Science.gov

Sample records for early fast-roll inflation

  1. Radiative corrections from heavy fast-roll fields during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2015-06-09

    We investigate radiative corrections to the inflaton potential from heavy fields undergoing a fast-roll phase transition. We find that a logarithmic one-loop correction to the inflaton potential involving this field can induce a temporary running of the spectral index. The induced running can be a short burst of strong running, which may be related to the observed anomalies on large scales in the cosmic microwave spectrum, or extend over many e-folds, sustaining an effectively constant running to be searched for in the future. We implement this in a general class of models, where effects are mediated through a heavy messenger field sitting in its minimum. Interestingly, within the present framework it is a generic outcome that a large running implies a small field model with a vanishing tensor-to-scalar ratio, circumventing the normal expectation that small field models typically lead to an unobservably small running of the spectral index. An observable level of tensor modes can also be accommodated, but, surprisingly, this requires running to be induced by a curvaton. If upcoming observations are consistent with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio as predicted by small field models of inflation, then the present study serves as an explicit example contrary to the general expectation that the running will be unobservable.

  2. Preinflationary and inflationary fast-roll eras and their signatures in the low CMB multipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destri, C.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2010-03-01

    We study the entire coupled evolution of the inflaton ϕ(t) and the scale factor a(t) for general initial conditions ϕ(t0) and dϕ(t0)/dt at a given initial time t0. The generic early Universe evolution has three stages: decelerated fast roll followed by inflationary fast roll and then inflationary slow roll (an attractor always reached for generic initial conditions). This evolution is valid for all regular inflaton potentials v(ϕ). In addition, we find a special (extreme) slow-roll solution starting at t=-∞ in which the fast-roll stages are absent. At some time t=t*, the evolution backwards in time from t0 reaches generically a mathematical singularity where a(t) vanishes and the Hubble parameter becomes singular. We determine the general behavior near the singularity. The classical homogeneous inflaton description turns to be valid for t-t*>10tPlanck well before the beginning of inflation, quantum loop effects are negligible there. The singularity is never reached in the validity region of the classical treatment and therefore it is not a real physical phenomenon here. Fast-roll and slow-roll regimes are analyzed in detail including the equation of state evolution, both analytically and numerically. The characteristic time scale of the fast-roll era turns to be t1=(1/m)V(0)/[3M4]˜104tPlanck, where V is the double-well inflaton potential, m is the inflaton mass, and M the energy scale of inflation. The whole evolution of the fluctuations along the decelerated and inflationary fast-roll and slow-roll eras is computed. The Bunch-Davies initial conditions are generalized for the present case in which the potential felt by the fluctuations can never be neglected. The fluctuations feel a singular attractive potential near the t=t* singularity (as in the case of a particle in a central singular potential) with exactly the critical strength (-1/4) allowing the fall to the center. Precisely, the fluctuations exhibit logarithmic behavior describing the fall to t

  3. CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Wang, Lingfei

    2013-10-01

    The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.

  4. Inflation in the early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1998-04-01

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. The author calculates the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the big bang. The result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  5. Inflated reward value in early opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Linker, Kay E; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-03-01

    Through incentive learning, the emotional experience of a reward in a relevant need state (e.g. hunger for food) sets the incentive value that guides the performance of actions that earn that reward when the need state is encountered again. Opiate withdrawal has been proposed as a need state in which, through experience, opiate value can be increased, resulting in escalated opiate self-administration. Endogenous opioid transmission plays anatomically dissociable roles in the positive emotional experience of reward consumption and incentive learning. We, therefore, sought to determine if chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal produces a disruption in the fundamental incentive learning process such that reward seeking, even for non-opiate rewards, can become maladaptive, inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption and irrespective of need. Rats trained to earn sucrose or water on a reward-seeking chain were treated with morphine (10-30 mg/kg, s.c.) daily for 11 days prior to testing in withdrawal. Opiate-withdrawn rats showed elevated reward-seeking actions, but only after they experienced the reward in withdrawal, an effect that was strongest in early (1-3 days), as opposed to late (14-16 days), withdrawal. This was sufficient to overcome a negative reward value change induced by sucrose experience in satiety and, in certain circumstances, was inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption. Lastly, we found that early opiate withdrawal-induced inflation of reward value was blocked by inactivation of basolateral amygdala mu opioid receptors. These data suggest that in early opiate withdrawal, the incentive learning process is disrupted, resulting in maladaptive reward seeking. PMID:25081350

  6. Nontrivial dynamics in the early stages of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.; El Hasi, C.

    1995-03-01

    Inflationary cosmologies, regarded as dynamical systems, have rather simple asymptotic behavior insofar as the cosmic baldness principle holds. Nevertheless, in the early stages of an inflationary process the dynamical behavior may be very complex. In this paper, we show how even a simple inflationary scenario, based on Linde's ``chaotic inflation'' proposal, manifests nontrivial dynamical effects such as the breakup of invariant tori, the formation of cantori, and Arnol'd's diffusion. The relevance of such effects is highlighted by the facts that even the occurrence or nonoccurrence of inflation in a given universe is dependent upon them.

  7. Gravitino condensates in the early universe and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-05-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local super-symmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) super-symmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the super-symmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass.

  8. Inflation.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, A H

    1993-01-01

    A short review of inflation is given, starting with a description of the underlying mechanism and the scenario of events. Four variations--old inflation, new inflation, chaotic inflation, and extended inflation--are discussed. It is claimed that the inflationary model provides a plausible explanation for (i) the large number of particles in the universe, (ii) the Hubble expansion, (iii) the large-scale uniformity of the universe, (iv) the nearness of the universe to a critical density, (v) the absence of magnetic monopoles, and (vi) the scale-invariant spectrum of microwave background fluctuations observed by COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer). Finally, it is argued that the plausibility of inflation is enhanced by the fact that inflation is eternal. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607402

  9. Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    The basic workings of inflationary models are summarized, along with the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. I describe the quantum origin of density perturbations, giving a heuristic derivation of the scale invariance of the spectrum and the leading corrections to scale invariance. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. Although inflation is generically eternal into the future, it is not eternal into the past: it can be proven under reasonable assumptions that the inflating region must be incomplete in past directions, so some physics other than inflation is needed to describe the past boundary of the inflating region. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique.

  10. The Early Universe: Searching for Evidence of Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as "inflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  11. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, David F

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED). Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduction to the world's urological community. This article is, for the most part, the observations of one who was “there” in the early and mid-1970's and was a witness to the history of this remarkable marvel of creativity, engineering, design, and to the personalities involved. PMID:25432494

  12. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there.

    PubMed

    Mobley, David F

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED). Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduction to the world's urological community. This article is, for the most part, the observations of one who was "there" in the early and mid-1970's and was a witness to the history of this remarkable marvel of creativity, engineering, design, and to the personalities involved. PMID:25432494

  13. Polymer inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Syed Moeez; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2015-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a Gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semiclassical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by an epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow-roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckian initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  14. A New Look at Inflation: Economic Policy in the Early 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagan, Phillip; And Others

    The volume, a sequel to "Economic Policy and Inflation in the Sixties" presents the diverse opinions of distinguished scholars on developments in the American economy since the institution of direct wage and price controls in August 1971. Gottfried Haberler considers the international aspects of recent United States inflation. William Fellner…

  15. A Little Inflation in the Early Universe at the QCD Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2010-07-23

    We explore a scenario that allows for a strong first order phase transition of QCD at a non-negligible baryon number in the early Universe and its possible observable consequences. The main assumption is a quasistable QCD-vacuum state that leads to a short period of inflation, consequently diluting the net baryon to photon ratio to today's observed value. A strong mechanism for baryogenesis is needed to start out with a baryon asymmetry of order unity, e.g., as provided by Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. The cosmological implications are direct effects on primordial density fluctuations up to dark matter mass scales of M{sub max{approx}}1-10M{sub {center_dot},} change in the spectral slope up to M{sub max{approx}}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot},} production of strong primordial magnetic fields and a gravitational wave spectrum with present day peak strain amplitude of up to h{sub c}({nu}{sub peak}){approx}5x10{sup -15} around {nu}{sub peak{approx}}4x10{sup -8} Hz.

  16. Double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Symmetron inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Ruifeng; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2014-01-01

    We define a new inflationary scenario in which inflation starts naturally after the Big Bang when the energy density drops below some critical value. As a model, we use recently proposed symmetron field whose effective potential depends on the energy density of the environment. At high densities, right after the Big Bang, the potential for the symmetron is trivial, and the field sits in equilibrium at the bottom of the potential. When the density drops below some critical value, the potential changes its shape into a symmetry breaking potential, and the field starts rolling down. This scenario does not require any special initial conditions for inflation to start. We also construct a concrete model with two fields, i.e. with symmetron as an inflaton and an additional scalar field which describes the matter content in the early universe. For the simplest coupling, the amplitude and shape of the power spectrum are the same as in the single field slow-roll inflation.

  18. Slinky inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior.We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and ''why now'' problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n{sub S} = n{sub T} = 1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion.

  19. Inflation and eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, A. H.

    2000-08-01

    The basic workings of inflationary models are summarized, along with the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique. Vilenkin's proposal for avoiding these problems is also discussed.

  20. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@sissa.it E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  1. Chameleonic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin; Nastase, Horatiu; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2013-08-01

    We attempt to incorporate inflation into a string theory realization of the chameleon mechanism. Previously, it was found that the volume modulus, stabilized by the supersymmetric potential used by Kachru, Kallosh, Linde and Trivedi (KKLT) and with the right choice of parameters, can generically work as a chameleon. In this paper, we ask whether inflation can be realized in the same model. We find that we need a large extra dimensions set-up, as well as a semi-phenomenological deformation of the Kähler potential in the quantum region. We also find that an additional KKLT term is required so that there are now two pieces to the potential, one which drives inflation in the early universe, and one which is responsible for chameleon screening at late times. These two pieces of the potential are separated by a large flat desert in field space. The scalar field must dynamically traverse this desert between the end of inflation and today, and we find that this can indeed occur under the right conditions.

  2. Generation of gravitational waves during early structure formation between cosmic inflation and reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Lemoine, Martin; Martin, Jérôme E-mail: lemoine@iap.fr

    2010-04-01

    In the pre-reheating era, following cosmic inflation and preceding radiation domination, the energy density may be dominated by an oscillating massive scalar condensate, such as is the case for V = m{sup 2}φ{sup 2}/2 chaotic inflation. We have found in a previous paper that during this period, a wide range of sub-Hubble scale perturbations are subject to a preheating instability, leading to the growth of density perturbations ultimately collapsing to form non-linear structures. We compute here the gravitational wave signal due to these structures in the linear limit and present estimates for emission in the non-linear limit due to various effects: the collapse of halos, the tidal interactions, the evaporation during the conversion of the inflaton condensate into radiation and finally the ensuing turbulent cascades. The gravitational wave signal could be rather large and potentially testable by future detectors.

  3. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2013-07-23

    We construct a simple model of universe which 'unifies' vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} having a linear component p = αρc{sup 2} and a polytropic component p = kρ{sup 1+1/n}c{sup 2}. For α= 1/3, n= 1 and k=−4/(3ρ{sub P}), where ρ{sub P}= 5.1610{sup 99} g/m{sup 3} is the Planck density, this equation of state describes the transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t≥ 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size l{sub P}= 1.6210{sup −35} m to a size a{sub 1}= 2.6110{sup −6} m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times t{sub P}= 5.3910{sup −44} s (early inflation). When t > t{sub 1}= 23.3t{sub P}, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ= 0). For α= 0, n=−1 and k=−ρ{sub Λ}, where ρ{sub Λ}= 7.0210{sup −24} g/m{sup 3} is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c{sup 2} = αρ+kρ{sup 1+1/n} describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a{sub 2}= 0.204l{sub Λ}. corresponding to a time t{sub 2}= 0.203t{sub Λ} where l{sub Λ}= 4.38 10{sup 26} m is the cosmological length and t{sub Λ}= 1.46 10{sup 18} s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t{sub 0}∼t{sub 2}). Our model gives the same results as the standard

  4. A simple model of universe describing the early inflation and the late accelerated expansion in a symmetric manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2013-07-01

    We construct a simple model of universe which "unifies" vacuum energy and radiation on the one hand, and matter and dark energy on the other hand in the spirit of a generalized Chaplygin gas model. Specifically, the phases of early inflation and late accelerated expansion are described by a generalized equation of state p/c2 = αρ+kρ1+1/n having a linear component p = αρc2 and a polytropic component p = kρ1+1/nc2. For α = 1/3, n = 1 and k = -4/(3ρP), where ρP = 5.161099 g/m3 is the Planck density, this equation of state describes the transition between the vacuum energy era and the radiation era. For t >= 0, the universe undergoes an inflationary expansion that brings it from the Planck size lP = 1.6210-35 m to a size a1 = 2.6110-6 m on a timescale of about 23.3 Planck times tP = 5.3910-44 s (early inflation). When t > t1 = 23.3tP, the universe decelerates and enters in the radiation era. We interpret the transition from the vacuum energy era to the radiation era as a second order phase transition where the Planck constant ℏ plays the role of finite size effects (the standard Big Bang theory is recovered for ℏ = 0). For α = 0, n = -1 and k = -ρΛ, where ρΛ = 7.0210-24 g/m3 is the cosmological density, the equation of state p/c2 = αρ+kρ1+1/n describes the transition from a decelerating universe dominated by pressureless matter (baryonic and dark matter) to an accelerating universe dominated by dark energy (late inflation). This transition takes place at a size a2 = 0.204lΛ. corresponding to a time t2 = 0.203tΛ where lΛ = 4.38 1026 m is the cosmological length and tΛ = 1.46 1018 s the cosmological time. The present universe turns out to be just at the transition between these two periods (t0 ~ t2). Our model gives the same results as the standard ΛCDM model for t >> tP and completes it by incorporating a phase of early inflation for t < 23.3tP in a very natural manner. Furthermore, it reveals a nice "symmetry" between the early and the late

  5. The Early Universe f2 FF Model of Primordial Magnetic Field at Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhammad, Anwar; Lopez-Mobilia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We study the simple gauge invariant model f2 FF as a way to generate primordial magnetic fields (PMF) in Natural Inflation (NI). We compute both magnetic and electric spectra generated by the f2 FF model in NI for different values of model parameters and find that both de Sitter and power law expansion lead to the same results at sufficiently large number of e-foldings, as expected. We also find that the necessary scale invariance property of the PMF cannot be obtained in NI in first order of slow roll limits under the constraints derived from the recent BICEP2 results. Furthermore, if these constraints are relaxed to achieve scale invariance, then the model suffers from backreaction problems for almost all values of model parameters. We show that there is a narrow range of the height of the potential Λ around Λmin ~ 0 . 00460MPl and of the commoving wave number k around kmin ~ 5 . 5 ×10-4 , at which the problem of backreaction might be avoided. The value of Λmin lies within the range of Λ compatible with the BICEP2 results. However, the relatively short range of k presents a serious challenge to the viability of this model.

  6. Cosmic Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-11-21

    In 1964, scientists discovered a faint radio hiss coming from the heavens and realized that the hiss wasn’t just noise. It was a message from eons ago; specifically the remnants of the primordial fireball, cooled to about 3 degrees above absolute zero. Subsequent research revealed that the radio hiss was the same in every direction. The temperature of the early universe was uniform to at better than a part in a hundred thousand. And this was weird. According to the prevailing theory, the two sides of the universe have never been in contact. So how could two places that had never been in contact be so similar? One possible explanation was proposed in 1979. Called inflation, the theory required that early in the history of the universe, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light. Confused? Watch this video as Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln makes sense of this mind-bending idea.

  7. Quantum phase of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berera, Arjun; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2013-02-01

    Inflation models can have an early phase of inflation where the evolution of the inflaton is driven by quantum fluctuations before entering the phase driven by the slope of the scalar field potential. For a Coleman-Weinberg potential this quantum phase lasts 107-8 e-foldings. A long period of fluctuation driven growth of the inflation field can possibly take the inflaton past ϕ*, the value of the field where our current horizon scale crosses the horizon; alternatively, even if the field does not cross ϕ*, the inflaton could have high kinetic energy at the end of this phase. Therefore, we study these issues in the context of different models of inflation. In scenarios where cosmological relevant scales leave during the quantum phase, we obtain large curvature perturbations of O(10). We also apply our results to quadratic curvaton models and to quintessence models. In curvaton models we find that inflation must last longer than required to solve the horizon problem, that the curvaton models are incompatible with small field inflation models, and that there may be too large non-Gaussianity. A new phase of thermal fluctuation driven inflation is proposed, in which during inflation the inflaton evolution is governed by fluctuations from a sustained thermal radiation bath rather than by a scalar field potential.

  8. Inflation with whip-shaped suppressed scalar power spectra.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F; Starobinsky, Alexei A

    2014-08-15

    Motivated by the idea that inflation occurs at the grand unified theory symmetry breaking scale, in this Letter we construct a new class of large field inflaton potentials where the inflaton starts with a power law potential; after an initial period of relatively fast roll that lasts until after a few e folds inside the horizon it transits to the attractor of the slow roll part of the potential with a lower power. Because of the initial fast roll stages of inflation, we find a suppression in scalar primordial power at large scales and at the same time the choice of the potential can provide us a tensor primordial spectrum with a high amplitude. This suppression in scalar power with a large tensor-to-scalar ratio helps us to reconcile the Planck and BICEP2 data in a single framework. We find that a transition from a cubic to quadratic form of inflaton potential generates an appropriate suppression in the power of the scalar primordial spectrum that provides a significant improvement in fit compared to the power law model when compared with Planck and BICEP2 data together. We calculate the extent of non-Gaussianity, specifically, the bispectrum for the best fit potential, and show that it is consistent with Planck bispectrum constraints. PMID:25170696

  9. Power suppression at large scales in string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu

    2013-12-01

    We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.

  10. Soft inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkin, Andrew L.; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Yokoyama, Junichi

    1990-01-01

    The cosmology resulting from two coupled scalar fields was studied, one which is either a new inflation or chaotic type inflation, and the other which has an exponentially decaying potential. Such a potential may appear in the conformally transformed frame of generalized Einstein theories like the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The constraints necessary for successful inflation are examined. Conventional GUT models such as SU(5) were found to be compatible with new inflation, while restrictions on the self-coupling constant are significantly loosened for chaotic inflation.

  11. No-scale inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  12. Fuller Employment with Less Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    This series of 10 essays, written at various times since the mid-1960s, explores the U.S. economy's proneness to both high inflation and high unemployment during this period. The essays present ideas that the author believes could have reined in price increases in the early stages, and that presently could speed the reduction of inflation and…

  13. Eternal inflation.

    PubMed

    Guth, A H

    2001-12-01

    The basic workings of inflationary models are summarized, along with the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. It is argued that essentially all inflationary models lead to (future-)eternal inflation, which implies that an infinite number of pocket universes are produced. Although the other pocket universes are unobservable, their existence nonetheless has consequences for the way that we evaluate theories and extract consequences from them. The question of whether the universe had a beginning is discussed but not definitively answered. It appears likely, however, that eternally inflating universes do require a beginning. PMID:11797764

  14. Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, Clare; Rham, Claudia de; Seery, David; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: Claudia.deRham@unige.ch E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2011-01-01

    Galileon inflation is a radiatively stable higher derivative model of inflation. The model is determined by a finite number of relevant operators which are protected by a covariant generalization of the Galileon shift symmetry.We show that the nongaussianity of the primordial density perturbation generated during an epoch of Galileon inflation is a particularly powerful observational probe of these models and that, when the speed of sound is small, f{sub NL} can be larger than the usual result f{sub NL}∝c{sub s}{sup −2}.

  15. Inflatable wing

    DOEpatents

    Priddy, Tommy G.

    1988-01-01

    An inflatable wing is formed from a pair of tapered, conical inflatable tubes in bonded tangential contact with each other. The tubes are further connected together by means of top and bottom reinforcement boards having corresponding longitudinal edges lying in the same central diametral plane passing through the associated tube. The reinforcement boards are made of a stiff reinforcement material, such as Kevlar, collapsible in a direction parallel to the spanwise wing axis upon deflation of the tubes. The stiff reinforcement material cooperates with the inflated tubes to impart structural I-beam characteristics to the composite structure for transferring inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the tubes to the reinforcement boards. A plurality of rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition are spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and are connected to the top and bottom reinforcement boards. Tension lines are employed for stabilizing the hoops along the trailing and leading edges thereof.

  16. Quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.; Vilenkin, A.

    1999-03-01

    We present an explicit observationally acceptable model for evolution from inflation to the present epoch under the assumption that the entropy and matter of the familiar universe are from gravitational particle production at the end of inflation. This eliminates the problem of finding a satisfactory coupling of the inflaton and matter fields. Since the inflaton potential V(φ) may be a monotonic function of the inflaton φ, the inflaton energy could produce an observationally significant effective cosmological constant, as in quintessence.

  17. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model. PMID:26849584

  18. Inflation and inflation uncertainty: A dynamic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berument, M. Hakan; Yalcin, Yeliz; Yildirim, Julide

    2012-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate the direct relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty by employing a dynamic method for the monthly country-region-place United States data for the time period 1976-2007. While the bulk of previous studies has employed GARCH models in investigating the link between inflation and inflation uncertainty, in this study Stochastic Volatility in Mean models are used to capture the shocks to inflation uncertainty within a dynamic framework. These models allow researchers to assess the dynamic effects of innovations in inflation as well as inflation volatility on inflation and inflation volatility over time, by incorporating the unobserved volatility as an explanatory variable in the mean (inflation) equation. Empirical findings suggest that innovations in inflation volatility increases inflation. This evidence is robust across various definitions of inflation and different sub-periods.

  19. The Effective Theory of Inflation in the Standard Model of the Universe and the CMB+LSS Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Destri, C.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    effective theory of inflation clearly prefer new inflation. Study of higher degree inflaton potentials shows that terms of degree higher than 4 do not affect the fit in a significant way. In addition, a horizon exit happens for \\varphi/[√ {N}M Pl] ˜ 0.9, making higher order terms in the potential w negligible. We summarize the physical effects of generic initial conditions (different from Bunch-Davies) on the scalar and tensor perturbations during slow roll and introduce the transfer function D(k), which encodes the observable initial condition effects on the power spectra. These effects are more prominent in the low CMB multipoles: a change in the initial conditions during slow roll can account for the observed CMB quadrupole suppression. Slow-roll inflation is generically preceded by a short, fast-roll stage. Bunch-Davies initial conditions are the natural initial conditions for the fast-roll perturbations. During fast roll, the potential in the wave equations of curvature and tensor perturbations is purely attractive and leads to a suppression of the curvature and tensor CMB quadrupoles. An MCMC analysis of the WMAP+SDSS data including fast roll shows that the quadrupole mode exits the horizon about 0.2 e-fold before fast roll ends and its amplitude gets suppressed. In addition, fast roll fixes the initial inflation redshift to be zinit = 0.9 × 1056 and the total number of e-folds of inflation to be Ntot ≃ 64. Fast roll fits the TT, the TE and the EE modes well, reproducing the quadrupole suppression. A thorough study of the quantum loop corrections reveals that they are very small and are controlled by powers of (H/MPl)2 10-9, a conclusion that validates the reliability of the effective theory of inflation. The present review shows how powerful the Ginsburg-Landau effective theory of inflation is in predicting observables that are being or will soon be contrasted with observations.

  20. Inflation from gravitino condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-07-01

    We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry(supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is “eaten” by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks supergravity dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-type inflation, in the massive gravitino phase. This inflationary phase is associated with scalar modes hidden in the higher order curvature corrections of the effective action arising from integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the supersymmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass. A hill-top inflation, on the other hand, which could also occur in the model, whereby the role of the inflaton field is played by the gravitino condensate itself, would require significant fine tuning in the inflaton's wave function renormalisation and thus may be discarded on naturalness grounds.

  1. Solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Wang, Junpu E-mail: nicolis@phys.columbia.edu

    2013-10-01

    We develop a cosmological model where primordial inflation is driven by a 'solid', defined as a system of three derivatively coupled scalar fields obeying certain symmetries and spontaneously breaking a certain subgroup of these. The symmetry breaking pattern differs drastically from that of standard inflationary models: time translations are unbroken. This prevents our model from fitting into the standard effective field theory description of adiabatic perturbations, with crucial consequences for the dynamics of cosmological perturbations. Most notably, non-gaussianities in the curvature perturbations are unusually large, with f{sub NL} ∼ 1/(εc{sub s}{sup 2}), and have a novel shape: peaked in the squeezed limit, with anisotropic dependence on how the limit is approached. Other unusual features include the absence of adiabatic fluctuation modes during inflation — which does not impair their presence and near scale-invariance after inflation — and a slightly blue tilt for the tensor modes.

  2. Quasiopen inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1998-04-01

    We show that a large class of two-field models of single-bubble open inflation does not lead to infinite open universes, as was previously thought, but to an ensemble of very large but finite inflating ``islands.'' The reason is that the quantum tunneling responsible for the nucleation of the bubble does not occur simultaneously along both field directions and equal-time hypersurfaces in the open universe are not synchronized with equal-density or fixed-field hypersurfaces. The most probable tunneling trajectory corresponds to a zero value of the inflaton field; large values, necessary for the second period of inflation inside the bubble, only arise as localized fluctuations. The interior of each nucleated bubble will contain an infinite number of such inflating regions of comoving size of order γ-1, where γ is the supercurvature eigenvalue, which depends on the parameters of the model. Each one of these islands will be a quasi-open universe. Since the volume of the hyperboloid is infinite, inflating islands with all possible values of the field at their center will be realized inside of a single bubble. We may happen to live in one of those patches of comoving size d<~γ-1, where the universe appears to be open. In particular, we consider the ``supernatural'' model proposed by Linde and Mezhlumian. There, an approximate U(1) symmetry is broken by a tunneling field in a first order phase transition, and slow-roll inflation inside the nucleated bubble is driven by the pseudo Goldstone field. We find that the excitations of the pseudo Goldstone field produced by the nucleation and subsequent expansion of the bubble place severe constraints on this model. We also discuss the coupled and uncoupled two-field models.

  3. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models. PMID:25933305

  4. Inflatable Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    Lightweight, portable tool reaches object at height or across gap. Extends reach up to 20 feet (6 meters). When not in use, tool collapses to 3 to 5 percent of its inflated length. Developed for use as self-rescue device by astronaut who becomes untethered outside spacecraft: astronaut uses pole to reach grapple on spacecraft and pull to it. Useful on Earth as rescue device or in performing routine tasks like changing high light bulb without ladder. When task with inflatable pole completed, operator opens vent valve to deflate tube. Operator then opens gun, removes fabric cover, and repacks tube.

  5. Trapped Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Horn, Bart; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2009-06-19

    We analyze a distinctive mechanism for inflation in which particle production slows down a scalar field on a steep potential, and show how it descends from angular moduli in string compactifications. The analysis of density perturbations - taking into account the integrated effect of the produced particles and their quantum fluctuations - requires somewhat new techniques that we develop. We then determine the conditions for this effect to produce sixty e-foldings of inflation with the correct amplitude of density perturbations at the Gaussian level, and show that these requirements can be straightforwardly satisfied. Finally, we estimate the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity in the power spectrum and find a significant equilateral contribution.

  6. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105 but has well measured fluctuations which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, and unknown “dark energy” which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for inflation since

  7. Higgs Starobinsky inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we point out that Starobinsky inflation could be induced by quantum effects due to a large non-minimal coupling of the Higgs boson to the Ricci scalar. The Higgs Starobinsky mechanism provides a solution to issues attached to large Higgs field values in the early universe which in a metastable universe would not be a viable option. We verify explicitly that these large quantum corrections do not destabilize Starobinsky's potential.

  8. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  9. Just enough inflation: power spectrum modifications at large scales

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: ssdownes@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: francisco.pedro@desy.de

    2014-12-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50- 60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic analytic analysis in the limit of a sudden transition between any possible non-slow-roll background evolution and the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low ℓ, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at ℓ∼< 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.

  10. Eternal hilltop inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il; Kinney, William H.

    2016-05-01

    We consider eternal inflation in hilltop-type inflation models, favored by current data, in which the scalar field in inflation rolls off of a local maximum of the potential. Unlike chaotic or plateau-type inflation models, in hilltop inflation the region of field space which supports eternal inflation is finite, and the expansion rate HEI during eternal inflation is almost exactly the same as the expansion rate H* during slow roll inflation. Therefore, in any given Hubble volume, there is a finite and calculable expectation value for the lifetime of the ``eternal'' inflation phase, during which quantum flucutations dominate over classical field evolution. We show that despite this, inflation in hilltop models is nonetheless eternal in the sense that the volume of the spacetime at any finite time is exponentially dominated by regions which continue to inflate. This is true regardless of the energy scale of inflation, and eternal inflation is supported for inflation at arbitrarily low energy scale.

  11. Unification of inflation and dark energy à la quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Wali; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2015-03-01

    This pedagogical review is devoted to quintessential inflation, which refers to unification of inflation and dark energy using a single scalar field. We present a brief but concise description of the concepts needed to join the two ends, which include discussion on scalar field dynamic, conformal coupling, instant preheating and relic gravitational waves. Models of quintessential inflation broadly fall into two classes, depending upon the early and late time behavior of the field potential. In the first type we include models in which the field potential is steep for most of the history of the universe but turn shallow at late times, whereas in the second type the potential is shallow at early times followed by a steep behavior thereafter. In models of the first category inflation can be realized by invoking high-energy brane-induced damping, which is needed to facilitate slow roll along a steep potential. In models of second type one may invoke a nonminimal coupling of the scalar field with massive neutrino matter, which might induce a minimum in the potential at late times as neutrinos turn nonrelativistic. In this category we review a class of models with noncanonical kinetic term in the Lagrangian, which can comply with recent B mode polarization measurements. The scenario under consideration is distinguished by the presence of a kinetic phase, which precedes the radiative regime, giving rise to blue spectrum of gravity waves generated during inflation. We highlight the generic features of quintessential inflation and also discuss on issues related to Lyth bound.

  12. Khronon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Peña, Manuel; Simonović, Marko

    2012-11-01

    We study the possibility that the approximate time shift symmetry during inflation is promoted to the full invariance under time reparametrization t → tilde t(t), or equivalently under field redefinition of the inflaton phi → tilde phi(phi). The symmetry allows only two operators at leading order in derivatives, so that all n-point functions of scalar perturbations are fixed in terms of the power spectrum normalization and the speed of sound. During inflation the decaying mode only decays as 1/a and this opens up the possibility to violate some of the consistency relations in the squeezed limit, although this violation is suppressed by the (small) breaking of the field reparametrization symmetry. In particular one can get terms in the 3-point function that are only suppressed by 1/kL in the squeezed limit kL→0 compared to the local shape.

  13. Khronon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Peña, Manuel; Simonović, Marko E-mail: jorge.norena@icc.ub.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2012-11-01

    We study the possibility that the approximate time shift symmetry during inflation is promoted to the full invariance under time reparametrization t → t-tilde (t), or equivalently under field redefinition of the inflaton φ → φ-tilde (φ). The symmetry allows only two operators at leading order in derivatives, so that all n-point functions of scalar perturbations are fixed in terms of the power spectrum normalization and the speed of sound. During inflation the decaying mode only decays as 1/a and this opens up the possibility to violate some of the consistency relations in the squeezed limit, although this violation is suppressed by the (small) breaking of the field reparametrization symmetry. In particular one can get terms in the 3-point function that are only suppressed by 1/k{sub L} in the squeezed limit k{sub L}→0 compared to the local shape.

  14. Bigravitational inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atal, Vicente; Campusano, Luis E.; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2012-12-01

    We study the realization of cosmic inflation in bigravity theories. By analyzing the evolution of scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations in de Sitter-like spacetimes, we find strong stability constraints on the class of viable vacua offered by these theories. More specifically, the only stable de Sitter vacua contain two nondecoupled gravitons (one of which is massive) with different maximal propagation speeds. We derive an effective theory for the massless graviton, which is found to propagate at an intermediate speed, limited by the two maximal values. For inflation, while the spectrum of density perturbations remains nearly scale invariant, the power spectrum of tensor modes is found to depart from the usual prediction found in standard slow-roll inflation. In particular, both the tensor to scalar ratio r and the spectral index of tensor modes nT receive sizable contributions from the couplings of the theory, leading to specific signals that may be tested in future cosmological probes of cosmic microwave background polarization.

  15. Goldstone inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica; Setford, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the inflaton with a pseudo-Goldstone boson explains the flatness of its potential. Successful Goldstone Inflation should also be robust against UV corrections, such as from quantum gravity: in the language of the effective field theory this implies that all scales are sub-Planckian. In this paper we present scenarios which realise both requirements by examining the structure of Goldstone potentials arising from Coleman-Weinberg contributions. We focus on single-field models, for which we notice that both bosonic and fermionic contributions are required and that spinorial fermion representations can generate the right potential shape. We then evaluate the constraints on non-Gaussianity from higher-derivative interactions, finding that axiomatic constraints on Goldstone boson scattering prevail over the current CMB measurements. The fit to CMB data can be connected to the UV completions for Goldstone Inflation, finding relations in the spectrum of new resonances. Finally, we show how hybrid inflation can be realised in the same context, where both the inflaton and the waterfall fields share a common origin as Goldstones.

  16. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  17. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  18. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  19. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  20. Inflatable Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2015-07-30

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.

  1. Inflatable Dark Matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUTmore » or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.« less

  2. Inflatable dark matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel

    2016-01-22

    Here, we describe a general scenario, dubbed “inflatable dark matter,” in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levelsmore » without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.« less

  3. Open Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    In February this year, Neil Turok and I proposed a new model for inflation. The distinctive feature was that it produced an infinite, open universe, yet it satisfied the no boundary condition and came from an instanton of finite size, with a mass of the order of one gram. Our paper aroused a lot of interest, as shown by 37 citations on HEP-TH, but it brought a lot of opposition. This centered on three features of our model.First, we were attacked for using the no boundary proposal. People like Linde and Vilenkin, claimed that one should use the quantum tunneling wave function instead.Second, we were criticized because our instanton contained a singularity. It was said this was contrary to the spirit of the no boundary proposal; that the singularity would be naked and would make the universe non predictable.Third, we invoked the anthropic principle, to avoid the model predicting a totally empty universe. We were attacked both for using anthropic arguments, and for the very low value for the density of the universe, that they seemed to lead to.In this talk, I will describe the open inflation model that Neil and I proposed, and answer some of the objections that have been raised.

  4. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  5. The Inflatable Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    Inflatable devices are frequently used in advertising in order to grab the attention of consumers: one sees, for example, 20 foot tall inflatable drink containers, inflatable cell phones, inflatable bubble gum packets, as well as blimps wafting majestically over major sports events. More usefully, inflatable representations of scientifically-interesting items are widely available, including astronauts, space shuttles, dinosaurs and globes and can help to build and inspire the interest of the general public, and in particular children, in such ideas. How can such concepts be adapted to improve poster presentations? Possibility one is to use relevant existing commercially-available inflatables to dress the poster: skeletons, astronauts, globes and so forth. More exciting is to develop custom inflatables that represent three-dimensional renderings of objects that the poster is describing. Examples of individual objects might be an inflatable slab, inflatable avalanche, inflatable plume, or it's larger cousin, the 10 foot high inflatable superplume or 20 foot high inflatable megaplume. More elaborately, inflatables might represent isosurfaces in three-dimensional spherical convection, although other fabrication methods may be more suitable. More simply, inflatable spheres could be imprinted with the planform of convection, geoid, or other spherical fields of geophysical interest. Finally, it should be possible to put an entire poster on an inflatable object, possibly small ones (balloons) to hand out. A major concern, however, is that the presenter may use such techniques to inflate their scientific findings, or to present overblown ideas.

  6. Spotted inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-11-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

  7. Conformal inflation coupled to matter

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.

  8. ''Old'' locked inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Piao, Yun-Song; Si, Zong-Guo E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, we revisit the idea of locked inflation, which does not require a potential satisfying the normal slow-roll condition, but suffers from the problems associated with ''saddle inflation''. We propose a scenario based on locked inflation, however, with an alternative evolution mechanism of the ''waterfall field'' {phi}. Instead of rolling down along the potential, the {phi} field will tunnel to end the inflation stage like in old inflation, by which the saddle inflation could be avoided. Further, we study a cascade of old locked inflation, which can be motivated by the string landscape. Our model is based on the consideration of making locked inflation feasible so as to give a working model without slow roll; It also can be seen as an effort to embed the old inflation in string landscape.

  9. Constraining inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Easther, Richard E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the theoretical limits on slow roll reconstruction, an optimal algorithm for recovering the inflaton potential (assuming a single-field slow roll scenario) from observational data. Slow roll reconstruction is based upon the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the inflationary dynamics. We show that at low inflationary scales the Hamilton-Jacobi equations simplify considerably. We provide a new classification scheme for inflationary models, based solely on the number of parameters needed to specify the potential, and provide forecasts for the bounds on the slow roll parameters from future data sets. A minimal running of the spectral index, induced solely by the first two slow roll parameters ({epsilon} and {eta}), appears to be effectively undetectable by realistic cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. However, since the ability to detect any running increases with the lever arm in comoving wavenumber, we conjecture that high redshift 21 cm data may allow tests of second-order consistency conditions on inflation. Finally, we point out that the second-order corrections to the spectral index are correlated with the inflationary scale, and thus the amplitude of the CMB B mode.

  10. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  11. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  12. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  13. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  14. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Primordial gravitational waves from the space-condensate inflation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Tumurtushaa, Gansukh

    2016-04-01

    We consider the space-condensate inflation model to study the primordial gravitational waves generated in the early Universe. We calculate the energy spectrum of gravitational waves induced by the space-condensate inflation model for the full frequency range with the assumption that the phase transition between two consecutive regimes is abrupt during the evolution of the Universe. The suppression of the energy spectrum is found in our model for the decreasing frequency of gravitational waves depending on the model parameter. To realize the suppression of the energy spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves, we study the existence of the early phase transition during inflation for the space-condensate inflation model.

  16. Inflation and shadow matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, L. M.; Guth, A. H.; Spergel, D. N.; Field, G. B.; Press, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible production of shadow matter during the period of cosmic inflation is considered. The superstring theory of Gross et al. (1985), which results in a gauge group E8 x E8, could, at low energies, result in the existence of two sectors: an observed sector associated with all familiar particles and interactions, and a hidden one whose particles couple only through gravitational interactions with ordinary matter. It is demonstrated here that if, in the early universe, an inflationary phase is associated with the breaking of one of the symmetries in the E8 x E8 theory, this strongly constrains the physics of both sectors if shadow matter is to be the missing mass in the universe.

  17. Soft inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkin, Andrew L.; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    1990-01-01

    The cosmology resulting from two coupled scalar fields was studied, one which is either a new inflation or chaotic type inflation, and the other which has an exponentially decaying potential. Such a potential may appear in the conformally transformed frame of generalized Einstein theories like the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The constraints necessary for successful inflation are examined. Conventional GUT models such as SU(5) were found to be compatible with new inflation, while restrictions on the self-coupling constant are significantly loosened for chaotic inflation.

  18. Inflating an inhomogeneous universe

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.; Rasero, Javier E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2014-08-01

    While cosmological inflation can erase primordial inhomogeneities, it is possible that inflation may not begin in a significantly inhomogeneous universe. This issue is particularly pressing in multifield scenarios, where even the homogeneous dynamics may depend sensitively on the initial configuration. This paper presents an initial survey of the onset of inflation in multifield models, via qualitative lattice-based simulations that do not include local gravitational backreaction. Using hybrid inflation as a test model, our results suggest that small subhorizon inhomogeneities do play a key role in determining whether inflation begins in multifield scenarios. Interestingly, some configurations which do not inflate in the homogeneous limit ''succeed'' after inhomogeneity is included, while other initial configurations which inflate in the homogeneous limit ''fail'' when inhomogeneity is added.

  19. Inflatable Vessel and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Valle, Gerard D. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor); Pandya, Shalini Gupta (Inventor); Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch or pre-deployed configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  20. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  1. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r less than l0^{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  2. Observational constraints on monomial warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential U propto phip, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the potential coupling λ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10‑8 is much smaller than the current observational constrain r lesssim 0.12, despite a relatively large value of the field excursion Δ phi ~ 0.1MPl. Warm inflation thus eludes the Lyth bound set on the tensor-to-scalar ratio by the field excursion.

  3. Hybrid Inflation Followed by Modular Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, George

    Inflationary models with a superheavy scale F-term hybrid inflation followed by an intermediate scale modular inflation are considered. The restrictions on the power spectrum P{ R} of curvature perturbation and the spectral index ns from the recent data within the power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant can be met provided that the number of e-foldings NHI* suffered by the pivot scale k* = 0.002/Mpc during hybrid inflation is suitably restricted. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are generated by modular inflation with a string axion as inflaton. For central values of P{ R} and ns, the grand unification scale comes out, in the case of standard hybrid inflation, close to its supersymmetric value MGUT ≃ 2.86 × 1016 GeV, the relevant coupling constant is relatively large (≈ 0.005 - 0.14), and 10 ≲ NHI* ≲ 21.7. In the shifted [smooth] hybrid inflation case, the grand unification scale can be identified with MGUT for NHI* ≃ 21 [NHI* ≃ 18].

  4. Inflatable nested toroid structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable structure comprises at least two generally toroidal, inflatable modules. When in a deployed mode, the first, inner module has a major diameter less than that of a second, outer module and is positioned within the inner circumference of the outer module such that the first module is nested circumferentially alongside the second module. The inflatable structure, in a non-deployed, non-inflated mode, is of compact configuration and adapted to be transported to a site of deployment. When deployed, the inflatable structure is of substantially increased interior volume. In one embodiment, access between the interior of the first module and the second module is provided by at least one port or structural pass-through. In another embodiment, the inflatable structure includes at least one additional generally toroidal module external of and circumferentially surrounding the second module.

  5. Pseudosmooth tribrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Rehman, Mansoor Ur E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2012-08-01

    We explore a new class of supersymmetric models of inflation where the inflaton is realised as a combination of a Higgs field and (gauge non-singlet) matter fields, using a ''tribrid'' structure of the superpotential. Inflation is associated with a phase transition around GUT scale energies. The inflationary trajectory already preselects the later vacuum after inflation, which has the advantage of automatically avoiding the production of dangerous topological defects at the end of inflation. While at first sight the models look similar to smooth inflation, they feature a waterfall and are therefore only pseudosmooth. The new class of models offers novel possibilities for realising inflation in close contact with particle physics, for instance with supersymmetric GUTs or with supersymmetric flavour models based on family symmetries.

  6. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Leonardo

    In this thesis we review the methods for computation of cosmological correlations in the early universe known as the in-in formalism which are then applied to the problem of magnetogenesis from inflation. For this computation, a power-law single field slow- roll inflation is assumed together with a coupling of the form eφ/nuF μnuFμnu between the inflaton φ and the electrodynamical field strength Fμnu. For certain choice of parameters, the model produces a scale-invariant power spectrum that can be as high as 10-12 G at cosmological scales at present time. Finally, we compute the correlation between the magnetic field energy density and scalar metric fluctuations at tree-level from which the shape of the resulting non-gaussianity is analyzed.We show that the corresponding bispectrum is of order 10-5 times the power spectrum of magnetic fields.

  7. The Flavour of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, I.

    2008-11-23

    A new class of particle physics models of inflation based on the phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of family symmetry is proposed. The Higgs fields responsible for the breaking of family symmetry, the flavons, are natural inflaton candidates or waterfall fields in hybrid inflation. This opens up a rich vein of possible inflation models, all linked to the physics of flavour, with several interesting cosmological implications.

  8. Chiral primordial gravitational waves from dilaton induced delayed chromonatural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Ippei; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge-kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromonatural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromonatural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromonatural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is the generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventional chromonatural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), and Square Kilometer Array (SKA).

  9. Model with two periods of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettler, Simon; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A scenario with two subsequent periods of inflationary expansion in the very early Universe is examined. The model is based on a potential motivated by symmetries being found in field theory at high energy. For various parameter sets of the potential, the spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations that are expected to originate from this scenario are calculated. Also the beginning of the reheating epoch connecting the second inflation with thermal equilibrium is studied. Perturbations with wavelengths leaving the horizon around the transition between the two inflations are special: It is demonstrated that the power spectrum at such scales deviates significantly from expectations based on measurements of the cosmic microwave background. This supports the conclusion that parameters for which this part of the spectrum leaves observable traces in the cosmic microwave background must be excluded. Parameters entailing a very efficient second inflation correspond to standard small-field inflation and can meet observational constraints. Particular attention is paid to the case where the second inflation leads solely to a shift of the observable spectrum from the first inflation. A viable scenario requires this shift to be small.

  10. Inflation of Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

  11. Inflation and Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, David

    Inflation is both a cause and consequence of changes in power and status. Competitive status activities create spiral situations which have an economic correlate. Ultimately, inflation leads to the creation of economically deprived and depressed social groups. Deflation can be achieved to some extent by redistribution of wealth dictated from…

  12. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie; Dwek, Eli; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Meyer, Stephan; Moseley, S. Harvey; Seiffert, Michael D.; Spergel, David N.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce the instrumental signature and confusion from unpolarized sources to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 deg and sensitivity 0.2 µK per 1 deg square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r less than 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. In addition, PIXIE will measure the absolute frequency spectrum to constrain physical processes ranging from inflation to the nature of the first stars to the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture with an emphasis on the expected level of systematic error suppression.

  13. Why Does the Universe Inflate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    It is a great pleasure for me to be back again in Chile, to celebrate the 60th birthday of an old friend, and esteemed colleague, Claudio Bunster, whom I have known for almost 40 years. Claudio has done so much for science in general, and for science in Chile in particular. Being in the city of Valdivia where CECS, the center he created, is located, is quite meaningful to me. Twenty-five years ago, we held a Nuffield workshop on the Very Early Universe in Cambridge. The inflation scenario had just been proposed, by Guth and others, to account for many of the otherwise unexplained features of the Hot Big Bang model. The original Old Inflation proposal depicted in Fig. 1, of thin walled bubbles, forming in a meta-stable vacuum state, was shown not to work. If the bubble formation rate was high, the bubbles would be close together, and inflation would not last long enough. On the other hand if the bubble formation rate was low, the bubbles would be so far apart, that they never join up and thermalize.

  14. Trispectrum from ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Keisuke; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2010-06-01

    Ghost inflation predicts almost scale-invariant primordial cosmological perturbations with relatively large non-Gaussianity. The bispectrum is known to have a large contribution at the wavenumbers forming an equilateral triangle and the corresponding nonlinear parameter f{sub NL}{sup equil} is typically of order O(10{sup 2}). In this paper we calculate trispectrum from ghost inflation and show that the corresponding nonlinear parameter τ{sub NL} is typically of order O(10{sup 4}). We investigate the shape dependence of the trispectrum and see that it has some features different from DBI inflation. Therefore, our result may be useful as a template to distinguish ghost inflation from other models of inflation by future experiments.

  15. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  16. Anatomy of bispectra in general single-field inflation — Modal expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, Thorsten; Grieb, Jan E-mail: jgrieb@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2011-12-01

    We discuss bispectra of single-field inflationary models described by general Lorentz invariant Lagrangians that are at most first order in field derivatives, including the fast-roll models investigated by Noller and Magueijo. Based on a factor analysis, we identify the least correlated basic contributions to the general shape and show quantitatively which templates provide a good approximation. We compute how relative contributions of basic shapes to the total bispectrum scale as slow roll is relaxed. To enable future comparison with CMB observations, we provide a modal expansion of these non-separable bispectra in Fourier space, employing the formalism by Fergusson et al. Convergence is rapid, usually better than ninety-five percent with less than thirty modes, due to the smoothness of these primordial shapes. Truncated polynomial modal expansions have restrictions, which we highlight using an example with slow convergence. The particular shape originates from particle production during inflation (common in trapped inflation) and entails both localized and oscillatory features. We show that this shape can be recovered efficiently using a Fourier basis and outline the prospect of future model parameter extraction and N-body simulations based on modal techniques.

  17. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In extended inflation, the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. This paper discusses several effects that might obtain if the universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition.

  18. Saving Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica

    2015-02-01

    Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.

  19. Brane inflation and defect formation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Brax, Philippe; van de Bruck, Carsten

    2008-08-28

    Brane inflation and the production of topological defects at the end of the inflationary phase are discussed. After a description of the inflationary set-up, we discuss the properties of the cosmic strings produced at the end of inflation. Specific examples of brane inflation are described, such as D-D , D3/D7 and modular inflations. PMID:18534933

  20. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-02-15

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains {phi}{sup 4} term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  1. Radiative plateau inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  2. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

    2013-07-23

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

  3. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  4. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  5. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  6. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  7. Inflation Driven by q-de Sitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Momeni, D.; Kamali, V.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a generalised de Sitter scale factor for the cosmology of early and late time universe, including single scalar field is called as inflaton. This form of scale factor has a free parameter q is called as nonextensivity parameter. When q = 1, the scale factor is de Sitter. This scale factor is an intermediate form between power-law and de Sitter. We study cosmology of such families. We show that both kinds of dark components, dark energy and dark matter simultaneously are described by this family of solutions. As a motivated idea, we investigate inflation in the framework of q-de Sitter. We consider three types of scenarios for inflation. In a single inflation scenario, we observe that, inflation ended without any specific ending inflation ϕ e n d , the spectral index and the associated running of the spectral index are n s - 1 ˜ -2 𝜖, α s ≡ 0. To end the inflation: we should have q={3}/{4}. We deduce that the inflation ends when the evolution of the scale factor is a( t) = e 3/4( t). With this scale factor there is no need to specify ϕ e n d . As an alternative to have inflation with ending point, We will study q-inflation model in the context of warm inflation. We propose two forms of damping term Γ. In the first case when Γ = Γ0, we show the scale invariant spectrum, (Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum, i.e. n s = 1) may be approximately presented by (q={9}/{10}, ~N=70). Also there is a range of values of R and n s which is compatible with the BICEP2 data where q={9}/{10}. In case Γ = Γ1 V( ϕ), it is observed that small values of a number of e-folds are assured for small values of q parameter. Also in this case, the scale-invariant spectrum may be represented by (q,N) = ({9}/{10},70). For q={9}/{10} a range of values of R and n s is compatible with the BICEP2 data. Consequently, the proposal of q-de Sitter is consistent with observational data. We observe that the non-extensivity parameter q plays a significant role in inflationary scenario.

  8. NASA Now: Inflatable Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA senior research engineer Judith Watson is one of a team of engineers at NASA’s Langley Research Center who are studying inflatable structures that might one day be used to establish an outpo...

  9. Tribrid Inflation in Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Kostka, Philipp M.

    2010-02-10

    We propose a novel class of F-term hybrid inflation models in supergravity (SUGRA) where the eta-problem is resolved using either a Heisenberg symmetry or a shift symmetry of the Kaehler potential. In addition to the inflaton and the waterfall field, this class (referred to as tribrid inflation) contains a third 'driving' field which contributes the large vacuum energy during inflation by its F-term. In contrast to the 'standard' hybrid scenario, it has several attractive features due to the property of vanishing inflationary superpotential (W{sub inf} = 0) during inflation. While the symmetries of the Kaehler potential ensure a flat inflaton potential at tree-level, quantum corrections induced by symmetry breaking terms in the superpotential generate a slope of the potential and lead to a spectral tilt consistent with recent WMAP observations.

  10. On natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.

    2004-10-15

    We reexamine the model of natural inflation, in which the inflaton potential is flat due to shift symmetries. The original version of the model, where the inflaton is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson with potential of the form V({phi})={lambda}{sup 4}[1{+-}cos({phi}/f)], is studied in light of recent data. We find that the model is alive and well. Successful inflation as well as data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe require f>0.6m{sub Pl} (where m{sub Pl}=1.22x10{sup 19} GeV) and {lambda}{approx}m{sub GUT} (where m{sub GUT}{approx}10{sup 16} GeV), scales which can be accommodated in particle physics models. The detectability of tensor modes from natural inflation in upcoming microwave background experiments is discussed. We find that natural inflation predicts a tensor/scalar ratio within reach of future observations.

  11. Plausible double inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that extended inflation is followed by an epoch of slowroll inflation. Such a sequence of events may lead to a very interesting perturbation spectrum with significant power on the scale of the transition between the extended and slowroll phase, superimposed upon a power-law spectrum with deviations from the Harrison-Zeldovich slope. Normalization of the spectra above and below the transition scale is expected to differ.

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  13. Primordial inflation and super-cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.

    A complete, locally supersymmetric model for the early universe is reviewed. It begins with primordial inflation just after the Planck time. The (nontrivial) breaking of SU(5) is discussed in detail, with specific emphasis on baryon generation at T about 0(10 to the 7th)-GeV and monopole suppression (no longer accomplished by inflation). Gravitational effects are taken into account through N = 1 supergravity, and play an essential role. What one is left with is a problem-free scenario containing all the benefits of Guth's (1980) original inflation, as well as density perturbations of a desirable magnitude for the formation of galaxies, a large baryon-to-photon ratio, and a possibly observable flux of magnetic monopoles. By inserting only two scales, the Planck scale and the supersymmetry breaking scale, both the weak and GUT scales are produced.

  14. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. The differential design and multiple signal modulations spanning 11 orders of magnitude in time combine to reduce the instrumental signature and confusion from unpolarized sources to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 deg and sensitivity 0.2 uK per 1 deg square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r <10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. In addition, the rich PIXIE data will constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  15. Warm Inflation Model Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun

    We review the main aspects of the warm inflation scenario, focusing on the inflationary dynamics and the predictions related to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, to be compared with the recent cosmological observations. We study in detail three different classes of inflationary models, chaotic, hybrid models and hilltop models, and discuss their embedding into supersymmetric models and the consequences for model building of the warm inflationary dynamics based on first principles calculations. Due to the extra friction term introduced in the inflaton background evolution generated by the dissipative dynamics, inflation can take place generically for smaller values of the field, and larger values of couplings and masses. When the dissipative dynamics dominates over the expansion, in the so-called strong dissipative regime, inflation proceeds with sub-Planckian inflaton values. Models can be naturally embedded into a supergravity framework, with SUGRA corrections suppressed by the Planck mass now under control, for a larger class of Kähler potentials. In particular, this provides a simpler solution to the "eta" problem in supersymmetric hybrid inflation, without restricting the Kähler potentials compatible with inflation. For chaotic models dissipation leads to a smaller prediction for the tensor-to-scalar ratio and a less tilted spectrum when compared to the cold inflation scenario. We find in particular that a small component of dissipation renders the quartic model now consistent with the current CMB data.

  16. Supersymmetric DBI inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shin; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Daisuke

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a supersymmetric version of DBI (Dirac-Born-Infeld) inflation, which is a typical inflation model in string cosmology. The supersymmetric DBI action together with a superpotential always leads to correction terms associated with the potential into the kinetic term, which drastically change the dynamics of DBI inflation. We find two significant features of supersymmetric DBI inflation. The first one is that ultra-relativistic motion is prohibited to cause inflation, which leads to order of unity sound velocity squared and hence small non-Gaussianities of primordial curvature perturbations. The second one is that the relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the field variation is modified. Then, significant tensor-to-scalar ratio r≳0.01 is possible because the variation of the canonically normalized inflaton can be beyond the reduced Planck scale. These new features are in sharp contrast with those of the standard non-supersymmetric DBI inflation and hence have a lot of interest implications on upcoming observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by the Planck satellite as well as direct detection experiments of gravitational waves like DECIGO and BBO.

  17. Eternal inflation and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    2007-06-01

    I summarize the arguments that strongly suggest that our universe is the product of inflation. The mechanisms that lead to eternal inflation in both new and chaotic models are described. Although the infinity of pocket universes produced by eternal inflation are unobservable, it is argued that eternal inflation has real consequences in terms of the way that predictions are extracted from theoretical models. The ambiguities in defining probabilities in eternally inflating spacetimes are reviewed, with emphasis on the youngness paradox that results from a synchronous gauge regularization technique. Although inflation is generically eternal into the future, it is not eternal into the past: it can be proven under reasonable assumptions that the inflating region must be incomplete in past directions, so some physics other than inflation is needed to describe the past boundary of the inflating region.

  18. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F{sup 2} model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F{sup 2} model.

  19. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator (AID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator not only enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and but may also eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell and cruise stage. This document is the viewgraph slides for the paper's presentation.

  20. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  1. A Note on Inflation Targeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  2. Flipped GUT inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  3. Brane annihilations during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khosravi, Nima E-mail: tbattefe@princeton.edu E-mail: nima@ipm.ir

    2010-07-01

    We investigate brane inflation driven by two stacks of mobile branes in a throat. The stack closest to the bottom of the throat annihilates first with antibranes, resulting in particle production and a change of the equation of state parameter w. We calculate analytically some observable signatures of the collision; related decays are common in multi-field inflation, providing the motivation for this case study. The discontinuity in w enters the matching conditions relating perturbations in the remaining degree of freedom before and after the collision, affecting the power-spectrum of curvature perturbations. We find an oscillatory modulation of the power-spectrum for scales within the horizon at the time of the collision, and a slightly redder spectrum on super-horizon scales. We comment on implications for staggered inflation.

  4. Inflation from geometrical tachyons

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steven; Ward, John

    2005-10-15

    We propose an alternative formulation of tachyon inflation using the geometrical tachyon arising from the time dependent motion of a BPS D3-brane in the background geometry due to k parallel NS5-branes arranged around a ring of radius R. Because of the fact that the mass of this geometrical tachyon field is {radical}(2/k) times smaller than the corresponding open-string tachyon mass, we find that the slow-roll conditions for inflation and the number of e-foldings can be satisfied in a manner that is consistent with an effective 4-dimensional model and with a perturbative string coupling. We also show that the metric perturbations produced at the end of inflation can be sufficiently small and do not lead to the inconsistencies that plague the open-string tachyon models. Finally we argue for the existence of a minimum of the geometrical tachyon potential which could give rise to a traditional reheating mechanism.

  5. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-11-28

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns {approx_equal} 1 + 2{gamma}. With {gamma} = 0.025 {+-} 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical bar{gamma}vertical bnd a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << {gamma}2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH {approx_equal} 106 GeV.

  6. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  7. Topological defects in extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.

    1990-01-01

    The production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models was considered. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large scale structure via cosmic strings.

  8. Inflation after Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kin-Wang

    Recent measurements of the large-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission indicate a reflection asymmetry, an axis of evil, a low quadrupole, and a few multipoles deviated from predicted in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. All of these may give us a hint about the physics of inflation during the first few e-folds or during the inflating period. Efforts taken along this direction will be reviewed and our recent work will be discussed.

  9. Inflatable rescue device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses, in one aspect, a personal rescue device for use in outer space which has an inflatable flexible tube with a shaper apparatus herein. Gas under pressure flows through the shaper apparatus and into the flexible tube. The flexible tube is mounted to the shaper so that as it inflates it expands and deploys lengthwise away from the shaper. In one embodiment a housing contains the shaper and the flexible tube and the housing is designed to facilitate movement of the expanding tube from the housing so the expanding tube does not bunch up in the housing.

  10. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  11. Modulated natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Nilles, Hans Peter; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    We discuss some model-independent implications of embedding (aligned) axionic inflation in string theory. As a consequence of string theoretic duality symmetries the pure cosine potentials of natural inflation are replaced by modular functions. This leads to "wiggles" in the inflationary potential that modify the predictions with respect to CMB-observations. In particular, the scalar power spectrum deviates from the standard power law form. As a by-product one can show that trans-Planckian excursions of the aligned effective axion are compatible with the weak gravity conjecture.

  12. Precursor of inflation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inyong; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Moon, Taeyoon

    2013-08-16

    We investigate a nonsingular initial state of the Universe which leads to inflation naturally. The model is described by a scalar field with a quadratic potential in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The curvature of this initial state is given by the mass scale of the scalar field, which is much smaller than the Planck scale. Therefore, in this model, quantum gravity is not necessary in understanding this preinflationary stage, no matter how large the energy density becomes. The initial state in this model evolves eventually to a long inflationary period which is similar to the usual chaotic inflation. PMID:23992056

  13. Natural inflation with pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freese, Katherine; Frieman, Joshua A.; Olinto, Angela V.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of given potential can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Mass scales which arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting at a certain scales are shown to be conditions for successful inflation. The density fluctuation spectrum is nonscale-invariant, with extra power on large length scales.

  14. Constraining holographic inflation with WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas E-mail: Raphael.Flauger@yale.edu E-mail: K.Skenderis@uva.nl

    2011-09-01

    In a class of recently proposed models, the early universe is strongly coupled and described holographically by a three-dimensional, weakly coupled, super-renormalizable quantum field theory. This scenario leads to a power spectrum of scalar perturbations that differs from the usual empirical ΛCDM form and the predictions of generic models of single field, slow roll inflation. This spectrum is characterized by two parameters: an amplitude, and a parameter g related to the coupling constant of the dual theory. We estimate these parameters, using WMAP and other astrophysical data. We compute Bayesian evidence for both the holographic model and standard ΛCDM and find that their difference is not significant, although ΛCDM provides a somewhat better fit to the data. However, it appears that Planck will permit a definitive test of this holographic scenario.

  15. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    We present a review of the sequence of events/circumstances that led to the introduction of interplay between the physics associated with phase transitions in the early universe and their effects on its dynamics of expansion with the goal of resolving the horizon problem that it has since become known as Cosmological Inflation. We then provide a brief review of the fundamentals and the solutions of a theory of gravity based on local scale invariance, known as Weyl gravity that have been elaborated by the presenter and his collaborator P. D. Mannheim. We point out that this theory provides from first principles for a characteristic universal acceleration, whose value appears to be in agreement with observations across a vast range of length scales in the universe.

  16. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  17. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  18. Trace anomaly driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, T.; Reall, H. S.

    2001-04-01

    This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions that occurs in most models of inflation driven by a scalar field. The universe can be nucleated semiclassically by a cosmological instanton that is much larger than the Planck scale provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. There are two cosmological instantons: the four sphere and a new ``double bubble'' solution. This paper considers a universe nucleated by the four sphere. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to calculate the correlation function for scalar and tensor metric perturbations during the ensuing de Sitter phase. The analytic structure of the scalar and tensor propagators is discussed in detail. Observational constraints on the model are discussed. Quantum loops of matter fields are shown to strongly suppress short scale metric perturbations, which implies that short distance modifications of gravity would probably not be observable in the cosmic microwave background. This is probably true for any model of inflation provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. This point is illustrated by a comparison of anomaly driven inflation in four dimensions and in a Randall-Sundrum brane-world model.

  19. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  20. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  1. The Theory of Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shandera, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    I will discuss the importance of measurements or improved constraints of primordial tensor modes for theories of the primordial universe. In particular, I will review the implications of the amplitude of the tensor fluctuations for inflation and discuss what an era of B-mode cosmology could teach us about particle physics near the Planck scale.

  2. Smart inflatable strut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Composite inflatable/rigidizable strut with embedded LaRC macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuatiors. Proof-Of-Concepts Dynamics test performed on 12/16/99 by W.K. Wilkie (ARMY), R.S. Pappa (NASA), and B.C. Derbes (L'Garde, Inc.).

  3. Dynamical fractional chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-12-01

    Chaotic inflation based on a simple monomial scalar potential, V (ϕ )∝ϕp, is an attractive large-field model of inflation capable of generating a sizable tensor-to-scalar ratio r . Therefore, assuming that future cosmic microwave background observations will confirm the large r value reported by BICEP2, it is important to determine what kind of dynamical mechanism could possibly endow the inflaton field with such a simple effective potential. In this paper, we answer this question in the context of field theory, i.e. in the framework of dynamical chaotic inflation, where strongly interacting supersymmetric gauge dynamics around the scale of grand unification dynamically generate a fractional power-law potential via the quantum effect of dimensional transmutation. In constructing explicit models, we significantly extend our previous work, as we now consider a large variety of possible underlying gauge dynamics and relax our conditions on the field content of the model. This allows us to realize almost arbitrary rational values for the power p in the inflaton potential. The present paper may hence be regarded as a first step toward a more complete theory of dynamical chaotic inflation.

  4. Hilltop Supernatural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.

    In this talk, I will explain how to reduce the spectral index to be n_s = 0.96 for supernatural inflation. I will also show the constraint to the reheating temperature from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of both thermal and non-thermal gravitino production.

  5. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  6. Inflection point inflation and reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the inflection point inflation with an extended discussion to large field values and consider the reheating effects on the inflationary predictions. Parametrizing the reheating dynamics in terms of the reheating temperature and the equation of state during reheating, we show how the observationally favored parameter space of inflection point inflation is affected by reheating dynamics. Consequently, we apply the general results to the inflation models with non-minimal coupling, such as the SM Higgs inflation and the B-L Higgs inflation.

  7. Heavy gravitino in hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajima, Naoya; Nakayama, Kazunori; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: nk610@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-06-01

    It is known that supersymmetric hybrid inflation model may require severe tunings on the initial condition for large gravitino mass of order 100 - 1000 TeV due to the constant term in the superpotential. We propose a modified hybrid inflation model, where the constant term is suppressed during inflation and generated after inflation by replacing a constant term with dynamical field. In this modified model, successful inflation consistent with large gravitino mass takes place without severe tunings on the initial condition. Constraint from cosmic strings is also relaxed.

  8. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (ζ{sub k{sub 1}}ζ{sub k{sub 2}}ζ{sub k{sub 3}})∝1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order

  9. Kaehler-driven tribrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David E-mail: david.nolde@unibas.ch

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a new class of tribrid inflation models in supergravity, where the shape of the inflaton potential is dominated by effects from the Kaehler potential. Tribrid inflation is a variant of hybrid inflation which is particularly suited for connecting inflation with particle physics, since the inflaton can be a D-flat combination of charged fields from the matter sector. In models of tribrid inflation studied so far, the inflaton potential was dominated by either loop corrections or by mixing effects with the waterfall field (as in 'pseudosmooth' tribrid inflation). Here we investigate the third possibility, namely that tribrid inflation is dominantly driven by effects from higher-dimensional operators of the Kaehler potential. We specify for which superpotential parameters the new regime is realized and show how it can be experimentally distinguished from the other two (loop-driven and {sup p}seudosmooth{sup )} regimes.

  10. Evading the Lyth bound in hybrid natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebecker, A.; Kraus, S. C.; Westphal, A.

    2013-12-01

    Generically, the gravitational-wave or tensor-mode contribution to the primordial curvature spectrum of inflation is tiny if the field range of the inflaton is much smaller than the Planck scale. We show that this pessimistic conclusion is naturally avoided in a rather broad class of small-field models. More specifically, we consider models where an axionlike shift symmetry keeps the inflaton potential flat (up to nonperturbative cosine-shaped modulations), but inflation nevertheless ends in a waterfall regime, as is typical for hybrid inflation. In such hybrid natural inflation scenarios (examples are provided by Wilson line inflation and fluxbrane inflation), the slow-roll parameter ɛ can be sizable during an early period (relevant for the cosmic microwave background spectrum). Subsequently, ɛ quickly becomes very small before the tachyonic instability eventually terminates the slow-roll regime. In this scenario, one naturally generates a considerable tensor-mode contribution in the curvature spectrum, collecting nevertheless the required amount of e-foldings during the final period of inflation. While nonobservation of tensors by Planck is certainly not a problem, a discovery in the medium- to long-term future is realistic.

  11. Inflation Fossils in Cosmic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    The agreement of the predictions of inflation with increasingly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data is remarkable. The notion that such a simple early-Universe scenario, based on still-mysterious ultra-high-energy physics, can explain such a wealth of precise data is simply amazing. An active ongoing program of research is afoot to seek the CMB polarization signatures of inflationary gravitational waves and measure the primordial bispectrum in order to learn about inflation. Still, there is far more that can be done to probe inflationary physics, and no stone should be left unturned in this quest. Here we propose a multi-component program of theoretical research that includes model building, new CMB/LSS tests, a potentially powerful new survey strategy, and the investigation of a new observational avenue for large-scale structure. We propose to broaden the circle of ideas to empirically probe inflation. To begin, the hemispherical power asymmetry seen in WMAP and Planck is truly striking. While it may simply be an unusual statistical fluke, a more tantalizing possibility is that it is a remnant of the pre-inflationary Universe. We propose to develop and study several physical models for this asymmetry and work out other testable predictions of these models. Only by pursuing other signatures of whatever new physics may be responsible for this asymmetry will we be able to infer if it is truly a window to new physics. We also plan to develop departures from statistical isotropy (SI) as a test of inflationary models. We have recently shown that single-field slow-roll inflation generically predicts a quadrupolar departure from SI in primordial perturbations, albeit a very small one. The power quadrupole is expected, however, to be significantly larger in more general inflationary models. We propose to calculate these power quadrupoles so that new constraints to the power quadrupole from CMB and LSS data can be applied to test

  12. GUT-scale inflation with sizeable tensor modes

    SciTech Connect

    Brümmer, Felix; Domcke, Valerie

    2014-08-01

    A sizeable tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as recently claimed by BICEP2, would imply a scale of inflation at the typical scale of supersymmetric grand unification. This could be an accident, or strong support for supersymmetric theories. Models of F-term hybrid inflation naturally connect the GUT scale with the inflationary scale, but they also predict the tensor-to-scalar ratio to be unmeasurably small. In this work we analyze a general UV embedding of F-term hybrid inflation into a supergravity theory with a general Kähler potential. The CMB observables are generated during the early phase of inflation, at large inflaton values, where the potential is dominated by Planck-suppressed operators. Tuning the leading higher-order terms can give an inflaton potential with sizeable tensor fluctuations and a field excursion which is still sub-Planckian but close to the Planck scale, as expected from the Lyth bound.

  13. Tilted ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Senatore, Leonardo

    2005-02-15

    In a ghost inflationary scenario, we study the observational consequences of a tilt in the potential of the ghost condensate. We show how the presence of a tilt tends to make contact between the natural predictions of ghost inflation and the ones of slow roll inflation. In the case of positive tilt, we are able to build an inflationary model in which the Hubble constant H is growing with time. We compute the amplitude and the tilt of the two-point function, as well as the three-point function, for both cases of positive and negative tilt. We find that a good fraction of the parameter space of the model is within experimental reach.

  14. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  15. Inflatable solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1980-05-20

    A solar collector using air as its heat transfer medium having a top member containing a plurality of transparent sealed air pockets allowing passage of radiant energy but preventing conductive and convective heat losses generated inside the collector; a central black-coated absorbent plastic member divides the center of the collector into a plurality of interconnected inflatable upper and lower chambers connected to air pumps at one end and to a constriction valve outlet at the other. The lower end of the lower chambers consists of a cover containing a multiplicity of insulative sealed air channels. The collector can be mounted on a turntable frame having adjustable reflective panels mounted above and below the collector. The heated air after it has given up its calories to a storage unit is recirculated to the inflatable chambers.

  16. Inflatable Aeroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelt, Jennifer Van

    2005-01-01

    Aeroponics Internationals (AI) innovation is a self-contained, self-supporting, flexible low mass aeroponic crop production unit with integral environmental systems for the control and delivery of a nutrient mist to the roots. This FLEX Aeroponic System model was developed for commercialization as a result of the NASA SBIR Phase I contract for the research and development of a low-mass, Inflatable Aeroponic System (IAS) for producing pesticide-free lettuces, grains, peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables. The innovation addresses the needs of water and nutrient delivery systems technologies for food production in space. The inflatable nature of the innovation makes it lightweight, allowing it to be deflated so it takes up less volume during transportation and storage. It improves upon AI's current aeroponic system design that uses more rigid structures and takes advantage of vertical inclines to increase bio-mass production by over 600%.

  17. Notes on natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang–Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E{sub 8} are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  18. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  19. Causality and cosmic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay; Trodden, Mark

    2000-01-15

    In the context of inflationary models with a pre-inflationary stage, in which the Einstein equations are obeyed, the null energy condition is satisfied, and spacetime topology is trivial, we argue that homogeneity on super-Hubble scales must be assumed as an initial condition. Models in which inflation arises from field dynamics in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background fall into this class but models in which inflation originates at the Planck epoch may evade this conclusion. Our arguments rest on causality and general relativistic constraints on the structure of spacetime. We discuss modifications to existing scenarios that may avoid the need for initial large-scale homogeneity. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  20. Notes on natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang-Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken Script N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E8 are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  1. Inflation from wrapped branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Melanie; Leblond, Louis; Shandera, Sarah

    2007-12-01

    We show that the use of higher dimensional wrapped branes can significantly extend the inflaton field range compared to brane inflation models which use D3-branes. We construct a simple inflationary model in terms of 5-branes wrapping a 2-cycle and traveling towards the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler throat. Inflation ends when the branes reach the tip of the cone and self-annihilate. Assuming a quadratic potential for the brane it is possible to match the cosmic microwave background data in the Dirac-Born-Infeld regime, but we argue that the backreaction of the brane is important and cannot be neglected. This scenario predicts a strong non-Gaussian signal and possibly detectable gravitational waves.

  2. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER

  3. Radiation-driven inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya E-mail: gurwichphys@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    A novel, scalar-field-free approach to cosmic inflation is presented. The inflationary Universe and the radiation-dominated Universe are shown, within the framework of unified brane cosmology, to be two different phases governed by one and the same energy density. The phase transition of second order (the Hubble constant exhibits a finite jump) appears naturally and serves as the exit mechanism. No re-heating is needed. The required number of e-folds is achieved without fine tuning.

  4. Inflation in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    1987-05-01

    The big bang cosmology is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based on physics at sub-planck energy scales (much less than mpl approx. = 10 to the 19th power GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here the status of the Inflationary Paradigm is reviewed. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10 to the -12 or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10 to the 28 cm), may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. Also reviewed are some other unresolved issues, and the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data is fully discussed. Finally, the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest is covered.

  5. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Baryogenesis after hyperextended inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Felice, Antonio; Trodden, Mark

    2005-08-01

    We study a baryogenesis mechanism operating in the context of hyperextended inflation and making use of a coupling between the scalar field and a standard model global current, such as B or B-L. The method is efficient at temperatures at which these currents are not conserved due to some higher dimensional operator. The particle physics and cosmological phenomenology are discussed. We consider constraints stemming from nucleosynthesis and solar system experiments.

  7. Hierarchical axion inflation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Pedro, Francisco Gil; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-12-31

    We propose a new field theory mechanism for generating an effective trans-Planckian decay constant from sub-Planckian ones. Using the minimal two axions and a hierarchy between two axion decay constants is sufficient for realizing inflation through nonperturbative effects only and with minimal tuning. The inflationary motion is kept entirely within a sub-Planckian domain. We outline possible strategies of embedding the model in a string theory setup. PMID:25615300

  8. String-driven inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turok, Neil

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.

  9. Minimal supergravity inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    We construct inflationary models in the context of supergravity with orthogonal nilpotent superfields [Ferrara et al., Phys. Rev. D 93, 043516 (2016)]. When local supersymmetry is gauge-fixed in the unitary gauge, these models describe theories with only a single real scalar (the inflaton), a graviton and a gravitino. Critically, there is no inflatino, no sgoldstino, and no sinflaton in these models. This dramatically simplifies cosmological models which can simultaneously describe inflation, dark energy and SUSY breaking.

  10. Cosmological inflation in F (R ,G ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Paolella, Mariacristina; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Cosmological inflation is discussed in the framework of F (R ,G ) gravity where F is a generic function of the curvature scalar R and the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant G . The main feature that emerges in this analysis is the fact that this kind of theory can exhaust all the curvature budget related to curvature invariants without considering derivatives of R , Rμ ν, Rσμ ν λ, etc., in the action. Cosmological dynamics results driven by two effective masses (lengths) are related to the R scalaron and the G scalaron working respectively at early and very early epochs of cosmic evolution. In this sense, a double inflationary scenario naturally emerges.

  11. Higgs inflation and naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Rose N.; McDonald, John

    2010-04-01

    Inflation based on scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled to gravity has been proposed as a way to unify inflation with weak-scale physics, with the inflaton being identified with the Higgs boson or other weak-scale scalar particle. These models require a large non-minimal coupling ξ ~ 104 to have agreement with the observed density perturbations. However, it has been suggested that such models are unnatural, due to an apparent breakdown of the calculation of Higgs-Higgs scattering via graviton exchange in the Jordan frame. Here we argue that Higgs inflation models are in fact natural and that the breakdown does not imply new physics due to strong-coupling effects or unitarity breakdown, but simply a failure of perturbation theory in the Jordan frame as a calculational method. This can be understood by noting that the model is completely consistent when analysed in the Einstein frame and that scattering rates in the two frames are equal by the Equivalence Theorem for non-linear field redefinitions.

  12. The inflating curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Lyth, David H.; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsuda, Tomohiro E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp

    2012-03-01

    The primordial curvature perturbation ζ may be generated by some curvaton field σ, which is negligible during inflation and has more or less negligible interactions until it decays. In the current scenario, the curvaton starts to oscillate while its energy density ρσ is negligible. We explore the opposite scenario, in which ρσ drives a few e-folds of inflation before the oscillation begins. In this scenario for generating ζ it is exceptionally easy to solve the η problem; one just has to make the curvaton a string axion, with anomaly-mediated susy breaking which may soon be tested at the LHC. The observed spectral index n can be obtained with a potential V∝φ{sup p} for the first inflation; p = 1 or 2 is allowed by the current uncertainty in n but the improvement in accuracy promised by Planck may rule out p = 1. The predictions include (i) running n' ≅ 0.0026 (0.0013) for p = 1 (2) that will probably be observed, (ii) non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL}; ∼ −1 that may be observed, (iii) tensor fraction r is probably too small to ever observed.

  13. Inflatable Structures Technology Handbook. Chapter 21; Inflatable Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Raboin, Jasen; Spexarth, Gary; Valle, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    The technologies required to design, fabricate, and utilize an inflatable module for space applications has been demonstrated and proven by the TransHab team during the development phase of the program. Through testing and hands-on development several issues about inflatable space structures have been addressed , such as: ease of manufacturing, structural integrity, micrometeorite protection, folding , and vacuum deployment. The TransHab inflatable technology development program has proven that not only are inflatable structures a viable option, but they also offer significant advantages over conventional metallic structures.

  14. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  15. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  16. Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    The idea that a period of exponential expansion occurred early in the Universe's history was originally proposed in order to explain the large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. However, there remain open questions about the conditions under which inflation can eventually arise when homogeneity is not assumed to begin with it. I will describe an investigation, utilizing simulations in full general relativity, of the very inhomogeneous regime where initially the gradient energy of the scalar inflaton field dominates over the potential energy, including the strong-field regime where the wavelength of the inhomogeneities are comparable to the Hubble radius, and black holes form. The results show that inflation can eventually arise from a general class of such initial conditions, at least as long as the scalar field variations do not include values off the inflationary plateau. I will also comment on future directions for using the tools of numerical relativity to explore nonlinear and strong-field dynamics in cosmology.

  17. Constraints on gauge field production during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2014-07-01

    In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

  18. Ghost inflation and de Sitter entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Mukohyama, Shinji; Saitou, Rio; Watanabe, Yota

    2016-08-01

    In the setup of ghost condensation model the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics can be respected under a radiatively stable assumption that couplings between the field responsible for ghost condensate and matter fields such as those in the Standard Model are suppressed by the Planck scale. Since not only black holes but also cosmology are expected to play important roles towards our better understanding of gravity, we consider a cosmological setup to test the theory of ghost condensation. In particular we shall show that the de Sitter entropy bound proposed by Arkani-Hamed, et al. is satisfied if ghost inflation happened in the early epoch of our universe and if there remains a tiny positive cosmological constant in the future infinity. We then propose a notion of cosmological Page time after inflation.

  19. Tachyacoustic cosmology: An alternative to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bessada, Dennis; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan; Wang, John

    2010-02-15

    We consider an alternative to inflation for the generation of superhorizon perturbations in the Universe in which the speed of sound is faster than the speed of light. We label such cosmologies, first proposed by Armendariz-Picon, tachyacoustic, and explicitly construct examples of noncanonical Lagrangians which have superluminal sound speed, but which are causally self-consistent. Such models possess two horizons, a Hubble horizon and an acoustic horizon, which have independent dynamics. Even in a decelerating (noninflationary) background, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations can be generated by quantum perturbations redshifted outside of a shrinking acoustic horizon. The acoustic horizon can be large or even infinite at early times, solving the cosmological horizon problem without inflation. These models do not, however, dynamically solve the cosmological flatness problem, which must be imposed as a boundary condition. Gravitational wave modes, which are produced by quantum fluctuations exiting the Hubble horizon, are not produced.

  20. Inflation at the electroweak scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Lloyd; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    We present a model for slow-rollover inflation where the vacuum energy that drives inflation is of the order of G(F) exp -2; unlike most models, the conversion of vacuum energy to radiation ('reheating') is moderately efficient. The scalar field responsible for inflation is a standard-model singlet, develops a vacuum expectation value of 4 x 10 exp 6 GeV, has a mass of about 1 GeV, and can play a role in electroweak phenomena. We also discuss models where the energy scale of inflation is somewhat larger, but still well below the unification scale.

  1. A study of useful inflatables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Sean A.

    It is demonstrated that inflatable structures can provide large amounts of stiffness compared to traditional structures of the same mass. A variety of inflatable structures are investigated theoretically. A pressurized lobed cylindrical wall is shown to be sufficiently lightweight and stiff that it can form a lighter-than-air vacuum chamber. Some prototype inflatables are built. Mechanical and optical tests are performed. Some applications in aerospace and solar energy which require large linear dimension, small mass, or large stiffness are discussed including electromagnetic space launch, airship buoyancy control, solar chimney power plants, and large inflatable mirrors.

  2. Superconformal D-term inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de

    2013-04-01

    We study models of hybrid inflation in the framework of supergravity with superconformal matter. F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since the inflaton acquires a large tachyonic mass. On the contrary, D-term hybrid inflation can successfully account for the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum. It is a two-field inflation model which, depending on parameters, yields values of the scalar spectral index down to n{sub s} ≅ 0.96. Generically, there is a tension between a small spectral index and the cosmic string bound albeit, within 2σ uncertainty, the current observational bounds can be simultaneously fulfilled.

  3. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Luna, Daniel A.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening.

  4. Low-Mass Inflation Systems for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Webster, Mark S.; Engelbrecht, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    The use of inflatable space structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. Communication, power generation, and very-long-baseline interferometry are just three potential applications of inflatable technology. The success of inflatable structures depends on the development of an applications of inflatable technology. This paper describes two design studies performed to develop a low mass inflation system. The first study takes advantage of existing onboard propulsion gases to reduce the overall system mass. The second study assumes that there is no onboard propulsion system. Both studies employ advanced components developed for the Pluto fast flyby spacecraft to further reduce mass. The study examined four different types of systems: hydrazine, nitrogen and water, nitrogen, and xenon. This study shows that all of these systems can be built for a small space structure with masses lower than 0.5 kilograms.

  5. Predictions From Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    We investigate the physics of eternal inflation, particularly the use of multiverse ideas to explain the observed values of the cosmological constant and the coincidences of cosmological timescales. We begin by reviewing eternal inflation, the multiverse, and the resulting measure problem. Then follows a detailed study of proposals to solve the measure problem, both analytical and numerical, including an analysis of their predictions for cosmological observables. A key outcome of this investigation is that the traditional anthropic calculations, which take into account the necessity of galaxies and heavy elements to produce observers, are redundant in our framework. The cosmological coincidence problem, the seemingly coincidental equality of the timescales of observation and of vacuum domination, is solved for the first time without appeal to detailed anthropic assumptions: very general geometric considerations do the job automatically. We also estimate a 10% likelihood that evidence for eternal inflation will be found in upcoming measurements of the energy density of the universe. Encouraged by this success, we go on to construct a modified version of the light-cone time measure which has conceptual advantages but also reproduces the phenomenology of its predecessor. We complete our study of the measure problem by noting that for a wide class of proposed solutions, including the one developed here, there is an implicit assumption being made about a catastrophic end to the universe. Finally, as a by-product of this research program we find geometries which violate some of the accepted common knowledge on holographic entropy bounds. We point this out and conjecture a general result.

  6. Wiggly whipped inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by BICEP2 results on the CMB polarization B-mode which imply primordial gravitational waves are produced when the Universe has the expansion rate of about H ≈ 10{sup 14} GeV, and by deviations from a smooth power-law behavior for multipoles ℓ <50 in the CMB temperature anisotropy power spectrum found in the WMAP and Planck experiments, we have expanded our class of large field inflationary models that fit both the BICEP2 and Planck CMB observations consistently. These best-fitted large field models are found to have a transition from a faster roll to the slow roll V(φ)=m{sup 2} φ{sup 2}/2 inflation at a field value around 14.6 M{sub Pl} and thus a potential energy of V(φ) ∼ (10{sup 16} GeV){sup 4}. In general this transition with sharp features in the inflaton potential produces not only suppression of scalars relative to tensor modes at small k but also introduces wiggles in the primordial perturbation spectrum. These wiggles are shown to be useful to explain some localized features in the CMB angular power spectrum and can also have other observational consequences. Thus, primordial GW can be used now to make a tomography of inflation determining its fine structure. The resulting Wiggly Whipped Inflation scenario is described in details and the anticipated perturbation power spectra, CMB power spectra, non-Gaussianity and other observational consequences are calculated and compared to existing and forthcoming observations.

  7. Inflation in a web

    SciTech Connect

    Li Sheng; Piao Yunsong; Liu Yang

    2009-12-15

    In a given path with multiple branches, in principle, it can be expected that there are some fork points, where one branch is bifurcated into different branches, or various branches converge into one or several branches. In this paper, it is shown that if there is a web formed by such branches in a given field space, in which each branch can be responsible for a period of slow roll inflation, a multiverse separated by a domain wall network will come into being, some of which might correspond to our observable universe. We discuss this scenario and show possible observations of a given observer at late time.

  8. Topological inflation with graceful exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a class of models of topological inflation in which a super-Hubble-sized global monopole seeds inflation. These models are attractive since inflation starts from rather generic initial conditions, but their not so attractive feature is that, unless symmetry is again restored, inflation never ends. In this work we show that, in presence of another nonminimally coupled scalar field, that is both quadratically and quartically coupled to the Ricci scalar, inflation naturally ends, representing an elegant solution to the graceful exit problem of topological inflation. While the monopole core grows during inflation, the growth stops after inflation, such that the monopole eventually enters the Hubble radius, and shrinks to its Minkowski space size, rendering it immaterial for the subsequent Universe's dynamics. Furthermore, we find that our model can produce cosmological perturbations that source CMB temperature fluctuations and seed large scale structure statistically consistent (within one standard deviation) with all available data. In particular, for small and (in our convention) negative nonminimal couplings, the scalar spectral index can be as large as ns simeq 0.955, which is about one standard deviation lower than the central value quoted by the most recent Planck Collaboration.

  9. A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J.; Franek, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described. This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons.

  10. Therapeutic Play at Inflatable Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavorcik, Carin

    2009-01-01

    The environment at indoor inflatable playgrounds, featuring giant bounce houses and slides, can become an ideal place for children with autism to receive helpful sensations. This is the reasoning behind Sensory Nights hosted by the Autism Society of America and Pump It Up, a national franchise of giant, indoor inflatable playgrounds. The private…

  11. Does money matter in inflation forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binner, J. M.; Tino, P.; Tepper, J.; Anderson, R.; Jones, B.; Kendall, G.

    2010-11-01

    This paper provides the most fully comprehensive evidence to date on whether or not monetary aggregates are valuable for forecasting US inflation in the early to mid 2000s. We explore a wide range of different definitions of money, including different methods of aggregation and different collections of included monetary assets. In our forecasting experiment we use two nonlinear techniques, namely, recurrent neural networks and kernel recursive least squares regression-techniques that are new to macroeconomics. Recurrent neural networks operate with potentially unbounded input memory, while the kernel regression technique is a finite memory predictor. The two methodologies compete to find the best fitting US inflation forecasting models and are then compared to forecasts from a naïve random walk model. The best models were nonlinear autoregressive models based on kernel methods. Our findings do not provide much support for the usefulness of monetary aggregates in forecasting inflation. Beyond its economic findings, our study is in the tradition of physicists’ long-standing interest in the interconnections among statistical mechanics, neural networks, and related nonparametric statistical methods, and suggests potential avenues of extension for such studies.

  12. Constraining inflation with future galaxy redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo; Verde, Licia E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu

    2012-04-01

    With future galaxy surveys, a huge number of Fourier modes of the distribution of the large scale structures in the Universe will become available. These modes are complementary to those of the CMB and can be used to set constraints on models of the early universe, such as inflation. Using a MCMC analysis, we compare the power of the CMB with that of the combination of CMB and galaxy survey data, to constrain the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations generated during inflation. We base our analysis on the Planck satellite and a spectroscopic redshift survey with configuration parameters close to those of the Euclid mission as examples. We first consider models of slow-roll inflation, and show that the inclusion of large scale structure data improves the constraints by nearly halving the error bars on the scalar spectral index and its running. If we attempt to reconstruct the inflationary single-field potential, a similar conclusion can be reached on the parameters characterizing the potential. We then study models with features in the power spectrum. In particular, we consider ringing features produced by a break in the potential and oscillations such as in axion monodromy. Adding large scale structures improves the constraints on features by more than a factor of two. In axion monodromy we show that there are oscillations with small amplitude and frequency in momentum space that are undetected by CMB alone but can be measured by including galaxy surveys in the analysis.

  13. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  14. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  15. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being Joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  16. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  17. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  18. Towards Inflation in String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit

    2003-08-25

    We investigate the embedding of brane inflation into stable compactifications of string theory. At first sight a warped compactification geometry seems to produce a naturally flat inflation potential, evading one well-known difficulty of brane-antibrane scenarios. Careful consideration of the closed string moduli reveals a further obstacle: superpotential stabilization of the compactification volume typically modifies the inflation potential and renders it too steep for inflation. We discuss the non-generic conditions under which this problem does not arise. We conclude that brane inflation models can only work if restrictive assumptions about the method of volume stabilization, the warping of the internal space, and the source of inflationary energy are satisfied. We argue that this may not be a real problem, given the large range of available fluxes and background geometries in string theory.

  19. Inflation in supersymmetric SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Rehman, M. U.; Shafi, Q.; Zaakouk, E. A.

    2011-03-15

    We analyze the adjoint field inflation in supersymmetric (SUSY) SU(5) model. In minimal SUSY SU(5) hybrid inflation monopoles are produced at the end of inflation. We therefore explore the nonminimal model of inflation based on SUSY SU(5), like shifted hybrid inflation, which provides a natural solution for the monopole problem. We find that the supergravity corrections with nonminimal Kaehler potential are crucial to realize the central value of the scalar spectral index n{sub s{approx_equal}}0.96 consistent with the 7 yr WMAP data. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small, taking on values r < or approx. 10{sup -5}. Because of R symmetry massless SU(3) octet and SU(2) triplet supermultiplets are present and could spoil gauge coupling unification. To keep gauge coupling unification intact, light vectorlike particles are added which are expected to be observed at LHC.

  20. Poly-instanton inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order Trh simeq 106 GeV which requires Ne simeq 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is ns simeq 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r simeq 10-5. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 103 in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 1015 GeV.

  1. Poly-instanton inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: f.pedro1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order T{sub rh} ≅ 10{sup 6} GeV which requires N{sub e} ≅ 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is n{sub s} ≅ 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r ≅ 10{sup −5}. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 10{sup 3} in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 10{sup 15} GeV.

  2. Inflation, singular instantons, and eleven dimensional cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Reall, Harvey S.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate cosmological solutions of eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on a squashed seven manifold. The effective action for the four dimensional theory contains scalar fields describing the size and squashing of the compactifying space. The potential for these fields consists of a sum of exponential terms. At early times only one such term is expected to dominate. The condition for an exponential potential to admit inflationary solutions is derived and it is shown that inflation is not possible in our model. The criterion for an exponential potential to admit a Hawking-Turok instanton is also derived. It is shown that the instanton remains singular in eleven dimensions.

  3. Isotropization of the universe during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Thiago; Pitrou, Cyril

    2015-12-01

    A primordial inflationary phase allows one to erase any possible anisotropic expansion thanks to the cosmic no-hair theorem. If there is no global anisotropic stress, then the anisotropic expansion rate tends to decrease. What are the observational consequences of a possible early anisotropic phase? We first review the dynamics of anisotropic universes and report analytic approximations. We then discuss the structure of dynamical equations for perturbations and the statistical properties of observables, as well as the implication of a primordial anisotropy on the quantization of these perturbations during inflation. Finally we review briefly models based on primordial vector field that evade the cosmic no-hair theorem. xml:lang="fr"

  4. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  5. Moduli stabilization and inflation using wrapped branes

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Trodden, Mark

    2005-07-15

    We demonstrate that a gas of wrapped branes in the early Universe can help resolve the cosmological Dine-Seiberg/Brustein-Steinhardt overshoot problem in the context of moduli stabilization with steep potentials in string theory. Starting from this mechanism, we propose a cosmological model with a natural setting in the context of an early phase dominated by brane and string gases. The Universe inflates at early times due to the presence of a wrapped two brane (domain wall) gas and all moduli are stabilized. A natural graceful exit from the inflationary regime is achieved. However, the basic model suffers from a generalized domain wall/reheating problem and cannot generate a scale invariant spectrum of fluctuations without additional physics. Several suggestions are presented to address these issues.

  6. Coupling hybrid inflation to moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; van de Bruck, Carsten; Davis, Anne-Christine; Davis, Stephen C.

    2006-09-01

    Hybrid inflation can be realized in low energy effective string theory, as described using supergravity. We find that the coupling of moduli to F-term hybrid inflation in supergravity leads to a slope and a curvature for the inflaton potential. The epsi and η parameters receive contributions at tree and one loop level which are not compatible with slow roll inflation. Furthermore the coupling to the moduli sector can even prevent inflation from ending at all. We show that introducing shift symmetries in the inflationary sector and taking the moduli sector to be no-scale removes most of these problems. If the moduli fields are fixed during inflation, as is usually assumed, it appears that viable slow roll inflation can then be obtained with just one fine-tuning of the moduli sector parameters. However, we show this is not a reasonable assumption, and that the small variation of the moduli fields during inflation gives a significant contribution to the effective inflaton potential. This typically implies that ηap-6, although it may be possible to obtain smaller values with heavy fine-tuning.

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  8. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  9. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  10. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  11. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  12. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  13. Inflation without quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Pyry

    2015-04-01

    It is sometimes argued that observation of tensor modes from inflation would provide the first evidence for quantum gravity. However, in the usual inflationary formalism, also the scalar modes involve quantized metric perturbations. We consider the issue in a semiclassical setup in which only matter is quantized, and spacetime is classical. We assume that the state collapses on a spacelike hypersurface and find that the spectrum of scalar perturbations depends on the hypersurface. For reasonable choices, we can recover the usual inflationary predictions for scalar perturbations in minimally coupled single-field models. In models where nonminimal coupling to gravity is important and the field value is sub-Planckian, we do not get a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations. As gravitational waves are only produced at second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio is negligible. We conclude that detection of inflationary gravitational waves would indeed be needed to have observational evidence of quantization of gravity.

  14. Constraining monodromy inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz

    2013-09-01

    We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the 9-year WMAP release to derive constraints on monodromy inflation, which is characterized by a linear inflaton potential with a periodic modulation. We identify two possible periodic modulations that significantly improve the fit, lowering χ{sup 2} by approximately 10 and 20. However, standard Bayesian model selection criteria assign roughly equal odds to the modulated potential and the unmodulated case. A modulated inflationary potential can generate substantial primordial non-Gaussianity with a specific and characteristic form. For the best-fit parameters to the WMAP angular power spectrum, the corresponding non-Gaussianity might be detectable in upcoming CMB data, allowing nontrivial consistency checks on the predictions of a modulated inflationary potential.

  15. Anisotropic inflation with general potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, JiaMing; Huang, XiaoTian; Qiu, TaoTao

    2016-04-01

    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  16. Distinguishing between R2-inflation and Higgs-inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukov, F. L.; Gorbunov, D. S.

    2012-07-01

    We present three features which can be used to distinguish the R2-inflation Higgs-inflation from with ongoing, upcoming and planned experiments, assuming no new physics (apart form sterile neutrinos) up to inflationary scale. (i) Slightly different tilt of the scalar perturbation spectrum ns and ratio r of scalar-to-tensor perturbation amplitudes. (ii) Gravity waves produced within R2-model by collapsing, merging and evaporating scalaron clumps formed in the post-inflationary Universe. (iii) Different ranges of the possible Standard Model Higgs boson masses, where the electroweak vacuum remains stable while the Universe evolves after inflation. Specifically, in the R2-model Higgs boson can be as light as 116 GeV. These effects mainly rely on the lower reheating temperature in the R2-inflation.

  17. Observing the inflation potential. [in models of cosmological inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Lidsey, James E.

    1993-01-01

    We show how observations of the density perturbation (scalar) spectrum and the gravitational wave (tensor) spectrum allow a reconstruction of the potential responsible for cosmological inflation. A complete functional reconstruction or a perturbative approximation about a single scale are possible; the suitability of each approach depends on the data available. Consistency equations between the scalar and tensor spectra are derived, which provide a powerful signal of inflation.

  18. Moduli inflation in five-dimensional supergravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime E-mail: hajime.13.gologo@akane.waseda.jp

    2014-11-01

    We propose a simple but effective mechanism to realize an inflationary early universe consistent with the observed WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 data, which would be incorporated in various supersymmetric models of elementary particles constructed in the (effective) five-dimensional spacetime. In our scenario, the inflaton field is identified with one of the moduli appearing when the fifth direction is compactified, and a successful cosmological inflation without the so-called η problem can be achieved by a very simple moduli stabilization potential. We also discuss the related particle cosmology during and (just) after the inflation, such as the (no) cosmological moduli problem.

  19. Supernatural inflation: inflation from supersymmetry with no (very) small parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Lisa; SoljačiĆ, Marin; Guth, Alan H.

    1996-02-01

    Most models of inflation have small parameters, either to guarantee sufficient inflation or the correct magnitude of the density perturbations. In this paper we show that, in supersymmetric theories with weak-scale supersymmetry breaking, one can construct viable inflationary models in which the requisite parameters appear naturally in the form of the ratio of mass scales that are already present in the theory. Successful inflationary models can be constructed from the flat-direction fields of a renormalizable supersymmetric potential, and such models can be realized even in the context of a simple GUT extension of the MSSM. We evade naive ``naturalness'' arguments by allowing for more than one field to be relevant to inflation, as in ``hybrid inflation'' models, and we argue that this is the most natural possibility if inflation fields are to be associated with flat direction fields of a supersymmetric theory. Such models predict a very low Hubble constant during inflation, of order 103-104 GeV, a scalar density perturbation index n which is very close to or greater than unity, and negligible tensor perturbations. In addition, these models lead to a large spike in the density perturbation spectrum at short wavelengths.

  20. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon a pump that inflates the cuff. To treat ... the urethra will close tightly. The pressure regulating balloon will be placed under the tissues of the ...

  1. Coherent phase argument for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Dodelson

    2004-03-17

    Cosmologists have developed a phenomenally successful picture of structure in the universe based on the idea that the universe expanded exponentially in its earliest moments. There are three pieces of evidence for this exponential expansion--inflation--from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. First, the shape of the primordial spectrum is very similar to that predicted by generic inflation models. Second, the angular scale at which the first acoustic peak appears is consistent with the flat universe predicted by inflation. Here the author describes the third piece of evidence, perhaps the most convincing of all: the phase coherence needed to account for the clear peak/trough structure observed by the WMAP satellite and its predecessors. The author also discusses alternatives to inflation that have been proposed recently and explain how they produce coherent phases.

  2. Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An artificial sphincter consists of three parts: a cuff that fits around the bladder neck a pressure regulating balloon a pump that inflates the cuff. To treat urinary incontinence, the cuff is placed ...

  3. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  4. The trispectrum in ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-07-01

    We calculate the trispectrum in ghost inflation where both the contact diagram and scale-exchange diagram are taken into account. The shape of trispectrum is discussed carefully and we find that the local form is absent in ghost inflation. In general, for the non-local shape trispectrum there are not analogous parameters to τ{sub NL}{sup loc.} and g{sub NL}{sup loc.} which can completely characterize the size of local form trispectrum.

  5. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  6. New Millenium Inflatable Structures Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollerick, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Specific applications where inflatable technology can enable or enhance future space missions are tabulated. The applicability of the inflatable technology to large aperture infra-red astronomy missions is discussed. Space flight validation and risk reduction are emphasized along with the importance of analytical tools in deriving structurally sound concepts and performing optimizations using compatible codes. Deployment dynamics control, fabrication techniques, and system testing are addressed.

  7. Constraints on just enough inflation preceded by a thermal era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suratna; Goswami, Gaurav; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    If the inflationary era is preceded by a radiation-dominated era in which the inflaton too was in thermal equilibrium at some very early time, then the CMB data places an upper bound on the comoving temperature of the (decoupled) inflaton quanta. In addition, if one considers models of "just enough" inflation, where the number of e-foldings of inflation is just enough to solve the horizon and flatness problems, then we get a lower bound on the Hubble parameter during inflation, Hinf, which is in severe conflict with the upper bound from tensor perturbations. Alternatively, imposing the upper bound on Hinf implies that such scenarios are compatible with the data only if the number of relativistic degrees of freedom in the thermal bath in the preinflationary Universe is extremely large (greater than 109 or 1011 ). We are not aware of scenarios in which this can be satisfied.

  8. Observational constraints on the energy scale of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zong-Kuan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Determining the energy scale of inflation is crucial to understand the nature of inflation in the early universe. Assuming a power-law power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, we place observational constraints on the energy scale of the observable part of the inflaton potential by combining the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data with distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant measurement. Our analysis provides an upper limit on this energy scale, 2.3×1016GeV at 95% confidence level. Moreover, we forecast the sensitivity and constraints achievable by the Planck experiment by performing Monte Carlo studies on simulated data. Planck could significantly improve the constraints on the energy scale of inflation and on the shape of the inflaton potential.

  9. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-05-01

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields.

  10. Two tunnels to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.

    2006-06-15

    We investigate the formation via tunneling of inflating (false-vacuum) bubbles in a true-vacuum background, and the reverse process. Using effective potentials from the junction condition formalism, all true- and false-vacuum bubble solutions with positive interior and exterior cosmological constant, and arbitrary mass are catalogued. We find that tunneling through the same effective potential appears to describe two distinct processes: one in which the initial and final states are separated by a wormhole (the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism), and one in which they are either in the same hubble volume or separated by a cosmological horizon. In the zero-mass limit, the first process corresponds to the creation of an inhomogenous universe from nothing, while the second mechanism is equivalent to the nucleation of true- or false-vacuum Coleman-De Luccia bubbles. We compute the probabilities of both mechanisms in the WKB approximation using semiclassical Hamiltonian methods, and find that--assuming both process are allowed--neither mechanism dominates in all regimes.

  11. Higgs dynamics during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Meriniemi, Tuukka; Nurmi, Sami E-mail: tuukka.meriniemi@helsinki.fi

    2014-07-01

    We investigate inflationary Higgs dynamics and constraints on the Standard Model parameters assuming the Higgs potential, computed to next-to-next leading order precision, is not significantly affected by new physics. For a high inflationary scale H ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV suggested by BICEP2, we show that the Higgs is a light field subject to fluctuations which affect its dynamics in a stochastic way. Starting from its inflationary value the Higgs must be able to relax to the Standard Model vacuum well before the electroweak scale. We find that this is consistent with the high inflationary scale only if the top mass m{sub t} is significantly below the best fit value. The region within 2σ errors of the measured m{sub t}, the Higgs mass m{sub h} and the strong coupling α{sub s} and consistent with inflation covers approximately the interval m{sub t}∼<171.8 GeV+0.538(m{sub h}−125.5 GeV) with 125.4 GeV∼

  12. Nonminimally coupled inflation with initial conditions from a preinflation anamorphic contracting era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, John

    2016-08-01

    Inflation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field, as first proposed by Salopek, Bardeen and Bond (SBB), is in good agreement with the observed value of the spectral index and constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Here we explore the possibility that SBB inflation represents the late stage of a Universe which emerges from an early contracting era. We present a model in which the Universe smoothly transitions from an anamorphic contracting era to late-time SBB inflation without encountering a singular bounce. This corresponds to a continuous expansion in the Einstein frame throughout. We show that the anamorphic contracting era is able to provide the smooth superhorizon initial conditions necessary for subsequent SBB inflation to occur. The model predicts corrections to the nonminimal coupling, kinetic term and potential of SBB inflation which can observably increase the spectral index relative to its SBB prediction.

  13. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Luna, D.A.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1997-11-18

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening. 22 figs.

  14. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field.

  15. Aspects of inflation in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    In this thesis we make small steps towards the ambitious goal of a microphysical understanding of the inflationary era in the early universe. We identify three key questions that require a proper understanding of the ultraviolet limit of the theory: (i) the delicate flatness of the inflaton potential, (ii) the possibility of observable gravitational waves and (iii) a large non-Gaussianity of the primordial density fluctuations. We study these fundamental aspects of inflation in the context of string theory. V (φ): In the first half of the thesis, we give the first fully explicit derivation of the potential for warped D-brane inflation. The analysis exposes the eta-problem, relates effective parameters in the inflaton Lagrangian to microscopic string theory input, and illustrates important correlations between the parameters of the potential. We show that compactification constraints significantly limit the possibility of obtaining inflationary solutions in these scenarios. r: All inflationary models that predict an observable gravitational wave signal require that the inflaton field evolves over a super-Planckian range. In the second half of the thesis, we derive a microscopic bound on the maximal inflaton field variation for D-brane models. The bound arises from the compact nature of the extra dimensions and puts a strong upper limit on the gravitational wave signal. fNL: Finally, we explain that our limit on the field range also significantly constrains the parameter space of Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation. In this case the bound strongly restricts the possibility of a large non-Gaussianity in the primordial fluctuations.

  16. Concentric Nested Toroidal Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Assemblies comprising multiple limited- height toroidal inflatable structures nested in a concentric arrangement have been invented to obtain more design flexibility than can be obtained in single taller, wider toroidal inflatable structures (see figure). Originally intended for use as containers for habitats for humans in outer space or on remote planets, these and related prior inflatable structures could also be useful on Earth as lightweight, compactly stowable, portable special-purpose buildings that could be transported to remote locations and there inflated to full size and shape. In the case of a single inflatable toroidal structure, one important source of lack of design flexibility is the fact that an increase in outer diameter (which is sometimes desired) is necessarily accompanied by an increase in height (which is sometimes undesired). Increases in diameter and height can also cause difficulty in utilization of the resulting larger volume, in that it can become necessary to partition the volume by means of walls and floors, and features (e.g., stairs or ladders) must be added to enable vertical movement between floors. Moreover, ascending and descending between floors in a gravitational environment could pose unacceptable difficulty for the inhabitants under some circumstances. Another source of lack of design flexibility in a single toroidal inflatable structure is that for a given inflation pressure, an increase in the outer diameter of the structure necessarily entails an increase in the maximum stress in the structure. Because it is necessary to keep the maximum stress within the load-bearing capability of the structural materials, consistent with other aspects of the design, this may translate to a limit on the outer diameter. In an assembly comprising concentric nested toroidal structures, an increase in outer diameter does not necessarily entail an increase in height or a maximum stress in excess of the load-bearing capability of the structural

  17. Minimal Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Oda, Kin-ya

    2014-02-01

    We consider a possibility that the Higgs field in the Standard Model (SM) serves as an inflaton when its value is around the Planck scale. We assume that the SM is valid up to an ultraviolet cutoff scale Λ , which is slightly below the Planck scale, and that the Higgs potential becomes almost flat above Λ . Contrary to the ordinary Higgs inflation scenario, we do not assume the huge non-minimal coupling, of O(10^4), of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. We find that Λ must be less than 5× 10^{17} {GeV} in order to explain the observed fluctuation of the cosmic microwave background, no matter how we extrapolate the Higgs potential above Λ . The scale 10^{17} {GeV} coincides with the perturbative string scale, which suggests that the SM is directly connected with string theory. For this to be true, the top quark mass is restricted to around 171 GeV, with which Λ can exceed 10^{17} {GeV}. As a concrete example of the potential above Λ , we propose a simple log-type potential. The predictions of this specific model for the e-foldings N_*=50-60 are consistent with the current observation, namely, the scalar spectral index is n_s=0.977hbox {-}0.983 and the tensor to scalar ratio 0

  18. Spatial curvature falsifies eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie

    2012-06-01

    Inflation creates large-scale cosmological density perturbations that are characterized by an isotropic, homogeneous, and Gaussian random distribution about a locally flat background. Even in a flat universe, the spatial curvature measured within one Hubble volume receives contributions from long wavelength perturbations, and will not in general be zero. These same perturbations determine the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, which are Script O(10-5). Consequently, the low-l multipole moments in the CMB temperature map predict the value of the measured spatial curvature Ωk. On this basis we argue that a measurement of |Ωk| > 10-4 would rule out slow-roll eternal inflation in our past with high confidence, while a measurement of Ωk < -10-4 (which is positive curvature, a locally closed universe) rules out false-vacuum eternal inflation as well, at the same confidence level. In other words, negative curvature (a locally open universe) is consistent with false-vacuum eternal inflation but not with slow-roll eternal inflation, and positive curvature falsifies both. Near-future experiments will dramatically extend the sensitivity of Ωk measurements and constitute a sharp test of these predictions.

  19. Standard-smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-12-15

    We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)

  20. Topological phases of eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Shenker, Stephen; Susskind, Leonard

    2010-06-15

    ''Eternal inflation'' is a term that describes a number of different phenomena that have been classified by Winitzki. According to Winitzki's classification, these phases can be characterized by the topology of the percolating structures in the inflating, 'white', region. In this paper we discuss these phases, the transitions between them, and the way they are seen by a 'Census Taker', a hypothetical observer inside the noninflating, 'black', region. We discuss three phases that we call 'black island', 'tubular', and 'white island'. The black island phase is familiar, composed of rare Coleman De Luccia bubble nucleation events. The Census Taker sees an essentially spherical boundary, described by the conformal field theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker/conformal field theory (FRW/CFT) correspondence. In the tubular phase the Census Taker sees a complicated infinite genus structure composed of arbitrarily long tubes. The white island phase is even more mysterious from the black side. Surprisingly, when viewed from the noninflating region this phase resembles a closed, positively curved universe that eventually collapses to a singularity. Nevertheless, pockets of eternal inflation continue forever. In addition, there is an 'aborted' phase in which no eternal inflation takes place. Rigorous results of Chayes, Chayes, Grannan, and Swindle establish the existence of all of these phases, separated by first order transitions, in Mandelbrot percolation, a simple model of eternal inflation.

  1. Anisotropic inflation from charged scalar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Movahed, S.M. Sadegh; Zarei, Moslem E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: m.zarei@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2011-02-01

    We consider models of inflation with U(1) gauge fields and charged scalar fields including symmetry breaking potential, chaotic inflation and hybrid inflation. We show that there exist attractor solutions where the anisotropies produced during inflation becomes comparable to the slow-roll parameters. In the models where the inflaton field is a charged scalar field the gauge field becomes highly oscillatory at the end of inflation ending inflation quickly. Furthermore, in charged hybrid inflation the onset of waterfall phase transition at the end of inflation is affected significantly by the evolution of the background gauge field. Rapid oscillations of the gauge field and its coupling to inflaton can have interesting effects on preheating and non-Gaussianities.

  2. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  3. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-15

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  4. Dark energy in hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Kim, Seongcheol

    2007-03-15

    The situation that a scalar field provides the source of the accelerated expansion of the Universe while rolling down its potential is common in both the simple models of the primordial inflation and the quintessence-based dark energy models. Motivated by this point, we address the possibility of causing the current acceleration via the primordial inflation using a simple model based on hybrid inflation. We trigger the onset of the motion of the quintessence field via the waterfall field, and find that the fate of the Universe depends on the true vacuum energy determined by choosing the parameters. We also briefly discuss the variation of the equation of state and the possible implementation of our scenario in supersymmetric theories.

  5. Load limiting parachute inflation control

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.

  6. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  7. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  8. Cosmological inflation and the quantum measurement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent; Peter, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    According to cosmological inflation, the inhomogeneities in our Universe are of quantum-mechanical origin. This scenario is phenomenologically very appealing as it solves the puzzles of the standard hot big bang model and naturally explains why the spectrum of cosmological perturbations is almost scale invariant. It is also an ideal playground to discuss deep questions among which is the quantum measurement problem in a cosmological context. Although the large squeezing of the quantum state of the perturbations and the phenomenon of decoherence explain many aspects of the quantum-to-classical transition, it remains to understand how a specific outcome can be produced in the early Universe, in the absence of any observer. The continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) approach to quantum mechanics attempts to solve the quantum measurement question in a general context. In this framework, the wave function collapse is caused by adding new nonlinear and stochastic terms to the Schrödinger equation. In this paper, we apply this theory to inflation, which amounts to solving the CSL parametric oscillator case. We choose the wave function collapse to occur on an eigenstate of the Mukhanov-Sasaki variable and discuss the corresponding modified Schrödinger equation. Then, we compute the power spectrum of the perturbations and show that it acquires a universal shape with two branches, one which remains scale invariant and one with nS=4, a spectral index in obvious contradiction with the cosmic microwave background anisotropy observations. The requirement that the non-scale-invariant part be outside the observational window puts stringent constraints on the parameter controlling the deviations from ordinary quantum mechanics. Due to the absence of a CSL amplification mechanism in field theory, this also has the consequence that the collapse mechanism of the inflationary fluctuations is not efficient. Then, we determine the collapse time. On small scales the collapse is

  9. Constraining the history of inflation from microwave background polarimetry and laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caligiuri, Jerod; Kosowsky, Arthur; Kinney, William H.; Seto, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    A period of inflation in the early Universe produces a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves over a huge range in wavelength. If the amplitude of this gravitational wave background is large enough to be detectable with microwave background polarization measurements, it will also be detectable directly with a space-based laser interferometer. Using a Monte Carlo sampling of inflation models, we demonstrate that the combination of these two measurements will strongly constrain the expansion history during inflation and the physical mechanism driving it.

  10. Open inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning

  11. Local Observation in Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    We consider landscape models that admit several regions where the conditions for eternal inflation hold. It is shown that one can use the no-boundary wave function to calculate small departures from homogeneity within our past light cone despite the possibility of much larger fluctuations on super horizon scales. The dominant contribution comes from the history exiting eternal inflation at the lowest value of the potential. In a class of landscape models this predicts a tensor to scalar ratio of about 10%. In this way the no-boundary wave function defines a measure for the prediction of local cosmological observations.

  12. Dynamics of gauge field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marcianò, Antonino

    2015-05-05

    We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the Stückelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.

  13. Air Tight: Building Inflatables/Inflatable Construction: Planning and Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2016-01-01

    A design-build seminar consisting of students from Physics, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Robotic, Material Science, Art, and Architecture who will work together on a deployable "closed-loop" inflatable greenhouse for Mars in theory, and an Earth analogue physical mockup on campus.

  14. Inflatable antennas for microwave pwoer transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Geoff

    1989-01-01

    Operational phase of the inflatable radiator; inflatable space structures; advantages; inflated thin-film satellites; antenna configuration; 3 meter diameter test paraboloid (HAIR program); and weight breakdown for the 100 meter diameter reflector are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  15. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  16. Is Grade Inflation Related to Faculty Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezim, Boualem; Pariseau, Susan E.; Quinn, Frances

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed a statistical analysis to investigate whether grade inflation existed in the business school at a small private college in the northeast region of the United States. The results showed that grade inflation existed and exhibited a linear trend over a 20-year period. The authors found that grade inflation was related to faculty…

  17. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  18. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  19. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  20. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin

    2016-08-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  1. Investigating Inflation in Type IIA

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Kachru, Shamit; Taylor, Washington; Tegmark, Max; /MIT, LNS

    2007-12-14

    We prove that inflation is forbidden in the most well understood class of semi-realistic type IIA string compactifications: Calabi-Yau compactifications with only standard NS-NS 3-form flux, R-R fluxes, D6-branes and O6-planes at large volume and small string coupling. With these ingredients, the first slow-roll parameter satisfies {epsilon} {ge} 27/13 whenever V > 0, ruling out both inflation (including brane/anti-brane inflation) and de Sitter vacua in this limit. Our proof is based on the dependence of the 4-dimensional potential on the volume and dilaton moduli in the presence of fluxes and branes. We also describe broader classes of IIA models which may include cosmologies with inflation and/or de Sitter vacua. The inclusion of extra ingredients, such as NS 5-branes and geometric or non-geometric NS-NS fluxes, evades the assumptions used in deriving the no-go theorem. We focus on NS 5-branes and outline how such ingredients may prove fruitful for cosmology, but we do not provide an explicit model. We contrast the results of our IIA analysis with the rather different situation in IIB.

  2. Space Shuttle inflatable training articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, construction, and testing of the Long Duration Exposure Facility inflatable and the space telescope training articles are discussed. While these articles are of similar nature, materials, and construction, they vary in size and present different problems with regards to size, shape, gross/net lift, and balance.

  3. Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, R. Eric

    1999-01-01

    College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…

  4. Holographic bounds and Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, R.

    2011-05-01

    In a recently proposed scenario for primordial inflation, where the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson plays a role of the inflation field, an effective field theory (EFT) approach is the most convenient for working out the consequences of breaking of perturbative unitarity, caused by the strong coupling of the Higgs field to the Ricci scalar. The domain of validity of the EFT approach is given by the ultraviolet (UV) cutoff, which, roughly speaking, should always exceed the Hubble parameter in the course of inflation. On the other hand, applying the trusted principles of quantum gravity to a local EFT demands that it should only be used to describe states in a region larger than their corresponding Schwarschild radius, manifesting thus a sort of UV/IR correspondence. We consider both constraints on EFT, to ascertain which models of the SM Higgs inflation are able to simultaneously comply with them. We also show that if the gravitational coupling evolves with the scale factor, the holographic constraint can be alleviated significantly with minimal set of canonical assumptions, by forcing the said coupling to be asymptotically free.

  5. Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2012-12-01

    We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f{sub NL}, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.

  6. Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wands, David

    2012-12-01

    We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, fNL, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.

  7. The big bang and inflation united by an analytic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2011-02-15

    Exact analytic solutions for a class of scalar-tensor gravity theories with a hyperbolic scalar potential are presented. Using an exact solution we have successfully constructed a model of inflation that produces the spectral index, the running of the spectral index, and the amplitude of scalar perturbations within the constraints given by the WMAP 7 years data. The model simultaneously describes the big bang and inflation connected by a specific time delay between them so that these two events are regarded as dependent on each other. In solving the Friedmann equations, we have utilized an essential Weyl symmetry of our theory in 3+1 dimensions which is a predicted remaining symmetry of 2T-physics field theory in 4+2 dimensions. This led to a new method of obtaining analytic solutions in the 1T field theory which could in principle be used to solve more complicated theories with more scalar fields. Some additional distinguishing properties of the solution includes the fact that there are early periods of time when the slow-roll approximation is not valid. Furthermore, the inflaton does not decrease monotonically with time; rather, it oscillates around the potential minimum while settling down, unlike the slow-roll approximation. While the model we used for illustration purposes is realistic in most respects, it lacks a mechanism for stopping inflation. The technique of obtaining analytic solutions opens a new window for studying inflation, and other applications, more precisely than using approximations.

  8. Variable gravity: A suitable framework for quintessential inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Wali; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate a scenario of variable gravity and apply it to the unified description of inflation and late-time cosmic acceleration dubbed quintessential inflation. The scalar field called "cosmon," which in this model unifies both the concepts, reduces to the inflaton at early epochs. We calculate the slow-roll parameters, the Hubble parameter at the end of inflation, the reheating temperature, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and we demonstrate the agreement of the model with observations and the Planck data. As for the postinflationary dynamics, the cosmon tracks the background before it exits the scaling regime at late times. The scenario gives rise to the correct epoch sequence of standard cosmology, namely, radiative regime, matter phase, and dark energy. We show that the long kinetic regime after inflation gives rise to enhancement of the relic gravity wave amplitude, resulting in violation of the nucleosynthesis constraint at the commencement of the radiative regime in the case of an inefficient reheating mechanism, such as gravitational particle production. Instant preheating is implemented to successfully circumvent the problem. As a generic feature, the scenario gives rise to a blue spectrum for gravity waves on scales smaller than the comoving horizon scale at the commencement of the radiative regime.

  9. Mathematical issues in eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Kohli, Ikjyot; Haslam, Michael C.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Einstein field equations for a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe in the context of stochastic eternal inflation, where the stochastic mechanism is modelled by adding a stochastic forcing term representing Gaussian white noise to the Klein-Gordon equation. We show that under these considerations, the Klein-Gordon equation actually becomes a stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the existence and uniqueness of solutions to Einstein’s equations depend on whether the coefficients of this stochastic differential equation obey Lipschitz continuity conditions. We show that for any choice of V(φ ), the Einstein field equations are not globally well-posed, hence, any solution found to these equations is not guaranteed to be unique. Instead, the coefficients are at best locally Lipschitz continuous in the physical state space of the dynamical variables, which only exist up to a finite explosion time. We further perform Feller’s explosion test for an arbitrary power-law inflaton potential and prove that all solutions to the Einstein field equations explode in a finite time with probability one. This implies that the mechanism of stochastic inflation thus considered cannot be described to be eternal, since the very concept of eternal inflation implies that the process continues indefinitely. We therefore argue that stochastic inflation based on a stochastic forcing term would not produce an infinite number of universes in some multiverse ensemble. In general, since the Einstein field equations in both situations are not well-posed, we further conclude that the existence of a multiverse via the stochastic eternal inflation mechanism considered in this paper is still very much an open question that will require much deeper investigation.

  10. Axions and inflation: Vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyth, D. H.

    1992-05-01

    Cosmological consequences of the Peccei-Quinn field ψ=reiθ/ √2 are explored. It has a Mexican-hat potential W=1/4λ(r2-f2a)2. During inflation the potential may be modified so that fa has a different effective value fa1; it is assumed that r sits in the vacuum at r=fa1. After inflation the temperature is supposed to be less than fa so that r=fa, and the only degree of freedom is the axion field faθ. It has a Gaussian inhomogeneity coming from the vacuum fluctuation of θ during inflation. When the axion mass ma(T) becomes significant at T~1 GeV, θ has dispersion σθ~=(4/2π)(H1/fa1) and some mean θ¯ (in the observable Universe). The axion potential is U(θ)=(79 MeV)4(1-cosNθ), and the ensuing cosmology is determined by the three parameters fa/N, Nθ¯, and Nσθ. The entire domain of parameter space is considered, including the regime where the axion density perturbation is non-Gaussian and the regime where axionic domain walls are produced. Observational constraints on the parameters are established. At the end of the paper the additional assumption is made that during inflation the vacuum is at r=fa. Unless fa/N is near the Planck scale and axions make up only a small fraction of the dark matter, this leads to the bound V1/41<2×1015 GeV, where V1 is the energy density during inflation, at the epoch when the observable Universe leaves the horizon.

  11. First-order inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this paper, some models for first-order inflation are discussed, and unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition are emphasized. Some of the history of inflation is reviewed to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  12. Bouncing alternatives to inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Marc; Peter, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all the imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Phase 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogurt, Alan; Bennett, Charles

    This is the Lead Proposal for the proposed investigation "Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Phase 2)" We propose to fly the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravitational waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. Such a signal is expected to exist: the simplest inflation models predict tensor-to-scalar ratio 0.01 < r < 0.16 corresponding to detectable amplitudes in the range 30--100 nK. Detection of the inflationary signal would have profound consequences for both cosmology and high-energy physics. Not only would it establish inflation as a physical reality, it would provide a direct, model- independent determination of the relevant energy scale, shedding light on physics at energies twelve orders of magnitude beyond those accessible to direct experimentation in particle accelerators. PIPER is a balloon-borne instrument optimized to detect the inflationary signal on large angular scales. It consists of two co-aligned telescopes cooled to 1.5 K within a large liquid helium bucket dewar. A variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) on each telescope chops between linear and circular polarization to isolate the polarized signal while rejecting the much brighter unpolarized emission. PIPER's innovative architecture combines cryogenic optics with kilo-pixel detector arrays to provide unprecedented sensitivity to CMB polarization. The fast modulation between linear and circular polarization takes advantage of the lack of astrophysical circular polarization to eliminate common sources of systematic error. The sensitivity and control of systematic errors in turn enable measurements over most of the sky from mid-latitude launch sites; long-duration Antarctic flights are not required. With sensitivity r < 0.007 at 95% CL, PIPER will either detect the inflationary signal or rule out nearly all large-field inflation models

  14. Advanced Structural and Inflatable Hybrid Spacecraft Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); Kennedy, Kriss J. (Inventor); Lester, James D. (Inventor); Gupta, Shalini (Inventor); Hess, Linda F. (Inventor); Lin, Chin H. (Inventor); Malecki, Richard H. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  15. Scale invariance and a gravitational model with non-eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Hirano, Shinji

    2012-05-01

    We propose a 3+1 dimensional model of gravity which results in inflation at early times, followed by radiation- and matter-dominated epochs and a subsequent acceleration at late times. Both the inflation and late time acceleration are nearly de Sitter with a large hierarchy between the effective cosmological constants. There is no scalar field agent of inflation, and the transition from the inflation to the radiation-dominated period is smooth. This model is designed so that it yields, at the cost of giving up on Lorentz invariance in the gravitational sector, the Dirac-Born-Infeld type conformal scalar theory when the universe is conformally flat. It, however, resembles Einstein's gravity with the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term in weakly curved space-times.

  16. Hybrid inflation along waterfall trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Clesse, Sebastien

    2011-03-15

    We identify a new inflationary regime for which more than 60 e-folds are generated classically during the waterfall phase occurring after the usual hybrid inflation. By performing a Bayesian Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain analysis, this scenario is shown to take place in a large part of the parameter space of the model. When this occurs, the observable perturbation modes leave the Hubble radius during waterfall inflation. The power spectrum of adiabatic perturbations is red, possibly in agreement with CMB constraints. Particular attention has been given to study only the regions for which quantum backreactions do not affect the classical dynamics. Implications concerning the preheating and the absence of topological defects in our Universe are discussed.

  17. Affleck-Dine sneutrino inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason L.; Gherghetta, Tony; Peloso, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by the coincidence between the Hubble scale during inflation and the typical seesaw neutrino mass scale, we present a supergravity model in which the inflaton is identified with a linear combination of right-handed sneutrino fields. The model accommodates an inflaton potential that is flatter than quadratic chaotic inflation, resulting in a tensor-to-scalar ratio that is measurable but not yet ruled out. Small C P violation in the neutrino mass matrix and supersymmetry breaking yield an evolution in the complex plane for the sneutrino fields. This induces a net lepton charge that, via the Affleck-Dine mechanism, can be the origin of the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  18. Kinetically modified nonminimal chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallis, Constantinos

    2015-06-01

    We consider supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY models of chaotic inflation based on the ϕn potential with 2 ≤n ≤6 . We show that the coexistence of a nonminimal coupling to gravity fR=1 +cRϕn /2 with a kinetic mixing of the form fK=cKfRm can accommodate inflationary observables favored by the Bicep2/Keck Array and Planck results for 0 ≤m ≤4 and 2.5 ×10-4≤rR K=cR/cKn /4≤1 , where the upper limit is not imposed for n =2 . Inflation can be attained for sub-Planckian inflaton values with the corresponding effective theories retaining the perturbative unitarity up to the Planck scale.

  19. Probing Inflation with CMB Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Daniel; Jackson, Mark G.; Adshead, Peter; Easther, Richard; Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Ashoorioon, Amjad; Watson, Scott; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Bean, Rachel; Beltran, Maria; Dvorkin, Cora; Bernardis, Francesco de; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Chen Xingang; Hertzberg, Mark P.

    2009-06-09

    We summarize the utility of precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements as probes of the physics of inflation. We focus on the prospects for using CMB measurements to differentiate various inflationary mechanisms. In particular, a detection of primordial B-mode polarization would demonstrate that inflation occurred at a very high energy scale, and that the inflaton traversed a super-Planckian distance in field space. We explain how such a detection or constraint would illuminate aspects of physics at the Planck scale. Moreover, CMB measurements can constrain the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations and limit the possibility of a significant isocurvature contribution. Each such limit provides crucial information on the underlying inflationary dynamics. Finally, we quantify these considerations by presenting forecasts for the sensitivities of a future satellite experiment to the inflationary parameters.

  20. Planck constraints on monodromy inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael E-mail: flauger@ias.edu

    2014-02-01

    We use data from the nominal Planck mission to constrain modulations in the primordial power spectrum associated with monodromy inflation. The largest improvement in fit relative to the unmodulated model has Δχ{sup 2} ≈ 10 and we find no evidence for a primordial signal, in contrast to a previous analysis of the WMAP9 dataset, for which Δχ{sup 2} ≈ 20. The Planck and WMAP9 results are broadly consistent on angular scales where they are expected to agree as far as best-fit values are concerned. However, even on these scales the significance of the signal is reduced in Planck relative to WMAP, and is consistent with a fit to the ''noise'' associated with cosmic variance. Our results motivate both a detailed comparison between the two experiments and a more careful study of the theoretical predictions of monodromy inflation.

  1. UV-extending ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch

    2014-05-01

    We present a setup that provides a partial UV-completion of the ghost inflation model up to a scale which can be almost as high as the Planck mass. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton to the Lorentz-violating sector described by the Einstein-aether theory or its khronometric version. Compared to previous works on ghost inflation our setup allows to go beyond the study of small perturbations and include the background dynamics in a unified framework. In the specific regime when the expansion of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton we find that the model predicts rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 0.02÷0.2 and non-Gaussianity of equilateral type with f{sub NL} in the range from -50 to -5.

  2. Inflatable Solar Thermal Concentrator Delivered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Space-based solar thermal power systems are very appealing as a space power source because they generate power efficiently. However, solar thermal (dynamic) systems currently incorporate rigid concentrators that are relatively heavy and require significant packaging volume and robust deployment schemes. In many ways, these requirements make these systems less appealing than photovoltaic systems. As an alternative to solar thermal power systems with rigid concentrators, solar thermal power systems with thin film inflation-deployed concentrators have low cost, are lightweight, and are efficiently packaged and deployed. Not only are inflatable concentrators suitable for low Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit applications, but they can be utilized in deep space missions to concentrate solar energy to high-efficiency solar cells.

  3. Coupled inflation and brane gases

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tirthabir; Brandenberger, Robert; Easson, Damien A.; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2005-04-15

    We study an effective four-dimensional theory with an action with two scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity, and with a matter action which couples to the two scalar fields via an overall field-dependent coefficient in the action. Such a theory could arise from a dimensional reduction of supergravity coupled to a gas of branes winding the compactified dimensions. We show the existence of solutions corresponding to power-law inflation. The graceful exit from inflation can be obtained by postulating the decay of the branes, as would occur if the branes are unstable in the vacuum and stabilized at high densities by plasma effects. This construction provides an avenue for connecting string gas cosmology and the late-time universe.

  4. Permutation on hybrid natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Ramos, Raymundo; Sher, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We analyze a model of hybrid natural inflation based on the smallest non-Abelian discrete group S3. Leading invariant terms in the scalar potential have an accidental global symmetry that is spontaneously broken, providing a pseudo-Goldstone boson that is identified as the inflaton. The S3 symmetry restricts both the form of the inflaton potential and the couplings of the inflaton field to the waterfall fields responsible for the end of inflation. We identify viable points in the model parameter space. Although the power in tensor modes is small in most of the parameter space of the model, we identify parameter choices that yield potentially observable values of r without super-Planckian initial values of the inflaton field.

  5. Fluid physics of parachute inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W. )

    1993-08-01

    This article describes the physics of the motion of the parachute and the surrounding air as the parachute emerges from the payload, inflates, and decelerates the payload. Precise calculation of parachute deployment, inflation and payload deceleration requires solution of the nonlinear, time-dependent equations of motion for turbulent, separated airflow around and through the parachute coupled to the equations of motion of the parachute. Because of the difficulty of this problem, parachute designers have for many years relied on empirical methods rather than on analysis. A description is given of the attempts to model the important events numerically so that parachutes can someday be designed on computers instead of by trial-and-error flight tests. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Inflation in the scaling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

    1989-07-15

    We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

  7. Reheating for closed string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-09-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

  8. Chaotic inflation and supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Rube, Tomas; Olive, Keith A.

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the recently proposed class of chaotic inflation models in supergravity with an arbitrary inflaton potential V({phi}). These models are extended to include matter fields in the visible sector and we employ a mechanism of supersymmetry breaking based on a particular phenomenological version of the KKLT mechanism (the KL model). We describe specific features of reheating in this class of models and show how one can solve the cosmological moduli and gravitino problems in this context.

  9. Open inflation without false vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Turok, Neil

    1998-04-01

    We show that within the framework of a definite proposal for the initial conditions for the universe, the Hartle-Hawking ``no boundary'' proposal, open inflation is generic and does not require any special properties of the inflaton potential. In the simplest inflationary models, the semiclassical approximation to the Euclidean path integral and a minimal anthropic condition lead to Ω0~0.01. This number may be increased in models with more fields or extra dimensions.

  10. Duality cascade in brane inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, Rachel; Chen Xingang; Hailu, Girma; Henry Tye, S-H; Xu Jiajun E-mail: xgchen@mit.edu E-mail: tye@lepp.cornell.edu

    2008-03-15

    We show that brane inflation is very sensitive to tiny sharp features in extra dimensions, including those in the potential and in the warp factor. This can show up as observational signatures in the power spectrum and/or non-Gaussianities of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). One general example of such sharp features is a succession of small steps in a warped throat, caused by Seiberg duality cascade using gauge/gravity duality. We study the cosmological observational consequences of these steps in brane inflation. Since the steps come in a series, the prediction of other steps and their properties can be tested by future data and analysis. It is also possible that the steps are too close to be resolved in the power spectrum, in which case they may show up only in the non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations and/or EE polarization. We study two cases. In the slow-roll scenario, where steps appear in the inflaton potential, the sensitivity of brane inflation to the height and width of the steps is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that in previously studied large field models. In the IR DBI scenario, where steps appear in the warp factor, we find that the glitches in the power spectrum caused by these sharp features are generally small or even unobservable, but associated distinctive non-Gaussianity can be large. Together with its large negative running of the power spectrum index, this scenario clearly illustrates how rich and different a brane inflationary scenario can be when compared to generic slow-roll inflation. Such distinctive stringy features may provide a powerful probe of superstring theory.

  11. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hung, Ling-Yan; Shiu, Gary; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-14

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically - embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation can exceed the gravitino mass. Finally, the multiple sets of D7-branes present in this open racetrack setup also provides a mechanism to stabilize the D3-brane to metastable vacua in the intermediate region of the warped throat.

  12. Generalised tensor fluctuations and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, Dario; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: g.tasinato@swansea.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    Using an effective field theory approach to inflation, we examine novel properties of the spectrum of inflationary tensor fluctuations, that arise when breaking some of the symmetries or requirements usually imposed on the dynamics of perturbations. During single-clock inflation, time-reparameterization invariance is broken by a time-dependent cosmological background. In order to explore more general scenarios, we consider the possibility that spatial diffeomorphism invariance is also broken by effective mass terms or by derivative operators for the metric fluctuations in the Lagrangian. We investigate the cosmological consequences of the breaking of spatial diffeomorphisms, focussing on operators that affect the power spectrum of fluctuations. We identify the operators for tensor fluctuations that can provide a blue spectrum without violating the null energy condition, and operators for scalar fluctuations that lead to non-conservation of the comoving curvature perturbation on superhorizon scales even in single-clock inflation. In the last part of our work, we also examine the consequences of operators containing more than two spatial derivatives, discussing how they affect the sound speed of tensor fluctuations, and showing that they can mimic some of the interesting effects of symmetry breaking operators, even in scenarios that preserve spatial diffeomorphism invariance.

  13. Testing split supersymmetry with inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

  14. Unity of cosmological inflation attractors.

    PubMed

    Galante, Mario; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik

    2015-04-10

    Recently, several broad classes of inflationary models have been discovered whose cosmological predictions, in excellent agreement with Planck, are stable with respect to significant modifications of the inflaton potential. Some classes of models are based on a nonminimal coupling to gravity. These models, which we call ξ attractors, describe universal cosmological attractors (including Higgs inflation) and induced inflation models. Another class describes conformal attractors (including Starobinsky inflation and T models) and their generalization to α attractors. The aim of this Letter is to elucidate the common denominator of these attractors: their robust predictions stem from a joint pole of order 2 in the kinetic term of the inflaton field in the Einstein frame formulation prior to switching to the canonical variables. Model-dependent differences only arise at subleading level in the kinetic term. As a final step towards the unification of the different attractors, we introduce a special class of ξ attractors which is fully equivalent to α attractors with the identification α=1+(1/6ξ). While r is generically predicted to be of the order 1/N^{2}, there is no theoretical lower bound on r in this class of models. PMID:25910108

  15. Unity of Cosmological Inflation Attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galante, Mario; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, several broad classes of inflationary models have been discovered whose cosmological predictions, in excellent agreement with Planck, are stable with respect to significant modifications of the inflaton potential. Some classes of models are based on a nonminimal coupling to gravity. These models, which we call ξ attractors, describe universal cosmological attractors (including Higgs inflation) and induced inflation models. Another class describes conformal attractors (including Starobinsky inflation and T models) and their generalization to α attractors. The aim of this Letter is to elucidate the common denominator of these attractors: their robust predictions stem from a joint pole of order 2 in the kinetic term of the inflaton field in the Einstein frame formulation prior to switching to the canonical variables. Model-dependent differences only arise at subleading level in the kinetic term. As a final step towards the unification of the different attractors, we introduce a special class of ξ attractors which is fully equivalent to α attractors with the identification α =1 +(1 /6 ξ ) . While r is generically predicted to be of the order 1 /N2, there is no theoretical lower bound on r in this class of models.

  16. BICEP2 constrains composite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-07-01

    In light of BICEP2, we re-examine single field inflationary models in which the inflation is a composite state stemming from various four-dimensional strongly coupled theories. We study in the Einstein frame a set of cosmological parameters, the primordial spectral index ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, predicted by such models. We confront the predicted results with the joint Planck data, and with the recent BICEP2 data. We constrain the number of e-foldings for composite models of inflation in order to obtain a successful inflation. We find that the minimal composite inflationary model is fully consistent with the Planck data. However it is in tension with the recent BICEP2 data. The observables predicted by the glueball inflationary model can be consistent with both Planck and BICEP2 contours if a suitable number of e-foldings are chosen. Surprisingly, the super Yang-Mills inflationary prediction is significantly consistent with the Planck and BICEP2 observations.

  17. The full squeezed CMB bispectrum from inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Antony

    2012-06-01

    The small-scale CMB temperature we observe on the sky is modulated by perturbations that were super-horizon at recombination, giving differential focussing and lensing that generate a non-zero bispectrum even for single-field inflation where local physics is identical. Understanding this signal is important for primordial non-Gaussianity studies and also parameter constraints from the CMB lensing bispectrum signal. Because of cancellations individual effects can appear larger or smaller than they are in total, so a full analysis may be required to avoid biases. I relate angular scales on the sky to physical scales at recombination using the optical equations, and give full-sky results for the large-scale adiabatic temperature bispectrum from Ricci focussing (expansion of the ray bundle), Weyl lensing (convergence and shear), and temperature redshift modulations of small-scale power. The δN expansion of the beam is described by the constant temperature 3-curvature, and gives a nearly-observable version of the consistency relation prediction from single-field inflation. I give approximate arguments to quantify the likely importance of dynamical effects, and argue that they can be neglected for modulation scales l∼<100, which is sufficient for lensing studies and also allows robust tests of local primordial non-Gaussianity using only the large-scale modulation modes. For accurate numerical results early and late-time ISW effects must be accounted for, though I confirm that the late-time non-linear Rees-Sciama contribution is negligible compared to other more important complications. The total corresponds to f{sub NL} ∼ 7 for Planck-like temperature constraints and f{sub NL} ∼ 11 for cosmic-variance limited data to l{sub max} = 2000. Temperature lensing bispectrum estimates are affected at the 0.2σ level by Ricci focussing, and up to 0.5σ with polarization.

  18. Inflation, quintessence, and the origin of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2015-08-01

    In a unified picture both inflation and present dynamical dark energy arise from the same scalar field. The history of the Universe describes a crossover from a scale invariant "past fixed point" where all particles are massless, to a "future fixed point" for which spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry generates the particle masses. The cosmological solution can be extrapolated to the infinite past in physical time - the universe has no beginning. This is seen most easily in a frame where particle masses and the Planck mass are field-dependent and increase with time. In this "freeze frame" the Universe shrinks and heats up during radiation and matter domination. In the equivalent, but singular Einstein frame cosmic history finds the familiar big bang description. The vicinity of the past fixed point corresponds to inflation. It ends at a first stage of the crossover. A simple model with no more free parameters than ΛCDM predicts for the primordial fluctuations a relation between the tensor amplitude r and the spectral index n, r = 8.19 (1 - n) - 0.137. The crossover is completed by a second stage where the beyond-standard-model sector undergoes the transition to the future fixed point. The resulting increase of neutrino masses stops a cosmological scaling solution, relating the present dark energy density to the present neutrino mass. At present our simple model seems compatible with all observational tests. We discuss how the fixed points can be rooted within quantum gravity in a crossover between ultraviolet and infrared fixed points. Then quantum properties of gravity could be tested both by very early and late cosmology.

  19. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  20. Chromo-natural inflation in the axiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Ippei; Miura, Takashi; Soda, Jiro; CLEO Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    We study chromo-natural inflation in the axiverse. More precisely, we investigate natural inflation with two axions coupled with a SU(2) gauge field. Assuming a hierarchy between the coupling constants, we find that for certain initial conditions, conventional natural inflation commences and continues for tens of e -foldings, and subsequently chromo-natural inflation takes over from natural inflation. For these solutions, we expect that the predictions are in agreement with observations on CMB scales. Moreover, since chromo-natural inflation occurs in the latter part of the inflationary stage, chiral primordial gravitational waves are produced in the interesting frequency range higher than 10-11 Hz , which might be detectable by future gravitational wave observations.

  1. Microwave background anisotropies in quasiopen inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1999-10-01

    Quasiopenness seems to be generic to multifield models of single-bubble open inflation. Instead of producing infinite open universes, these models actually produce an ensemble of very large but finite inflating islands. In this paper we study the possible constraints from CMB anisotropies on existing models of open inflation. The effect of supercurvature anisotropies combined with the quasiopenness of the inflating regions make some models incompatible with observations, and severely reduces the parameter space of others. Supernatural open inflation and the uncoupled two-field model seem to be ruled out due to these constraints for values of Ω0<~0.98. Others, such as the open hybrid inflation model with suitable parameters for the slow roll potential can be made compatible with observations.

  2. Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  3. Studying inflation with future space-based gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Moroi, Takeo; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: moroi@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in our understanding of the B-mode polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB), which provides important information about the inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), we study the possibility to acquire information about the early universe using future space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. We perform a detailed statistical analysis to estimate how well we can determine the reheating temperature after inflation as well as the amplitude, the tensor spectral index, and the running of the inflationary gravitational waves. We discuss how the accuracies depend on noise parameters of the detector and the minimum frequency available in the analysis. Implication of such a study on the test of inflation models is also discussed.

  4. Impact of Lorentz violation on the dynamics of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Avelino, P. P.; Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Rodrigues, J. J.; Menezes, R.

    2009-06-15

    This work deals with the dynamics of inflation in the context of a scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity exhibiting spontaneous Lorentz violation at early times. We describe a first-order formalism which we use to obtain new exact Lorentz violating inflationary solutions for a broad family of models, some in the absence of a potential for the inflaton field. Our results show that different conditions are required to solve the horizon and flatness problems. In particular, we find a necessary condition for inflation to provide a solution to both problems and we show that in inflationary models with no inflaton potential a period of superinflation might be necessary to solve the flatness problem.

  5. New Sources of Gravitational Waves During Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We point out that detectable inflationary tensor modes can be generated by particle or string sources produced during inflation, consistently with the requirements for inflation and constraints from scalar fluctuations. We show via examples that this effect can dominate over the contribution from quantum fluctuations of the metric, occurring even when the inflationary potential energy is too low to produce a comparable signal. Thus a detection of tensor modes from inflation does not automatically constitute a determination of the inflationary Hubble scale.

  6. Effects of Strings in Inflation and Reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Andrew R.

    We argue that many models of inflation in string theory require the usual ten-dimensional compactification geometry to be modified during inflation. Based on arguments from the four-dimensional effective theory, we propose a modified ten-dimensional geometry in which the four-dimensional effective theory is just consistent. We also discuss the implications of the light modes in reheating, following inflation. (Based on work in progress with Anupam Mazumdar and Robert Myers.)

  7. New sources of gravitational waves during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: evas@stanford.edu

    2014-08-01

    We point out that detectable inflationary tensor modes can be generated by particle or string sources produced during inflation, consistently with the requirements for inflation and constraints from scalar fluctuations. We show via examples that this effect can dominate over the contribution from quantum fluctuations of the metric, occurring even when the inflationary potential energy is too low to produce a comparable signal. Thus a detection of tensor modes from inflation does not automatically constitute a determination of the inflationary Hubble scale.

  8. Calculating nonadiabatic pressure perturbations during multifield inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Ian; Christopherson, Adam J.

    2012-03-01

    Isocurvature perturbations naturally occur in models of inflation consisting of more than one scalar field. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of isocurvature perturbations generated at the end of inflation for three different inflationary models consisting of two canonical scalar fields. The amount of nonadiabatic pressure present at the end of inflation can have observational consequences through the generation of vorticity and subsequently the sourcing of B-mode polarization. We compare two different definitions of isocurvature perturbations and show how these quantities evolve in different ways during inflation. Our results are calculated using the open source Pyflation numerical package which is available to download.

  9. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

  10. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation and backreaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-12-01

    We study the backreaction problem in a mechanism of magnetogenesis from inflation. In usual analysis, it has been assumed that the backreaction due to electromagnetic fields spoils inflation once it becomes important. However, there exists no justification for this assumption. Hence, we analyze magnetogenesis from inflation by taking into account the backreaction. On the contrary to the naive expectation, we show that inflation still continues even after the backreaction begins to work. Nevertheless, it turns out that creation of primordial magnetic fields is significantly suppressed due to the backreaction.

  11. Dynamic Deployment Simulations of Inflatable Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of using Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method in LSDYNA to simulate the dynamic deployment of inflatable space structures is investigated. The CV and ALE methods were used to predict the inflation deployments of three folded tube configurations. The CV method was found to be a simple and computationally efficient method that may be adequate for modeling slow inflation deployment sine the inertia of the inflation gas can be neglected. The ALE method was found to be very computationally intensive since it involves the solving of three conservative equations of fluid as well as dealing with complex fluid structure interactions.

  12. Strong dynamics and inflation: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we review how strong dynamics can be efficiently employed as a viable alternative to study the mechanism of cosmic inflation. We examine single-field inflation in which the inflaton emerges as a bound state stemming from various strongly interacting field theories. We constrain the number of e-foldings for composite models of inflation in order to obtain a successful inflation. We study a set of cosmological parameters, e.g., the primordial spectral index ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, and confront the predicted results with the joint Planck data, and with the recent BICEP2 data.

  13. The Cosmic Microwave Background & Inflation, Then & Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Contaldi, Carlo; Pogosyan, Dmitry; Mason, Brian; Myers, Steve; Pearson, Tim; Pen, Ue-Li; Prunet, Simon; Readhead, Tony; Sievers, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The most recent results from the Boomerang, Maxima, DASI, CBI and VSA CMB experiments significantly increase the case for accelerated expansion in the early universe (the inflationary paradigm) and at the current epoch (dark energy dominance). This is especially so when combined with data on high redshift supernovae (SN1) and large scale structure (LSS), encoding information from local cluster abundances, galaxy clustering, and gravitational lensing. There are ``7 pillars of Inflation'' that can be shown with the CMB probe, and at least 5, and possibly 6, of these have already been demonstrated in the CMB data: (1) the effects of a large scale gravitational potential, demonstrated with COBE/DMR in 1992-96 (2) acoustic peaks/dips in the angular power spectrum of the radiation, which tell about the geometry of the Universe, with the large first peak convincingly shown with Boomerang and Maxima data in 2000, a multiple peak/dip pattern shown in data from Boomerang and DASI (2nd, 3rd peaks, first and 2nd dips in 2001) and from CBI (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th peaks, 3rd, 4th dips at 1-sigma in 2002) (3) damping due to shear viscosity and the width of the region over which hydrogen recombination occurred when the universe was 400000 years old (CBI 2002) (4) the primary anisotropies should have a Gaussian distribution (be maximally random) in almost all inflationary models, the best data on this coming from Boomerang; (5) secondary anisotropies associated with nonlinear phenomena subsequent to 400000 years, which must be there and may have been detected by CBI and another experiment, BIMA. Showing the 5 ``pillars'' involves detailed confrontation of the experimental data with theory; e.g., (5) compares the CBI data with predictions from two of the largest cosmological hydrodynamics simulations ever done. DASI, Boomerang and CBI in 2002, AMiBA in 2003, and many other experiments have the sensitivity to demonstrate the next pillar, (6) polarization, which must be there at the ~ 7

  14. G-bounce inflation: towards nonsingular inflation cosmology with galileon field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Taotao; Wang, Yu-Tong

    2015-04-01

    We study a nonsingular bounce inflation model, which can drive the early universe from a contracting phase, bounce into an ordinary inflationary phase, followed by the reheating process. Besides the bounce that avoided the Big-Bang singularity which appears in the standard cosmological scenario, we make use of the Horndesky theory and design the kinetic and potential forms of the lagrangian, so that neither of the two big problems in bouncing cosmology, namely the ghost and the anisotropy problems, will appear. The cosmological perturbations can be generated either in the contracting phase or in the inflationary phase, where in the latter the power spectrum will be scale-invariant and fit the observational data, while in the former the perturbations will have nontrivial features that will be tested by the large scale structure experiments. We also fit our model to the CMB TT power spectrum.

  15. A lightweight inflatable solar array

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, P.K.; Williams, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    L`Garde and Phillips Laboratory have developed a light weight deployable solar array wing in the 200-1000 watt range, on the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology Demonstration (ITSAT Demo) Project. The power density of a flight unit could be as high as 93 W/kg for a 200 Watt-class wing, including structure and deployment mechanisms. In Phase 1, a proof of concept torus and array was constructed and deployed in the laboratory. During Phase 2, a revised torus and array were constructed and tested at L`Garde and the Naval Research Lab. The qualification tests included random vibration, deployment in a thermal vacuum chamber, natural frequency determination, and thermal cycling. The flight design uses 2 mil thick crystalline Si cells on an AO protected flexible Kapton film substrate folded accordion style for stowage. The support structure is a rectangular frame comprised of two inflated then rigidized cylinders, the array stowage box and its cover. The cylinders, flattened, folded and stored for launch, are deployed by inflating with N{sub 2} and rigidized by straining the cylinder laminate material controllably beyond the elastic limit. The engineering protoflight array was designed for optimum power density but, due to availability, some of the components came from excess production runs. Because of this, the actual power density of the test article was 59 W/kg, or 36% less than the baseline flight array. However, using components as designed, the projected 93 w/kg can be achieved. Due to simple deployment mechanism, the cost of an ITSAT-type solar array is about one-half that of competing systems.

  16. Distinguishing between extra natural inflation and natural inflation after BICEP2

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we carefully calculated the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running spectral index, and the running of running spectrum for (extra) natural inflation in order to compare with recent BICEP2 data, PLANCK satellite data and future 21 cm data. We discovered that the prediction for running spectral index and the running of running spectrum in natural inflation is different from that in the case of extra natural inflation. Near future observation for the running spectral index can only provide marginal accuracy which may not allow us distinguishing between extra natural inflation from natural inflation clearly unless the experimental accuracy can be further improved.

  17. Foam rigidized inflatable structural assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L. (Inventor); Schnell, Andrew R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An inflatable and rigidizable structure for use as a habitat or a load bearing structure is disclosed. The structure consists of an outer wall and an inner wall defining a containment member and a bladder. The bladder is pressurized to erect the structure from an initially collapsed state. The containment member is subsequently injected with rigidizable fluid through an arrangement of injection ports. Exhaust gases from the curing rigidizable fluid are vented through an arrangement of exhaust ports. The rate of erection can be controlled by frictional engagement with a container or by using a tether. A method for fabricating a tubular structure is disclosed.

  18. Analysis of Inflatable Rock Bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Charlie C.

    2016-01-01

    An inflatable bolt is integrated in the rock mass through the friction and mechanical interlock at the bolt-rock interface. The pullout resistance of the inflatable bolt is determined by the contact stress at the interface. The contact stress is composed of two parts, termed the primary and secondary contact stresses. The former refers to the stress established during bolt installation and the latter is mobilized when the bolt tends to slip in the borehole owing to the roughness of the borehole surface. The existing analysis of the inflatable rock bolt does not appropriately describe the interaction between the bolt and the rock since the influence of the folded tongue of the bolt on the stiffness of the bolt and the elastic rebound of the bolt tube in the end of bolt installation are ignored. The interaction of the inflatable bolt with the rock is thoroughly analysed by taking into account the elastic displacements of the rock mass and the bolt tube during and after bolt installation in this article. The study aims to reveal the influence of the bolt tongue on the contact stress and the different anchoring mechanisms of the bolt in hard and soft rocks. A new solution to the primary contact stress is derived, which is more realistic than the existing one in describing the interaction between the bolt and the rock. The mechanism of the secondary contact stress is also discussed from the point of view of the mechanical behaviour of the asperities on the borehole surface. The analytical solutions are in agreement with both the laboratory and field pullout test results. The analysis reveals that the primary contact stress decreases with the Young's modulus of the rock mass and increases with the borehole diameter and installation pump pressure. The primary contact stress can be easily established in soft and weak rock but is low or zero in hard and strong rock. In soft and weak rock, the primary contact stress is crucially important for the anchorage of the bolt, while

  19. On Higgs inflation and naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; Lee, H. M.; Trott, Michael

    2010-07-01

    We reexamine recent claims that Einstein-frame scattering in the Higgs inflation model is unitary above the cut-off energy Λ ≃ M p /ξ. We show explicitly how unitarity problems arise in both the Einstein and Jordan frames of the theory. In a covariant gauge they arise from non-minimal Higgs self-couplings, which cannot be removed by field redefinitions because the target space is not flat. In unitary gauge, where there is only a single scalar which can be redefined to achieve canonical kinetic terms, the unitarity problems arise through non-minimal Higgs-gauge couplings.

  20. High dissipative nonminimal warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Shoukrani, Masoomeh

    2016-09-01

    We study a model of warm inflation in which both inflaton field and its derivatives are coupled nonminimally to curvature. We survey the spectrum of the primordial perturbations in high dissipative regime. By expanding the action up to the third order, the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity is studied both in the equilateral and orthogonal configurations. Finally, by adopting four sort of potentials, we compare our model with the Planck 2015 released observational data and obtain some constraints on the model's parameters space in the high dissipation regime.

  1. Inflation with holographic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Miao; Wang, Yi

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the corrections of the holographic dark energy to inflation paradigm. We study the evolution of the holographic dark energy in the inflationary universe in detail, and carry out a model-independent analysis on the holographic dark energy corrections to the primordial scalar power spectrum. It turns out that the corrections generically make the spectrum redder. To be consistent with the experimental data, there must be a upper bound on the reheating temperature. We also discuss the corrections due to different choices of the infrared cutoff.

  2. Dynamical analysis of anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karčiauskas, Mindaugas

    2016-06-01

    The inflaton coupling to a vector field via the f(φ)2F μνFμν term is used in several contexts in the literature, such as to generate primordial magnetic fields, to produce statistically anisotropic curvature perturbation, to support anisotropic inflation, and to circumvent the η-problem. In this work, I perform dynamical analysis of this system allowing for the most general Bianchi I initial conditions. I also confirm the stability of attractor fixed points along phase-space directions that had not been investigated before.

  3. Stochastic inflation and nonlinear gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salopek, D. S.; Bond, J. R.

    1991-02-01

    We show how nonlinear effects of the metric and scalar fields may be included in stochastic inflation. Our formalism can be applied to non-Gaussian fluctuation models for galaxy formation. Fluctuations with wavelengths larger than the horizon length are governed by a network of Langevin equations for the physical fields. Stochastic noise terms arise from quantum fluctuations that are assumed to become classical at horizon crossing and that then contribute to the background. Using Hamilton-Jacobi methods, we solve the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner constraint equations which allows us to separate the growing modes from the decaying ones in the drift phase following each stochastic impulse. We argue that the most reasonable choice of time hypersurfaces for the Langevin system during inflation is T=ln(Ha), where H and a are the local values of the Hubble parameter and the scale factor, since T is the natural time for evolving the short-wavelength scalar field fluctuations in an inhomogeneous background. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation which describes how the probability distribution of scalar field values at a given spatial point evolves in T. Analytic Green's-function solutions obtained for a single scalar field self-interacting through an exponential potential are used to demonstrate (1) if the initial condition of the Hubble parameter is chosen to be consistent with microwave-background limits, H(φ0)/mρ<~10-4, then the fluctuations obey Gaussian statistics to a high precision, independent of the time hypersurface choice and operator-ordering ambiguities in the Fokker-Planck equation, and (2) for scales much larger than our present observable patch of the Universe, the distribution is non-Gaussian, with a tail extending to large energy densities; although there are no observable manifestations, it does show eternal inflation. Lattice simulations of our Langevin network for the exponential potential demonstrate how spatial correlations are incorporated. An initially

  4. Odd tensor modes from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    The existence of a primordial spectrum of gravitational waves is a generic prediction of inflation. Here, I will discuss under what conditions the coupling of a pseudoscalar inflaton to a U(1) gauge field can induce, in a two-step process, gravitational waves with unusual properties such as: (i) a net chirality, (ii) a blue spectrum, (iii) large non-Gaussianities even if the scalar perturbations are approximately Gaussian and (iv) being detectable in the (relatively) near future by ground-based gravitational interferometers.

  5. Searching for inflation in simple string theory models: An astrophysical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Tegmark, Max; Kachru, Shamit; Shelton, Jessie; Özcan, Onur

    2007-11-01

    Attempts to connect string theory with astrophysical observation are hampered by a jargon barrier, where an intimidating profusion of orientifolds, Kähler potentials, etc. dissuades cosmologists from attempting to work out the astrophysical observables of specific string theory solutions from the recent literature. We attempt to help bridge this gap by giving a pedagogical exposition with detailed examples, aimed at astrophysicists and high energy theorists alike, of how to compute predictions for familiar cosmological parameters when starting with a 10-dimensional string theory action. This is done by investigating inflation in string theory, since inflation is the dominant paradigm for how early universe physics determines cosmological parameters. We analyze three explicit string models from the recent literature, each containing an infinite number of vacuum solutions. Our numerical investigation of some natural candidate inflatons, the so-called “moduli fields,” fails to find inflation. We also find in the simplest models that, after suitable field redefinitions, vast numbers of these vacua differ only in an overall constant multiplying the effective inflaton potential, a difference which affects neither the potential’s shape nor its ability to support slow-roll inflation. This illustrates that even having an infinite number of vacua does not guarantee having inflating ones. This may be an artifact of the simplicity of the models that we study. Instead, more complicated string theory models appear to be required, suggesting that identifying the inflating subset of the string landscape will be challenging.

  6. Static Shape Control of Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, M.; Kuo, C. P.; Garba, J.; Wada, B.; Thomas, M.

    1994-01-01

    Inflatable structural concepts have been proposed for numerous applications such as antennas for microwave remote sensing, space-based interferometry, solar concentrators, and for dual purposes (e.g. concentrator for power/antenna for communication). In comparison to other mechanically deployable systems, inflatable structures have significant advantages of a much lower cost, weight, and packaging volume, but higher deployment reliability and damping properties.

  7. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  8. Inflation Metaphor in Contemporary American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Chen, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Inflation is often regarded as a dangerous phenomenon which poses a potential threat to economies in the world. It is thus an entity that demands the constant attention of economists, policymakers and the general public. In order to make this abstract entry more concrete and vivid, a number of metaphorical expressions are used to depict inflation.…

  9. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  10. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  11. Inflatable-Seal Assembly For Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Kurt; Fesmire, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Connector for cryogenic fluid lines quickly joined or separated, seals tightly, and reduces transfer of heat to fluid. Features redundant sealing rings inflated after joining so they wedge tightly against connector base, preventing leakage. Cylinder of FEP inflatable. Pair of threaded stainless-steel rings - one at each end of cylinder - secure cylinder in quick-disconnect assembly.

  12. 76 FR 17561 - Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). E. Public..., subpart 160.076 (Inflatable Recreational Personal Floatation Devices); 60 FR 32835 (June 23, 1995... after more experience is gained with the approval of inflatable PFDs for adults.'' 60 FR 32839,...

  13. Inflatable antenna for earth observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Jian; Guan, Fu-ling; Xu, Yan; Yi, Min

    2010-09-01

    This paper describe mechanical design, dynamic analysis, and deployment demonstration of the antenna , and the photogrammetry detecting RMS of inflatable antenna surface, the possible errors results form the measurement are also analysed. Ticra's Grasp software are used to predict the inflatable antenna pattern based on the coordinates of the 460 points on the parabolic surface, the final results verified the whole design process.

  14. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score; and high school GPA after controlling for test scores, a…

  15. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling for…

  16. Structural Considerations of Inflatable Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Robert W.; Brooks, George W.; McComb, Harvey G., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The state of the design art for inflated structures applicable to reentry vehicles is discussed. Included are material properties, calculations of buckling and collapse loads, and calculations of deflections and vibration frequencies. A new theory for the analysis of inflated plates is presented and compared with experiment.

  17. Postmortem inflation and fixation of human lungs

    PubMed Central

    Wright, B. M.; Slavin, G.; Kreel, L.; Callan, K.; Sandin, Brenda

    1974-01-01

    Wright, B. M., Slavin, G., Kreel, L., Callan, K., and Sandin, Brenda (1974).Thorax, 29, 189-194. Postmortem inflation and fixation of human lungs. A method of fixing lungs by inflating them with heated formalin vapour is described. This method facilitates postmortem correlations between radiographic and histological appearances. Images PMID:4598582

  18. Natural inflation: consistency with cosmic microwave background observations of Planck and BICEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.

    2015-03-01

    Natural inflation is a good fit to all cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and may be the correct description of an early inflationary expansion of the Universe. The large angular scale CMB polarization experiment BICEP2 has announced a major discovery, which can be explained as the gravitational wave signature of inflation, at a level that matches predictions by natural inflation models. The natural inflation (NI) potential is theoretically exceptionally well motivated in that it is naturally flat due to shift symmetries, and in the simplest version takes the form V(phi) = Λ4 [1 ± cos(Nphi/f)]. A tensor-to-scalar ratio r > 0.1 as seen by BICEP2 requires the height of any inflationary potential to be comparable to the scale of grand unification and the width to be comparable to the Planck scale. The Cosine Natural Inflation model agrees with all cosmic microwave background measurements as long as f >= mPl (where mPl = 1.22 × 1019 GeV) and Λ ~ mGUT ~ 1016 GeV. This paper also discusses other variants of the natural inflation scenario: we show that axion monodromy with potential Vpropto phi2/3 is inconsistent with the BICEP2 limits at the 95% confidence level, and low-scale inflation is strongly ruled out. Linear potentials V propto phi are inconsistent with the BICEP2 limit at the 95% confidence level, but are marginally consistent with a joint Planck/BICEP2 limit at 95%. We discuss the pseudo-Nambu Goldstone model proposed by Kinney and Mahanthappa as a concrete realization of low-scale inflation. While the low-scale limit of the model is inconsistent with the data, the large-field limit of the model is marginally consistent with BICEP2. All of the models considered predict negligible running of the scalar spectral index, and would be ruled out by a detection of running.

  19. Can inflation be connected to low energy particle physics?

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, Mark P.

    2012-08-01

    It is an interesting question whether low energy degrees of freedom may be responsible for early universe inflation. To examine this, here we present a simple version of Higgs-inflation with minimal coupling to gravity and a quadratic inflationary potential. This quantitatively differs from the popular non-minimally coupled models, although it is qualitatively similar. In all such models, new heavy fields must enter in order for the theory to be well behaved in the UV. We show that in all cases the Higgs self coupling λ must be quite small in order to integrate out the heavy fields and use the resulting low energy effective field theory of the Higgs to describe inflation. For moderately sized λ, the UV completion is required and will, in general, determine the inflationary regime. We discuss the important issue of the arbitrariness of the Lagrangians used in all these setups by presenting a new class of such models, including a supergravity version. This suggests that the inflationary potential is disconnected from low energy physics.

  20. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator for Planetary Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad; Hund, Richard; Kustas, Frank; Willcockson, William; Songer, Jarvis; Brown, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and may eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell.

  1. Sneutrino hybrid inflation and nonthermal leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Baumann, Jochen P.; Domcke, Valerie F.; Kostka, Philipp M. E-mail: jbaumann@mppmu.mpg.de E-mail: kostka@mppmu.mpg.de

    2010-10-01

    In sneutrino hybrid inflation the superpartner of one of the right-handed neutrinos involved in the seesaw mechanism plays the role of the inflaton field. It obtains its large mass after the ''waterfall'' phase transition which ends hybrid inflation. After this phase transition the oscillations of the sneutrino inflaton field may dominate the universe and efficiently produce the baryon asymmetry of the universe via nonthermal leptogenesis. We investigate the conditions under which inflation, with primordial perturbations in accordance with the latest WMAP results, as well as successful nonthermal leptogenesis can be realized simultaneously within the sneutrino hybrid inflation scenario. We point out which requirements successful inflation and leptogenesis impose on the seesaw parameters, i.e. on the Yukawa couplings and the mass of the right-handed (s)neutrino, and derive the predictions for the CMB observables in terms of the right-handed (s)neutrino mass and the other relevant model parameters.

  2. Attraction towards an inflection point inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2008-09-15

    Many models of high-energy physics possess metastable vacua. It is conceivable that the Universe can get trapped in such a false vacuum, irrespective of its origin and prior history, at an earlier stage during its evolution. The ensuing false vacuum inflation results in a cold and empty universe and has a generic graceful exit problem. We show that an inflection point inflation along the flat directions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) can resolve this graceful exit problem by inflating the bubble, which nucleates out of a false vacuum. The important point is that the initial condition for an MSSM inflation can be naturally realized, due to an attractor behavior toward the inflection point. We investigate these issues in detail and also present an example where metastable vacua, hence the false vacuum inflation, can happen within the MSSM.

  3. Multi-stream inflation in a landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Duplessis, Francis; Wang, Yi; Brandenberger, Robert E-mail: wangyi@hep.physics.mcgill.ca

    2012-04-01

    There are hidden observables for inflation, such as features localized in position space, which do not manifest themselves when only one inflation trajectory is considered. To address this issue, we investigate inflation dynamics in a landscape mimicked by a random potential. We calculate the probability for bifurcation of the inflation trajectory in multi-stream inflation. Depending on the shape of the random bumps and the distance between bumps in the potential, there is a phase transition: on one side of the critical curve in parameter space isocurvature fluctuation are exponentially amplified and bifurcation becomes very probable. On the other side bifurcation is dominated by a random walk where bifurcations are less likely to happen.

  4. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis just after inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new scenario of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis where a flat direction in the MSSM generates B -L asymmetry just after the end of inflation. The resulting amount of baryon asymmetry is independent of low-energy supersymmetric models but is dependent on inflation models. We consider the hybrid and chaotic inflation models and find that reheating temperature is required to be higher than that in the conventional scenario of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. In particular, nonthermal gravitino-overproduction problem is naturally avoided in the hybrid inflation model. Our results imply that Affleck-Dine baryogenesis can be realized in a broader range of supersymmetry and inflation models than expected in the literature.

  5. Initial '80s Development of Inflated Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friese, G. J.; Bilyeu, G. D.; Thomas, M.

    1983-01-01

    State of the art technology was considered in the definition and documentation of a membrane surface suitable for use in a space reflector system for long durations in orbit. Requirements for a metal foil-plastic laminate structural element were determined and a laboratory model of a rigidized element to test for strength characteristics was constructed. Characteristics of antennas ranging from 10 meters to 1000 meters were determined. The basic antenna configuration studied consists of (1) a thin film reflector, (2) a thin film cone, (3) a self-rigidizing structural torus at the interface of the cone and reflector; and (4) an inflation system. The reflector is metallized and, when inflated, has a parabolic shape. The cone not only completes the enclosure of the inflatant, but also holds the antenna feed at its apex. The torus keeps the inflated cone-reflector from collapsing inward. Laser test equipment determined the accuracy of the inflated paraboloids.

  6. First-order inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    I discuss the most recent model of inflation. In first-order inflation the inflationary epoch is associated with a first-order phase transition, with the most likely candidate being GUT symmetry breaking. The transition from the false-vacuum inflationary phase to the true-vacuum radiation-dominated phase proceeds through the nucleation and percolation of true-vacuum bubbles. The first successful and simplest model of first-order inflation, extended inflation, is discussed in some detail: evolution of the cosmic-scale factor, reheating, density perturbations, and the production of gravitational waves both from quantum fluctuations and bubble collisions. Particular attention is paid to the most critical issue in any model of first-order inflation: the requirements on the nucleation rate to ensure a graceful transition from the inflationary phase to the radiation-dominated phase.

  7. Observational signatures of Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enckell, Vera-Maria; Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the dependency of Higgs inflation on the non-renormalisable matching between the low energy Standard Model limit and the inflationary regime at high energies. We show that for the top mass range mt gtrsim 171.8 GeV the scenario robustly predicts the spectral index ns simeq 0.97 and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r simeq 0.003. The matching is however non-trivial, even the best-fit values mh = 125.09 GeV and mt = 173.21 GeV require a jump δλ ~ 0.01 in the Higgs coupling below the inflationary scale. For mt lesssim 171.8 GeV, the matching may generate a feature in the inflationary potential. In this case the predicted values of ns and r vary but the model is still falsifiable. For example, a detection of negative running of spectral index at level αs lesssim ‑0.01 would rule out Higgs inflation.

  8. Superimposed oscillations in brane inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ávila, Santiago; Martin, Jérôme; Steer, Danièle A. E-mail: jmartin@iap.fr

    2014-08-01

    In canonical scalar field inflation, the Starobinsky model (with a linear potential but discontinuous slope) is remarkable in that though slow-roll is violated, both the power-spectrum and bi-spectrum can be calculated exactly analytically. The two-point function is characterised by different power on large and small scales, and a burst of small amplitude superimposed oscillations in between. We extend this analysis to Dirac Born Infeld (DBI) inflation, for which generalised slow-roll is violated at the discontinuity and a rapid variation in the speed of sound c{sub S} occurs. In an attempt to characterise the effect of non-linear kinetic terms on the oscillatory features of the primordial power-spectrum, we show that the resulting power spectrum has a shape and features which differ significantly from those of the standard Starobinsky model. In particular, when c{sub S} is small, the power-spectrum now takes very similar scale invariant values on large and small scales, while on intermediate scales it is characterised by much larger amplitude and higher frequency superimposed oscillations. We also show that calculating non-Gaussianities in this model is a complicated but interesting task since all terms in the cubic action now contribute. Investigating whether the superimposed oscillations could fit to the Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data (for instance by explaining the large scale Planck anomalies) with, at the same time, small non-Gaussianities remains an intriguing and open possibility.

  9. Inflation from asymptotically safe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-05-01

    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, different from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the existence of a controllable ultraviolet interacting fixed point. The scalar couplings at the ultraviolet fixed point and their overall running are predicted by the geometric structure of the underlying theory. We analyze the minimal and nonminimal coupling to gravity of these theories and the consequences for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large nonperturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with the data, while in the nonminimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce the observed amplitude of density perturbations constrains the geometric data of the theory such as the number of colors and flavors for generic values of the nonminimal coupling.

  10. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  11. The CMB modulation from inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyth, David H.

    2013-08-01

    Erickcek, Kamionkowski and Carroll proposed in 2008 that the dipole modulation of the CMB could be due to a very large scale perturbation of the field φ causing the primordial curvature perturbation. We repeat their calculation using weaker assumptions and the current data. If φ is the inflaton of any single-field inflation with the attractor behaviour, the asymmetry is almost certainly too small. If instead φ is any curvaton-type field (ie. one with the canonical kinetic term and a negligible effect during inflation) the asymmetry can agree with observation if |f{sub NL}| in the equilateral configuration is ≅ 10 for k{sup −1} = 1Gpc and ∼<3 for k{sup −1} = 1Mpc. An f{sub NL} with these properties can apparently be obtained from the curvaton with an axionic potential. Within any specific curvaton-type model, the function f{sub NL}(k{sub 1},k{sub 2},k{sub 3}) required to generate the asymmetry would be determined, and could perhaps already be confirmed or ruled out using existing Planck or WMAP data.

  12. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  13. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Meyer, Stephan M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Seiffert, Michael D.; Spergel, David N.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from frequencies 30 GHz to 6 THz (I cm to 50 I-tm wavelength). PIXIE uses a polarizing Michelson interferometer with 2.7 K optics to measure the difference spectrum between two orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view either the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. The multimoded optics and high etendu provide sensitivity comparable to kilo-pixel focal plane arrays, but with greatly expanded frequency coverage while using only 4 detectors total. PIXIE builds on the highly successful COBEIFIRAS design by adding large-area polarization-sensitive detectors whose fully symmetric optics are maintained in thermal equilibrium with the CMB. The highly symmetric nulled design provides redundant rejection of major sources of systematic uncertainty. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much less than 10(exp -3). PIXIE will also return a rich data set constraining physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology, reionization, and large-scale structure to the local interstellar medium. Keywords: cosmic microwave background, polarization, FTS, bolometer

  14. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part II: Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stinckens, Evelyn; Vergauwen, Lucia; Schroeder, Anthony L; Maho, Walid; Blackwell, Brett R; Witters, Hilda; Blust, Ronny; Ankley, Gerald T; Covaci, Adrian; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Knapen, Dries

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of the thyroid hormone (TH) system, an important mode of action, can lead to ecologically relevant adverse outcomes, especially during embryonic development. The present study characterizes the effects of disruption of TH synthesis on swim bladder inflation during zebrafish early-life stages using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibitor. Zebrafish were exposed to different MBT concentrations until 120/168h post fertilization (hpf) and 32days post fertilization (dpf), in two sets of experiments, to investigate the effects of TPO inhibition on posterior and anterior swim bladder inflation respectively, as well as whole body thyroid hormone concentrations (triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4)). At 120hpf, MBT did not directly impair posterior chamber inflation or size, while anterior chamber inflation and size was impaired at 32dpf. As previously shown in amphibians and mammals, we confirmed that MBT inhibits TPO in fish. Whole-body T4 decreased after MBT exposure at both time points, while T3 levels were unaltered. There was a significant relationship between T4 levels and the anterior chamber surface at 32dpf. The absence of effects on posterior chamber inflation can possibly be explained by maternal transfer of T4 into the eggs. These maternally derived THs are depleted at 32dpf and cannot offset TPO inhibition, resulting in impaired anterior chamber inflation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TPO inhibition only inhibits swim bladder inflation during late development, after depletion of maternally derived T4. In a previous study, we showed that iodothyronine deiodinase (ID) knockdown impaired posterior chamber inflation during early development. Our findings, in parallel with similar effects observed in fathead minnow (see part I, this issue) suggest that thyroid disruption impacts swim bladder inflation, and imply an important distinction among specific subtypes of TH disrupting chemicals. However, the

  15. Inflation and accelerated expansion tensor-vector-scalar cosmological solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Rivera, Luz Maria; Samushia, Lado; Ratra, Bharat

    2006-04-15

    We find exact exponentially expanding and contracting de Sitter solutions of the spatially homogeneous TeVeS cosmological equations of motion in the vacuum TeVeS model and a power law accelerated expanding solution in the presence of an additional ideal fluid with equation of state parameter -5/3<{omega}<-1. A preliminary stability analysis shows that the expanding vacuum solution is stable, while in the ideal fluid case stability depends on model parameter values. These solutions might provide a basis for incorporating early-time inflation or late-time accelerated expansion in TeVeS cosmology.

  16. Testing two-field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Courtney M.; Tegmark, Max

    2011-01-01

    We derive accurate semianalytic formulas for the power spectra from two-field inflation assuming an arbitrary potential and arbitrary noncanonical kinetic terms, and we use them both to build phenomenological intuition and to constrain classes of two-field models using WMAP data. Using covariant formalism, we first develop a framework for understanding the background field kinematics and introduce a “slow-turn” approximation. Next, we find covariant expressions for the evolution of the adiabatic/curvature and entropy/isocurvature modes, and we discuss how the evolution of modes can be inferred mostly from the background kinematics and the geometry of the field manifold. From these expressions, we derive semianalytic formulas for the curvature, isocurvature, and cross spectra, and the standard spectral observables, all to second order in the slow-roll and slow-turn approximations. In tandem, we show how our covariant formalism provides useful intuition into how the general features of the inflationary Lagrangian translate into distinct features in the observable power spectra. In particular, we find that key features of the power spectra can be directly read off from the nature of the roll path, the curve the field vector rolls along with respect to the two-dimensional field manifold. For example, models whose roll path makes a sharp turn around 60 e-foldings before the end of inflation tend to be ruled out because they produce stronger departures from scale invariance than are allowed by the latest CMB observations. Finally, we apply our formalism to confront four classes of two-field models with WMAP data, including doubly quadratic and quartic potentials and nonstandard kinetic terms, showing how whether a model is ruled out or not depends not only on certain features of the inflationary Lagrangian, but also on the initial conditions. Ultimately, for a two-field model to be consistent with observations, we show that it must possess the right balance of

  17. Cosmic background radiation anisotropy in an open inflation, cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Ratra, Bharat; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    We compute the cosmic background radiation anisotropy, produced by energy-density fluctuations generated during an early epoch of inflation, in an open cosmological model based on the cold dark matter scenario. At Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalized open model appears to be consistent with most observations.

  18. Attractor behaviour in ELKO cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Abhishek; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Shankaranarayanan, S.; Prasantha Varma, K. V.

    2013-04-01

    We study the dynamics of ELKO in the context of accelerated phase of our universe. To avoid the fine tuning problem associated with the initial conditions, it is required that the dynamical equations lead to an early-time attractor. In the earlier works, it was shown that the dynamical equations containing ELKO fields do not lead to early-time stable fixed points. In this work, using redefinition of variables, we show that ELKO cosmology admits early-time stable fixed points. More interestingly, we show that ELKO cosmology admit two sets of attractor points corresponding to slow and fast-roll inflation. The fast-roll inflation attractor point is unique for ELKO as it is independent of the form of the potential. We also discuss the plausible choice of interaction terms in these two sets of attractor points and constraints on the coupling constant.

  19. Rotation, inflation, and lithium in the Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2015-06-01

    The rapidly rotating cool dwarfs of the Pleiades are rich in lithium relative to their slowly rotating counterparts. Motivated by observations of inflated radii in young, active stars, and by calculations showing that radius inflation inhibits pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) Li destruction, we test whether this pattern could arise from a connection between stellar rotation rate and radius inflation on the pre-MS. We demonstrate that pre-MS radius inflation can efficiently suppress lithium destruction by rotationally induced mixing in evolutionary models, and that the net effect of inflation and rotational mixing is a pattern where rotation correlates with lithium abundance for M* < M⊙, and anticorrelates with lithium abundance for M* > M⊙, similar to the empirical trend in the Pleiades. Next, we adopt different prescriptions for the dependence of inflation on rotation, and compare their predictions to the Pleiades lithium/rotation pattern. We find that if a connection between rotation and radius inflation exists, then the important qualitative features of this pattern naturally and generically emerge in our models. This is the first consistent physical model to date that explains the Li-rotation correlation in the Pleiades. We discuss plausible mechanisms for inducing this correlation and suggest an observational test using granulation.

  20. The expected anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu E-mail: unal@physics.umn.edu

    2014-11-01

    Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ''solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F{sup 2} gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

  1. Negative running can prevent eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.; Freese, Katherine E-mail: ktfreese@umich.edu

    2015-01-01

    Current data from the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 telescope favor, at around the 2 σ level, negative running of the spectral index of curvature perturbations from inflation. We show that for negative running α < 0, the curvature perturbation amplitude has a maximum on scales larger than our current horizon size. A condition for the absence of eternal inflation is that the curvature perturbation amplitude always remain below unity on superhorizon scales. For current bounds on n{sub S} from Planck, this corresponds to an upper bound of the running α < −9 × 10{sup −5}, so that even tiny running of the scalar spectral index is sufficient to prevent eternal inflation from occurring, as long as the running remains negative on scales outside the horizon. In single-field inflation models, negative running is associated with a finite duration of inflation: we show that eternal inflation may not occur even in cases where inflation lasts as long as 10{sup 4} e-folds.

  2. No-scale ripple inflation revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianjun; Li, Zhijin; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. E-mail: lizhijin@physics.tamu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We revisit the no-scale ripple inflation model, where no-scale supergravity is modified by an additional term for the inflaton field in the Kähler potential. This term not only breaks one SU(N,1) symmetry explicitly, but also plays an important role for inflation. We generalize the superpotential in the no-scale ripple inflation model slightly. There exists a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry/parity in the scalar potential in general, which can be preserved or violated by the non-canonical nomalized inflaton kinetic term. Thus, there are three inflation paths: one parity invariant path, and the left and right paths for parity violating scenario. We show that the inflations along the parity invariant path and right path are consistent with the Planck results. However, the gavitino mass for the parity invariant path is so large that the inflation results will be invalid if we consider the inflaton supersymmetry breaking soft mass term. Thus, only the inflation along the right path gives the correct and consistent results. Notably, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such case can be large, with a value around 0.05, which may be probed by the future Planck experiment.

  3. The development of inflatable array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.

    2001-01-01

    Inflatable array antennas are being developed to significantly reduce the mass, the launch vehicle's stowage volume, and the cost of future spacecraft systems. Three inflatable array antennas, recently developed for spacecraft applications, are a 3.3 m x 1.0 m L-band synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) array, a 1.0 m-diameter X-band telecom reflectarray, and a 3 m-diameter Ka-band telecom reflectarray. All three antennas are similar in construction, and each consists of an inflatable tubular frame that supports and tensions a multi-layer thin-membrane RF radiating surface with printed microstrip patches. The L-band SAR array achieved a bandwidth of 80 MHz, an aperture efficiency of 74%, and a total mass of 15 kg. The X-band reflectarray achieved an aperture efficiency of 37%, good radiation patterns, and a total mass of 1.2 kg (excluding the inflation system). The 3 m Ka-band reflectarray achieved a surface flatness of 0.1 mm RMS, good radiation patterns, and a total mass of 12.8 kg (excluding the inflation system). These antennas demonstrated that inflatable arrays are feasible across the microwave and millimeter-wave spectrums. Further developments of these antennas are deemed necessary, in particular, in the area of qualifying the inflatable structures for space-environment usage.

  4. Nonthermal gravitino production in tribrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik

    2015-10-01

    We investigate nonthermal gravitino production after tribrid inflation in supergravity, which is a variant of supersymmetric hybrid inflation where three fields are involved in the inflationary model and where the inflaton field resides in the matter sector of the theory. In contrast to conventional supersymmetric hybrid inflation, where nonthermal gravitino production imposes severe constraints on the inflationary model, we find that the "nonthermal gravitino problem" is generically absent in models of tribrid inflation, mainly due to two effects: (i) With the inflaton in tribrid inflation (after inflation) being lighter than the waterfall field, the latter has a second decay channel with a much larger rate than for the decay into gravitinos. This reduces the branching ratio for the decay of the waterfall field into gravitinos. (ii) The inflaton generically decays later than the waterfall field, and it does not produce gravitinos when it decays. This leads to a dilution of the gravitino population from the decays of the waterfall field. The combination of both effects generically leads to a strongly reduced gravitino production in tribrid inflation.

  5. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-05-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.

  6. 12 CFR 263.65 - Civil penalty inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty inflation adjustments. 263.65... Money Penalties § 263.65 Civil penalty inflation adjustments. (a) Inflation adjustments. In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note), the Board...

  7. 78 FR 5760 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 326 RIN 0710-AA66 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation... Clean Water Act and the National Fishing Enhancement Act to account for inflation. The adjustment of civil penalties to account for inflation is required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation...

  8. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable...

  9. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable...

  10. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable...

  11. 12 CFR 263.65 - Civil penalty inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil penalty inflation adjustments. 263.65... Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.65 Civil penalty inflation adjustments. (a) Inflation Adjustments. In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, 28 U.S.C. 2461...

  12. 12 CFR 263.65 - Civil penalty inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalty inflation adjustments. 263.65... Money Penalties § 263.65 Civil penalty inflation adjustments. (a) Inflation adjustments. In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note), the Board...

  13. 12 CFR 263.65 - Civil penalty inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil penalty inflation adjustments. 263.65... Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.65 Civil penalty inflation adjustments. (a) Inflation adjustments. In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461...

  14. 12 CFR 263.65 - Civil penalty inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil penalty inflation adjustments. 263.65... Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.65 Civil penalty inflation adjustments. (a) Inflation Adjustments. In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, 28 U.S.C. 2461...

  15. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief review of Cosmological Inflation from the personal perspective of the speaker who almost 30 years ago proposed a way of resolving the problem of Cosmological Horizon by employing certain notions and developments from the field of High Energy Physics. Along with a brief introduction of the Horizon and Flatness problems of standard cosmology, this lecture concentrates on personal reminiscing of the notions and ideas that prevailed and influenced the author's thinking at the time. The lecture then touches upon some more recent developments related to the subject including exact solutions to conformal gravity that provide a first principles emergence of a characteristic acceleration in the universe and concludes with some personal views concerning the direction that the cosmology field has taken in the past couple of decades and certain speculations some notions that may indicate future directions of research.

  16. Correlation functions in stochastic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennin, Vincent; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2015-09-01

    Combining the stochastic and formalisms, we derive non-perturbative analytical expressions for all correlation functions of scalar perturbations in single-field, slow-roll inflation. The standard, classical formulas are recovered as saddle-point limits of the full results. This yields a classicality criterion that shows that stochastic effects are small only if the potential is sub-Planckian and not too flat. The saddle-point approximation also provides an expansion scheme for calculating stochastic corrections to observable quantities perturbatively in this regime. In the opposite regime, we show that a strong suppression in the power spectrum is generically obtained, and we comment on the physical implications of this effect.

  17. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  18. Polynomial chaotic inflation in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    We present a general polynomial chaotic inflation model in supergravity, for which the predicted spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio can lie within the 1σ region allowed by the Planck results. Most importantly, the predicted tensor-to-scalar ratio is large enough to be probed in the on-going and future B-mode experiments. We study the inflaton dynamics and the subsequent reheating process in a couple of specific examples. The non-thermal gravitino production from the inflaton decay can be suppressed in a case with a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. We find that the reheating temperature can be naturally as high as O(10{sup 9−10}) GeV, sufficient for baryon asymmetry generation through (non-)thermal leptogenesis.

  19. Leptogenesis in Complex Hybrid Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Prieto, Carlos

    2008-12-04

    We study the transference of an initial leptonic charge contained in a complex scalar field (waterfall field) at the end of the inflation to the leptons of the standard model and then convert this leptonic charge in baryonic charge by sphaleron process. The proposal is that this is done trough the decay of the complex scalar field particles into the the right-handed neutrino which in turn decays into the left-handed lepton doublet and the Higgs field of the standard model. It must be analyzed in what environment the transference is done. We propose that the inflaton (the dominant energy density of the universe) decay into ultrarelativistic fermions before the waterfall field particles decay in the right handed-neutrino, leaving a thermalized bath where the transference of the leptonic asymmetry can be achieved.

  20. Curvaton in large field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We comprehensively explore the quadratic curvaton models in the chaotic inflation. In the light of the BICEP2 result r ≈ 0.2, all model parameters and relevant observables are computed. It is found the curvaton field value is constrained into a narrow range, σ{sub *} = O(10{sup −2}–10{sup −1}) and the running of the spectral index is n{sub s}'∼>−10{sup −3}. We show that if the curvaton is added, the models are heavily degenerated on the n{sub s} - r plane. However, introducing a new plane, the degeneracy can be resolved. To distinguish the curvaton models, precise measurements of not only r but also n{sub s}' and the tensor tilt n{sub T} are required.

  1. Planck 2015 results and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, François R.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck mission prime objective was a very accurate and complete measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Cosmological results from the intensity data of the nominal mission of a duration of 15 months were disclosed on 21 March 2013. Fortunately, the satellite kept acquiring data for at least twice longer, and we announced in February 2015 new results based on all the data acquired, both in temperature and polarization. I provide a short overview of the latest data and findings of most interest for inflation, as a basis for the other contributions to this volume. This overview is entirely based on the published or submitted works of the Planck collaboration. xml:lang="fr"

  2. Gravitational baryogenesis after anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-05-01

    The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence, it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.

  3. Pressure-limited sustained inflation vs. gradual tidal inflations for resuscitation in preterm lambs

    PubMed Central

    Polglase, Graeme R.; Bhatia, Risha; Berry, Clare A.; Kopotic, Robert J.; Kopotic, Clinton P.; Song, Yong; Szyld, Edgardo; Jobe, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Support of the mechanically complex preterm lung needs to facilitate aeration while avoiding ventilation heterogeneities: whether to achieve this gradually or quickly remains unclear. We compared the effect of gradual vs. constant tidal inflations and a pressure-limited sustained inflation (SI) at birth on gas exchange, lung mechanics, gravity-dependent lung volume distribution, and lung injury in 131-day gestation preterm lambs. Lambs were resuscitated with either 1) a 20-s, 40-cmH2O pressure-limited SI (PressSI), 2) a gradual increase in tidal volume (Vt) over 5-min from 3 ml/kg to 7 ml/kg (IncrVt), or 3) 7 ml/kg Vt from birth. All lambs were subsequently ventilated for 15 min with 7 ml/kg Vt with the same end-expiratory pressure. Lung mechanics, gas exchange and spatial distribution of end-expiratory volume (EEV), and tidal ventilation (electrical impedance tomography) were recorded regularly. At 15 min, early mRNA tissue markers of lung injury were assessed. The IncrVt group resulted in greater tissue hysteresivity at 5 min (P = 0.017; two-way ANOVA), higher alveolar-arterial oxygen difference from 10 min (P < 0.01), and least uniform gravity-dependent distribution of EEV. There were no other differences in lung mechanics between groups, and the PressSI and 7 ml/kg Vt groups behaved similarly throughout. EEV was more uniformly distributed, but Vt least so, in the PressSI group. There were no differences in mRNA markers of lung injury. A gradual increase in Vt from birth resulted in less recruitment of the gravity-dependent lung with worse oxygenation. There was no benefit of a SI at birth over mechanical ventilation with 7 ml/kg Vt. PMID:25635005

  4. Pressure-limited sustained inflation vs. gradual tidal inflations for resuscitation in preterm lambs.

    PubMed

    Tingay, David G; Polglase, Graeme R; Bhatia, Risha; Berry, Clare A; Kopotic, Robert J; Kopotic, Clinton P; Song, Yong; Szyld, Edgardo; Jobe, Alan H; Pillow, J Jane

    2015-04-01

    Support of the mechanically complex preterm lung needs to facilitate aeration while avoiding ventilation heterogeneities: whether to achieve this gradually or quickly remains unclear. We compared the effect of gradual vs. constant tidal inflations and a pressure-limited sustained inflation (SI) at birth on gas exchange, lung mechanics, gravity-dependent lung volume distribution, and lung injury in 131-day gestation preterm lambs. Lambs were resuscitated with either 1) a 20-s, 40-cmH2O pressure-limited SI (PressSI), 2) a gradual increase in tidal volume (Vt) over 5-min from 3 ml/kg to 7 ml/kg (IncrVt), or 3) 7 ml/kg Vt from birth. All lambs were subsequently ventilated for 15 min with 7 ml/kg Vt with the same end-expiratory pressure. Lung mechanics, gas exchange and spatial distribution of end-expiratory volume (EEV), and tidal ventilation (electrical impedance tomography) were recorded regularly. At 15 min, early mRNA tissue markers of lung injury were assessed. The IncrVt group resulted in greater tissue hysteresivity at 5 min (P = 0.017; two-way ANOVA), higher alveolar-arterial oxygen difference from 10 min (P < 0.01), and least uniform gravity-dependent distribution of EEV. There were no other differences in lung mechanics between groups, and the PressSI and 7 ml/kg Vt groups behaved similarly throughout. EEV was more uniformly distributed, but Vt least so, in the PressSI group. There were no differences in mRNA markers of lung injury. A gradual increase in Vt from birth resulted in less recruitment of the gravity-dependent lung with worse oxygenation. There was no benefit of a SI at birth over mechanical ventilation with 7 ml/kg Vt. PMID:25635005

  5. Inflating with large effective fields

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Williams, M. E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it E-mail: mwilliams@perimeterinsititute.ca

    2014-11-01

    We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V ∝ φ{sup 2}) and exponential potentials, V(φ) = ∑{sub k}V{sub x}e{sup −kφ/M}. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| || ε and so predict r ≅ (8/3)(1-n{sub s}); consequently n{sub s} ≅ 0.96 gives r ≅ 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and n{sub s} improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.

  6. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  7. Kähler potentials for Planck inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: m.scalisi@rug.nl

    2013-11-01

    We assess which Kähler potentials in supergravity lead to viable single-field inflationary models that are consistent with Planck. We highlight the role of symmetries, such as shift, Heisenberg and supersymmetry, in these constructions. Also the connections to string theory are pointed out. Finally, we discuss a supergravity model for arbitrary inflationary potentials that is suitable for open string inflation and generalise it to the case of closed string inflation. Our model includes the recently discussed supergravity reformulation of the Starobinsky model of inflation as well as an interesting alternative with comparable predictions.

  8. New potentials for string axion inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Akane; Otsuka, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new type of axion inflation with complex structure moduli in the framework of type IIB superstring theory compactified on the Calabi-Yau manifold. The inflaton is identified as the axion for the complex structure moduli whose potential is originating from instantonic corrections appearing through the period vector of the mirror Calabi-Yau manifold. The axionic shift symmetry is broken down to the discrete one by the inclusion of the instantonic correction and certain three-form fluxes. Our proposed inflation scenario is compatible with Kähler moduli stabilization. We also study a typical reheating temperature in the case of complex structure moduli inflation.

  9. Spacetime Curvature and Higgs Stability after Inflation.

    PubMed

    Herranen, M; Markkanen, T; Nurmi, S; Rajantie, A

    2015-12-11

    We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the standard model only through the nonminimal gravitational coupling ξ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalization of the standard model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for ξ≳1, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe. PMID:26705621

  10. Comment on "Gauss-Bonnet inflation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikmawan, Getbogi; Soda, Jiro; Suroso, Agus; Zen, Freddy P.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, an interesting inflationary scenario, named Gauss-Bonnet inflation, was proposed by Kanti et al. [Phys. Rev. D 92, 041302 (2015); Phys. Rev. D 92, 083524 (2015)]. In the model, there is no inflaton potential, but the inflaton couples to the Guass-Bonnet term. In the case of quadratic coupling, they find inflation occurs with a graceful exit. The scenario is attractive because of the natural setup. However, we show there exists a gradient instability in the tensor perturbations in this inflationary model. We further prove the no-go theorem for Gauss-Bonnet inflation without an inflaton potential.

  11. Super-exponential inflation from a dynamical foliation of a 5D vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    We introduce super-exponential inflation ( ω < - 1 ) from a 5D Riemann-flat canonical metric on which we make a dynamical foliation. The resulting metric describes a super accelerated expansion for the early universe well known as super-exponential inflation that, for very large times, tends to an asymptotic de Sitter (vacuum dominated) expansion. The scalar field fluctuations are analyzed. The important result here obtained is that the spectral index for energy density fluctuations is not scale invariant, and for cosmological scales becomes n ( k < k ) ≃ 1 . However, for astrophysical scales this spectrum changes to negative values n ( k > k ) < 0 .

  12. Racetrack inflation with matter fields and cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Ph; De Bruck, C van; Davis, A C; Davis, S C; Jeannerot, R; Postma, M E-mail: c.vandebruck@shef.ac.uk E-mail: S.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: postma@mail.desy.de

    2008-07-15

    We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realized in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that strings can form before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation.

  13. Remote inflation: hybrid-like inflation without hybrid-type potential

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2009-07-01

    A new scenario of hybrid-like inflation is considered without using hybrid-type potential. Radiation raised continuously by a dissipating inflaton field keeps symmetry restoration in a remote sector, and the false-vacuum energy of the remote sector dominates the energy density during inflation. Remote inflation is terminated when the temperature reaches the critical temperature, or when the slow-roll condition is violated. Without introducing a complex form of couplings, inflaton field may either roll-in (like a standard hybrid inflation) or roll-out (like an inverted-hybrid model or quintessential inflation) on arbitrary inflaton potential. Significant signatures of remote inflation can be observed in the spectrum caused by 1. the inhomogeneous phase transition in the remote sector, or; 2. a successive phase transition in the remote sector. Remote inflation can predict strong amplification or suppression of small-scale perturbations without introducing multiple inflation. Since the inflaton may have a run-away potential, it is also possible to identify the inflaton with quintessence, without introducing additional mechanisms. Even if the false-vacuum energy is not dominated by the remote sector, the phase transition in the remote sector is possible during warm inflation, which may cause significant amplification/suppression of the curvature perturbations.

  14. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  15. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  16. Inflation in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A theory of the determination of the price level is described, using aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves. The theory is then utilized to examine inflation in the United Kingdom since 1959. (Author/RM)

  17. Fermion production during and after axion inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.

    2015-11-11

    We study derivatively coupled fermions in axion-driven inflation, specifically m{sub ϕ}{sup 2}ϕ{sup 2} and monodromy inflation, and calculate particle production during the inflationary epoch and the post-inflationary axion oscillations. During inflation, the rolling axion acts as an effective chemical potential for helicity which biases the gravitational production of one fermion helicity over the other. This mechanism allows for efficient gravitational production of heavy fermion states that would otherwise be highly suppressed. Following inflation, the axion oscillates and fermions with both helicities are produced as the effective frequency of the fermion field changes non-adiabatically. For certain values of the fermion mass and axion-fermion coupling strength, the two helicity states are produced asymmetrically, resulting in unequal number-densities of left- and right-helicity fermions.

  18. Inflation driven by the Galileon field.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new class of inflation model, G inflation, which has a Galileon-like nonlinear derivative interaction of the form G(ϕ,(∇ϕ)(2))□ϕ in the Lagrangian with the resultant equations of motion being of second order. It is shown that (almost) scale-invariant curvature fluctuations can be generated even in the exactly de Sitter background and that the tensor-to-scalar ratio can take a significantly larger value than in the standard inflation models, violating the standard consistency relation. Furthermore, violation of the null energy condition can occur without any instabilities. As a result, the spectral index of tensor modes can be blue, which makes it easier to observe quantum gravitational waves from inflation by the planned gravitational-wave experiments such as LISA and DECIGO as well as by the upcoming CMB experiments such as Planck and CMBpol. PMID:21231448

  19. Revisiting the minimal chaotic inflation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2016-05-01

    We point out that the prediction of the minimal chaotic inflation model is altered if a scalar field takes a large field value close to the Planck scale during inflation due to a negative Hubble induced mass. In particular, we show that the inflaton potential is effectively flattened at a large inflaton field value in the presence of such a scalar field. The scalar field may be identified with the standard model Higgs field or super partners of standard model fermions. With such Hubble-induced flattening, we find that the minimal chaotic inflation model, especially the model with a quadratic potential, is consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation without modifying the inflation model itself.

  20. Biodegradable inflatable balloons for tissue separation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arijit; Haim-Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-10-01

    Confining radiation to a specific region (during radiation therapy) minimizes damage to surrounding tissues. Biodegradable inflatable balloons (bio-balloons) were developed. The device protects the normal tissues by increasing the gap between radiation source and critical structures. The radiation fades away while passing through the inflated balloon preventing the surrounding tissues from harmful radiation. These bio-balloons have also found clinical use to treat massive rotator cuff tear. This review summarizes the chemistry, engineering, and clinical development of these biomedical devices. These balloons are made of biodegradable polymers folded into the edge of a trocar and inserted between the tissues to be separated, and inflated by normal saline in the site of the application. The inserted balloon protects the tissues from radiation or mechanical stress. They remain inflated on site for two months and are finally eliminated within 12 months. PMID:27521613

  1. Shift symmetry and inflation in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome

    2005-07-15

    We consider models of inflation in supergravity with a shift symmetry. We focus on models with one modulus and one inflaton field. The presence of this symmetry guarantees the existence of a flat direction for the inflaton field. Mildly breaking the shift symmetry using a superpotential which depends not only on the modulus, but also on the inflaton field allows one to lift the inflaton flat direction. Along the inflaton direction, the {eta} problem is alleviated. Combining the KKLT mechanism for modulus stabilization and a shift symmetry breaking superpotential of the chaotic inflation type, we find models reminiscent of 'mutated hybrid inflation' where the inflationary trajectory is curved in the modulus-inflaton plane. We analyze the phenomenology of these models and stress their differences with both chaotic and hybrid inflation.

  2. Constraining SUSY GUTs and Inflation with Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rocher, Jonathan

    2006-11-03

    In the framework of Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), the universe undergoes a cascade of symmetry breakings, during which topological defects can be formed. We address the question of the probability of cosmic string formation after a phase of hybrid inflation within a large number of models of SUSY GUTs in agreement with particle and cosmological data. We show that cosmic strings are extremely generic and should be used to relate cosmology and high energy physics. This conclusion is employed together with the WMAP CMB data to strongly constrain SUSY hybrid inflation models. F-term and D-term inflation are studied in the SUSY and minimal SUGRA framework. They are both found to agree with data but suffer from fine tuning of their superpotential coupling ({lambda} (less-or-similar sign) 3 x 10-5 or less). Mass scales of inflation are also constrained to be less than M < or approx. 3 x 1015 GeV.

  3. Primordial power spectra from anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.

    2010-05-15

    We examine cosmological perturbations in a dynamical theory of inflation in which an Abelian gauge field couples directly to the inflaton, breaking conformal invariance. When the coupling between the gauge field and the inflaton takes a specific form, inflation becomes anisotropic and anisotropy can persist throughout inflation, avoiding Wald's no-hair theorem. After discussing scenarios in which anisotropy can persist during inflation, we calculate the dominant effects of a small persistent anisotropy on the primordial gravitational wave and curvature perturbation power spectra using the ''in-in'' formalism of perturbation theory. We find that the primordial power spectra of cosmological perturbations gain significant direction dependence and that the fractional direction dependence of the tensor power spectrum is suppressed in comparison to that of the scalar power spectrum.

  4. Designing anisotropic inflation with form fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2015-12-01

    We study inflation with anisotropic hair induced by form fields. In four dimensions, the relevant form fields are gauge (one-form) fields and two-form fields. Assuming the exponential form of potential and gauge kinetic functions, we find new exact power-law solutions endowed with anisotropic hair. We also explore the phase space of anisotropic inflation and find fixed points corresponding to the exact power-law solutions. Moreover, we perform the stability analysis around the fixed points to reveal the structure of the phase space. It turns out that one of the fixed points becomes an attractor and others (if any) are saddle points. In particular, the one corresponding to anisotropic inflation becomes an attractor when it exists. We also argue that various anisotropic inflation models can be designed by choosing coupling constants.

  5. Instrumentation for the Characterization of Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Cassell, Alan M.; Johnson, R. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Current entry, descent, and landing technologies are not practical for heavy payloads due to mass and volume constraints dictated by limitations imposed by launch vehicle fairings. Therefore, new technologies are now being explored to provide a mass- and volume-efficient solution for heavy payload capabilities, including Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (IAD) [1]. Consideration of IADs for space applications has prompted the development of instrumentation systems for integration with flexible structures to characterize system response to flight-like environment testing. This development opportunity faces many challenges specific to inflatable structures in extreme environments, including but not limited to physical flexibility, packaging, temperature, structural integration and data acquisition [2]. In the spring of 2012, two large scale Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) will be tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex s 40 by 80 wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The test series will characterize the performance of a 3.0 m and 6.0 m HIAD at various angles of attack and levels of inflation during flight-like loading. To analyze the performance of these inflatable test articles as they undergo aerodynamic loading, many instrumentation systems have been researched and developed. These systems will utilize new experimental sensing systems developed by the HIAD ground test campaign instrumentation team, in addition to traditional wind tunnel sensing techniques in an effort to improve test article characterization and model validation. During the 2012 test series the instrumentation systems will target inflatable aeroshell static and dynamic deformation, structural strap loading, surface pressure distribution, localized skin deflection, and torus inflation pressure. This paper will offer an overview of inflatable structure instrumentation, and provide detail into the design and implementation of the sensors systems that will

  6. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from an inflationary to a radiation-dominated universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation, bubble collisions supply a potent - and potentially detectable - source of gravitational waves. The energy density in relic gravitons from bubble collisions is expected to be about 0.00005 of closure density. Their characteristic wavelength depends on the reheating temperature. If black holes are produced by bubble collisions, they will evaporate, producing shorter-wavelength gravitons.

  7. Technology Landscape for the Inflation Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemack, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Substantial progress is being made with ground-based and balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations in advancing technology readiness levels of the suite of technologies required for the Inflation Probe. We describe the CMB technology landscape and review the status of detectors, detector array readout systems, reflective and refractive optics, and cryogenic cooling systems that are candidate technologies for the Inflation Probe.

  8. Dynamical Baryogenesis in Complex Hybrid Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2008-07-02

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U (1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vev of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  9. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Orani, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    In ``hilltop inflation'', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the ``hilltop'') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the ``hill'', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses ``over the top of the hill'' towards the ``wrong vacuum''. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: rather than durable domain walls, these regions form oscillon-like structures (i.e. localized bubbles that oscillate between the two vacua) which should be included in a careful study of preheating in hilltop inflation.

  10. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Jing, Shenglin; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ``left-rolling" ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ``inflation by deflation" (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α ~ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10-5. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  11. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens; Jing, Shenglin E-mail: shenglin.jing@utoronto.ca E-mail: clemens.wieck@desy.de

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α ∼ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 10{sup −5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  12. Inflation in the standard cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The inflationary paradigm is now part of the standard cosmological model as a description of its primordial phase. While its original motivation was to solve the standard problems of the hot big bang model, it was soon understood that it offers a natural theory for the origin of the large-scale structure of the universe. Most models rely on a slow-rolling scalar field and enjoy very generic predictions. Besides, all the matter of the universe is produced by the decay of the inflaton field at the end of inflation during a phase of reheating. These predictions can be (and are) tested from their imprint of the large-scale structure and in particular the cosmic microwave background. Inflation stands as a window in physics where both general relativity and quantum field theory are at work and which can be observationally studied. It connects cosmology with high-energy physics. Today most models are constructed within extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry or string theory. Inflation also disrupts our vision of the universe, in particular with the ideas of chaotic inflation and eternal inflation that tend to promote the image of a very inhomogeneous universe with fractal structure on a large scale. This idea is also at the heart of further speculations, such as the multiverse. This introduction summarizes the connections between inflation and the hot big bang model and details the basics of its dynamics and predictions. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  14. Development of Inflatable Entry Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Corliss, James

    2005-01-01

    Achieving the objectives of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration will require the development of new technologies, which will in turn require higher fidelity modeling and analysis techniques, and innovative testing capabilities. Development of entry systems technologies can be especially difficult due to the lack of facilities and resources available to test these new technologies in mission relevant environments. This paper discusses the technology development process to bring inflatable aeroshell technology from Technology Readiness Level 2 (TRL-2) to TRL-7. This paper focuses mainly on two projects: Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE), and Inflatable Aeroshell and Thermal Protection System Development (IATD). The objectives of IRVE are to conduct an inflatable aeroshell flight test that demonstrates exoatmospheric deployment and inflation, reentry survivability and stability, and predictable drag performance. IATD will continue the development of the technology by conducting exploration specific trade studies and feeding forward those results into three more flight tests. Through an examination of these projects, and other potential projects, this paper discusses some of the risks, issues, and unexpected benefits associated with the development of inflatable entry systems technology.

  15. Resonance Structure of Preheating after multifield inflation with nonminimal couplings (Part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Decross, Matthew; Kaiser, David; Prabhu, Anirudh; Sfakianakis, Evangelos

    2016-03-01

    Post-inflation reheating is a critical phase in the history of the cosmos, necessary to connect early-universe inflation to the successes of the standard hot big bang scenario. Reheating falls between two regimes that are well constrained by observations and match the latest observations remarkably well. After reheating, the energy density should include contributions from multiple species of matter, including the Standard Model particles or types of matter that decay into Standard Model particles prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis. Reheating therefore must be a multifield phenomenon. In this talk we continue our investigation of multifield inflation with nonminimal couplings, focusing on the ``preheating'' phase after inflation during which the scalar-field condensate(s) that drove inflation decay resonantly into higher-momentum quanta. Here we present the structure of resonances in this family of models semi-analytically and numerically across wide regions of parameter space. We construct Floquet charts for a wide range of non-minimal couplings. We also compare the resonance structure with the well-known minimally coupled quartic model, showing how the introduction of non-niminal couplings affects the resonance bands.

  16. Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, Hideo; Nozawa, Masato

    2015-05-18

    We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.

  17. Authorship Inflation in Medical Publications

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Gaurie; Prasad, Vinay; Jena, Anupam B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of authors per manuscript in peer-reviewed medical journals has increased substantially in the last several decades. Several reasons have been offered to explain this authorship growth, including increased researcher collaboration, honorary authorship driven by increased pressures for funding and promotion, the belief that including senior authors will facilitate publication, and the growing complexity of medical research. It is unknown, however, whether authorship has grown over time due to growing complexity of published academic articles, in which case growth could be warranted, or whether it has grown due to pressures of funding and academic promotion, which have created “authorship inflation.” To answer this question, we analyzed data on authorship count, study type, and size of study population for the first 50 original articles published in each decade during 1960–2010 in 3 major medical journals. Within each type of study we considered (eg, randomized trials, observational studies, etc), average authorship rose more than 3-fold during this period. Similar growth persisted after adjustment for changes in study population sizes over time. Our findings suggest that increasing research complexity is an inadequate explanation for authorship growth. Instead, growth in authorship appears inflationary. PMID:26228035

  18. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-pointed telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  19. Reheating in supersymmetric high scale inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2007-11-15

    Motivated by our earlier work, we analyze how the inflaton decay reheats the Universe within supersymmetry. In a nonsupersymmetric case the inflaton usually decays via preheating unless its couplings to other fields are very small. Naively one would expect that supersymmetry enhances bosonic preheating as it introduces new scalars such as squarks and sleptons. On the contrary, we point out that preheating is unlikely within supersymmetry. The reason is that flat directions in the scalar potential, classified by gauge-invariant combinations of slepton and squark fields, are generically displaced towards a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) in the early Universe. They induce supersymmetry preserving masses to the inflaton decay products through the standard model Yukawa couplings, which kinematically blocks preheating for VEVs>10{sup 13} GeV. The decay will become allowed only after the flat directions start oscillating, and once the flat direction VEV is sufficiently redshifted. For models with weak scale supersymmetry, this generically happens at a Hubble expansion rate: H{approx_equal}(10{sup -3}-10{sup -1}) TeV, at which time the inflaton decays in the perturbative regime. This is to our knowledge the first analysis where the inflaton decay to the standard model particles is treated properly within supersymmetry. There are a number of important consequences: no overproduction of dangerous supersymmetric relics (particularly gravitinos), no resonant excitation of superheavy dark matter, and no nonthermal leptogenesis through nonperturbative creation of the right-handed (s)neutrinos. Finally supersymmetric flat directions can even spoil hybrid inflation altogether by not allowing the auxiliary field to become tachyonic.

  20. Instant uplifted inflation: a solution for a tension between inflation and SUSY breaking scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2013-07-01

    The Hubble parameter during an inflationary era must be smaller than the gravitino mass if moduli fields are stabilized by the Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi mechanism. This condition represents a difficulty to combine low scale SUSY breaking and high scale inflation. We propose a simple mechanism which can naturally separate the inflation scale from the SUSY breaking scale today.

  1. Preheating after small-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Mariadassou, Sophie

    2011-05-15

    Whereas preheating after chaotic and hybrid inflation models has been abundantly studied in the literature, preheating in small field inflation models, where the curvature of the inflaton potential is negative during inflation, remains less explored. In these models, a tachyonic instability at the end of inflation leads to a succession of exponentially large increases and decreases of the inflaton fluctuations as the inflaton condensate oscillates around the minimum of its potential. The net effect is a competition between low-momentum modes which grow and decrease significantly, and modes with higher momenta which grow less but also decrease less. We develop an analytical description of this process, which is analogous to the quantum mechanical problem of tunneling through a volcano-shaped potential. Depending on the parameters, preheating may be so efficient that it completes in less than one oscillation of the inflaton condensate. Preheating after small field inflation may also be followed by a long matter-dominated stage before the Universe thermalizes, depending on the energy scale of inflation and the details of the inflaton interactions. Finally, another feature of these models is that the spectrum of the inflaton fluctuations at the end of preheating may be peaked around the Hubble scale. In fact, because preheating starts when the second slow-roll parameter |{eta}| becomes of order unity while the first slow-roll parameter {epsilon} is still much smaller than 1, the Universe is still inflating during preheating and the modes amplified by the initial tachyonic instability leave the Hubble radius. This may lead to an abundant production of primordial black holes and gravitational waves with frequencies today which are naturally small enough to fall into the range accessible by high-sensitivity interferometric experiments.

  2. Stochastic eternal inflation in a Bianchi type I universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Ikjyot Singh; Haslam, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic eternal inflation is studied for a chaotic inflation potential in a Bianchi type I spacetime background. After deriving the appropriate stochastic Klein-Gordon equation, we give details on the conditions for eternal inflation. It is shown that for eternal inflation to occur, the amount of anisotropy must be small. In fact, it is shown that eternal inflation will only take place if the shear anisotropy variables take on values within a small region of the interior of the Kasner circle. We then calculate the probability of eternal inflation occurring based on techniques from stochastic calculus.

  3. Comments on SUSY Inflation Models on the Brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lu-Yun; Cheung, Kingman; Lin, Chia-Min

    In this paper we consider a class of inflation models on the brane where the dominant part of the inflaton scalar potential does not depend on the inflaton field value during inflation. In particular, we consider supernatural inflation, its hilltop version, A-term inflation, and supersymmetric (SUSY) D- and F-term hybrid inflation on the brane. We show that the parameter space can be broadened, the inflation scale generally can be lowered, and still possible to have the spectral index ns = 0.96.

  4. Cosmological Inflation with Multiple Fields and the Theory of Density Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tent, B. J. W.

    2002-09-01

    Inflation is a stage of extremely rapid expansion in the very early universe. It was proposed to solve a number of problems in the standard Big Bang theory. In particular it others an explanation for the origin of structures like (clusters of) galaxies on the one hand (by generating small density fluctuations that act as gravitational seeds), and for the largescale homogeneity of the universe on the other hand (because of the enormous expansion). Inflation is driven by one or more scalar fields with an appropriate potential. In this thesis we develop an analytical formalism to describe the generation of density fluctuations during inflation with multiple scalar fields. We allow these fields to live on a non-trivial (curved) field manifold, as is often the case in high-energy theories. We also treat the evolution of the fluctuations after inflation, until the time of recombination when the cosmic microwave background radiation was formed. Using our formalism observations of the CMBR can then be used to set constraints on the parameters in (multiple-field) inflation models. In more detail this thesis covers the following topics. After introductory chapters on cosmology in general and single-field inflation, the theory of inflation with multiple fields and a general (non-trivial) field metric is derived. In particular we introduce a basis in field space that is induced by the background dynamics and allows a clear distinction between effectively single-field and truly multiple-field effects. The important slow-roll approximation is generalized to the case of multiple fields. Next we derive how scalar and tensor fluctuations are generated from a quantum origin during multiple-field inflation, paying special attention to the transition that occurs when a perturbation mode crosses the Hubble scale. Using some simplifying assumptions the evolution of both adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation modes after inflation is treated. The final results are expressions for the

  5. Dissipative Effects in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Nacir, Diana; Porto, Rafael A.; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-09-14

    We generalize the effective field theory of single clock inflation to include dissipative effects. Working in unitary gauge we couple a set of composite operators, {Omicron}{sub {mu}{nu}}..., in the effective action which is constrained solely by invariance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We restrict ourselves to situations where the degrees of freedom responsible for dissipation do not contribute to the density perturbations at late time. The dynamics of the perturbations is then modified by the appearance of 'friction' and noise terms, and assuming certain locality properties for the Green's functions of these composite operators, we show that there is a regime characterized by a large friction term {gamma} >> H in which the {zeta}-correlators are dominated by the noise and the power spectrum can be significantly enhanced. We also compute the three point function <{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}> for a wide class of models and discuss under which circumstances large friction leads to an increased level of non-Gaussianities. In particular, under our assumptions, we show that strong dissipation together with the required non-linear realization of the symmetries implies |f{sub NL}| {approx} {gamma}/c{sub s}{sup 2} H >> 1. As a paradigmatic example we work out a variation of the 'trapped inflation' scenario with local response functions and perform the matching with our effective theory. A detection of the generic type of signatures that result from incorporating dissipative effects during inflation, as we describe here, would teach us about the dynamics of the early universe and also extend the parameter space of inflationary models.

  6. Dissipative effects in the effective field theory of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacir, Diana López; Porto, Rafael A.; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the effective field theory of single clock inflation to include dissipative effects. Working in unitary gauge we couple a set of composite operators, {mathcal{O}_{{μ ν }}}_{ ldots } , in the effective action which is constrained solely by invariance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We restrict ourselves to situations where the degrees of freedom responsible for dissipation do not contribute to the density perturbations at late time. The dynamics of the perturbations is then modified by the appearance of `friction' and noise terms, and assuming certain locality properties for the Green's functions of these composite operators, we show that there is a regime characterized by a large friction term γ ≫ H in which the ζ-correlators are dominated by the noise and the power spectrum can be significantly enhanced. We also compute the three point function <ζζζ> for a wide class of models and discuss under which circumstances large friction leads to an increased level of non-Gaussianities. In particular, under our assumptions, we show that strong dissipation together with the required non-linear realization of the symmetries implies left| {{f_{text{NL}}}} right|˜ γ /{c_s^2H} ≫ 1 . As a paradigmatic example we work out a variation of the `trapped inflation' scenario with local response functions and perform the matching with our effective theory. A detection of the generic type of signatures that result from incorporating dissipative effects during inflation, as we describe here, would teach us about the dynamics of the early universe and also extend the parameter space of inflationary models.

  7. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  8. D7-brane chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Kraus, Sebastian C.; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze string-theoretic large-field inflation in the regime of spontaneously-broken supergravity with conventional moduli stabilization by fluxes and non-perturbative effects. The main ingredient is a shift-symmetric Kähler potential, supplemented by flux-induced shift symmetry breaking in the superpotential. The central technical observation is that all these features are present for D7-brane position moduli in Type IIB orientifolds, potentially allowing for a realization of the axion monodromy proposal in a string theory compactification. Furthermore, our model is explicit enough to address issues of control and moduli stabilization quantitatively. On the one hand, in the large complex structure regime the D7-brane position moduli inherit a shift symmetry from their mirror-dual Type IIA Wilson lines. On the other hand, the Type IIB flux superpotential generically breaks this shift symmetry and allows, by appealing to the large flux discretuum, to tune the relevant coefficients to be small. The shift-symmetric direction in D7-brane moduli space can then play the role of the inflaton: While the D7-brane circles a certain trajectory on the Calabi-Yau many times, the corresponding F-term energy density grows only very slowly, thanks to the above-mentioned tuning of the flux. To be successful our model requires that the dilaton, all complex structure moduli and all D7-brane moduli except the inflaton are fixed at leading order by fluxes. Then the large-field inflationary trajectory can be realized in a regime where Kähler, complex structure and other brane moduli are stabilized in a conventional manner, as we demonstrate using the example of the Large Volume Scenario.

  9. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Salopek, David S.; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies.

  10. Observational constraints on Tachyon and DBI inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic method for evaluation of perturbation observables in non-canonical single-field inflation models within the slow-roll approximation, which allied with field redefinitions enables predictions to be established for a wide range of models. We use this to investigate various non-canonical inflation models, including Tachyon inflation and DBI inflation. The Lambert Script W function will be used extensively in our method for the evaluation of observables. In the Tachyon case, in the slow-roll approximation the model can be approximated by a canonical field with a redefined potential, which yields predictions in better agreement with observations than the canonical equivalents. For DBI inflation models we consider contributions from both the scalar potential and the warp geometry. In the case of a quartic potential, we find a formula for the observables under both non-relativistic (sound speed cs2 ~ 1) and relativistic behaviour (cs2 ll 1) of the scalar DBI inflaton. For a quadratic potential we find two branches in the non-relativistic cs2 ~ 1 case, determined by the competition of model parameters, while for the relativistic case cs2 → 0, we find consistency with results already in the literature. We present a comparison to the latest Planck satellite observations. Most of the non-canonical models we investigate, including the Tachyon, are better fits to data than canonical models with the same potential, but we find that DBI models in the slow-roll regime have difficulty in matching the data.

  11. Inflation, economic policy, and the inner city

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, L.A.

    1981-07-01

    This article describes the greater impact of inflation among the poor and minorities in American inner cities than among other population groups. Surveys show, however, that minorities are even more concerned over unemployment and racial discrimination than over inflation. There are indications that, especially today, crime and potential group disorder are affected by or influence inflation, unemployment, and discrimination in the inner city. With these interrelated factors in mind, present federal economic policy is reviewed, critiqued, and interpreted as basically consistent with Keynesian economic theory. Modifications of and alternatives to present policy are offered that fit both inner-city needs and the concerns of the rest of American society. These policies include targeted private sector neighborhood development and self-help, private sector productivity increases through workplace democracy, private-public sector codetermination of investment, private-public sector job guarantees, and public anti-inflation policy carefully targeted at the basic necessities of energy, food, housing, and health care - which have a disproportionate effect on inflation in the inner city, as well as the overall economy. Coalitions are suggested that could politically implement such policies.

  12. Wirelessly Controllable Inflated Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable membrane reflectors are attractive for deployable, large aperture, lightweight optical and microwave systems in micro-gravity space environment. However, any fabrication flaw or temperature variation may results in significant aberration of the surface. Even for a perfectly fabricated inflatable membrane mirror with uniform thickness, theory shows it will form a Hencky curve surface but a desired parabolic or spherical surface. Precision control of the surfaceshape of extremely flexible membrane structures is a critical challenge for the success of this technology. Wirelessly controllable inflated reflectors made of electroactive polymers (EAP) are proposed in this paper. A finite element model was configured to predict the behavior of the inflatable EAP membranes under pre-strains, pressures and distributed electric charges on the surface. To explore the controllability of the inflatable EAP reflectors, an iteration algorism was developed to find the required electric actuation for correcting the aberration of the Hencky curve to the desired parabolic curve. The correction capability of the reflectors with available EAP materials was explored numerically and is presented in this paper.

  13. New type of hill-top inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Nesterov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters epsilon and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R2-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  14. Cosmological constraints on general, single field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Bean, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Inflation is now an accepted paradigm in standard cosmology, with its predictions consistent with observations of the cosmic microwave background. It lacks, however, a firm physical theory, with many possible theoretical origins beyond the simplest, canonical, slow-roll inflation, including Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation and k-inflation. We discuss how a hierarchy of Hubble flow parameters, extended to include the evolution of the inflationary sound speed, can be applied to compare a general, single field inflationary action with cosmological observational data. We show that it is important to calculate the precise scalar and tensor primordial power spectra by integrating the full flow and perturbation equations, since values of observables can deviate appreciably from those obtained using typical second-order Taylor expanded approximations in flow parameters. As part of this, we find that a commonly applied approximation for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r≈16csγ, becomes poor (deviating by as much as 50%) as cs deviates from 1 and hence the Taylor expansion including next-to-leading order contribution terms involving cs is required. By integrating the full flow equations, we use a Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain approach to impose constraints on the parameter space of general single field inflation, and reconstruct the properties of such an underlying theory in light of recent cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure observations.

  15. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-09-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ̈phi/H dot phi remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime.

  16. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S.

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation. PMID:27047418

  17. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior.

    PubMed

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation. PMID:27047418

  18. Chern-Simons inflation and baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Stephon; Marcianò, Antonino; Spergel, David E-mail: antonino.marciano@dartmouth.edu

    2013-04-01

    We present a model of inflation based on the interaction between a homogeneous and isotropic configuration of a U(1) gauge field and fermionic charge density J{sub 0}. The regulated fermionic charge density is generated from a Bunch-Davies vacuum state using the methods of Koksma and Prokopec [11], and is found to redshift as 1/a(η). The time-like component of gauge field is sourced by the fermionic charge leading to a growth in the gauge field A(η){sub 0} ∼ a(η). As a result inflation is dominated by the energy density contained in the gauge field and fermionic charge interaction, A{sub 0} J{sup 0}, which remains constant during inflation. We also provide a mechanism to generate a net lepton asymmetry. The coupling of a pseudo scalar to the Chern-Simons term converts the gauge field fluctuations into lepton number and all three Sahkarov conditions are satisfied during inflation. Finally, the rapid oscillation of the pseudo scalar field near its minimum thermalizes the gauge field and ends inflation. We provide the necessary initial condition on the gauge field and fermionic charge to simultaneously generate enough e-folds and baryon asymmetry index.

  19. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.

  20. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-02-15

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S{sup 3} of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.

  1. Near Wake of an Inflating Parachute Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desabrais, Kenneth; Johari, Hamid

    2001-11-01

    The near wake of a parachute canopy inflating in a constant freestream was experimentally investigated in a water tunnel at a Re = 30,000. The temporal evolution of the velocity field immediately downstream of the canopy was measured along with the canopy diameter and force. The inflation of the canopy occurs in three stages. In the initial stage, the flow is fully attached to the surface of the canopy. During this stage, the canopy diameter increases substantially but the drag only rises gradually. The next stage of inflation initiates when the boundary layer separates from the canopy surface near the apex of the canopy. The drag rapidly increases at this point and achieves its maximum value. Subsequently, the drag sharply declines even while the canopy diameter continues to increase. During this stage of inflation, the boundary layer separation point moves from the apex region towards the canopy skirt. The final stage of inflation occurs once the separated shear layer, originating at the canopy skirt, rolls-up into a large vortex ring. The drag achieves a local minimum during the final stage, while the diameter achieves its maximum value.

  2. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  3. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  4. 46 CFR 197.344 - Inflatable floatation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.344 Inflatable floatation devices. An inflatable floatation device for SCUBA diving must— (a) Be capable of maintaining the diver at...

  5. Inflation in Brazil: The Principles of Monetary Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Roberto de Oliveira

    1975-01-01

    The evils of inflation and Brazil's attempts to minimize inflation by a generalized indexation for all forms of saving, wage adjustments, tax reform, a mini-devaluation, and saving incentives are examined. (DE)

  6. Density fluctuations in thermal inflation and non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2009-12-01

    We consider primordial fluctuations in thermal inflation scenario. Since the thermal inflation drives about 10 e-folds after the standard inflation, the time of horizon-exit during inflation corresponding to the present observational scale shifts toward the end of inflation. It generally makes the primordial power spectrum more deviated from a scale-invariant one and hence renders some models inconsistent with observations. We present a mechanism of generating the primordial curvature perturbation at the end of thermal inflation utilizing a fluctuating coupling of a flaton field with the fields in thermal bath. We show that, by adopting the mechanism, some inflation models can be liberated even in the presence of the thermal inflation. We also discuss non-Gaussianity in the mechanism and show that large non-Gaussianity can be generated in this scenario.

  7. Issues on generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the idea of generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation in models of inflation with gauge fields. To be specific we consider the charged hybrid inflation model where the waterfall field is charged under a U(1) gauge field so the surface of end of inflation is controlled both by inflaton and the gauge fields. Using δN formalism properly we find that the anisotropies generated at the end of inflation from the gauge field fluctuations are exponentially suppressed on cosmological scales. This is because the gauge field evolves exponentially during inflation while in order to generate appreciable anisotropies at the end of inflation the spectator gauge field has to be frozen. We argue that this is a generic feature, that is, one can not generate observable anisotropies at the end of inflation within an FRW background.

  8. Kinetic term anarchy for polynomial chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-09-01

    We argue that there may arise a relatively flat inflaton potential over super-Planckian field values with an approximate shift symmetry, if the coefficients of the kinetic terms for many singlet scalars are subject to a certain random distribution. The inflation takes place along the flat direction with a super-Planckian length, whereas the other light directions can be stabilized by the Hubble-induced mass. The inflaton potential generically contains various shift-symmetry breaking terms, leading to a possibly large deviation of the predicted values of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio from those of the simple quadratic chaotic inflation. We revisit a polynomial chaotic inflation in supergravity as such.

  9. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  10. Predictions in multifield models of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for obtaining an analytic expression for the density function of observables in multifield models of inflation with sum-separable potentials. The most striking result is that the density function in general possesses a sharp peak and the location of this peak is only mildly sensitive to the distribution of initial conditions. A simple argument is given for why this result holds for a more general class of models than just those with sum-separable potentials and why for such models, it is possible to obtain robust predictions for observable quantities. As an example, the joint density function of the spectral index and running in double quadratic inflation is computed. For scales leaving the horizon 55 e-folds before the end of inflation, the density function peaks at n{sub s} = 0.967 and α = 0.0006 for the spectral index and running respectively.

  11. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco; Pedro, Francisco Gil

    2015-12-21

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  12. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the polarized imprint of gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. The discovery of such a signal would provide direct evidence for inflation, and its characterization would provide a means to explore energy scales orders of magnitude larger than any conceivable particle accelerator. PIPER will consist of two cryogenic telescopes-one for each of the Q and U Stokes parameters. Each will use a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as its first element. This architecture is designed to minimize both T->B and E->B systematics. The detectors will be four 32x40 arrays of BUG detectors, utilizing transition-edge sensors and time-domain multiplexing. Each flight will observe approximately 25% of the sky at a single frequency. Additional flights will increase the frequency coverage.

  13. Single-superfield helical-phase inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketov, Sergei V.; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Large-field inflation in supergravity requires the approximate global symmetry needed to protect flatness of the scalar potential. In helical-phase inflation, the U(1) symmetry of the Kähler potential is assumed, the phase part of the complex scalar of a chiral superfield plays the role of inflaton, and the radial part is strongly stabilized. The original model of helical phase inflation, proposed by Li, Li and Nanopoulos (LLN), employs an extra (stabilizer) superfield. We propose a more economical new class of the helical phase inflationary models without a stabilizer superfield. As the specific examples, the quadratic, the natural, and the Starobinsky-type inflationary models are studied in our approach.

  14. Initial conditions and sampling for multifield inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C. E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the initial conditions problem for multifield inflation. In these scenarios the pre-inflationary dynamics can be chaotic, increasing the sensitivity of the onset of inflation to the initial data even in the homogeneous limit. To analyze physically equivalent scenarios we compare initial conditions at fixed energy. This ensures that each trajectory is counted once and only once, since the energy density decreases monotonically. We present a full analysis of hybrid inflation that reveals a greater degree of long range order in the set of ''successful'' initial conditions than was previously apparent. In addition, we explore the effective smoothing scale for the fractal set of successful initial conditions induced by the finite duration of the pre-inflationary phase. The role of the prior information used to specify the initial data is discussed in terms of Bayesian sampling.

  15. A new perspective on supersymmetric inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2009-11-01

    We consider supersymmetric inflation with the hybrid-type potential. In the absence of the symmetry that forbids Hubble-induced mass terms, the inflaton mass will be as large as the Hubble scale during inflation. We consider gravitational decay of the trigger field as the least decay mode and find that the damping caused by the dissipation can dominate the friction of the inflaton when the heavy trigger field is coupled to the inflaton. The dissipative damping provides a solution to the traditional η problem without introducing additional symmetry and interactions. Considering the spatial inhomogeneities of the dissipative coefficient, we find that modulated inflation (modulation of the inflaton velocity) can create significant curvature perturbations.

  16. Inflation and uplifting with nilpotent superfields

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was found that a broad class of existing inflationary models based on supergravity can be significantly simplified if some of the standard, unconstrained chiral superfields are replaced by nilpotent superfields, associated with Volkov-Akulov supersymmetry. The same method allows to simplify the existing models of uplifting of AdS vacua in string theory. In this paper we will show that one can go well beyond simplifying the models that already exist. We will propose a broad class of new models of chaotic inflation based on supergravity with nilpotent superfields, which simultaneously incorporate both inflation and uplifting. They provide a simple unified description of inflation and the present acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context.

  17. Brane Inflation: From Superstring to Cosmic Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2004-12-10

    Brane inflation, where branes move towards each other in the brane world, has been shown to be quite natural in superstring theory. Inflation ends when branes collide and heat the universe, initiating the hot big bang. Cosmic strings (but not domain walls or monopoles) are copiously produced during the brane collision. Using the COBE data on the temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic string tension {mu} is estimated to be around 10 -6 > G{mu} > 10-11, while the present observational bound is 7 x 10 -7 > G{mu}. This implies that the anisotropy that seeds structure formation comes mostly from inflation, but with a small component (< 10%) from cosmic string effects. This cosmic string effect should be testable in the near future via gravitational lensing, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and/or gravitational wave detectors like LIGO II/VIRGO.

  18. On magnetopause inflation under radial IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full understanding of the magnetosphere interaction with radial IMF structures embedded in the solar wind flow is far from completeness. In order to analyze the effects of radial IMF, we use THEMIS observations of the magnetopause and magnetosheath together with upstream data acquired from ACE and Wind monitors as well as from the OMNI data base. We demonstrate a prominent magnetopause inflation and low pressure magnetosheath (LPM) mode under long-lasting radial IMF. We propose that these phenomena result from a kinetic effect of energetic ions taking the energy away from the pressure balance at the magnetopause. We show that strict quantitative determination of the inflation and LPM mode as a function of the cone angle is difficult because of the problems with reliable determination of the upstream and magnetosheath conditions. The shortcomings are caused by such effects as ambiguous time delay for the solar wind propagation, THEMIS orbital bias and model-dependent estimations of the magnetopause inflation.

  19. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  20. Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. . Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1992-01-01

    In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the initial data'' for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.

  1. Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. |

    1992-12-31

    In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the ``initial data`` for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.

  2. Testing for double inflation with WMAP

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, David; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.; Amendola, Luca

    2005-03-15

    With the WMAP data we can now begin to test realistic models of inflation involving multiple scalar fields. These naturally lead to correlated adiabatic and isocurvature (entropy) perturbations with a running spectral index. We present the first full (9 parameter) likelihood analysis of double inflation with WMAP data and find that despite the extra freedom, supersymmetric hybrid potentials are strongly constrained with less than 7% correlated isocurvature component allowed when standard priors are imposed on the cosomological parameters. As a result we also find that Akaike and Bayesian model selection criteria rather strongly prefer single-field inflation, just as equivalent analysis prefers a cosmological constant over dynamical dark energy in the late universe. It appears that simplicity is the best guide to our universe.

  3. Kähler moduli double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi E-mail: miyamone@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2011-02-01

    We show that double inflation is naturally realized in Kähler moduli inflation, which is caused by moduli associated with string compactification. We find that there is a small coupling between the two inflatons which leads to amplification of perturbations through parametric resonance in the intermediate stage of double inflation. This results in the appearance of a peak in the power spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. We numerically calculate the power spectrum and show that the power spectrum can have a peak on observationally interesing scales. We also compute the TT-spectrum of CMB based on the power spectrum with a peak and see that it better fits WMAP 7-years data.

  4. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Neil D.; Kobakhidze, Archil; Liang, Shelley

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns - 1 ≈ - 0.025(N⋆/60)-1 and r ≈ 0.0667(N⋆/60)-1, where N⋆ ≈ 30- 65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  5. First observational tests of eternal inflation.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Stephen M; Johnson, Matthew C; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2011-08-12

    The eternal inflation scenario predicts that our observable Universe resides inside a single bubble embedded in a vast inflating multiverse. We present the first observational tests of eternal inflation, performing a search for cosmological signatures of collisions with other bubble universes in cosmic microwave background data from the WMAP satellite. We conclude that the WMAP 7-year data do not warrant augmenting the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant with bubble collisions, constraining the average number of detectable bubble collisions on the full sky N(s) < 1.6 at 68% C.L. Data from the Planck satellite can be used to more definitively test the bubble-collision hypothesis. PMID:21902380

  6. F-term inflation Q-balls

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John

    2006-02-15

    A general analysis of Q-ball solutions of the supersymmetric F-term hybrid inflation field equations is given. The solutions consist of a complex inflaton field and a real symmetry-breaking field, with a conserved global charge associated with the inflaton. It is shown that the Q-ball solutions for any value of the superpotential coupling, {kappa}, may be obtained from those with {kappa}=1 by rescaling the space coordinates. The complete range of Q-ball solutions for the case {kappa}=1 is given, from which all possible F-term inflation Q-balls can be obtained. The possible role of F-term inflation Q-balls in cosmology is discussed.

  7. Horizon crossing and inflation with large {eta}

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.

    2005-07-15

    I examine the standard formalism of calculating curvature perturbations in inflation at horizon crossing, and derive a general relation which must be satisfied for the horizon-crossing formalism to be valid. This relation is satisfied for the usual cases of power-law and slow-roll inflation. I then consider a model for which the relation is strongly violated, and the curvature perturbation evolves rapidly on superhorizon scales. This model has Hubble slow-roll parameter {eta}=3, but predicts a scale-invariant spectrum of density perturbations. I consider the case of hybrid inflation with large {eta}, and show that such solutions do not solve the '{eta} problem' in supergravity. These solutions correspond to field evolution which has not yet relaxed to the inflationary attractor solution, and may make possible new, more natural models on the string landscape.

  8. Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. This establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.

  9. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco; Gil Pedro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  10. Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kiefer, Claus; Steinwachs, Christian F. E-mail: kiefer@thp.uni-koeln.de

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

  11. Spatiotemporal Aeration and Lung Injury Patterns Are Influenced by the First Inflation Strategy at Birth.

    PubMed

    Tingay, David G; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Zonneveld, C Elroy; Black, Don; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Lavizzari, Anna; Frerichs, Inéz; Zahra, Valerie A; Davis, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    Ineffective aeration during the first inflations at birth creates regional aeration and ventilation defects, initiating injurious pathways. This study aimed to compare a sustained first inflation at birth or dynamic end-expiratory supported recruitment during tidal inflations against ventilation without intentional recruitment on gas exchange, lung mechanics, spatiotemporal regional aeration and tidal ventilation, and regional lung injury in preterm lambs. Lambs (127 ± 2 d gestation), instrumented at birth, were ventilated for 60 minutes from birth with either lung-protective positive pressure ventilation (control) or as per control after either an initial 30 seconds of 40 cm H2O sustained inflation (SI) or an initial stepwise end-expiratory pressure recruitment maneuver during tidal inflations (duration 180 s; open lung ventilation [OLV]). At study completion, molecular markers of lung injury were analyzed. The initial use of an OLV maneuver, but not SI, at birth resulted in improved lung compliance, oxygenation, end-expiratory lung volume, and reduced ventilatory needs compared with control, persisting throughout the study. These changes were due to more uniform inter- and intrasubject gravity-dependent spatiotemporal patterns of aeration (measured using electrical impedance tomography). Spatial distribution of tidal ventilation was more stable after either recruitment maneuver. All strategies caused regional lung injury patterns that mirrored associated regional volume states. Irrespective of strategy, spatiotemporal volume loss was consistently associated with up-regulation of early growth response-1 expression. Our results show that mechanical and molecular consequences of lung aeration at birth are not simply related to rapidity of fluid clearance; they are also related to spatiotemporal pressure-volume interactions within the lung during inflation and deflation. PMID:26186685

  12. Addressing Immunization Registry Population Inflation in Adolescent Immunization Rates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective While U.S. adolescent immunization rates are available annually at national and state levels, finding pockets of need may require county or sub-county information. Immunization information systems (IISs) are one tool for assessing local immunization rates. However, the presence of IIS records dating back to early childhood and challenges in capturing mobility out of IIS areas typically leads to denominator inflation. We examined the feasibility of weighting adolescent immunization records by length of time since last report to produce more accurate county adolescent counts and immunization rates. Methods We compared weighted and unweighted adolescent denominators from the Oregon ALERT IIS, along with county-level Census Bureau estimates, with school enrollment counts from Oregon's annual review of seventh-grade school immunization compliance for public and private schools. Adolescent immunization rates calculated using weighted data, for the state as a whole, were also checked against comparable National Immunization Survey (NIS) rates. Results Weighting individual records by the length of time since last activity substantially improved the fit of IIS data to county populations for adolescents. A nonlinear logarithmic (ogive) weight produced the best fit to the school count data of all examined estimates. Overall, the ogive weighted results matched NIS adolescent rates for Oregon. Conclusion The problem of mobility-inflated counts of teenagers can be addressed by weighting individual records based on time since last immunization. Well-populated IISs can rely on their own data to produce adolescent immunization rates and find pockets of need. PMID:25729105

  13. Inflation and the scale dependent spectral index: prospects and strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Easther, Richard; Pritchard, Jonathan; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-02-01

    We consider the running of the spectral index as a probe of both inflation itself, and of the overall evolution of the very early universe. Surveying a collection of simple single field inflationary models, we confirm that the magnitude of the running is relatively consistent, unlike the tensor amplitude, which varies by orders of magnitude. Given this target, we confirm that the running is potentially detectable by future large scale structure or 21 cm observations, but that only the most futuristic measurements can distinguish between these models on the basis of their running. For any specified inflationary scenario, the combination of the running index and unknown post-inflationary expansion history induces a theoretical uncertainty in the predicted value of the spectral index. This effect can easily dominate the statistical uncertainty with which Planck and its successors are expected to measure the spectral index. More positively, upcoming cosmological experiments thus provide an intriguing probe of physics between TeV and GUT scales by constraining the reheating history associated with any specified inflationary model, opening a window into the ''primordial dark age'' that follows the end of inflation.

  14. Characterizing entanglement entropy produced by nonlinear scalar interactions during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Dan; Heyl, Jeremy S.

    2009-07-15

    The density fluctuations that we observe in the universe today are thought to originate from quantum fluctuations produced during a phase of the early universe called inflation. By evolving a wave function describing two coupled Fourier modes of a scalar field forward through an inflationary epoch, we demonstrate that nonlinear effects can result in a generation of entanglement entropy between modes with different momenta in a scalar field during the inflationary period when just one of the modes is observed. Through this mechanism, the field would experience decoherence and appear more like a classical distribution today; however the mechanism is not sufficiently efficient to explain classicality. We find that the amount of entanglement entropy generated scales roughly as a power law S{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup 1.75}, where {lambda} is the coupling coefficient of the nonlinear potential term. We also investigate how the entanglement entropy scales with the duration of inflation and compare various entanglement measures from the literature with the von Neumann entropy. This demonstration explicitly follows particle creation and interactions between modes; consequently, the mechanism contributing to the generation of the von Neumann entropy can be easily seen.

  15. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne polarimeter that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for evidence for inflation. PIPER will observe more than half of the sky in four frequency bands from 200 to 600 GHz with a beam size of 21 arcminutes at the lowest frequency. PIPER simultaneously measures all four Stokes parameters using four co-aligned 32 by 40 element planar bolometer arrays. We give an instrument overview and report on the current status of the instrument.

  16. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.

  17. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Michael S.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  18. Bounds on tensor wave and twisted inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Sudhakar; Sami, M.; Ward, John

    2010-11-01

    We study the bounds on tensor wave in a class of twisted inflation models, where D(4+2k)-branes are wrapped on cycles in the compact manifold and wrap the Kaluza-Klein direction in the corresponding effective field theory. While the lower bound is found to be analogous to that in type IIB models of brane inflation, the upper bound turns out to be significantly different. This is argued for a range of values for the parameter gsM satisfying the self-consistency relation and the WMAP data. Further, we observe that the wrapped D8-brane appears to be the most attractive from a cosmological perspective.

  19. Non-canonical inflation coupled to matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Céspedes, Sebastián; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2015-11-01

    We compute corrections to the inflationary potential due to conformally coupled non-relativistic matter. We find that under certain conditions of the matter coupling, inflation may be interrupted abruptly. We display this in the superconformal Starobinsky model, where matter is conformally coupled to the Einstein frame metric. These corrections may easily stop inflation provided that there is an initial density of non-relativistic matter. Since these additional heavy degrees of freedom generically occur in higher dimension theories, for example as Kaluza-Klein modes, this effect can arise in multiple scenarios.

  20. A polynomial f(R) inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by the ultraviolet complete theory of quantum gravity, for example the string theory, we investigate a polynomial f(R) inflation model in detail. We calculate the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the f(R) inflation model with the form of f(R) = R + (R{sup 2})/6M{sup 2} + (λn)/2n (R{sup n})/(3M{sup 2}){sup n-1}. Compared to Planck 2013, we find that R{sup n} term should be exponentially suppressed, i.e. |λ{sub n}|∼<10{sup −2n+2.6}.

  1. A polynomial f(R) inflation model

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2014-02-19

    Motivated by the ultraviolet complete theory of quantum gravity, for example the string theory, we investigate a polynomial f(R) inflation model in detail. We calculate the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio in the f(R) inflation model with the form of f(R)=R+((R{sup 2})/(6M{sup 2}))+((λ{sub n})/(2n))((R{sup n})/((3M{sup 2}){sup n−1})). Compared to Planck 2013, we find that R{sup n} term should be exponentially suppressed, i.e. |λ{sub n}|≲10{sup −2n+2.6}.

  2. D-term inflation without cosmic strings.

    PubMed

    Urrestilla, J; Achúcarro, A; Davis, A C

    2004-06-25

    We present a superstring-inspired version of D-term inflation that does not lead to cosmic string formation and appears to satisfy the current cosmic microwave background constraints. It differs from minimal D-term inflation by a second pair of charged superfields that makes the strings nontopological (semilocal). The strings are also Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield strings, so the scenario is expected to survive supergravity corrections. The second pair of charged superfields arises naturally in several brane and conifold scenarios, but its effect on cosmic string formation had not been noticed so far. PMID:15244993

  3. Will Quantum Cosmology Resurrect Chaotic Inflation Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Won

    2016-07-01

    The single field chaotic inflation model with a monomial power greater than one seems to be ruled out by the recent Planck and WMAP CMB data while Starobinsky model with a higher curvature term seems to be a viable model. Higher curvature terms being originated from quantum fluctuations, we revisit the quantum cosmology of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the chaotic inflation model. The semiclassical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology with fluctuations of spacetimes and matter when the wave function is peaked around the semiclassical trajectory with quantum corrections a la the de Broglie-Bohm pilot theory.

  4. Inflatable partition for fighting mine fires

    DOEpatents

    Conti, Ronald S.; Lazzara, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    The seal is a lightweight, inflatable, bag which may be inflated by a portable air generator and is used to seal a burning mine passage. A collapsible tube-like aperture extends through the seal and allows passage of high expansion foam through the seal in a feed tube. The foam fills the passageway and extinguishes the fire. In other embodiments, the feed tubes incorporate means to prevent collapse of the aperture. In these embodiments a shroud connects the feed tube to a foam generator. This seal allows creation of a high expansion foam fire fighting barrier even in upward sloping passages.

  5. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-15

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n{sub s} > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n{sub s}=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  6. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  7. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, 104 Stat. 890, as amended by the...

  8. 78 FR 63465 - Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... CORPORATION Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation... Act of 1971, as amended. The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by... impose CMPs to regularly evaluate those CMPs and to adjust them periodically for inflation, so...

  9. 76 FR 74720 - Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 38114). The rule adjusts for inflation the maximum amount of each statutory civil penalty... 46 CFR Part 506 RIN 3072-AC36 Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties; Correction AGENCY... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act...

  10. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  11. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  12. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  13. Singular inflation from Born-Infeld-f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Makarenko, Andrey N.

    2016-07-01

    Accelerating dynamics from Born-Infeld-f(R) gravity are studied in a simplified conformal approach without matter. Explicit unification of inflation with late-time acceleration is realized within this singular inflation approach, which is similar to Odintsov-Oikonomou singular f(R) inflation. Our model turns out to be consistent with the latest release of Planck data.

  14. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  15. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  16. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  17. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  18. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  19. 49 CFR 1022.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 1022... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Board shall, immediately, and at...

  20. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...