creativity, engineering, design, and to the personalities involved. PMID:25432494

  13. Polymer inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Syed Moeez; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2015-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a Gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semiclassical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by an epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow-roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckian initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  14. A New Look at Inflation: Economic Policy in the Early 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagan, Phillip; And Others

    The volume, a sequel to "Economic Policy and Inflation in the Sixties" presents the diverse opinions of distinguished scholars on developments in the American economy since the institution of direct wage and price controls in August 1971. Gottfried Haberler considers the international aspects of recent United States inflation. William Fellner…

  15. A Little Inflation in the Early Universe at the QCD Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2010-07-23

    We explore a scenario that allows for a strong first order phase transition of QCD at a non-negligible baryon number in the early Universe and its possible observable consequences. The main assumption is a quasistable QCD-vacuum state that leads to a short period of inflation, consequently diluting the net baryon to photon ratio to today's observed value. A strong mechanism for baryogenesis is needed to start out with a baryon asymmetry of order unity, e.g., as provided by Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. The cosmological implications are direct effects on primordial density fluctuations up to dark matter mass scales of M{sub max{approx}}1-10M{sub {center_dot},} change in the spectral slope up to M{sub max{approx}}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot},} production of strong primordial magnetic fields and a gravitational wave spectrum with present day peak strain amplitude of up to h{sub c}({nu}{sub peak}){approx}5x10{sup -15} around {nu}{sub peak{approx}}4x10{sup -8} Hz.

  16. Double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Slinky inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior.We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and ''why now'' problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n{sub S} = n{sub T} = 1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion.

  18. Symmetron inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Ruifeng; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2014-01-01

    We define a new inflationary scenario in which inflation starts naturally after the Big Bang when the energy density drops below some critical value. As a model, we use recently proposed symmetron field whose effective potential depends on the energy density of the environment. At high densities, right after the Big Bang, the potential for the symmetron is trivial, and the field sits in equilibrium at the bottom of the potential. When the density drops below some critical value, the potential changes its shape into a symmetry breaking potential, and the field starts rolling down. This scenario does not require any special initial conditions for inflation to start. We also construct a concrete model with two fields, i.e. with symmetron as an inflaton and an additional scalar field which describes the matter content in the early universe. For the simplest coupling, the amplitude and shape of the power spectrum are the same as in the single field slow-roll inflation.

  19. Inflation and eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, A. H.

    2000-08-01

    The basic workings of inflationary models are summarized, along with the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique. Vilenkin's proposal for avoiding these problems is also discussed.

  20. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@sissa.it E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  1. Chameleonic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin; Nastase, Horatiu; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2013-08-01

    We attempt to incorporate inflation into a string theory realization of the chameleon mechanism. Previously, it was found that the volume modulus, stabilized by the supersymmetric potential used by Kachru, Kallosh, Linde and Trivedi (KKLT) and with the right choice of parameters, can generically work as a chameleon. In this paper, we ask whether inflation can be realized in the same model. We find that we need a large extra dimensions set-up, as well as a semi-phenomenological deformation of the Kähler potential in the quantum region. We also find that an additional KKLT term is required so that there are now two pieces to the potential, one which drives inflation in the early universe, and one which is responsible for chameleon screening at late times. These two pieces of the potential are separated by a large flat desert in field space. The scalar field must dynamically traverse this desert between the end of inflation and today, and we find that this can indeed occur under the right conditions.

  2. Generation of gravitational waves during early structure formation between cosmic inflation and reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Lemoine, Martin; Martin, Jérôme E-mail: lemoine@iap.fr

    2010-04-01

    In the pre-reheating era, following cosmic inflation and preceding radiation domination, the energy density may be dominated by an oscillating massive scalar condensate, such as is the case for V = m{sup 2}φ{sup 2}/2 chaotic inflation. We have found in a previous paper that during this period, a wide range of sub-Hubble scale perturbations are subject to a preheating instability, leading to the growth of density perturbations ultimately collapsing to form non-linear structures. We compute here the gravitational wave signal due to these structures in the linear limit and present estimates for emission in the non-linear limit due to various effects: the collapse of halos, the tidal interactions, the evaporation during the conversion of the inflaton condensate into radiation and finally the ensuing turbulent cascades. The gravitational wave signal could be rather large and potentially testable by future detectors.

  3. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2013-07-01

    We construct a simple model of universe which "unifies" vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c2 = αρ+kρ1+1/n having a linear component p = αρc2 and a polytropic component p = kρ1+1/nc2. For α = 1/3, n = 1 and k = -4/(3ρP), where ρP = 5.161099 g/m3 is the Planck density, this equation of state describes the transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t >= 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size lP = 1.6210-35 m to a size a1 = 2.6110-6 m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times tP = 5.3910-44 s (early inflation). When t > t1 = 23.3tP, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ = 0). For α = 0, n = -1 and k = -ρΛ, where ρΛ = 7.0210-24 g/m3 is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c2 = αρ+kρ1+1/n describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a2 = 0.204lΛ. corresponding to a time t2 = 0.203tΛ where lΛ = 4.38 1026 m is the cosmological length and tΛ = 1.46 1018 s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t0 ~ t2). Our model gives the same results as the standard ΛCDM model for t >> tP and completes it by incorporating a phase of early inflation for t < 23.3tP in a very natural manner. Furthermore, it reveals a nice "symmetry" between the early and the late

  4. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2013-07-23

    We construct a simple model of universe which 'unifies' vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} having a linear component p = αρc{sup 2} and a polytropic component p = kρ{sup 1+1/n}c{sup 2}. For α= 1/3, n= 1 and k=−4/(3ρ{sub P}), where ρ{sub P}= 5.1610{sup 99} g/m{sup 3} is the Planck density, this equation of state describes the transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t≥ 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size l{sub P}= 1.6210{sup −35} m to a size a{sub 1}= 2.6110{sup −6} m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times t{sub P}= 5.3910{sup −44} s (early inflation). When t > t{sub 1}= 23.3t{sub P}, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ= 0). For α= 0, n=−1 and k=−ρ{sub Λ}, where ρ{sub Λ}= 7.0210{sup −24} g/m{sup 3} is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a{sub 2}= 0.204l{sub Λ}. corresponding to a time t{sub 2}= 0.203t{sub Λ} where l{sub Λ}= 4.38 10{sup 26} m is the cosmological length and t{sub Λ}= 1.46 10{sup 18} s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t{sub 0}∼t{sub 2}). Our model gives the same results as the standard

  5. The Early Universe f2 FF Model of Primordial Magnetic Field at Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhammad, Anwar; Lopez-Mobilia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We study the simple gauge invariant model f2 FF as a way to generate primordial magnetic fields (PMF) in Natural Inflation (NI). We compute both magnetic and electric spectra generated by the f2 FF model in NI for different values of model parameters and find that both de Sitter and power law expansion lead to the same results at sufficiently large number of e-foldings, as expected. We also find that the necessary scale invariance property of the PMF cannot be obtained in NI in first order of slow roll limits under the constraints derived from the recent BICEP2 results. Furthermore, if these constraints are relaxed to achieve scale invariance, then the model suffers from backreaction problems for almost all values of model parameters. We show that there is a narrow range of the height of the potential Λ around Λmin ~ 0 . 00460MPl and of the commoving wave number k around kmin ~ 5 . 5 ×10-4 , at which the problem of backreaction might be avoided. The value of Λmin lies within the range of Λ compatible with the BICEP2 results. However, the relatively short range of k presents a serious challenge to the viability of this model.

  6. Cosmic Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-11-21

    In 1964, scientists discovered a faint radio hiss coming from the heavens and realized that the hiss wasn’t just noise. It was a message from eons ago; specifically the remnants of the primordial fireball, cooled to about 3 degrees above absolute zero. Subsequent research revealed that the radio hiss was the same in every direction. The temperature of the early universe was uniform to at better than a part in a hundred thousand. And this was weird. According to the prevailing theory, the two sides of the universe have never been in contact. So how could two places that had never been in contact be so similar? One possible explanation was proposed in 1979. Called inflation, the theory required that early in the history of the universe, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light. Confused? Watch this video as Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln makes sense of this mind-bending idea.

  7. Quantum phase of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berera, Arjun; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2013-02-01

    Inflation models can have an early phase of inflation where the evolution of the inflaton is driven by quantum fluctuations before entering the phase driven by the slope of the scalar field potential. For a Coleman-Weinberg potential this quantum phase lasts 107-8 e-foldings. A long period of fluctuation driven growth of the inflation field can possibly take the inflaton past ϕ*, the value of the field where our current horizon scale crosses the horizon; alternatively, even if the field does not cross ϕ*, the inflaton could have high kinetic energy at the end of this phase. Therefore, we study these issues in the context of different models of inflation. In scenarios where cosmological relevant scales leave during the quantum phase, we obtain large curvature perturbations of O(10). We also apply our results to quadratic curvaton models and to quintessence models. In curvaton models we find that inflation must last longer than required to solve the horizon problem, that the curvaton models are incompatible with small field inflation models, and that there may be too large non-Gaussianity. A new phase of thermal fluctuation driven inflation is proposed, in which during inflation the inflaton evolution is governed by fluctuations from a sustained thermal radiation bath rather than by a scalar field potential.

  8. Inflation with whip-shaped suppressed scalar power spectra.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F; Starobinsky, Alexei A

    2014-08-15

    Motivated by the idea that inflation occurs at the grand unified theory symmetry breaking scale, in this Letter we construct a new class of large field inflaton potentials where the inflaton starts with a power law potential; after an initial period of relatively fast roll that lasts until after a few e folds inside the horizon it transits to the attractor of the slow roll part of the potential with a lower power. Because of the initial fast roll stages of inflation, we find a suppression in scalar primordial power at large scales and at the same time the choice of the potential can provide us a tensor primordial spectrum with a high amplitude. This suppression in scalar power with a large tensor-to-scalar ratio helps us to reconcile the Planck and BICEP2 data in a single framework. We find that a transition from a cubic to quadratic form of inflaton potential generates an appropriate suppression in the power of the scalar primordial spectrum that provides a significant improvement in fit compared to the power law model when compared with Planck and BICEP2 data together. We calculate the extent of non-Gaussianity, specifically, the bispectrum for the best fit potential, and show that it is consistent with Planck bispectrum constraints. PMID:25170696

  9. Power suppression at large scales in string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu

    2013-12-01

    We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.

  10. Soft inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkin, Andrew L.; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Yokoyama, Junichi

    1990-01-01

    The cosmology resulting from two coupled scalar fields was studied, one which is either a new inflation or chaotic type inflation, and the other which has an exponentially decaying potential. Such a potential may appear in the conformally transformed frame of generalized Einstein theories like the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The constraints necessary for successful inflation are examined. Conventional GUT models such as SU(5) were found to be compatible with new inflation, while restrictions on the self-coupling constant are significantly loosened for chaotic inflation.

  11. No-scale inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  12. Fuller Employment with Less Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    This series of 10 essays, written at various times since the mid-1960s, explores the U.S. economy's proneness to both high inflation and high unemployment during this period. The essays present ideas that the author believes could have reined in price increases in the early stages, and that presently could speed the reduction of inflation and…

  13. Eternal inflation.

    PubMed

    Guth, A H

    2001-12-01

    The basic workings of inflationary models are summarized, along with the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. It is argued that essentially all inflationary models lead to (future-)eternal inflation, which implies that an infinite number of pocket universes are produced. Although the other pocket universes are unobservable, their existence nonetheless has consequences for the way that we evaluate theories and extract consequences from them. The question of whether the universe had a beginning is discussed but not definitively answered. It appears likely, however, that eternally inflating universes do require a beginning. PMID:11797764

  14. Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, Clare; Rham, Claudia de; Seery, David; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: Claudia.deRham@unige.ch E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2011-01-01

    Galileon inflation is a radiatively stable higher derivative model of inflation. The model is determined by a finite number of relevant operators which are protected by a covariant generalization of the Galileon shift symmetry.We show that the nongaussianity of the primordial density perturbation generated during an epoch of Galileon inflation is a particularly powerful observational probe of these models and that, when the speed of sound is small, f{sub NL} can be larger than the usual result f{sub NL}∝c{sub s}{sup −2}.

  15. Inflatable wing

    DOEpatents

    Priddy, Tommy G.

    1988-01-01

    An inflatable wing is formed from a pair of tapered, conical inflatable tubes in bonded tangential contact with each other. The tubes are further connected together by means of top and bottom reinforcement boards having corresponding longitudinal edges lying in the same central diametral plane passing through the associated tube. The reinforcement boards are made of a stiff reinforcement material, such as Kevlar, collapsible in a direction parallel to the spanwise wing axis upon deflation of the tubes. The stiff reinforcement material cooperates with the inflated tubes to impart structural I-beam characteristics to the composite structure for transferring inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the tubes to the reinforcement boards. A plurality of rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition are spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and are connected to the top and bottom reinforcement boards. Tension lines are employed for stabilizing the hoops along the trailing and leading edges thereof.

  16. Quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Vilenkin, A.

    1999-03-01

    We present an explicit observationally acceptable model for evolution from inflation to the present epoch under the assumption that the entropy and matter of the familiar universe are from gravitational particle production at the end of inflation. This eliminates the problem of finding a satisfactory coupling of the inflaton and matter fields. Since the inflaton potential V(φ) may be a monotonic function of the inflaton φ, the inflaton energy could produce an observationally significant effective cosmological constant, as in quintessence.

  17. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model. PMID:26849584

  18. Inflation and inflation uncertainty: A dynamic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berument, M. Hakan; Yalcin, Yeliz; Yildirim, Julide

    2012-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate the direct relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty by employing a dynamic method for the monthly country-region-place United States data for the time period 1976-2007. While the bulk of previous studies has employed GARCH models in investigating the link between inflation and inflation uncertainty, in this study Stochastic Volatility in Mean models are used to capture the shocks to inflation uncertainty within a dynamic framework. These models allow researchers to assess the dynamic effects of innovations in inflation as well as inflation volatility on inflation and inflation volatility over time, by incorporating the unobserved volatility as an explanatory variable in the mean (inflation) equation. Empirical findings suggest that innovations in inflation volatility increases inflation. This evidence is robust across various definitions of inflation and different sub-periods.

  19. The Effective Theory of Inflation in the Standard Model of the Universe and the CMB+LSS Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Destri, C.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    effective theory of inflation clearly prefer new inflation. Study of higher degree inflaton potentials shows that terms of degree higher than 4 do not affect the fit in a significant way. In addition, a horizon exit happens for \\varphi/[√ {N}M Pl] ˜ 0.9, making higher order terms in the potential w negligible. We summarize the physical effects of generic initial conditions (different from Bunch-Davies) on the scalar and tensor perturbations during slow roll and introduce the transfer function D(k), which encodes the observable initial condition effects on the power spectra. These effects are more prominent in the low CMB multipoles: a change in the initial conditions during slow roll can account for the observed CMB quadrupole suppression. Slow-roll inflation is generically preceded by a short, fast-roll stage. Bunch-Davies initial conditions are the natural initial conditions for the fast-roll perturbations. During fast roll, the potential in the wave equations of curvature and tensor perturbations is purely attractive and leads to a suppression of the curvature and tensor CMB quadrupoles. An MCMC analysis of the WMAP+SDSS data including fast roll shows that the quadrupole mode exits the horizon about 0.2 e-fold before fast roll ends and its amplitude gets suppressed. In addition, fast roll fixes the initial inflation redshift to be zinit = 0.9 × 1056 and the total number of e-folds of inflation to be Ntot ≃ 64. Fast roll fits the TT, the TE and the EE modes well, reproducing the quadrupole suppression. A thorough study of the quantum loop corrections reveals that they are very small and are controlled by powers of (H/MPl)2 10-9, a conclusion that validates the reliability of the effective theory of inflation. The present review shows how powerful the Ginsburg-Landau effective theory of inflation is in predicting observables that are being or will soon be contrasted with observations.

  20. Inflation from gravitino condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-07-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry(supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is “eaten” by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks supergravity dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-type inflation, in the massive gravitino phase. This inflationary phase is associated with scalar modes hidden in the higher order curvature corrections of the effective action arising from integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the supersymmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass. A hill-top inflation, on the other hand, which could also occur in the model, whereby the role of the inflaton field is played by the gravitino condensate itself, would require significant fine tuning in the inflaton's wave function renormalisation and thus may be discarded on naturalness grounds.

  1. Solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Wang, Junpu E-mail: nicolis@phys.columbia.edu

    2013-10-01

    We develop a cosmological model where primordial inflation is driven by a 'solid', defined as a system of three derivatively coupled scalar fields obeying certain symmetries and spontaneously breaking a certain subgroup of these. The symmetry breaking pattern differs drastically from that of standard inflationary models: time translations are unbroken. This prevents our model from fitting into the standard effective field theory description of adiabatic perturbations, with crucial consequences for the dynamics of cosmological perturbations. Most notably, non-gaussianities in the curvature perturbations are unusually large, with f{sub NL} ∼ 1/(εc{sub s}{sup 2}), and have a novel shape: peaked in the squeezed limit, with anisotropic dependence on how the limit is approached. Other unusual features include the absence of adiabatic fluctuation modes during inflation — which does not impair their presence and near scale-invariance after inflation — and a slightly blue tilt for the tensor modes.

  2. Quasiopen inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1998-04-01

    We show that a large class of two-field models of single-bubble open inflation does not lead to infinite open universes, as was previously thought, but to an ensemble of very large but finite inflating ``islands.'' The reason is that the quantum tunneling responsible for the nucleation of the bubble does not occur simultaneously along both field directions and equal-time hypersurfaces in the open universe are not synchronized with equal-density or fixed-field hypersurfaces. The most probable tunneling trajectory corresponds to a zero value of the inflaton field; large values, necessary for the second period of inflation inside the bubble, only arise as localized fluctuations. The interior of each nucleated bubble will contain an infinite number of such inflating regions of comoving size of order γ-1, where γ is the supercurvature eigenvalue, which depends on the parameters of the model. Each one of these islands will be a quasi-open universe. Since the volume of the hyperboloid is infinite, inflating islands with all possible values of the field at their center will be realized inside of a single bubble. We may happen to live in one of those patches of comoving size d<~γ-1, where the universe appears to be open. In particular, we consider the ``supernatural'' model proposed by Linde and Mezhlumian. There, an approximate U(1) symmetry is broken by a tunneling field in a first order phase transition, and slow-roll inflation inside the nucleated bubble is driven by the pseudo Goldstone field. We find that the excitations of the pseudo Goldstone field produced by the nucleation and subsequent expansion of the bubble place severe constraints on this model. We also discuss the coupled and uncoupled two-field models.

  3. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models. PMID:25933305

  4. Trapped Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Horn, Bart; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2009-06-19

    We analyze a distinctive mechanism for inflation in which particle production slows down a scalar field on a steep potential, and show how it descends from angular moduli in string compactifications. The analysis of density perturbations - taking into account the integrated effect of the produced particles and their quantum fluctuations - requires somewhat new techniques that we develop. We then determine the conditions for this effect to produce sixty e-foldings of inflation with the correct amplitude of density perturbations at the Gaussian level, and show that these requirements can be straightforwardly satisfied. Finally, we estimate the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity in the power spectrum and find a significant equilateral contribution.

  5. Inflatable Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    Lightweight, portable tool reaches object at height or across gap. Extends reach up to 20 feet (6 meters). When not in use, tool collapses to 3 to 5 percent of its inflated length. Developed for use as self-rescue device by astronaut who becomes untethered outside spacecraft: astronaut uses pole to reach grapple on spacecraft and pull to it. Useful on Earth as rescue device or in performing routine tasks like changing high light bulb without ladder. When task with inflatable pole completed, operator opens vent valve to deflate tube. Operator then opens gun, removes fabric cover, and repacks tube.

  6. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105 but has well measured fluctuations which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, and unknown “dark energy” which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for inflation since

  7. Higgs Starobinsky inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we point out that Starobinsky inflation could be induced by quantum effects due to a large non-minimal coupling of the Higgs boson to the Ricci scalar. The Higgs Starobinsky mechanism provides a solution to issues attached to large Higgs field values in the early universe which in a metastable universe would not be a viable option. We verify explicitly that these large quantum corrections do not destabilize Starobinsky's potential.

  8. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  9. Just enough inflation: power spectrum modifications at large scales

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: ssdownes@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: francisco.pedro@desy.de

    2014-12-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50- 60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic analytic analysis in the limit of a sudden transition between any possible non-slow-roll background evolution and the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low ℓ, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at ℓ∼< 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.

  10. Eternal hilltop inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il; Kinney, William H.

    2016-05-01

    We consider eternal inflation in hilltop-type inflation models, favored by current data, in which the scalar field in inflation rolls off of a local maximum of the potential. Unlike chaotic or plateau-type inflation models, in hilltop inflation the region of field space which supports eternal inflation is finite, and the expansion rate HEI during eternal inflation is almost exactly the same as the expansion rate H* during slow roll inflation. Therefore, in any given Hubble volume, there is a finite and calculable expectation value for the lifetime of the ``eternal'' inflation phase, during which quantum flucutations dominate over classical field evolution. We show that despite this, inflation in hilltop models is nonetheless eternal in the sense that the volume of the spacetime at any finite time is exponentially dominated by regions which continue to inflate. This is true regardless of the energy scale of inflation, and eternal inflation is supported for inflation at arbitrarily low energy scale.

  11. Unification of inflation and dark energy à la quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Wali; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2015-03-01

    This pedagogical review is devoted to quintessential inflation, which refers to unification of inflation and dark energy using a single scalar field. We present a brief but concise description of the concepts needed to join the two ends, which include discussion on scalar field dynamic, conformal coupling, instant preheating and relic gravitational waves. Models of quintessential inflation broadly fall into two classes, depending upon the early and late time behavior of the field potential. In the first type we include models in which the field potential is steep for most of the history of the universe but turn shallow at late times, whereas in the second type the potential is shallow at early times followed by a steep behavior thereafter. In models of the first category inflation can be realized by invoking high-energy brane-induced damping, which is needed to facilitate slow roll along a steep potential. In models of second type one may invoke a nonminimal coupling of the scalar field with massive neutrino matter, which might induce a minimum in the potential at late times as neutrinos turn nonrelativistic. In this category we review a class of models with noncanonical kinetic term in the Lagrangian, which can comply with recent B mode polarization measurements. The scenario under consideration is distinguished by the presence of a kinetic phase, which precedes the radiative regime, giving rise to blue spectrum of gravity waves generated during inflation. We highlight the generic features of quintessential inflation and also discuss on issues related to Lyth bound.

  12. Khronon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Peña, Manuel; Simonović, Marko

    2012-11-01

    We study the possibility that the approximate time shift symmetry during inflation is promoted to the full invariance under time reparametrization t → tilde t(t), or equivalently under field redefinition of the inflaton phi → tilde phi(phi). The symmetry allows only two operators at leading order in derivatives, so that all n-point functions of scalar perturbations are fixed in terms of the power spectrum normalization and the speed of sound. During inflation the decaying mode only decays as 1/a and this opens up the possibility to violate some of the consistency relations in the squeezed limit, although this violation is suppressed by the (small) breaking of the field reparametrization symmetry. In particular one can get terms in the 3-point function that are only suppressed by 1/kL in the squeezed limit kL→0 compared to the local shape.

  13. Khronon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Peña, Manuel; Simonović, Marko E-mail: jorge.norena@icc.ub.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2012-11-01

    We study the possibility that the approximate time shift symmetry during inflation is promoted to the full invariance under time reparametrization t → t-tilde (t), or equivalently under field redefinition of the inflaton φ → φ-tilde (φ). The symmetry allows only two operators at leading order in derivatives, so that all n-point functions of scalar perturbations are fixed in terms of the power spectrum normalization and the speed of sound. During inflation the decaying mode only decays as 1/a and this opens up the possibility to violate some of the consistency relations in the squeezed limit, although this violation is suppressed by the (small) breaking of the field reparametrization symmetry. In particular one can get terms in the 3-point function that are only suppressed by 1/k{sub L} in the squeezed limit k{sub L}→0 compared to the local shape.

  14. Bigravitational inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atal, Vicente; Campusano, Luis E.; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2012-12-01

    We study the realization of cosmic inflation in bigravity theories. By analyzing the evolution of scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations in de Sitter-like spacetimes, we find strong stability constraints on the class of viable vacua offered by these theories. More specifically, the only stable de Sitter vacua contain two nondecoupled gravitons (one of which is massive) with different maximal propagation speeds. We derive an effective theory for the massless graviton, which is found to propagate at an intermediate speed, limited by the two maximal values. For inflation, while the spectrum of density perturbations remains nearly scale invariant, the power spectrum of tensor modes is found to depart from the usual prediction found in standard slow-roll inflation. In particular, both the tensor to scalar ratio r and the spectral index of tensor modes nT receive sizable contributions from the couplings of the theory, leading to specific signals that may be tested in future cosmological probes of cosmic microwave background polarization.

  15. Goldstone inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica; Setford, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the inflaton with a pseudo-Goldstone boson explains the flatness of its potential. Successful Goldstone Inflation should also be robust against UV corrections, such as from quantum gravity: in the language of the effective field theory this implies that all scales are sub-Planckian. In this paper we present scenarios which realise both requirements by examining the structure of Goldstone potentials arising from Coleman-Weinberg contributions. We focus on single-field models, for which we notice that both bosonic and fermionic contributions are required and that spinorial fermion representations can generate the right potential shape. We then evaluate the constraints on non-Gaussianity from higher-derivative interactions, finding that axiomatic constraints on Goldstone boson scattering prevail over the current CMB measurements. The fit to CMB data can be connected to the UV completions for Goldstone Inflation, finding relations in the spectrum of new resonances. Finally, we show how hybrid inflation can be realised in the same context, where both the inflaton and the waterfall fields share a common origin as Goldstones.

  16. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  17. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  18. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  19. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  20. Inflatable Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2015-07-30

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.

  1. Inflatable Dark Matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUTmore » or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.« less

  2. Inflatable dark matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel

    2016-01-22

    Here, we describe a general scenario, dubbed “inflatable dark matter,” in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levelsmore » without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.« less

  3. Open Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    In February this year, Neil Turok and I proposed a new model for inflation. The distinctive feature was that it produced an infinite, open universe, yet it satisfied the no boundary condition and came from an instanton of finite size, with a mass of the order of one gram. Our paper aroused a lot of interest, as shown by 37 citations on HEP-TH, but it brought a lot of opposition. This centered on three features of our model.First, we were attacked for using the no boundary proposal. People like Linde and Vilenkin, claimed that one should use the quantum tunneling wave function instead.Second, we were criticized because our instanton contained a singularity. It was said this was contrary to the spirit of the no boundary proposal; that the singularity would be naked and would make the universe non predictable.Third, we invoked the anthropic principle, to avoid the model predicting a totally empty universe. We were attacked both for using anthropic arguments, and for the very low value for the density of the universe, that they seemed to lead to.In this talk, I will describe the open inflation model that Neil and I proposed, and answer some of the objections that have been raised.

  4. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  5. The Inflatable Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    Inflatable devices are frequently used in advertising in order to grab the attention of consumers: one sees, for example, 20 foot tall inflatable drink containers, inflatable cell phones, inflatable bubble gum packets, as well as blimps wafting majestically over major sports events. More usefully, inflatable representations of scientifically-interesting items are widely available, including astronauts, space shuttles, dinosaurs and globes and can help to build and inspire the interest of the general public, and in particular children, in such ideas. How can such concepts be adapted to improve poster presentations? Possibility one is to use relevant existing commercially-available inflatables to dress the poster: skeletons, astronauts, globes and so forth. More exciting is to develop custom inflatables that represent three-dimensional renderings of objects that the poster is describing. Examples of individual objects might be an inflatable slab, inflatable avalanche, inflatable plume, or it's larger cousin, the 10 foot high inflatable superplume or 20 foot high inflatable megaplume. More elaborately, inflatables might represent isosurfaces in three-dimensional spherical convection, although other fabrication methods may be more suitable. More simply, inflatable spheres could be imprinted with the planform of convection, geoid, or other spherical fields of geophysical interest. Finally, it should be possible to put an entire poster on an inflatable object, possibly small ones (balloons) to hand out. A major concern, however, is that the presenter may use such techniques to inflate their scientific findings, or to present overblown ideas.

  6. Spotted inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-11-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

  7. Conformal inflation coupled to matter

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.

  8. ''Old'' locked inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Piao, Yun-Song; Si, Zong-Guo E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, we revisit the idea of locked inflation, which does not require a potential satisfying the normal slow-roll condition, but suffers from the problems associated with ''saddle inflation''. We propose a scenario based on locked inflation, however, with an alternative evolution mechanism of the ''waterfall field'' {phi}. Instead of rolling down along the potential, the {phi} field will tunnel to end the inflation stage like in old inflation, by which the saddle inflation could be avoided. Further, we study a cascade of old locked inflation, which can be motivated by the string landscape. Our model is based on the consideration of making locked inflation feasible so as to give a working model without slow roll; It also can be seen as an effort to embed the old inflation in string landscape.

  9. Constraining inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Easther, Richard E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the theoretical limits on slow roll reconstruction, an optimal algorithm for recovering the inflaton potential (assuming a single-field slow roll scenario) from observational data. Slow roll reconstruction is based upon the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the inflationary dynamics. We show that at low inflationary scales the Hamilton-Jacobi equations simplify considerably. We provide a new classification scheme for inflationary models, based solely on the number of parameters needed to specify the potential, and provide forecasts for the bounds on the slow roll parameters from future data sets. A minimal running of the spectral index, induced solely by the first two slow roll parameters ({epsilon} and {eta}), appears to be effectively undetectable by realistic cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. However, since the ability to detect any running increases with the lever arm in comoving wavenumber, we conjecture that high redshift 21 cm data may allow tests of second-order consistency conditions on inflation. Finally, we point out that the second-order corrections to the spectral index are correlated with the inflationary scale, and thus the amplitude of the CMB B mode.

  10. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  11. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  12. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  13. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  14. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  15. Primordial gravitational waves from the space-condensate inflation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Tumurtushaa, Gansukh

    2016-04-01

    We consider the space-condensate inflation model to study the primordial gravitational waves generated in the early Universe. We calculate the energy spectrum of gravitational waves induced by the space-condensate inflation model for the full frequency range with the assumption that the phase transition between two consecutive regimes is abrupt during the evolution of the Universe. The suppression of the energy spectrum is found in our model for the decreasing frequency of gravitational waves depending on the model parameter. To realize the suppression of the energy spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves, we study the existence of the early phase transition during inflation for the space-condensate inflation model.

  16. Inflation and shadow matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, L. M.; Guth, A. H.; Spergel, D. N.; Field, G. B.; Press, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible production of shadow matter during the period of cosmic inflation is considered. The superstring theory of Gross et al. (1985), which results in a gauge group E8 x E8, could, at low energies, result in the existence of two sectors: an observed sector associated with all familiar particles and interactions, and a hidden one whose particles couple only through gravitational interactions with ordinary matter. It is demonstrated here that if, in the early universe, an inflationary phase is associated with the breaking of one of the symmetries in the E8 x E8 theory, this strongly constrains the physics of both sectors if shadow matter is to be the missing mass in the universe.

  17. Soft inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkin, Andrew L.; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    1990-01-01

    The cosmology resulting from two coupled scalar fields was studied, one which is either a new inflation or chaotic type inflation, and the other which has an exponentially decaying potential. Such a potential may appear in the conformally transformed frame of generalized Einstein theories like the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The constraints necessary for successful inflation are examined. Conventional GUT models such as SU(5) were found to be compatible with new inflation, while restrictions on the self-coupling constant are significantly loosened for chaotic inflation.

  18. Inflating an inhomogeneous universe

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.; Rasero, Javier E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2014-08-01

    While cosmological inflation can erase primordial inhomogeneities, it is possible that inflation may not begin in a significantly inhomogeneous universe. This issue is particularly pressing in multifield scenarios, where even the homogeneous dynamics may depend sensitively on the initial configuration. This paper presents an initial survey of the onset of inflation in multifield models, via qualitative lattice-based simulations that do not include local gravitational backreaction. Using hybrid inflation as a test model, our results suggest that small subhorizon inhomogeneities do play a key role in determining whether inflation begins in multifield scenarios. Interestingly, some configurations which do not inflate in the homogeneous limit ''succeed'' after inhomogeneity is included, while other initial configurations which inflate in the homogeneous limit ''fail'' when inhomogeneity is added.

  19. Inflatable Vessel and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Valle, Gerard D. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor); Pandya, Shalini Gupta (Inventor); Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch or pre-deployed configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  20. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  1. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r less than l0^{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  2. Observational constraints on monomial warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential U propto phip, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10‑8 is much smaller than the current observational constrain r lesssim 0.12, despite a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ phi ~ 0.1MPl. Warm inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.

  3. Hybrid Inflation Followed by Modular Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, George

    Inflationary models with a superheavy scale F-term hybrid inflation followed by an intermediate scale modular inflation are considered. The restrictions on the power spectrum P{ R} of curvature perturbation and the spectral index ns from the recent data within the power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant can be met provided that the number of e-foldings NHI* suffered by the pivot scale k* = 0.002/Mpc during hybrid inflation is suitably restricted. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are generated by modular inflation with a string axion as inflaton. For central values of P{ R} and ns, the grand unification scale comes out, in the case of standard hybrid inflation, close to its supersymmetric value MGUT ≃ 2.86 × 1016 GeV, the relevant coupling constant is relatively large (≈ 0.005 - 0.14), and 10 ≲ NHI* ≲ 21.7. In the shifted [smooth] hybrid inflation case, the grand unification scale can be identified with MGUT for NHI* ≃ 21 [NHI* ≃ 18].

  4. Inflatable nested toroid structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable structure comprises at least two generally toroidal, inflatable modules. When in a deployed mode, the first, inner module has a major diameter less than that of a second, outer module and is positioned within the inner circumference of the outer module such that the first module is nested circumferentially alongside the second module. The inflatable structure, in a non-deployed, non-inflated mode, is of compact configuration and adapted to be transported to a site of deployment. When deployed, the inflatable structure is of substantially increased interior volume. In one embodiment, access between the interior of the first module and the second module is provided by at least one port or structural pass-through. In another embodiment, the inflatable structure includes at least one additional generally toroidal module external of and circumferentially surrounding the second module.

  5. Pseudosmooth tribrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Rehman, Mansoor Ur E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2012-08-01

    We explore a new class of supersymmetric models of inflation where the inflaton is realised as a combination of a Higgs field and (gauge non-singlet) matter fields, using a ''tribrid'' structure of the superpotential. Inflation is associated with a phase transition around GUT scale energies. The inflationary trajectory already preselects the later vacuum after inflation, which has the advantage of automatically avoiding the production of dangerous topological defects at the end of inflation. While at first sight the models look similar to smooth inflation, they feature a waterfall and are therefore only pseudosmooth. The new class of models offers novel possibilities for realising inflation in close contact with particle physics, for instance with supersymmetric GUTs or with supersymmetric flavour models based on family symmetries.

  6. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Leonardo

    In this thesis we review the methods for computation of cosmological correlations in the early universe known as the in-in formalism which are then applied to the problem of magnetogenesis from inflation. For this computation, a power-law single field slow- roll inflation is assumed together with a coupling of the form eφ/nuF μnuFμnu between the inflaton φ and the electrodynamical field strength Fμnu. For certain choice of parameters, the model produces a scale-invariant power spectrum that can be as high as 10-12 G at cosmological scales at present time. Finally, we compute the correlation between the magnetic field energy density and scalar metric fluctuations at tree-level from which the shape of the resulting non-gaussianity is analyzed.We show that the corresponding bispectrum is of order 10-5 times the power spectrum of magnetic fields.

  7. The Flavour of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, I.

    2008-11-23

    A new class of particle physics models of inflation based on the phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of family symmetry is proposed. The Higgs fields responsible for the breaking of family symmetry, the flavons, are natural inflaton candidates or waterfall fields in hybrid inflation. This opens up a rich vein of possible inflation models, all linked to the physics of flavour, with several interesting cosmological implications.

  8. Chiral primordial gravitational waves from dilaton induced delayed chromonatural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Ippei; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge-kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromonatural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromonatural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromonatural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is the generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventional chromonatural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), and Square Kilometer Array (SKA).

  9. Model with two periods of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettler, Simon; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A scenario with two subsequent periods of inflationary expansion in the very early Universe is examined. The model is based on a potential motivated by symmetries being found in field theory at high energy. For various parameter sets of the potential, the spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations that are expected to originate from this scenario are calculated. Also the beginning of the reheating epoch connecting the second inflation with thermal equilibrium is studied. Perturbations with wavelengths leaving the horizon around the transition between the two inflations are special: It is demonstrated that the power spectrum at such scales deviates significantly from expectations based on measurements of the cosmic microwave background. This supports the conclusion that parameters for which this part of the spectrum leaves observable traces in the cosmic microwave background must be excluded. Parameters entailing a very efficient second inflation correspond to standard small-field inflation and can meet observational constraints. Particular attention is paid to the case where the second inflation leads solely to a shift of the observable spectrum from the first inflation. A viable scenario requires this shift to be small.

  10. Inflation of Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

  11. Inflation and Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, David

    Inflation is both a cause and consequence of changes in power and status. Competitive status activities create spiral situations which have an economic correlate. Ultimately, inflation leads to the creation of economically deprived and depressed social groups. Deflation can be achieved to some extent by redistribution of wealth dictated from…

  12. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie; Dwek, Eli; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Meyer, Stephan; Moseley, S. Harvey; Seiffert, Michael D.; Spergel, David N.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce the instrumental signature and confusion from unpolarized sources to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 deg and sensitivity 0.2 µK per 1 deg square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r less than 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. In addition, PIXIE will measure the absolute frequency spectrum to constrain physical processes ranging from inflation to the nature of the first stars to the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture with an emphasis on the expected level of systematic error suppression.

  13. Why Does the Universe Inflate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    It is a great pleasure for me to be back again in Chile, to celebrate the 60th birthday of an old friend, and esteemed colleague, Claudio Bunster, whom I have known for almost 40 years. Claudio has done so much for science in general, and for science in Chile in particular. Being in the city of Valdivia where CECS, the center he created, is located, is quite meaningful to me. Twenty-five years ago, we held a Nuffield workshop on the Very Early Universe in Cambridge. The inflation scenario had just been proposed, by Guth and others, to account for many of the otherwise unexplained features of the Hot Big Bang model. The original Old Inflation proposal depicted in Fig. 1, of thin walled bubbles, forming in a meta-stable vacuum state, was shown not to work. If the bubble formation rate was high, the bubbles would be close together, and inflation would not last long enough. On the other hand if the bubble formation rate was low, the bubbles would be so far apart, that they never join up and thermalize.

  14. Trispectrum from ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Keisuke; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2010-06-01

    Ghost inflation predicts almost scale-invariant primordial cosmological perturbations with relatively large non-Gaussianity. The bispectrum is known to have a large contribution at the wavenumbers forming an equilateral triangle and the corresponding nonlinear parameter f{sub NL}{sup equil} is typically of order O(10{sup 2}). In this paper we calculate trispectrum from ghost inflation and show that the corresponding nonlinear parameter τ{sub NL} is typically of order O(10{sup 4}). We investigate the shape dependence of the trispectrum and see that it has some features different from DBI inflation. Therefore, our result may be useful as a template to distinguish ghost inflation from other models of inflation by future experiments.

  15. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  16. Anatomy of bispectra in general single-field inflation — Modal expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, Thorsten; Grieb, Jan E-mail: jgrieb@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2011-12-01

    We discuss bispectra of single-field inflationary models described by general Lorentz invariant Lagrangians that are at most first order in field derivatives, including the fast-roll models investigated by Noller and Magueijo. Based on a factor analysis, we identify the least correlated basic contributions to the general shape and show quantitatively which templates provide a good approximation. We compute how relative contributions of basic shapes to the total bispectrum scale as slow roll is relaxed. To enable future comparison with CMB observations, we provide a modal expansion of these non-separable bispectra in Fourier space, employing the formalism by Fergusson et al. Convergence is rapid, usually better than ninety-five percent with less than thirty modes, due to the smoothness of these primordial shapes. Truncated polynomial modal expansions have restrictions, which we highlight using an example with slow convergence. The particular shape originates from particle production during inflation (common in trapped inflation) and entails both localized and oscillatory features. We show that this shape can be recovered efficiently using a Fourier basis and outline the prospect of future model parameter extraction and N-body simulations based on modal techniques.

  17. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In extended inflation, the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. This paper discusses several effects that might obtain if the universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition.

  18. Saving Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica

    2015-02-01

    Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.

  19. Brane inflation and defect formation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Brax, Philippe; van de Bruck, Carsten

    2008-08-28

    Brane inflation and the production of topological defects at the end of the inflationary phase are discussed. After a description of the inflationary set-up, we discuss the properties of the cosmic strings produced at the end of inflation. Specific examples of brane inflation are described, such as D-D , D3/D7 and modular inflations. PMID:18534933

  20. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-02-15

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains {phi}{sup 4} term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  1. Radiative plateau inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  2. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

    2013-07-23

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

  3. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  4. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  5. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  6. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  7. Inflation Driven by q-de Sitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Momeni, D.; Kamali, V.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a generalised de Sitter scale factor for the cosmology of early and late time universe, including single scalar field is called as inflaton. This form of scale factor has a free parameter q is called as nonextensivity parameter. When q = 1, the scale factor is de Sitter. This scale factor is an intermediate form between power-law and de Sitter. We study cosmology of such families. We show that both kinds of dark components, dark energy and dark matter simultaneously are described by this family of solutions. As a motivated idea, we investigate inflation in the framework of q-de Sitter. We consider three types of scenarios for inflation. In a single inflation scenario, we observe that, inflation ended without any specific ending inflation ϕ e n d , the spectral index and the associated running of the spectral index are n s - 1 ˜ -2 𝜖, α s ≡ 0. To end the inflation: we should have q={3}/{4}. We deduce that the inflation ends when the evolution of the scale factor is a( t) = e 3/4( t). With this scale factor there is no need to specify ϕ e n d . As an alternative to have inflation with ending point, We will study q-inflation model in the context of warm inflation. We propose two forms of damping term Γ. In the first case when Γ = Γ0, we show the scale invariant spectrum, (Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum, i.e. n s = 1) may be approximately presented by (q={9}/{10}, ~N=70). Also there is a range of values of R and n s which is compatible with the BICEP2 data where q={9}/{10}. In case Γ = Γ1 V( ϕ), it is observed that small values of a number of e-folds are assured for small values of q parameter. Also in this case, the scale-invariant spectrum may be represented by (q,N) = ({9}/{10},70). For q={9}/{10} a range of values of R and n s is compatible with the BICEP2 data. Consequently, the proposal of q-de Sitter is consistent with observational data. We observe that the non-extensivity parameter q plays a significant role in inflationary scenario.

  8. NASA Now: Inflatable Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA senior research engineer Judith Watson is one of a team of engineers at NASA’s Langley Research Center who are studying inflatable structures that might one day be used to establish an outpo...

  9. Tribrid Inflation in Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Kostka, Philipp M.

    2010-02-10

    We propose a novel class of F-term hybrid inflation models in supergravity (SUGRA) where the eta-problem is resolved using either a Heisenberg symmetry or a shift symmetry of the Kaehler potential. In addition to the inflaton and the waterfall field, this class (referred to as tribrid inflation) contains a third 'driving' field which contributes the large vacuum energy during inflation by its F-term. In contrast to the 'standard' hybrid scenario, it has several attractive features due to the property of vanishing inflationary superpotential (W{sub inf} = 0) during inflation. While the symmetries of the Kaehler potential ensure a flat inflaton potential at tree-level, quantum corrections induced by symmetry breaking terms in the superpotential generate a slope of the potential and lead to a spectral tilt consistent with recent WMAP observations.

  10. On natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.

    2004-10-15

    We reexamine the model of natural inflation, in which the inflaton potential is flat due to shift symmetries. The original version of the model, where the inflaton is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with potential of the form V({phi})={lambda}{sup 4}[1{+-}cos({phi}/f)], is studied in light of recent data. We find that the model is alive and well. Successful inflation as well as data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe require f>0.6m{sub Pl} (where m{sub Pl}=1.22x10{sup 19} GeV) and {lambda}{approx}m{sub GUT} (where m{sub GUT}{approx}10{sup 16} GeV), scales which can be accommodated in particle physics models. The detectability of tensor modes from natural inflation in upcoming microwave background experiments is discussed. We find that natural inflation predicts a tensor/scalar ratio within reach of future observations.

  11. Plausible double inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that extended inflation is followed by an epoch of slowroll inflation. Such a sequence of events may lead to a very interesting perturbation spectrum with significant power on the scale of the transition between the extended and slowroll phase, superimposed upon a power-law spectrum with deviations from the Harrison-Zeldovich slope. Normalization of the spectra above and below the transition scale is expected to differ.

  12. Primordial inflation and super-cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.

    A complete, locally supersymmetric model for the early universe is reviewed. It begins with primordial inflation just after the Planck time. The (nontrivial) breaking of SU(5) is discussed in detail, with specific emphasis on baryon generation at T about 0(10 to the 7th)-GeV and monopole suppression (no longer accomplished by inflation). Gravitational effects are taken into account through N = 1 supergravity, and play an essential role. What one is left with is a problem-free scenario containing all the benefits of Guth's (1980) original inflation, as well as density perturbations of a desirable magnitude for the formation of galaxies, a large baryon-to-photon ratio, and a possibly observable flux of magnetic monopoles. By inserting only two scales, the Planck scale and the supersymmetry breaking scale, both the weak and GUT scales are produced.

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  14. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. The differential design and multiple signal modulations spanning 11 orders of magnitude in time combine to reduce the instrumental signature and confusion from unpolarized sources to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 deg and sensitivity 0.2 uK per 1 deg square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r <10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. In addition, the rich PIXIE data will constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  15. Supersymmetric DBI inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shin; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Daisuke

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a supersymmetric version of DBI (Dirac-Born-Infeld) inflation, which is a typical inflation model in string cosmology. The supersymmetric DBI action together with a superpotential always leads to correction terms associated with the potential into the kinetic term, which drastically change the dynamics of DBI inflation. We find two significant features of supersymmetric DBI inflation. The first one is that ultra-relativistic motion is prohibited to cause inflation, which leads to order of unity sound velocity squared and hence small non-Gaussianities of primordial curvature perturbations. The second one is that the relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the field variation is modified. Then, significant tensor-to-scalar ratio r≳0.01 is possible because the variation of the canonically normalized inflaton can be beyond the reduced Planck scale. These new features are in sharp contrast with those of the standard non-supersymmetric DBI inflation and hence have a lot of interest implications on upcoming observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by the Planck satellite as well as direct detection experiments of gravitational waves like DECIGO and BBO.

  16. Warm Inflation Model Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun

    We review the main aspects of the warm inflation scenario, focusing on the inflationary dynamics and the predictions related to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, to be compared with the recent cosmological observations. We study in detail three different classes of inflationary models, chaotic, hybrid models and hilltop models, and discuss their embedding into supersymmetric models and the consequences for model building of the warm inflationary dynamics based on first principles calculations. Due to the extra friction term introduced in the inflaton background evolution generated by the dissipative dynamics, inflation can take place generically for smaller values of the field, and larger values of couplings and masses. When the dissipative dynamics dominates over the expansion, in the so-called strong dissipative regime, inflation proceeds with sub-Planckian inflaton values. Models can be naturally embedded into a supergravity framework, with SUGRA corrections suppressed by the Planck mass now under control, for a larger class of Kähler potentials. In particular, this provides a simpler solution to the "eta" problem in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, without restricting the Kähler potentials compatible with inflation. For chaotic models dissipation leads to a smaller prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and a less tilted spectrum when compared to the cold inflation scenario. We find in particular that a small component of dissipation renders the quartic model now consistent with the current CMB data.

  17. Eternal inflation and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    2007-06-01

    I summarize the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique. Although inflation is generically eternal into the future, it is not eternal into the past: it can be proven under reasonable assumptions that the inflating region must be incomplete in past directions, so some physics other than inflation is needed to describe the past boundary of the inflating region.

  18. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F{sup 2} model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F{sup 2} model.

  19. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator (AID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator not only enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and but may also eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell and cruise stage. This document is the viewgraph slides for the paper's presentation.

  20. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  1. A Note on Inflation Targeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  2. Brane annihilations during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khosravi, Nima E-mail: tbattefe@princeton.edu E-mail: nima@ipm.ir

    2010-07-01

    We investigate brane inflation driven by two stacks of mobile branes in a throat. The stack closest to the bottom of the throat annihilates first with antibranes, resulting in particle production and a change of the equation of state parameter w. We calculate analytically some observable signatures of the collision; related decays are common in multi-field inflation, providing the motivation for this case study. The discontinuity in w enters the matching conditions relating perturbations in the remaining degree of freedom before and after the collision, affecting the power-spectrum of curvature perturbations. We find an oscillatory modulation of the power-spectrum for scales within the horizon at the time of the collision, and a slightly redder spectrum on super-horizon scales. We comment on implications for staggered inflation.

  3. Inflation from geometrical tachyons

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steven; Ward, John

    2005-10-15

    We propose an alternative formulation of tachyon inflation using the geometrical tachyon arising from the time dependent motion of a BPS D3-brane in the background geometry due to k parallel NS5-branes arranged around a ring of radius R. Because of the fact that the mass of this geometrical tachyon field is {radical}(2/k) times smaller than the corresponding open-string tachyon mass, we find that the slow-roll conditions for inflation and the number of e-foldings can be satisfied in a manner that is consistent with an effective 4-dimensional model and with a perturbative string coupling. We also show that the metric perturbations produced at the end of inflation can be sufficiently small and do not lead to the inconsistencies that plague the open-string tachyon models. Finally we argue for the existence of a minimum of the geometrical tachyon potential which could give rise to a traditional reheating mechanism.

  4. Flipped GUT inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  5. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-11-28

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns {approx_equal} 1 + 2{gamma}. With {gamma} = 0.025 {+-} 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical bar{gamma}vertical bnd a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << {gamma}2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH {approx_equal} 106 GeV.

  6. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  7. Topological defects in extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.

    1990-01-01

    The production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models was considered. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large scale structure via cosmic strings.

  8. Inflation after Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kin-Wang

    Recent measurements of the large-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission indicate a reflection asymmetry, an axis of evil, a low quadrupole, and a few multipoles deviated from predicted in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. All of these may give us a hint about the physics of inflation during the first few e-folds or during the inflating period. Efforts taken along this direction will be reviewed and our recent work will be discussed.

  9. Modulated natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Nilles, Hans Peter; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    We discuss some model-independent implications of embedding (aligned) axionic inflation in string theory. As a consequence of string theoretic duality symmetries the pure cosine potentials of natural inflation are replaced by modular functions. This leads to "wiggles" in the inflationary potential that modify the predictions with respect to CMB-observations. In particular, the scalar power spectrum deviates from the standard power law form. As a by-product one can show that trans-Planckian excursions of the aligned effective axion are compatible with the weak gravity conjecture.

  10. Precursor of inflation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inyong; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Moon, Taeyoon

    2013-08-16

    We investigate a nonsingular initial state of the Universe which leads to inflation naturally. The model is described by a scalar field with a quadratic potential in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The curvature of this initial state is given by the mass scale of the scalar field, which is much smaller than the Planck scale. Therefore, in this model, quantum gravity is not necessary in understanding this preinflationary stage, no matter how large the energy density becomes. The initial state in this model evolves eventually to a long inflationary period which is similar to the usual chaotic inflation. PMID:23992056

  11. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  12. Inflatable rescue device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses, in one aspect, a personal rescue device for use in outer space which has an inflatable flexible tube with a shaper apparatus herein. Gas under pressure flows through the shaper apparatus and into the flexible tube. The flexible tube is mounted to the shaper so that as it inflates it expands and deploys lengthwise away from the shaper. In one embodiment a housing contains the shaper and the flexible tube and the housing is designed to facilitate movement of the expanding tube from the housing so the expanding tube does not bunch up in the housing.

  13. Natural inflation with pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freese, Katherine; Frieman, Joshua A.; Olinto, Angela V.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of given potential can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Mass scales which arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting at a certain scales are shown to be conditions for successful inflation. The density fluctuation spectrum is nonscale-invariant, with extra power on large length scales.

  14. Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: Raphael.Flauger@yale.edu E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl

    2011-09-01

    In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ΛCDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ΛCDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ΛCDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.

  15. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    We present a review of the sequence of events/circumstances that led to the introduction of interplay between the physics associated with phase transitions in the early universe and their effects on its dynamics of expansion with the goal of resolving the horizon problem that it has since become known as Cosmological Inflation. We then provide a brief review of the fundamentals and the solutions of a theory of gravity based on local scale invariance, known as Weyl gravity that have been elaborated by the presenter and his collaborator P. D. Mannheim. We point out that this theory provides from first principles for a characteristic universal acceleration, whose value appears to be in agreement with observations across a vast range of length scales in the universe.

  16. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  17. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  18. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  19. Trace anomaly driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, T.; Reall, H. S.

    2001-04-01

    This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions that occurs in most models of inflation driven by a scalar field. The universe can be nucleated semiclassically by a cosmological instanton that is much larger than the Planck scale provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. There are two cosmological instantons: the four sphere and a new ``double bubble'' solution. This paper considers a universe nucleated by the four sphere. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to calculate the correlation function for scalar and tensor metric perturbations during the ensuing de Sitter phase. The analytic structure of the scalar and tensor propagators is discussed in detail. Observational constraints on the model are discussed. Quantum loops of matter fields are shown to strongly suppress short scale metric perturbations, which implies that short distance modifications of gravity would probably not be observable in the cosmic microwave background. This is probably true for any model of inflation provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. This point is illustrated by a comparison of anomaly driven inflation in four dimensions and in a Randall-Sundrum brane-world model.

  20. Smart inflatable strut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Composite inflatable/rigidizable strut with embedded LaRC macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuatiors. Proof-Of-Concepts Dynamics test performed on 12/16/99 by W.K. Wilkie (ARMY), R.S. Pappa (NASA), and B.C. Derbes (L'Garde, Inc.).

  1. Hilltop Supernatural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.

    In this talk, I will explain how to reduce the spectral index to be n_s = 0.96 for supernatural inflation. I will also show the constraint to the reheating temperature from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of both thermal and non-thermal gravitino production.

  2. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  3. The Theory of Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shandera, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    I will discuss the importance of measurements or improved constraints of primordial tensor modes for theories of the primordial universe. In particular, I will review the implications of the amplitude of the tensor fluctuations for inflation and discuss what an era of B-mode cosmology could teach us about particle physics near the Planck scale.

  4. Dynamical fractional chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-12-01

    Chaotic inflation based on a simple monomial scalar potential, V (ϕ )∝ϕp, is an attractive large-field model of inflation capable of generating a sizable tensor-to-scalar ratio r . Therefore, assuming that future cosmic microwave background observations will confirm the large r value reported by BICEP2, it is important to determine what kind of dynamical mechanism could possibly endow the inflaton field with such a simple effective potential. In this paper, we answer this question in the context of field theory, i.e. in the framework of dynamical chaotic inflation, where strongly interacting supersymmetric gauge dynamics around the scale of grand unification dynamically generate a fractional power-law potential via the quantum effect of dimensional transmutation. In constructing explicit models, we significantly extend our previous work, as we now consider a large variety of possible underlying gauge dynamics and relax our conditions on the field content of the model. This allows us to realize almost arbitrary rational values for the power p in the inflaton potential. The present paper may hence be regarded as a first step toward a more complete theory of dynamical chaotic inflation.

  5. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  6. Inflection point inflation and reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the inflection point inflation with an extended discussion to large field values and consider the reheating effects on the inflationary predictions. Parametrizing the reheating dynamics in terms of the reheating temperature and the equation of state during reheating, we show how the observationally favored parameter space of inflection point inflation is affected by reheating dynamics. Consequently, we apply the general results to the inflation models with non-minimal coupling, such as the SM Higgs inflation and the B-L Higgs inflation.

  7. Heavy gravitino in hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajima, Naoya; Nakayama, Kazunori; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: nk610@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-06-01

    It is known that supersymmetric hybrid inflation model may require severe tunings on the initial condition for large gravitino mass of order 100 - 1000 TeV due to the constant term in the superpotential. We propose a modified hybrid inflation model, where the constant term is suppressed during inflation and generated after inflation by replacing a constant term with dynamical field. In this modified model, successful inflation consistent with large gravitino mass takes place without severe tunings on the initial condition. Constraint from cosmic strings is also relaxed.

  8. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (ζ{sub k{sub 1}}ζ{sub k{sub 2}}ζ{sub k{sub 3}})∝1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order

  9. Kaehler-driven tribrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a new class of tribrid inflation models in supergravity, where the shape of the inflaton potential is dominated by effects from the Kaehler potential. Tribrid inflation is a variant of hybrid inflation which is particularly suited for connecting inflation with particle physics, since the inflaton can be a D-flat combination of charged fields from the matter sector. In models of tribrid inflation studied so far, the inflaton potential was dominated by either loop corrections or by mixing effects with the waterfall field (as in 'pseudosmooth' tribrid inflation). Here we investigate the third possibility, namely that tribrid inflation is dominantly driven by effects from higher-dimensional operators of the Kaehler potential. We specify for which superpotential parameters the new regime is realized and show how it can be experimentally distinguished from the other two (loop-driven and {sup p}seudosmooth{sup )} regimes.

  10. Evading the Lyth bound in hybrid natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebecker, A.; Kraus, S. C.; Westphal, A.

    2013-12-01

    Generically, the gravitational-wave or tensor-mode contribution to the primordial curvature spectrum of inflation is tiny if the field range of the inflaton is much smaller than the Planck scale. We show that this pessimistic conclusion is naturally avoided in a rather broad class of small-field models. More specifically, we consider models where an axionlike shift symmetry keeps the inflaton potential flat (up to nonperturbative cosine-shaped modulations), but inflation nevertheless ends in a waterfall regime, as is typical for hybrid inflation. In such hybrid natural inflation scenarios (examples are provided by Wilson line inflation and fluxbrane inflation), the slow-roll parameter ɛ can be sizable during an early period (relevant for the cosmic microwave background spectrum). Subsequently, ɛ quickly becomes very small before the tachyonic instability eventually terminates the slow-roll regime. In this scenario, one naturally generates a considerable tensor-mode contribution in the curvature spectrum, collecting nevertheless the required amount of e-foldings during the final period of inflation. While nonobservation of tensors by Planck is certainly not a problem, a discovery in the medium- to long-term future is realistic.

  11. Inflation Fossils in Cosmic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    The agreement of the predictions of inflation with increasingly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data is remarkable. The notion that such a simple early-Universe scenario, based on still-mysterious ultra-high-energy physics, can explain such a wealth of precise data is simply amazing. An active ongoing program of research is afoot to seek the CMB polarization signatures of inflationary gravitational waves and measure the primordial bispectrum in order to learn about inflation. Still, there is far more that can be done to probe inflationary physics, and no stone should be left unturned in this quest. Here we propose a multi-component program of theoretical research that includes model building, new CMB/LSS tests, a potentially powerful new survey strategy, and the investigation of a new observational avenue for large-scale structure. We propose to broaden the circle of ideas to empirically probe inflation. To begin, the hemispherical power asymmetry seen in WMAP and Planck is truly striking. While it may simply be an unusual statistical fluke, a more tantalizing possibility is that it is a remnant of the pre-inflationary Universe. We propose to develop and study several physical models for this asymmetry and work out other testable predictions of these models. Only by pursuing other signatures of whatever new physics may be responsible for this asymmetry will we be able to infer if it is truly a window to new physics. We also plan to develop departures from statistical isotropy (SI) as a test of inflationary models. We have recently shown that single-field slow-roll inflation generically predicts a quadrupolar departure from SI in primordial perturbations, albeit a very small one. The power quadrupole is expected, however, to be significantly larger in more general inflationary models. We propose to calculate these power quadrupoles so that new constraints to the power quadrupole from CMB and LSS data can be applied to test

  12. GUT-scale inflation with sizeable tensor modes

    SciTech Connect

    Brümmer, Felix; Domcke, Valerie

    2014-08-01

    A sizeable tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as recently claimed by BICEP2, would imply a scale of inflation at the typical scale of supersymmetric grand unification. This could be an accident, or strong support for supersymmetric theories. Models of F-term hybrid inflation naturally connect the GUT scale with the inflationary scale, but they also predict the tensor-to-scalar ratio to be unmeasurably small. In this work we analyze a general UV embedding of F-term hybrid inflation into a supergravity theory with a general Kähler potential. The CMB observables are generated during the early phase of inflation, at large inflaton values, where the potential is dominated by Planck-suppressed operators. Tuning the leading higher-order terms can give an inflaton potential with sizeable tensor fluctuations and a field excursion which is still sub-Planckian but close to the Planck scale, as expected from the Lyth bound.

  13. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  14. Inflatable solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1980-05-20

    A solar collector using air as its heat transfer medium having a top member containing a plurality of transparent sealed air pockets allowing passage of radiant energy but preventing conductive and convective heat losses generated inside the collector; a central black-coated absorbent plastic member divides the center of the collector into a plurality of interconnected inflatable upper and lower chambers connected to air pumps at one end and to a constriction valve outlet at the other. The lower end of the lower chambers consists of a cover containing a multiplicity of insulative sealed air channels. The collector can be mounted on a turntable frame having adjustable reflective panels mounted above and below the collector. The heated air after it has given up its calories to a storage unit is recirculated to the inflatable chambers.

  15. Inflatable Aeroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelt, Jennifer Van

    2005-01-01

    Aeroponics Internationals (AI) innovation is a self-contained, self-supporting, flexible low mass aeroponic crop production unit with integral environmental systems for the control and delivery of a nutrient mist to the roots. This FLEX Aeroponic System model was developed for commercialization as a result of the NASA SBIR Phase I contract for the research and development of a low-mass, Inflatable Aeroponic System (IAS) for producing pesticide-free lettuces, grains, peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables. The innovation addresses the needs of water and nutrient delivery systems technologies for food production in space. The inflatable nature of the innovation makes it lightweight, allowing it to be deflated so it takes up less volume during transportation and storage. It improves upon AI's current aeroponic system design that uses more rigid structures and takes advantage of vertical inclines to increase bio-mass production by over 600%.

  16. Notes on natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang–Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E{sub 8} are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  17. Tilted ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Senatore, Leonardo

    2005-02-15

    In a ghost inflationary scenario, we study the observational consequences of a tilt in the potential of the ghost condensate. We show how the presence of a tilt tends to make contact between the natural predictions of ghost inflation and the ones of slow roll inflation. In the case of positive tilt, we are able to build an inflationary model in which the Hubble constant H is growing with time. We compute the amplitude and the tilt of the two-point function, as well as the three-point function, for both cases of positive and negative tilt. We find that a good fraction of the parameter space of the model is within experimental reach.

  18. Causality and cosmic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay; Trodden, Mark

    2000-01-15

    In the context of inflationary models with a pre-inflationary stage, in which the Einstein equations are obeyed, the null energy condition is satisfied, and spacetime topology is trivial, we argue that homogeneity on super-Hubble scales must be assumed as an initial condition. Models in which inflation arises from field dynamics in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background fall into this class but models in which inflation originates at the Planck epoch may evade this conclusion. Our arguments rest on causality and general relativistic constraints on the structure of spacetime. We discuss modifications to existing scenarios that may avoid the need for initial large-scale homogeneity. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  19. Notes on natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang-Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken Script N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E8 are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  20. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  1. Inflation from wrapped branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Melanie; Leblond, Louis; Shandera, Sarah

    2007-12-01

    We show that the use of higher dimensional wrapped branes can significantly extend the inflaton field range compared to brane inflation models which use D3-branes. We construct a simple inflationary model in terms of 5-branes wrapping a 2-cycle and traveling towards the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler throat. Inflation ends when the branes reach the tip of the cone and self-annihilate. Assuming a quadratic potential for the brane it is possible to match the cosmic microwave background data in the Dirac-Born-Infeld regime, but we argue that the backreaction of the brane is important and cannot be neglected. This scenario predicts a strong non-Gaussian signal and possibly detectable gravitational waves.

  2. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER

  3. Cosmological inflation in F (R ,G ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Paolella, Mariacristina; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Cosmological inflation is discussed in the framework of F (R ,G ) gravity where F is a generic function of the curvature scalar R and the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant G . The main feature that emerges in this analysis is the fact that this kind of theory can exhaust all the curvature budget related to curvature invariants without considering derivatives of R , Rμ ν, Rσμ ν λ, etc., in the action. Cosmological dynamics results driven by two effective masses (lengths) are related to the R scalaron and the G scalaron working respectively at early and very early epochs of cosmic evolution. In this sense, a double inflationary scenario naturally emerges.

  4. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Baryogenesis after hyperextended inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Felice, Antonio; Trodden, Mark

    2005-08-01

    We study a baryogenesis mechanism operating in the context of hyperextended inflation and making use of a coupling between the scalar field and a standard model global current, such as B or B-L. The method is efficient at temperatures at which these currents are not conserved due to some higher dimensional operator. The particle physics and cosmological phenomenology are discussed. We consider constraints stemming from nucleosynthesis and solar system experiments.

  6. Hierarchical axion inflation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Pedro, Francisco Gil; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-12-31

    We propose a new field theory mechanism for generating an effective trans-Planckian decay constant from sub-Planckian ones. Using the minimal two axions and a hierarchy between two axion decay constants is sufficient for realizing inflation through nonperturbative effects only and with minimal tuning. The inflationary motion is kept entirely within a sub-Planckian domain. We outline possible strategies of embedding the model in a string theory setup. PMID:25615300

  7. Radiation-driven inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya E-mail: gurwichphys@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    A novel, scalar-field-free approach to cosmic inflation is presented. The inflationary Universe and the radiation-dominated Universe are shown, within the framework of unified brane cosmology, to be two different phases governed by one and the same energy density. The phase transition of second order (the Hubble constant exhibits a finite jump) appears naturally and serves as the exit mechanism. No re-heating is needed. The required number of e-folds is achieved without fine tuning.

  8. Inflation in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    1987-05-01

    The big bang cosmology is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based on physics at sub-planck energy scales (much less than mpl approx. = 10 to the 19th power GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here the status of the Inflationary Paradigm is reviewed. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10 to the -12 or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10 to the 28 cm), may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. Also reviewed are some other unresolved issues, and the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data is fully discussed. Finally, the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest is covered.

  9. Minimal supergravity inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    We construct inflationary models in the context of supergravity with orthogonal nilpotent superfields [Ferrara et al., Phys. Rev. D 93, 043516 (2016)]. When local supersymmetry is gauge-fixed in the unitary gauge, these models describe theories with only a single real scalar (the inflaton), a graviton and a gravitino. Critically, there is no inflatino, no sgoldstino, and no sinflaton in these models. This dramatically simplifies cosmological models which can simultaneously describe inflation, dark energy and SUSY breaking.

  10. String-driven inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turok, Neil

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.

  11. The inflating curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Lyth, David H.; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsuda, Tomohiro E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp

    2012-03-01

    The primordial curvature perturbation ζ may be generated by some curvaton field σ, which is negligible during inflation and has more or less negligible interactions until it decays. In the current scenario, the curvaton starts to oscillate while its energy density ρσ is negligible. We explore the opposite scenario, in which ρσ drives a few e-folds of inflation before the oscillation begins. In this scenario for generating ζ it is exceptionally easy to solve the η problem; one just has to make the curvaton a string axion, with anomaly-mediated susy breaking which may soon be tested at the LHC. The observed spectral index n can be obtained with a potential V∝φ{sup p} for the first inflation; p = 1 or 2 is allowed by the current uncertainty in n but the improvement in accuracy promised by Planck may rule out p = 1. The predictions include (i) running n' ≅ 0.0026 (0.0013) for p = 1 (2) that will probably be observed, (ii) non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL}; ∼ −1 that may be observed, (iii) tensor fraction r is probably too small to ever observed.

  12. Higgs inflation and naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Rose N.; McDonald, John

    2010-04-01

    Inflation based on scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled to gravity has been proposed as a way to unify inflation with weak-scale physics, with the inflaton being identified with the Higgs boson or other weak-scale scalar particle. These models require a large non-minimal coupling ξ ~ 104 to have agreement with the observed density perturbations. However, it has been suggested that such models are unnatural, due to an apparent breakdown of the calculation of Higgs-Higgs scattering via graviton exchange in the Jordan frame. Here we argue that Higgs inflation models are in fact natural and that the breakdown does not imply new physics due to strong-coupling effects or unitarity breakdown, but simply a failure of perturbation theory in the Jordan frame as a calculational method. This can be understood by noting that the model is completely consistent when analysed in the Einstein frame and that scattering rates in the two frames are equal by the Equivalence Theorem for non-linear field redefinitions.

  13. Inflatable Structures Technology Handbook. Chapter 21; Inflatable Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Raboin, Jasen; Spexarth, Gary; Valle, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    The technologies required to design, fabricate, and utilize an inflatable module for space applications has been demonstrated and proven by the TransHab team during the development phase of the program. Through testing and hands-on development several issues about inflatable space structures have been addressed , such as: ease of manufacturing, structural integrity, micrometeorite protection, folding , and vacuum deployment. The TransHab inflatable technology development program has proven that not only are inflatable structures a viable option, but they also offer significant advantages over conventional metallic structures.

  14. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  15. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  16. Ghost inflation and de Sitter entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Mukohyama, Shinji; Saitou, Rio; Watanabe, Yota

    2016-08-01

    In the setup of ghost condensation model the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics can be respected under a radiatively stable assumption that couplings between the field responsible for ghost condensate and matter fields such as those in the Standard Model are suppressed by the Planck scale. Since not only black holes but also cosmology are expected to play important roles towards our better understanding of gravity, we consider a cosmological setup to test the theory of ghost condensation. In particular we shall show that the de Sitter entropy bound proposed by Arkani-Hamed, et al. is satisfied if ghost inflation happened in the early epoch of our universe and if there remains a tiny positive cosmological constant in the future infinity. We then propose a notion of cosmological Page time after inflation.

  17. Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    The idea that a period of exponential expansion occurred early in the Universe's history was originally proposed in order to explain the large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. However, there remain open questions about the conditions under which inflation can eventually arise when homogeneity is not assumed to begin with it. I will describe an investigation, utilizing simulations in full general relativity, of the very inhomogeneous regime where initially the gradient energy of the scalar inflaton field dominates over the potential energy, including the strong-field regime where the wavelength of the inhomogeneities are comparable to the Hubble radius, and black holes form. The results show that inflation can eventually arise from a general class of such initial conditions, at least as long as the scalar field variations do not include values off the inflationary plateau. I will also comment on future directions for using the tools of numerical relativity to explore nonlinear and strong-field dynamics in cosmology.

  18. Constraints on gauge field production during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2014-07-01

    In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

  19. Tachyacoustic cosmology: An alternative to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bessada, Dennis; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan; Wang, John

    2010-02-15

    We consider an alternative to inflation for the generation of superhorizon perturbations in the Universe in which the speed of sound is faster than the speed of light. We label such cosmologies, first proposed by Armendariz-Picon, tachyacoustic, and explicitly construct examples of noncanonical Lagrangians which have superluminal sound speed, but which are causally self-consistent. Such models possess two horizons, a Hubble horizon and an acoustic horizon, which have independent dynamics. Even in a decelerating (noninflationary) background, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations can be generated by quantum perturbations redshifted outside of a shrinking acoustic horizon. The acoustic horizon can be large or even infinite at early times, solving the cosmological horizon problem without inflation. These models do not, however, dynamically solve the cosmological flatness problem, which must be imposed as a boundary condition. Gravitational wave modes, which are produced by quantum fluctuations exiting the Hubble horizon, are not produced.

  20. Inflation at the electroweak scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Lloyd; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    We present a model for slow-rollover inflation where the vacuum energy that drives inflation is of the order of G(F) exp -2; unlike most models, the conversion of vacuum energy to radiation ('reheating') is moderately efficient. The scalar field responsible for inflation is a standard-model singlet, develops a vacuum expectation value of 4 x 10 exp 6 GeV, has a mass of about 1 GeV, and can play a role in electroweak phenomena. We also discuss models where the energy scale of inflation is somewhat larger, but still well below the unification scale.

  1. A study of useful inflatables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Sean A.

    It is demonstrated that inflatable structures can provide large amounts of stiffness compared to traditional structures of the same mass. A variety of inflatable structures are investigated theoretically. A pressurized lobed cylindrical wall is shown to be sufficiently lightweight and stiff that it can form a lighter-than-air vacuum chamber. Some prototype inflatables are built. Mechanical and optical tests are performed. Some applications in aerospace and solar energy which require large linear dimension, small mass, or large stiffness are discussed including electromagnetic space launch, airship buoyancy control, solar chimney power plants, and large inflatable mirrors.

  2. Superconformal D-term inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de

    2013-04-01

    We study models of hybrid inflation in the framework of supergravity with superconformal matter. F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since the inflaton acquires a large tachyonic mass. On the contrary, D-term hybrid inflation can successfully account for the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum. It is a two-field inflation model which, depending on parameters, yields values of the scalar spectral index down to n{sub s} ≅ 0.96. Generically, there is a tension between a small spectral index and the cosmic string bound albeit, within 2σ uncertainty, the current observational bounds can be simultaneously fulfilled.

  3. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Luna, Daniel A.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening.

  4. Low-Mass Inflation Systems for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Webster, Mark S.; Engelbrecht, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    The use of inflatable space structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. Communication, power generation, and very-long-baseline interferometry are just three potential applications of inflatable technology. The success of inflatable structures depends on the development of an applications of inflatable technology. This paper describes two design studies performed to develop a low mass inflation system. The first study takes advantage of existing onboard propulsion gases to reduce the overall system mass. The second study assumes that there is no onboard propulsion system. Both studies employ advanced components developed for the Pluto fast flyby spacecraft to further reduce mass. The study examined four different types of systems: hydrazine, nitrogen and water, nitrogen, and xenon. This study shows that all of these systems can be built for a small space structure with masses lower than 0.5 kilograms.

  5. Predictions From Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    We investigate the physics of eternal inflation, particularly the use of multiverse ideas to explain the observed values of the cosmological constant and the coincidences of cosmological timescales. We begin by reviewing eternal inflation, the multiverse, and the resulting measure problem. Then follows a detailed study of proposals to solve the measure problem, both analytical and numerical, including an analysis of their predictions for cosmological observables. A key outcome of this investigation is that the traditional anthropic calculations, which take into account the necessity of galaxies and heavy elements to produce observers, are redundant in our framework. The cosmological coincidence problem, the seemingly coincidental equality of the timescales of observation and of vacuum domination, is solved for the first time without appeal to detailed anthropic assumptions: very general geometric considerations do the job automatically. We also estimate a 10% likelihood that evidence for eternal inflation will be found in upcoming measurements of the energy density of the universe. Encouraged by this success, we go on to construct a modified version of the light-cone time measure which has conceptual advantages but also reproduces the phenomenology of its predecessor. We complete our study of the measure problem by noting that for a wide class of proposed solutions, including the one developed here, there is an implicit assumption being made about a catastrophic end to the universe. Finally, as a by-product of this research program we find geometries which violate some of the accepted common knowledge on holographic entropy bounds. We point this out and conjecture a general result.

  6. Wiggly whipped inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by BICEP2 results on the CMB polarization B-mode which imply primordial gravitational waves are produced when the Universe has the expansion rate of about H ≈ 10{sup 14} GeV, and by deviations from a smooth power-law behavior for multipoles ℓ <50 in the CMB temperature anisotropy power spectrum found in the WMAP and Planck experiments, we have expanded our class of large field inflationary models that fit both the BICEP2 and Planck CMB observations consistently. These best-fitted large field models are found to have a transition from a faster roll to the slow roll V(φ)=m{sup 2} φ{sup 2}/2 inflation at a field value around 14.6 M{sub Pl} and thus a potential energy of V(φ) ∼ (10{sup 16} GeV){sup 4}. In general this transition with sharp features in the inflaton potential produces not only suppression of scalars relative to tensor modes at small k but also introduces wiggles in the primordial perturbation spectrum. These wiggles are shown to be useful to explain some localized features in the CMB angular power spectrum and can also have other observational consequences. Thus, primordial GW can be used now to make a tomography of inflation determining its fine structure. The resulting Wiggly Whipped Inflation scenario is described in details and the anticipated perturbation power spectra, CMB power spectra, non-Gaussianity and other observational consequences are calculated and compared to existing and forthcoming observations.

  7. Inflation in a web

    SciTech Connect

    Li Sheng; Piao Yunsong; Liu Yang

    2009-12-15

    In a given path with multiple branches, in principle, it can be expected that there are some fork points, where one branch is bifurcated into different branches, or various branches converge into one or several branches. In this paper, it is shown that if there is a web formed by such branches in a given field space, in which each branch can be responsible for a period of slow roll inflation, a multiverse separated by a domain wall network will come into being, some of which might correspond to our observable universe. We discuss this scenario and show possible observations of a given observer at late time.

  8. A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J.; Franek, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described. This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons.

  9. Topological inflation with graceful exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a class of models of topological inflation in which a super-Hubble-sized global monopole seeds inflation. These models are attractive since inflation starts from rather generic initial conditions, but their not so attractive feature is that, unless symmetry is again restored, inflation never ends. In this work we show that, in presence of another nonminimally coupled scalar field, that is both quadratically and quartically coupled to the Ricci scalar, inflation naturally ends, representing an elegant solution to the graceful exit problem of topological inflation. While the monopole core grows during inflation, the growth stops after inflation, such that the monopole eventually enters the Hubble radius, and shrinks to its Minkowski space size, rendering it immaterial for the subsequent Universe's dynamics. Furthermore, we find that our model can produce cosmological perturbations that source CMB temperature fluctuations and seed large scale structure statistically consistent (within one standard deviation) with all available data. In particular, for small and (in our convention) negative nonminimal couplings, the scalar spectral index can be as large as ns simeq 0.955, which is about one standard deviation lower than the central value quoted by the most recent Planck Collaboration.

  10. Therapeutic Play at Inflatable Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavorcik, Carin

    2009-01-01

    The environment at indoor inflatable playgrounds, featuring giant bounce houses and slides, can become an ideal place for children with autism to receive helpful sensations. This is the reasoning behind Sensory Nights hosted by the Autism Society of America and Pump It Up, a national franchise of giant, indoor inflatable playgrounds. The private…

  11. Constraining inflation with future galaxy redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo; Verde, Licia E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu

    2012-04-01

    With future galaxy surveys, a huge number of Fourier modes of the distribution of the large scale structures in the Universe will become available. These modes are complementary to those of the CMB and can be used to set constraints on models of the early universe, such as inflation. Using a MCMC analysis, we compare the power of the CMB with that of the combination of CMB and galaxy survey data, to constrain the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations generated during inflation. We base our analysis on the Planck satellite and a spectroscopic redshift survey with configuration parameters close to those of the Euclid mission as examples. We first consider models of slow-roll inflation, and show that the inclusion of large scale structure data improves the constraints by nearly halving the error bars on the scalar spectral index and its running. If we attempt to reconstruct the inflationary single-field potential, a similar conclusion can be reached on the parameters characterizing the potential. We then study models with features in the power spectrum. In particular, we consider ringing features produced by a break in the potential and oscillations such as in axion monodromy. Adding large scale structures improves the constraints on features by more than a factor of two. In axion monodromy we show that there are oscillations with small amplitude and frequency in momentum space that are undetected by CMB alone but can be measured by including galaxy surveys in the analysis.

  12. Does money matter in inflation forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binner, J. M.; Tino, P.; Tepper, J.; Anderson, R.; Jones, B.; Kendall, G.

    2010-11-01

    This paper provides the most fully comprehensive evidence to date on whether or not monetary aggregates are valuable for forecasting US inflation in the early to mid 2000s. We explore a wide range of different definitions of money, including different methods of aggregation and different collections of included monetary assets. In our forecasting experiment we use two nonlinear techniques, namely, recurrent neural networks and kernel recursive least squares regression-techniques that are new to macroeconomics. Recurrent neural networks operate with potentially unbounded input memory, while the kernel regression technique is a finite memory predictor. The two methodologies compete to find the best fitting US inflation forecasting models and are then compared to forecasts from a naïve random walk model. The best models were nonlinear autoregressive models based on kernel methods. Our findings do not provide much support for the usefulness of monetary aggregates in forecasting inflation. Beyond its economic findings, our study is in the tradition of physicists’ long-standing interest in the interconnections among statistical mechanics, neural networks, and related nonparametric statistical methods, and suggests potential avenues of extension for such studies.

  13. Towards Inflation in String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit

    2003-08-25

    We investigate the embedding of brane inflation into stable compactifications of string theory. At first sight a warped compactification geometry seems to produce a naturally flat inflation potential, evading one well-known difficulty of brane-antibrane scenarios. Careful consideration of the closed string moduli reveals a further obstacle: superpotential stabilization of the compactification volume typically modifies the inflation potential and renders it too steep for inflation. We discuss the non-generic conditions under which this problem does not arise. We conclude that brane inflation models can only work if restrictive assumptions about the method of volume stabilization, the warping of the internal space, and the source of inflationary energy are satisfied. We argue that this may not be a real problem, given the large range of available fluxes and background geometries in string theory.

  14. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  15. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  16. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being Joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  17. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  18. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  19. Inflation in supersymmetric SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Rehman, M. U.; Shafi, Q.; Zaakouk, E. A.

    2011-03-15

    We analyze the adjoint field inflation in supersymmetric (SUSY) SU(5) model. In minimal SUSY SU(5) hybrid inflation monopoles are produced at the end of inflation. We therefore explore the nonminimal model of inflation based on SUSY SU(5), like shifted hybrid inflation, which provides a natural solution for the monopole problem. We find that the supergravity corrections with nonminimal Kaehler potential are crucial to realize the central value of the scalar spectral index n{sub s{approx_equal}}0.96 consistent with the 7 yr WMAP data. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small, taking on values r < or approx. 10{sup -5}. Because of R symmetry massless SU(3) octet and SU(2) triplet supermultiplets are present and could spoil gauge coupling unification. To keep gauge coupling unification intact, light vectorlike particles are added which are expected to be observed at LHC.

  20. Poly-instanton inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order Trh simeq 106 GeV which requires Ne simeq 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is ns simeq 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r simeq 10-5. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 103 in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 1015 GeV.

  1. Poly-instanton inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: f.pedro1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order T{sub rh} ≅ 10{sup 6} GeV which requires N{sub e} ≅ 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is n{sub s} ≅ 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r ≅ 10{sup −5}. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 10{sup 3} in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 10{sup 15} GeV.

  2. Inflation, singular instantons, and eleven dimensional cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Reall, Harvey S.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate cosmological solutions of eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on a squashed seven manifold. The effective action for the four dimensional theory contains scalar fields describing the size and squashing of the compactifying space. The potential for these fields consists of a sum of exponential terms. At early times only one such term is expected to dominate. The condition for an exponential potential to admit inflationary solutions is derived and it is shown that inflation is not possible in our model. The criterion for an exponential potential to admit a Hawking-Turok instanton is also derived. It is shown that the instanton remains singular in eleven dimensions.

  3. Isotropization of the universe during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Thiago; Pitrou, Cyril

    2015-12-01

    A primordial inflationary phase allows one to erase any possible anisotropic expansion thanks to the cosmic no-hair theorem. If there is no global anisotropic stress, then the anisotropic expansion rate tends to decrease. What are the observational consequences of a possible early anisotropic phase? We first review the dynamics of anisotropic universes and report analytic approximations. We then discuss the structure of dynamical equations for perturbations and the statistical properties of observables, as well as the implication of a primordial anisotropy on the quantization of these perturbations during inflation. Finally we review briefly models based on primordial vector field that evade the cosmic no-hair theorem. xml:lang="fr"

  4. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  5. Moduli stabilization and inflation using wrapped branes

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Trodden, Mark

    2005-07-15

    We demonstrate that a gas of wrapped branes in the early Universe can help resolve the cosmological Dine-Seiberg/Brustein-Steinhardt overshoot problem in the context of moduli stabilization with steep potentials in string theory. Starting from this mechanism, we propose a cosmological model with a natural setting in the context of an early phase dominated by brane and string gases. The Universe inflates at early times due to the presence of a wrapped two brane (domain wall) gas and all moduli are stabilized. A natural graceful exit from the inflationary regime is achieved. However, the basic model suffers from a generalized domain wall/reheating problem and cannot generate a scale invariant spectrum of fluctuations without additional physics. Several suggestions are presented to address these issues.

  6. Coupling hybrid inflation to moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; van de Bruck, Carsten; Davis, Anne-Christine; Davis, Stephen C.

    2006-09-01

    Hybrid inflation can be realized in low energy effective string theory, as described using supergravity. We find that the coupling of moduli to F-term hybrid inflation in supergravity leads to a slope and a curvature for the inflaton potential. The epsi and η parameters receive contributions at tree and one loop level which are not compatible with slow roll inflation. Furthermore the coupling to the moduli sector can even prevent inflation from ending at all. We show that introducing shift symmetries in the inflationary sector and taking the moduli sector to be no-scale removes most of these problems. If the moduli fields are fixed during inflation, as is usually assumed, it appears that viable slow roll inflation can then be obtained with just one fine-tuning of the moduli sector parameters. However, we show this is not a reasonable assumption, and that the small variation of the moduli fields during inflation gives a significant contribution to the effective inflaton potential. This typically implies that ηap-6, although it may be possible to obtain smaller values with heavy fine-tuning.

  7. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  8. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  9. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  10. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  11. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  12. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  13. Inflation without quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Pyry

    2015-04-01

    It is sometimes argued that observation of tensor modes from inflation would provide the first evidence for quantum gravity. However, in the usual inflationary formalism, also the scalar modes involve quantized metric perturbations. We consider the issue in a semiclassical setup in which only matter is quantized, and spacetime is classical. We assume that the state collapses on a spacelike hypersurface and find that the spectrum of scalar perturbations depends on the hypersurface. For reasonable choices, we can recover the usual inflationary predictions for scalar perturbations in minimally coupled single-field models. In models where nonminimal coupling to gravity is important and the field value is sub-Planckian, we do not get a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations. As gravitational waves are only produced at second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio is negligible. We conclude that detection of inflationary gravitational waves would indeed be needed to have observational evidence of quantization of gravity.

  14. Constraining monodromy inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz

    2013-09-01

    We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the 9-year WMAP release to derive constraints on monodromy inflation, which is characterized by a linear inflaton potential with a periodic modulation. We identify two possible periodic modulations that significantly improve the fit, lowering χ{sup 2} by approximately 10 and 20. However, standard Bayesian model selection criteria assign roughly equal odds to the modulated potential and the unmodulated case. A modulated inflationary potential can generate substantial primordial non-Gaussianity with a specific and characteristic form. For the best-fit parameters to the WMAP angular power spectrum, the corresponding non-Gaussianity might be detectable in upcoming CMB data, allowing nontrivial consistency checks on the predictions of a modulated inflationary potential.

  15. Anisotropic inflation with general potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, JiaMing; Huang, XiaoTian; Qiu, TaoTao

    2016-04-01

    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  16. Distinguishing between R2-inflation and Higgs-inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukov, F. L.; Gorbunov, D. S.

    2012-07-01

    We present three features which can be used to distinguish the R2-inflation Higgs-inflation from with ongoing, upcoming and planned experiments, assuming no new physics (apart form sterile neutrinos) up to inflationary scale. (i) Slightly different tilt of the scalar perturbation spectrum ns and ratio r of scalar-to-tensor perturbation amplitudes. (ii) Gravity waves produced within R2-model by collapsing, merging and evaporating scalaron clumps formed in the post-inflationary Universe. (iii) Different ranges of the possible Standard Model Higgs boson masses, where the electroweak vacuum remains stable while the Universe evolves after inflation. Specifically, in the R2-model Higgs boson can be as light as 116 GeV. These effects mainly rely on the lower reheating temperature in the R2-inflation.

  17. Observing the inflation potential. [in models of cosmological inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Lidsey, James E.

    1993-01-01

    We show how observations of the density perturbation (scalar) spectrum and the gravitational wave (tensor) spectrum allow a reconstruction of the potential responsible for cosmological inflation. A complete functional reconstruction or a perturbative approximation about a single scale are possible; the suitability of each approach depends on the data available. Consistency equations between the scalar and tensor spectra are derived, which provide a powerful signal of inflation.

  18. Moduli inflation in five-dimensional supergravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime E-mail: hajime.13.gologo@akane.waseda.jp

    2014-11-01

    We propose a simple but effective mechanism to realize an inflationary early universe consistent with the observed WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 data, which would be incorporated in various supersymmetric models of elementary particles constructed in the (effective) five-dimensional spacetime. In our scenario, the inflaton field is identified with one of the moduli appearing when the fifth direction is compactified, and a successful cosmological inflation without the so-called η problem can be achieved by a very simple moduli stabilization potential. We also discuss the related particle cosmology during and (just) after the inflation, such as the (no) cosmological moduli problem.

  19. Supernatural inflation: inflation from supersymmetry with no (very) small parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Lisa; SoljačiĆ, Marin; Guth, Alan H.

    1996-02-01

    Most models of inflation have small parameters, either to guarantee sufficient inflation or the correct magnitude of the density perturbations. In this paper we show that, in supersymmetric theories with weak-scale supersymmetry breaking, one can construct viable inflationary models in which the requisite parameters appear naturally in the form of the ratio of mass scales that are already present in the theory. Successful inflationary models can be constructed from the flat-direction fields of a renormalizable supersymmetric potential, and such models can be realized even in the context of a simple GUT extension of the MSSM. We evade naive ``naturalness'' arguments by allowing for more than one field to be relevant to inflation, as in ``hybrid inflation'' models, and we argue that this is the most natural possibility if inflation fields are to be associated with flat direction fields of a supersymmetric theory. Such models predict a very low Hubble constant during inflation, of order 103-104 GeV, a scalar density perturbation index n which is very close to or greater than unity, and negligible tensor perturbations. In addition, these models lead to a large spike in the density perturbation spectrum at short wavelengths.

  20. Coherent phase argument for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Dodelson

    2004-03-17

    Cosmologists have developed a phenomenally successful picture of structure in the universe based on the idea that the universe expanded exponentially in its earliest moments. There are three pieces of evidence for this exponential expansion--inflation--from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. First, the shape of the primordial spectrum is very similar to that predicted by generic inflation models. Second, the angular scale at which the first acoustic peak appears is consistent with the flat universe predicted by inflation. Here the author describes the third piece of evidence, perhaps the most convincing of all: the phase coherence needed to account for the clear peak/trough structure observed by the WMAP satellite and its predecessors. The author also discusses alternatives to inflation that have been proposed recently and explain how they produce coherent phases.

  1. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon a pump that inflates the cuff. To treat urinary incontinence, the cuff is placed ...

  2. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  3. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon a pump that inflates the cuff. To treat ... the urethra will close tightly. The pressure regulating balloon will be placed under the tissues of the ...

  4. The trispectrum in ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-07-01

    We calculate the trispectrum in ghost inflation where both the contact diagram and scale-exchange diagram are taken into account. The shape of trispectrum is discussed carefully and we find that the local form is absent in ghost inflation. In general, for the non-local shape trispectrum there are not analogous parameters to τ{sub NL}{sup loc.} and g{sub NL}{sup loc.} which can completely characterize the size of local form trispectrum.

  5. New Millenium Inflatable Structures Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollerick, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Specific applications where inflatable technology can enable or enhance future space missions are tabulated. The applicability of the inflatable technology to large aperture infra-red astronomy missions is discussed. Space flight validation and risk reduction are emphasized along with the importance of analytical tools in deriving structurally sound concepts and performing optimizations using compatible codes. Deployment dynamics control, fabrication techniques, and system testing are addressed.

  6. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  7. Constraints on just enough inflation preceded by a thermal era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suratna; Goswami, Gaurav; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    If the inflationary era is preceded by a radiation-dominated era in which the inflaton too was in thermal equilibrium at some very early time, then the CMB data places an upper bound on the comoving temperature of the (decoupled) inflaton quanta. In addition, if one considers models of "just enough" inflation, where the number of e-foldings of inflation is just enough to solve the horizon and flatness problems, then we get a lower bound on the Hubble parameter during inflation, Hinf, which is in severe conflict with the upper bound from tensor perturbations. Alternatively, imposing the upper bound on Hinf implies that such scenarios are compatible with the data only if the number of relativistic degrees of freedom in the thermal bath in the preinflationary Universe is extremely large (greater than 109 or 1011 ). We are not aware of scenarios in which this can be satisfied.

  8. Observational constraints on the energy scale of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zong-Kuan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Determining the energy scale of inflation is crucial to understand the nature of inflation in the early universe. Assuming a power-law power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, we place observational constraints on the energy scale of the observable part of the inflaton potential by combining the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data with distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant measurement. Our analysis provides an upper limit on this energy scale, 2.3×1016GeV at 95% confidence level. Moreover, we forecast the sensitivity and constraints achievable by the Planck experiment by performing Monte Carlo studies on simulated data. Planck could significantly improve the constraints on the energy scale of inflation and on the shape of the inflaton potential.

  9. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-05-01

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields.

  10. Higgs dynamics during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Meriniemi, Tuukka; Nurmi, Sami E-mail: tuukka.meriniemi@helsinki.fi

    2014-07-01

    We investigate inflationary Higgs dynamics and constraints on the Standard Model parameters assuming the Higgs potential, computed to next-to-next leading order precision, is not significantly affected by new physics. For a high inflationary scale H ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV suggested by BICEP2, we show that the Higgs is a light field subject to fluctuations which affect its dynamics in a stochastic way. Starting from its inflationary value the Higgs must be able to relax to the Standard Model vacuum well before the electroweak scale. We find that this is consistent with the high inflationary scale only if the top mass m{sub t} is significantly below the best fit value. The region within 2σ errors of the measured m{sub t}, the Higgs mass m{sub h} and the strong coupling α{sub s} and consistent with inflation covers approximately the interval m{sub t}∼<171.8 GeV+0.538(m{sub h}−125.5 GeV) with 125.4 GeV∼

  11. Two tunnels to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.

    2006-06-15

    We investigate the formation via tunneling of inflating (false-vacuum) bubbles in a true-vacuum background, and the reverse process. Using effective potentials from the junction condition formalism, all true- and false-vacuum bubble solutions with positive interior and exterior cosmological constant, and arbitrary mass are catalogued. We find that tunneling through the same effective potential appears to describe two distinct processes: one in which the initial and final states are separated by a wormhole (the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism), and one in which they are either in the same hubble volume or separated by a cosmological horizon. In the zero-mass limit, the first process corresponds to the creation of an inhomogenous universe from nothing, while the second mechanism is equivalent to the nucleation of true- or false-vacuum Coleman-De Luccia bubbles. We compute the probabilities of both mechanisms in the WKB approximation using semiclassical Hamiltonian methods, and find that--assuming both process are allowed--neither mechanism dominates in all regimes.

  12. Nonminimally coupled inflation with initial conditions from a preinflation anamorphic contracting era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, John

    2016-08-01

    Inflation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field, as first proposed by Salopek, Bardeen and Bond (SBB), is in good agreement with the observed value of the spectral index and constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Here we explore the possibility that SBB inflation represents the late stage of a Universe which emerges from an early contracting era. We present a model in which the Universe smoothly transitions from an anamorphic contracting era to late-time SBB inflation without encountering a singular bounce. This corresponds to a continuous expansion in the Einstein frame throughout. We show that the anamorphic contracting era is able to provide the smooth superhorizon initial conditions necessary for subsequent SBB inflation to occur. The model predicts corrections to the nonminimal coupling, kinetic term and potential of SBB inflation which can observably increase the spectral index relative to its SBB prediction.

  13. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Luna, D.A.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1997-11-18

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening. 22 figs.

  14. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field.

  15. Aspects of inflation in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    In this thesis we make small steps towards the ambitious goal of a microphysical understanding of the inflationary era in the early universe. We identify three key questions that require a proper understanding of the ultraviolet limit of the theory: (i) the delicate flatness of the inflaton potential, (ii) the possibility of observable gravitational waves and (iii) a large non-Gaussianity of the primordial density fluctuations. We study these fundamental aspects of inflation in the context of string theory. V (φ): In the first half of the thesis, we give the first fully explicit derivation of the potential for warped D-brane inflation. The analysis exposes the eta-problem, relates effective parameters in the inflaton Lagrangian to microscopic string theory input, and illustrates important correlations between the parameters of the potential. We show that compactification constraints significantly limit the possibility of obtaining inflationary solutions in these scenarios. r: All inflationary models that predict an observable gravitational wave signal require that the inflaton field evolves over a super-Planckian range. In the second half of the thesis, we derive a microscopic bound on the maximal inflaton field variation for D-brane models. The bound arises from the compact nature of the extra dimensions and puts a strong upper limit on the gravitational wave signal. fNL: Finally, we explain that our limit on the field range also significantly constrains the parameter space of Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation. In this case the bound strongly restricts the possibility of a large non-Gaussianity in the primordial fluctuations.

  16. Concentric Nested Toroidal Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Assemblies comprising multiple limited- height toroidal inflatable structures nested in a concentric arrangement have been invented to obtain more design flexibility than can be obtained in single taller, wider toroidal inflatable structures (see figure). Originally intended for use as containers for habitats for humans in outer space or on remote planets, these and related prior inflatable structures could also be useful on Earth as lightweight, compactly stowable, portable special-purpose buildings that could be transported to remote locations and there inflated to full size and shape. In the case of a single inflatable toroidal structure, one important source of lack of design flexibility is the fact that an increase in outer diameter (which is sometimes desired) is necessarily accompanied by an increase in height (which is sometimes undesired). Increases in diameter and height can also cause difficulty in utilization of the resulting larger volume, in that it can become necessary to partition the volume by means of walls and floors, and features (e.g., stairs or ladders) must be added to enable vertical movement between floors. Moreover, ascending and descending between floors in a gravitational environment could pose unacceptable difficulty for the inhabitants under some circumstances. Another source of lack of design flexibility in a single toroidal inflatable structure is that for a given inflation pressure, an increase in the outer diameter of the structure necessarily entails an increase in the maximum stress in the structure. Because it is necessary to keep the maximum stress within the load-bearing capability of the structural materials, consistent with other aspects of the design, this may translate to a limit on the outer diameter. In an assembly comprising concentric nested toroidal structures, an increase in outer diameter does not necessarily entail an increase in height or a maximum stress in excess of the load-bearing capability of the structural

  17. Minimal Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Oda, Kin-ya

    2014-02-01

    We consider a possibility that the Higgs field in the Standard Model (SM) serves as an inflaton when its value is around the Planck scale. We assume that the SM is valid up to an ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ , which is slightly below the Planck scale, and that the Higgs potential becomes almost flat above Λ . Contrary to the ordinary Higgs inflation scenario, we do not assume the huge non-minimal coupling, of O(10^4), of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. We find that Λ must be less than 5× 10^{17} {GeV} in order to explain the observed fluctuation of the cosmic microwave background, no matter how we extrapolate the Higgs potential above Λ . The scale 10^{17} {GeV} coincides with the perturbative string scale, which suggests that the SM is directly connected with string theory. For this to be true, the top quark mass is restricted to around 171 GeV, with which Λ can exceed 10^{17} {GeV}. As a concrete example of the potential above Λ , we propose a simple log-type potential. The predictions of this specific model for the e-foldings N_*=50-60 are consistent with the current observation, namely, the scalar spectral index is n_s=0.977hbox {-}0.983 and the tensor to scalar ratio 0

  18. Spatial curvature falsifies eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie

    2012-06-01

    Inflation creates large-scale cosmological density perturbations that are characterized by an isotropic, homogeneous, and Gaussian random distribution about a locally flat background. Even in a flat universe, the spatial curvature measured within one Hubble volume receives contributions from long wavelength perturbations, and will not in general be zero. These same perturbations determine the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, which are Script O(10-5). Consequently, the low-l multipole moments in the CMB temperature map predict the value of the measured spatial curvature Ωk. On this basis we argue that a measurement of |Ωk| > 10-4 would rule out slow-roll eternal inflation in our past with high confidence, while a measurement of Ωk < -10-4 (which is positive curvature, a locally closed universe) rules out false-vacuum eternal inflation as well, at the same confidence level. In other words, negative curvature (a locally open universe) is consistent with false-vacuum eternal inflation but not with slow-roll eternal inflation, and positive curvature falsifies both. Near-future experiments will dramatically extend the sensitivity of Ωk measurements and constitute a sharp test of these predictions.

  19. Standard-smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-12-15

    We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)

  20. Topological phases of eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Shenker, Stephen; Susskind, Leonard

    2010-06-15

    ''Eternal inflation'' is a term that describes a number of different phenomena that have been classified by Winitzki. According to Winitzki's classification, these phases can be characterized by the topology of the percolating structures in the inflating, 'white', region. In this paper we discuss these phases, the transitions between them, and the way they are seen by a 'Census Taker', a hypothetical observer inside the noninflating, 'black', region. We discuss three phases that we call 'black island', 'tubular', and 'white island'. The black island phase is familiar, composed of rare Coleman De Luccia bubble nucleation events. The Census Taker sees an essentially spherical boundary, described by the conformal field theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker/conformal field theory (FRW/CFT) correspondence. In the tubular phase the Census Taker sees a complicated infinite genus structure composed of arbitrarily long tubes. The white island phase is even more mysterious from the black side. Surprisingly, when viewed from the noninflating region this phase resembles a closed, positively curved universe that eventually collapses to a singularity. Nevertheless, pockets of eternal inflation continue forever. In addition, there is an 'aborted' phase in which no eternal inflation takes place. Rigorous results of Chayes, Chayes, Grannan, and Swindle establish the existence of all of these phases, separated by first order transitions, in Mandelbrot percolation, a simple model of eternal inflation.

  1. Anisotropic inflation from charged scalar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Movahed, S.M. Sadegh; Zarei, Moslem E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: m.zarei@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2011-02-01

    We consider models of inflation with U(1) gauge fields and charged scalar fields including symmetry breaking potential, chaotic inflation and hybrid inflation. We show that there exist attractor solutions where the anisotropies produced during inflation becomes comparable to the slow-roll parameters. In the models where the inflaton field is a charged scalar field the gauge field becomes highly oscillatory at the end of inflation ending inflation quickly. Furthermore, in charged hybrid inflation the onset of waterfall phase transition at the end of inflation is affected significantly by the evolution of the background gauge field. Rapid oscillations of the gauge field and its coupling to inflaton can have interesting effects on preheating and non-Gaussianities.

  2. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-15

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  3. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  4. Load limiting parachute inflation control

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.

  5. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  6. Dark energy in hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Kim, Seongcheol

    2007-03-15

    The situation that a scalar field provides the source of the accelerated expansion of the Universe while rolling down its potential is common in both the simple models of the primordial inflation and the quintessence-based dark energy models. Motivated by this point, we address the possibility of causing the current acceleration via the primordial inflation using a simple model based on hybrid inflation. We trigger the onset of the motion of the quintessence field via the waterfall field, and find that the fate of the Universe depends on the true vacuum energy determined by choosing the parameters. We also briefly discuss the variation of the equation of state and the possible implementation of our scenario in supersymmetric theories.

  7. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  8. Cosmological inflation and the quantum measurement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent; Peter, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    According to cosmological inflation, the inhomogeneities in our Universe are of quantum-mechanical origin. This scenario is phenomenologically very appealing as it solves the puzzles of the standard hot big bang model and naturally explains why the spectrum of cosmological perturbations is almost scale invariant. It is also an ideal playground to discuss deep questions among which is the quantum measurement problem in a cosmological context. Although the large squeezing of the quantum state of the perturbations and the phenomenon of decoherence explain many aspects of the quantum-to-classical transition, it remains to understand how a specific outcome can be produced in the early Universe, in the absence of any observer. The continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) approach to quantum mechanics attempts to solve the quantum measurement question in a general context. In this framework, the wave function collapse is caused by adding new nonlinear and stochastic terms to the Schrödinger equation. In this paper, we apply this theory to inflation, which amounts to solving the CSL parametric oscillator case. We choose the wave function collapse to occur on an eigenstate of the Mukhanov-Sasaki variable and discuss the corresponding modified Schrödinger equation. Then, we compute the power spectrum of the perturbations and show that it acquires a universal shape with two branches, one which remains scale invariant and one with nS=4, a spectral index in obvious contradiction with the cosmic microwave background anisotropy observations. The requirement that the non-scale-invariant part be outside the observational window puts stringent constraints on the parameter controlling the deviations from ordinary quantum mechanics. Due to the absence of a CSL amplification mechanism in field theory, this also has the consequence that the collapse mechanism of the inflationary fluctuations is not efficient. Then, we determine the collapse time. On small scales the collapse is

  9. Constraining the history of inflation from microwave background polarimetry and laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caligiuri, Jerod; Kosowsky, Arthur; Kinney, William H.; Seto, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    A period of inflation in the early Universe produces a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves over a huge range in wavelength. If the amplitude of this gravitational wave background is large enough to be detectable with microwave background polarization measurements, it will also be detectable directly with a space-based laser interferometer. Using a Monte Carlo sampling of inflation models, we demonstrate that the combination of these two measurements will strongly constrain the expansion history during inflation and the physical mechanism driving it.

  10. Dynamics of gauge field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marcianò, Antonino

    2015-05-05

    We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the Stückelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.