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Sample records for early greek medicine

  1. Early Greek Typography in Milan: A Historical Note on a New Greek Typeface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallraff, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of Greek typography, focusing on the first book to be entirely printed in Greek in 1476 and the series of new typefaces that resulted. Cites Milan as a center of Greek printing in the early history of Greek typography. Describes a revival of one of these typefaces created under the name of Milan Greek. (PA)

  2. [A review of the principle mythical gods in ancient greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease. This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology. The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine. PMID:25643892

  3. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS.

    PubMed

    Prokopakis, E P; Hellings, P W; Velegrakis, G A; Kawauchi, H

    2010-09-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is intriguing. Most of this meticulous knowledge was developed through time, beginning mainly from Hippocrates and the Hellenistic period. Thereafter, medicine developed through Roman and Byzantium times to finally influence European medicine and later the rest of the Western world. History of medicine reflects the history of mankind itself, and otorhinolaryngology follows closely this path. Our goal is to slim down and illuminate the most challenging of the vast amount of information on rhinological issues contained in the original Greek text of Hippocrates, and mainly in the hagiographical texts of Byzantine medical writers. In particular, we focus on rhinological diseases from antiquity till the time being, following the journey of evolution of topical and nebulizer therapy for sinonasal inflammatory diseases in Greece, from "milothris" to modern nasal sprays, leading to an understanding of the philosophy of our predecessors and the roots of modern rhinology. PMID:21038014

  4. Views on ocular cancer in Arabo-Islamic medicine and the leading influence of the ancient Greek medicine.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Nikolopoulos, Thomas; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-01-01

    In the ophthalmological treatises of the medieval Arabo-Islamic physicians such as al-Mawsili (9th-10th century), al-Kahhal (ca. 940-1010), Haly Abbas (10th century) and al Sadili (14th century) we may find references about ocular cancer, focusing on eyelid tumors and cancerous ulcers of the cornea. These references are similar to the analogous ones of ancient Greek physicians as these are preserved in the medical texts of the most famous Byzantine doctors, indicating the influence of ancient Greek medicine in the Arabo-Islamic one. PMID:27061559

  5. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness. PMID:19811642

  6. Greek Male Early Childhood Educators: Self and Societal Perceptions towards Their Chosen Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Ziganitidou, Kiriaki

    2009-01-01

    In choosing to become early years teachers, men are positioned in a context which is numerically dominated by women. Male early years teachers may feel they experience difficulties, being induced into a predominantly female culture. The present study intended to examine whether Greek male early childhood educators experience difficulties. More…

  7. Developing Young Children's Thinking Skills in Greek Early Childhood Classrooms: Curriculum and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbili, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In early childhood education, opportunities for developing children's thinking skills are unlimited. One of the most effective teaching strategies for this purpose is open-ended questioning. The study presented here aimed to explore the degree to which Greek early childhood teachers promote the development of thinking skills in their pupils.…

  8. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness. PMID:21560777

  9. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  10. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  11. Greek Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellakis, Nektarios

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a survey conducted in Syros Island in Greece. The intention was to ascertain kindergarten teachers' perceptions about early literacy and the skills and knowledge they consider as important for pre-school aged children. The participants were all the kindergarten teachers of the island (N = 19) and the data were collected during…

  12. Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data.

    PubMed

    Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed. PMID:26597650

  13. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture. PMID:18794562

  14. Greek medicine and Babylonian wisdom: circulation of knowledge and channels of transmission in the archaic and classical periods.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers questions of transmission and circulation of knowledge between Greeks and Babylonians, and in particular within the medical sphere. It compares evidence for the extensive exchange of goods and ideas with the Near East in the archaic period and considers the channels and means of transmission involved. It suggests, however, that the evidence of Hippocratic medicine and of Herodotus implies that interaction in the medical sphere followed the main areas of contact through trade and colonisation, and above all Egypt, rather than Mesopotamia. Contact with Babylonian wisdom was to reappear only in the late classical and Hellenistic period. PMID:17152173

  15. Greek Pre-Service Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs about and Practices of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The continuum of beliefs reported by Greek pre-service kindergarten teachers and how those beliefs relate to classroom practices are explored in this article. Considering the potentially important influence of teachers' beliefs on their practices, the level of early childhood teachers' beliefs about developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs) and…

  16. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  17. What's Wrong with Early Medieval Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Horden, Peregrine

    2011-01-01

    The medical writings of early medieval western Europe c. 700 – c. 1000 have often been derided for their disorganised appearance, poor Latin, nebulous conceptual framework, admixtures of magic and folklore, and general lack of those positive features that historians attribute to ancient or later medieval medicine. This paper attempts to rescue the period from its negative image. It examines a number of superficially bizarre writings so as to place them in an intellectual and sociological context, and to suggest that the presumed contrast between them and their ancient and later medieval counterparts has been wrongly drawn.

  18. [Anonymous Londinensis and the Greek documentary papyrus of medicine at the CEDOPAL].

    PubMed

    Ricciardetto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposes an account of my research on human and veterinary medicine in Graeco-Roman and Byzantine Egypt, undertaken since 2008 at the CEDOPAL at the University of Liège. This research focuses on literary papyri, particularly on the Anonymus Londiniensis (Hermopolis?, 2d half of the 1st). PMID:26492679

  19. Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

  20. The Greek Concept of "Techne."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, C. Stephen

    The Greek concept of techne can aid in understanding technological society and the way it can generate a separation of business and personal lives. As used by the early Greeks, techne mean the knowledge required to get the job done. The "manager" of today epitomizes this early concept. He is trained to get the job done efficiently, economically,…

  1. The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…

  2. Greek mathematical astronomy reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    2002-03-01

    Recent investigations have thrown new light on such topics as the early Greek belief in heliocentricity, the relation between Greek and Babylonian astronomy, the reliability of Ptolemy's Syntaxis, Hipparchus's theory of motion for the sun, Hipparchus's value for the obliquity of the ecliptic, and Eratosthenes' estimate of the size of the earth. Some claims resulting from these investigations are controversial, especially the reevaluation of Ptolemy (though it is notable that no one any longer uses data from the Syntaxis for investigating such things as the spin of the earth). This essay presents the evidence for these claims; it makes no pretense of presenting the evidence against them.

  3. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  4. Vulnerability and resilience after early institutional care: The Greek Metera study.

    PubMed

    Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Rutter, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine possible influences on individual differences in adolescence in response to early institutional care in infancy not involving either generalized privation or subnutrition. Fifty-two adopted adolescents aged 13 years who received institutional care in infancy at the Metera Babies Centre and 36 adolescents of the same age who were raised in their biological families participated in the study. Adolescents' attachment relationships, cognition, behavioral adjustment and use of psychological services were assessed. Marked heterogeneity in outcomes was found. No predictive effects were found for preinstitutional features or for adoptive circumstances. By contrast a large effect was found for institutional care extending beyond the age of 2 years and for quality of institutional care as experienced at an individual level. There was a close association between prolonged institutional care and disorganized attachment while in the institution, but the main institutional effect derived from the length of time in the institution. PMID:25797488

  5. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  6. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  7. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

  8. Flank eruptions of Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods: New data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Condomines, Michel; Tanguy, Jean-Claude

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present new data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism with the aim of improving the knowledge of the flank eruptions that occurred at Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods, as defined in the new geological map of the volcano. The combination of the two dating techniques demonstrates that three major flank eruptions occurred on the lower north and west flanks during Greek-Roman epochs, producing large scoria cones and extensive lava flows. In particular, the Mt Ruvolo and Mt Minardo events highly impacted the territory of the west flank, notably by damming the Simeto River. The new data of the Millicucco and Due Monti lava flows, on the lower north-east flank, indicate a younger age than their stratigraphic ages quoted in the 2011 geological map, since they occurred around 700 and 500 AD, respectively. None of the large flank eruptions occurring on the lower slopes of Etna during the Early Medieval age are reported in the historical sources. Overall, our paper shows that a comprehensive assessment of eruptions at Mount Etna in the last three millennia can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Greek Americanism, "New Greece," and Greek Orthodoxy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Lonnie

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Greek Americanism is neither based upon the wholesale assimilation of American culture nor the futile copying of Greek culture. Instead, an amalgamation of both cultures, a blending together of Greek and American cultures in a manner that produces a unique culture all its own is presented. (GR)

  10. Early evolution of the thermometer and application to clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Wright, William F

    2016-02-01

    By the time of Hippocrates and Galen the notion of fevers and temperature were known. Through ensuing centuries, ancient Greek, Roman, and medieval savants and physicians made additional contributions to the understanding of fever, temperature, and thermometry. By the end of that era, there was a working definition of what constitutes a rationale temperature scale, the distinction between fever as a symptom and fever as a disease, an elaborate classification scheme for temperature, hypotheses as to the causes of fever, and methods for measuring fevers. Based on the definition of fever at that time, the 16th century scientist Galileo promulgated production of thermometric instruments hundreds of years before they were routinely used in the clinical setting. In this work we examine the history of fever and clinical thermometry in the ancient world through the end of the eighteenth century with descriptions of instruments for its measure and human relationship to fever. PMID:26857973

  11. Egyptian imprints on Geto-Dacian magical medicine.

    PubMed

    Baran, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt. PMID:21657103

  12. Greek Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  13. Greek atomic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-03-01

    Physics began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reached full development within three centuries. The creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists.

  14. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. PMID:26394486

  15. The early history of evidence-based reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Martin H

    2013-03-01

    The origins of evidence-based medicine as understood today are traceable to 1972 and the publication of Archie Cochrane’s book Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services. This book attempted to bridge the divide between scientific medicine and clinical judgment that had developed since the mid-19th century. Its genesis was stimulated by Cochrane’s experiences as a prisoner-of-war medical officer and of the demands placed after the 1939-1945 war on the UK National Health Service. In the 1960s, reproductive medicine was considered by the UK Medical Research Council to be relatively ‘unscientific’ in its approach to care delivery and was described as such by Cochrane in the 1970s. Evidence is presented here that reproductive medicine responded, becoming by 1989 a pioneering clinical discipline in the application of evidence to practice. This was achieved largely through the efforts of Iain Chalmers, who was a key player in the development of the systematic review and in the foundation of the Cochrane collection. PMID:23273757

  16. [Early history of medicine and health career in Harbin].

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Li, Z P

    2016-03-01

    Harbin, located in the northeast of China, was still an agricultural region dominated by traditional natural economy in the late 19th century. Harbin became the"Eurasia land bridge"and the transportation junction of the northeast railway network, along with the building of Mid-east railway in 1898, which sped up the development of the city. With the influx of foreign workers and capital, in the 1930s, Harbin has become a city with 19 countries' consulates and nearly 100, 000 people from more than 20 foreign countries. In this international multicultural city, the rapid introduction and spread of western medicine showed the great effect for the development of medicine and health career, ranking the top in China. PMID:27255198

  17. Concept and treatment of hydrocephalus in the Greco-Roman and early Arabic medicine.

    PubMed

    Grunert, P; Charalampaki, P; Ayyad, A

    2007-10-01

    . The surgery consisted in one or more incisions and evacuation of the fluid. The wound was not closed but let open for three days. Thereafter plasters or sutures closed the incisions. The surgical technique goes back probably to Antyllos a surgeon from the 3rd century AD whose considerations were cited in the work of Oreibasios. The early Arabic physicians took over the surgical indications, the operative technique and modified the Greek concept of hydrocephalus. Avicenna separated the traumatic haematomas outside the skull from the term hydrocephalus. However Avicenna, as all previous authors, had not linked hydrocephalus with the ventricular system. The autopsy of a child with an exorbitant hydrocephalus performed by the anatomist Vesalius in the 16th century revealed as a single pathology an extremely dilative ventricular system filled with water-like fluid which made it necessary to change completely the ancient concept of hydrocephalus. PMID:18058640

  18. Greek Temples and Rituals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutsikas, Efrosyni

    Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.

  19. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    PubMed

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient. PMID:14657583

  20. WHY NOT GREEK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHRIVER, JOHN R.

    BECAUSE A KNOWLEDGE OF CLASSICAL GREEK IS NECESSARY FOR UNDERSTANDING MODERN THOUGHT AND LITERATURE, IT SHOULD BE PART OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM. A PROBLEM IS GETTING TEACHERS OF GREEK, AND PROBABLY MOST OF THE TEACHING SHOULD BE DONE BY COLLEGE PROFESSORS WHO TEACH THE HIGHLY MOTIVATED STUDENTS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL. AN ELEMENTARY COURSE…

  1. Spoken Greek: Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahane, Henry; And Others

    This course in spoken Greek is intended for use in introductory conversational Greek classes. Book II in the two-volume series is divided into three major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  2. Spoken Greek: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahane, Henry; And Others

    This course in spoken Greek is intended for use in introductory conversational Greek classes. Book I in the two-volume series is divided into two major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  3. Sports Medicine and School Nurses: A Growing Need for Further Education and Appropriate Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Cynthia S.; Badros, Karen K.; Madden, Cynthia A.; Drewer, Nancy; Makuchai, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Sports medicine, as a discipline, can be traced back to primitive man. The use of exercise as a prerequisite for conditioning and proper treatment of injuries was first documented in early Greek civilization with the establishment of the Olympics. Today, sports by their very nature invite injury. In 2000, 2.5 million students participated in…

  4. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    PubMed

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research. PMID:11944656

  5. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. PMID:22520182

  6. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  7. ["Non naturals" in Islamic medicine].

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Naohide

    2010-03-01

    "Non naturals," which appear frequently in the history of Western medicine, means things not controlled by human nature, contrary to natural components of a body. It covers such a wide range of factors as physiological or psychological things, and the external envionment. Generally, these are classified into six categories; ambient air, food and drink, exercise and rest, sleep and wakefulness, excretion and retention, and the passions of soul. In medieval times the knowledge of these "six non naturals" constituted a kind of hygiene or regimen. People cannot avoid the effects of these elements in their lifetime, so physicians were required to learn about them not only to treat diseases but to preserve health and to prevent diseases. This became so common that it was included in the curriculum of medical schools. Although these factors were already known to have an effect on the health of humans in the early stage of Greek medicine, it took a long time to be formed into the theory of "six non naturals." Its origin can be traced back to Galen's "Ars medica," but he does not use the name "non naturals." With the later development of medicine in the Islamic world, which received Greek medicine through translation, the number and the contents of related factors differ from author to author. Moreover, they use different names; few authors use the name "non naturals." It seems that "six non naturals" had not been established as theory until the later stage of the history of medicine in Islam. PMID:20614733

  8. The relation between Greek and Islamic materia medica.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have been made on the exact data of the introduction of Greek sciences to the Arabic culture. During the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. a big progress was done in the Arab-Islamic sciences, when the Caliphs of the Omayad and Abbasid dynasties invited many scientists, researchers and translators for translation of all sciences into Arabic. The Arabs paid special attention to the Greek natural sciences such as botany and pharmacy. Greek materia medica was a major common basis for Arab-Islamic medicine and pharmacy which in turn paved the way to the modern pharmaceutical therapy. PMID:12575695

  9. Medicinal exploitation of inorganic substances in the Levant in the Medieval and early Ottoman periods.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-11-01

    Various minerals, metals, clays, and rocks were among the natural medicinal substances used by physicians and pharmacists in early times in different cultures, for example, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Classical physicians such as Hippocrates and Dioscorides mention tens of inorganic medicinal substances in their writings. Many references to minerals and chemicals are also found in the Muslim medical literature of the Eastern and Western Caliphates. The historical research presented in this article focuses on the inorganic substances applied as remedies by the medieval and early Ottoman (7th-17th) inhabitants of the Levant. The article is based upon a literature review covering tens of different historical sources, from the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Relevant information was found in the works of physicians such as al-Tamimi, Benevenutus, Ibn al-Baytar, Daud al-Antaki, and Hayyim Vital. The research revealed evidences of the medicinal uses of fifteen inorganic substances: Alum, Arsenic, Sulphide, Asphalt, Jew's stone, Earth sp., Galena, Haematite, iron, Lead, Pyrite, Salt, Sulphur, Thermal water, Green Vitriol, and Zinc. Inorganic materials comprise 5.2% of the list of medicinal substances. The geographic origin of most of these substances is the Levant, in which two geo-historical centers have been recorded: the Rift Valley and the northern region of the Levant, including upper Galilee, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon. A notable tendency to use these substances for treating diseases of the skin, the eyes, the sexual organs, and haemorrhoids was detected. PMID:20329348

  10. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice. PMID:26203550

  11. Early evaluation and value-based pricing of regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Koerber, Florian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Rogowski, Wolf

    2013-11-01

    Since the first pioneering scientists explored the potential of using human cells for therapeutic purposes the branch of regenerative medicine has evolved to become a mature industry. The focus has switched from 'what can be done' to 'what can be commercialized'. Timely health economic evaluation supports successful marketing by establishing the value of a product from a healthcare system perspective. This article reports results from a research project on early health economic evaluation in collaboration with developers, clinicians and manufacturers. We present an approach to determine an early value-based price for a new treatment of cartilage defects of the knee from the area of regenerative medicine. Examples of using evaluation results for the purpose of business planning, market entry, preparing the coverage decision and managed entry are discussed. PMID:24147530

  12. Greeks in America; Staff Development Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lereah, Lucy; And Others

    This module lists eight staff development objectives pertaining to various aspects of Greek-American culture. Topics dealt with include Greek emigration and immigration, Greek vocabulary, contributions made by prominent Greek-Americans, Greek family life and the changing role of family members, Greek values, and the growth of Atlanta's Greek…

  13. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign language. "In":…

  14. [On early red-head-style external medicine and the Confucian physician Mukai Gensho].

    PubMed

    Michel, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    In 1656, at the request of the imperial commissioner Inoue Masashige Chikugo-no-kami, the neo-Confucian physician Mukai Genshō compiled medical instructions given to him by the Dejima trading-post surgeon Hans Juriaen Hancke. This was the first text on Western surgery by a trained Japanese specialist. Based on an extensive analysis of related Japanese source material, it is shown that the manuscript Komōryū geka hiyō ("Secret compendium of red-head-style external medicine"), previously considered to represent Mukai's original report, is a rather corrupted version. Other manuscripts, such as Oranda-den geka ruihō ("Arranged formulas of Dutch external medicine"), Oranda geka ihō ("Medical formulas of Dutch external medicine"), or Shōji shinan ("Compass of diagnosis and treatment"), are much more coherent in their contents and fit well with Dutch sources. Furthermore, it is shown how Mukai "identified" and "translated" the Latin names of ulcers, tumours, inflammations, etc., by comparing Hancke's teachings with the most comprehensive Eastern source on surgical matters, the Waìke zhèngzōng (Jap. Geka seisō, "Orthodox manual of external medicine"). His eclectic approach resulted in a combination of Sino-Japanese pathology with Western treatment methods. Mukai had set an example that would dominate the reception of Western medicine in Japan for more than a century. It became widely known as early as 1670, when Yamawaki Dōen included many parts of Mukai's report in his Oranda geka ryōhō ("Good formulas of Dutch external medicine"), the first Japanese book on red-head-style external surgery. PMID:21560320

  15. Ancient Greek Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Robert

    Greek festival calendars were in origin lunar, eventually being aligned with the sun through various lunisolar intercalary cycles. Each city-state had its own calendar, whose month names have some, little, or no similarity with those of other city-states. These names often reflect gods or festivals held in their honor in a given month, so there is an explicitly sacred character to the calendar. New Year's Day could also differ from one state to another, but generally began with the sighting of the first new moon after one of the four tropical points. Even the introduction of the Roman Julian calendar brought little uniformity to the eastern Greek calendars. The calendar is one of the elements which can assist in understanding the siting of Greek sacred structures.

  16. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. PMID:27238553

  17. [Medicine and symmetry. On the use of a mathematical concept in the early writings of the Corpus Hippocraticum].

    PubMed

    Triebel-Schubert, C

    1989-01-01

    The conception of symmetry in medical texts of the 5th century has never been connected with the development of the mathematical theory of proportions. However, we can find in Alcmaion and the hippocratic writings de vetere medicina, de natura hominis and de victu the differentiation between an arithmetical determinable measure and a qualitative determinable measure which is defined by a common lógos for incommensurable sizes. In de vetere medicina and de victu we see a conception of proportion and symmetry/commensurability, which requires the discovery of incommensurability. This discovery can be connected with the greek mathematician Hippocrates of Chios and his theorems of doubling the cube. We can detect an answer to this revolutionary development in mathematics in the methodological ideas of medical writers, who wanted to turn away medicine from the anti-descriptive and anti-empirical attitude in mathematics and philosophy. PMID:2534608

  18. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  19. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring ... can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They ...

  20. Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Korčula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽić, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽić (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature. PMID:23094840

  1. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine.

    PubMed

    Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved "upstream" so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage "upstream" HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers. PMID:26760958

  2. Greek and Roman Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth, Pandora's…

  3. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  4. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  5. [Use of translational medicine in the early diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Song; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Translational medicine is an emerging idea in current medical research area. Typically, for the purpose of bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, it not only emphasizes the urgency and necessity to break the traditional working formats, including single subject centered research team and limited cooperation among different scientific groups, but also highlights a more close and frequent interaction between basic scientist and clinician. In order to reach this goal, the theory and method of systems biology should be employed. This paper mainly focused on a central issue that how to carry out an investigation on early clinical diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by using research concept of translational medicine and method of systems biology. Briefly, a hypothesis of common mechanism of IUGR was first proposed and subsequent validation was performed via integrating--omics (e.g. genomics, proteomics, cytomics, metabonomics/metabolomics) and molecular biology techniques. Metabonomics was further utilized to explore IUGR biomarker and establish preliminary forecasting model by bioinformatics and computational biology, which is available for early diagnosis of IUGR and make a complement to current evaluation criteria. PMID:21465805

  6. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  7. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  8. Greek Cosmology and Cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alexander

    The structure, composition, and long-term history of the cosmos were prominent topics in many ancient Greek philosophical systems. Philosophers and philosophically informed astronomers differed over whether the cosmos was finite or infinite, eternal or transient, and composed of discrete particles or continuous, homogeneous elements. The Aristotelian cosmology preferred by astronomers following Ptolemy assumed a finite, spherical shell of eternally unalterable matter enclosing a terrestrial globe composed of earth, water, air, and fire.

  9. Precision Medicine for Molecularly Targeted Agents and Immunotherapies in Early-Phase Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Juanita; Harris, Sam; Roda, Desam; Yap, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine in oncology promises the matching of genomic, molecular, and clinical data with underlying mechanisms of a range of novel anticancer therapeutics to develop more rational and effective antitumor strategies in a timely manner. However, despite the remarkable progress made in the understanding of novel drivers of different oncogenic processes, success rates for the approval of oncology drugs remain low with substantial fiscal consequences. In this article, we focus on how recent rapid innovations in technology have brought greater clarity to the biological and clinical complexities of different cancers and advanced the development of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies in clinical trials. We discuss the key challenges of identifying and validating predictive biomarkers of response and resistance using both tumor and surrogate tissues, as well as the hurdles associated with intratumor heterogeneity. Finally, we outline evolving strategies employed in early-phase trial designs that incorporate omics-based technologies. PMID:26609214

  10. "I'm a Greek Kiwi": Constructing "Greekness" in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angouri, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The article reports on the preliminary findings of a project on the constructions of "Greekness" in modern diasporas. The discussion draws on data from the self-identified Greek community of Wellington, New Zealand. Interview data, ethnographic diaries, and everyday real-life spoken interactions were collected. The analysis of the data shows that…

  11. GREEK BASIC COURSE, VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE GREEK LANGUAGE DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I OF THIS INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR ADULTS IS THE "KATHOMILUMENI" VARIETY, THAT OF THE STANDARD SPEECH OF EDUCATED GREEKS. (VOLUME III OF THE COURSE INTRODUCES THE MORE FORMAL KATHAREVUSA VARIETY.) EACH VOLUME OF THE COURSE CONTAINS 25 UNITS PLUS FIVE REVIEW SECTIONS. A TYPICAL UNIT IN VOLUME I CONSISTS OF--(1)…

  12. Comparing Quality of Childcare and Kindergarten Centres: The Need for a Strong and Equal Partnership in the Greek Early Childhood Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoriadis, A.; Tsigilis, N.; Grammatikopoulos, V.; Kouli, O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether kindergartens and childcare centres differ in terms of educational and caregiving components. More specifically, two aspects of the process quality of the early childhood education and care were examined regarding the "Activities" and the "Programme Structure." A multi-stage…

  13. Vocabulary development in Greek children: a cross-linguistic comparison using the Language Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1;6 to 2;11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the instrument's normative sample (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Vocabulary size increased markedly with age, but Greek toddlers appeared to get off to a slower start in early word learning than US children. The correlation between percentage word use scores in Greek and US samples was moderate in size, indicating considerable overlap but some differences. Common nouns were the largest category among the fifty most frequent words in both samples. Numbers of adjectives and verbs were comparable across languages, but people and closed-class words were more numerous in the Greek sample. Finally, Greek late talkers showed similar patterns of vocabulary composition to those observed in typically developing Greek children. PMID:21729371

  14. Available Tools to Facilitate Early Patient Access to Medicines in the EU and the USA: Analysis of Conditional Approvals and the Implications for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Richer, Étienne; Melien, Øyvind; Ballensiefen, Wolfgang; Brand, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and our understanding of the human body and diseases have limited any possible treatment tailoring to each patient. The technological advances enabling the integration of various data sets (e.g. '-omics', microbiome, epigenetics and environmental exposure) have facilitated a greater understanding of the human body, the molecular basis of disease and all the factors influencing disease onset, progression and response to treatment, thereby ushering in the era of personalized medicine. We evaluate the regulatory approaches available to facilitate early patient access to efficacious and safe compounds in the EU and the USA in order to make more informed recommendations in the future as to the gaps in regulations for early patient access. An in-depth analysis of conditional approvals (EU) and accelerated approvals (USA) is performed based on the publicly available information (European public assessment reports and a summary review of products approved under both programmes). The types of product, indications, time to approval and type of evidence submitted were analysed. Between 2007 and early 2015, 17 products were conditionally approved in the EU and 25 in the USA, most of them in the area of oncology and based on evidence from phase II clinical trial data. Early approval of promising products based on data from early phases of development is already possible in the EU and the USA. Some of the improvements could entail implementing a rolling assessment of evidence in Europe and extending the scope of early dialogues. PMID:26316202

  15. Black Contributions to the Early History of Western Medicine: Lack of Recognition as a Cause of Black Under-Representation in US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    During several millenia, blacks in ancient Egypt made numerous contributions to medicine and were acknowledged as the inventors of the art of medicine. They produced the earliest physicians, medical knowledge, and medical literature. They contributed to the development of medicine in ancient Greece. Ancient writers, including Herodotus, Isocrates, and Diodorus, affirm this. Modern presentations of ancient medicine, however, deprive blacks of the knowledge of their early contributions to medicine by ignoring or subtly misrepresenting the black identity of the ancient Egyptians. Blacks are currently under-represented in US medical schools. It is proposed that the recognition of the contributions of blacks to the early history of Western medicine would inspire black students to study medicine. PMID:423296

  16. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too. PMID:23350086

  17. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  18. Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, J. M.

    Astronomy in Babylonia during the first millennium BC developed out of a long tradition of observing and interpreting the sky into a science that was both observational and theoretical. It is well established that these developments influenced the practice of astronomy in neighbouring cultures in the Indus valley, Egypt and the Greco-Roman world. However, it is less clear whether there was any significant input from foreign cultures into the development of Babylonian astronomy. In this paper I examine the evidence for possible traces of Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy during the late first millennium BC. In particular, I discuss two possible cases of Greek influence that have been proposed in recent years: the naming of certain zodiacal signs and a value for the length of the year found on a Babylonian text that may be based upon Greek observations of summer solstices.

  19. Greek Life: A Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park.

    Supporting Greek life has been an important educational initiative for many colleges and universities. Although Greek students are typically involved with the college and community, there are other aspects of Greek culture, such as hazing and alcohol abuse, which are troublesome to university administrators. This document discusses standards, set…

  20. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Thomas G.

    1975-01-01

    List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

  1. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  2. The Implementation of the Greek Union Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsirikou, Anthi

    This paper is based on the results of the study of the Work Group of Bibliographic Standards for the Greek union catalog, the first stage of Greek academic library union catalog development. The first section lists the objectives of the union catalog. The state of the art of Greek academic libraries is discussed in the second section. The lack of…

  3. Herophilus of Chalcedon and the Hippocratic tradition in early Alexandrian medicine.

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Herophilus of Chalcedon (c. 330-250 BC) is famous as one of the leading figures in the development of medicine in Ptolemaic Alexandria around the first half of the third century BC. However, his medical science seems to have intrinsic continuity of thought with Hippocratic medicine. Herophilus followed the medical principle formulated in the Hippocratic treatise "On the Nature of Man," when he made his methodological pronouncement to the effect that primary parts of the human body should be perceptible by the senses. Herophilus rejected cardiocentrism, introduced by his teacher Praxagoras into the medical school of Cos, and returned to Hippocratic encephalocentrism, as represented by the author of the Hippocratic treatise "On the Sacred Disease." Herophilus differentiated between the faculties of the soul and the ones attributed to the nature. In his differentiation between these two faculties, Herophilus probably had in mind the Hippocratic conception of nature as specifically applied to the domain of the human body, as distinct from the soul. Herophilus' commitment to Hippocratic medicine is confirmed by his literary works on some of the Hippocratic texts. It is probable that Herophilus regarded himself as a more faithful successor than his teacher to the tradition of Hippocratic medicine. His anatomical research on the structure and function of the brain, motivated by his loyalty to the Hippocratic tradition, led him to innovative contributions to the development of medicine. PMID:22606746

  4. A New Synthesis for the Origin of the Greek Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. E.

    2005-08-01

    different mythology/names; and so these representations must have been added by the Greeks. In addition, the Bear constellations must have originated with Paleolithic hunters in northern Eurasia sometime before 11,000 BC, as shown by the widespread distribution of essentially identical myths for the asterism across Eurasia and North America. This leaves about a dozen old constellations which have no Mesopotamian roots and for which the first reference anywhere is from early Greek sources and which have characteristically Greek flavor. Thus it appears that a substantial fraction of the old Greek constellations are actually Greek in origin, with the majority being older asterisms adopted from Mesopotamia, while the Bear originates at least 13,000 years ago. This research was supported in part by the Herbert C. Pollack Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  5. Depression screening in pediatric epilepsy: evidence for the benefit of a behavioral medicine service in early detection.

    PubMed

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Monahan, Sally; Wesolowski, Cindy; Modi, Avani C

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increased risk and prevalence of depression in youth with epilepsy, only one-third receive mental health services. Untreated depression can contribute to negative outcomes and increased health-care utilization and medical cost. Proactive behavioral medicine screening may facilitate identification of depressive symptoms and necessary interventions in efforts to optimize behavioral health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Primary study aims included the examination of 1) rates of self-reported depression in youth with epilepsy, 2) differences in depression by demographic and medical variables, 3) the impact of depression on HRQOL, and 4) changes in depression and suicidal ideation following a behavioral medicine consultation. As part of routine clinic care over a 24-month period, youth with epilepsy of 7-17years of age completed the Children's Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Parents completed the PedsQL. A chart review was conducted to ascertain demographics, medical variables, and behavioral medicine visits and recommendations. A subsample with Time 1 and Time 2 depression data was examined. Time 1 participants included 311 youth with epilepsy (Mage=11.9years, 50% female, 84% Caucasian, 46.0% with localization-related epilepsy, 71.0% with seizure control in the past 3months). Elevated depression was identified in 23% of youth, with 14% endorsing suicidal ideation. Depression significantly varied by age, antiepileptic drug, and insurance. After controlling for seizure status, HRQOL worsened with elevated depression. Depression significantly decreased from Time 1 to Time 2 (n=159), particularly for those referred for behavioral medicine services at Time 1. Systematic assessment and early detection of depression and/or suicidal ideation in youth with epilepsy can improve HRQOL and decrease depression. Depression screening can be implemented through clinic-based behavioral medicine services. PMID:25597526

  6. Greek Student Attitudes Towards Hazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Wesley; And Others

    Attitudes of members of Greek fraternities and sororities concerning hazing were studied at the University of North Dakota. A survey instrument was completed by 476 students. Activities considered to be hazing by a majority of respondents were those that are potentially injurious to the physical and/or mental health of the pledges or that could…

  7. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  8. Working Students at Greek Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures in engaging young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy targeting that population group, especially university students. This research paper aims to explore the idea…

  9. PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

    PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

  10. The Oral Accentuation of Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. Sidney

    1967-01-01

    A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…

  11. [Chinese medicine needs the baptism of science].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tai

    2012-08-01

    All branches of mature practical technologies of both Eastern and Western ancient cultures, such as astronomy, geography, calendar, agriculture, architectonics, medicine, and so on, possess their own scientific connotation, which were derived from gradual accumulation and repeated validation of practical experiences. The ancient Greek medicine has the advantage of easily receiving scientific 'baptism' (reformation). The ontology and logics in ancient Greek philosophy, served as the epistemological and methodological bases, could effectively promote the development of science. Therefore, following the rapid progress of natural sciences since the Renaissance of the West world, the ancient Greek medicine rationally received the scientific "baptism" and gradually transformed into "modern medicine". In recent years, an upsurge to study and reappraise the works of Galen, an outstanding doctor and philosopher of Roman Empire, was evoked to discover and illuminate the practical and historical values of ancient Greek medicine. In ancient times, the medical theories and clinical practice of both Greek medicine and Chinese medicine were quite similar to each other, and they separately produced particular merits of themselves. However, owe to lack in the support of natural philosophy in ancient China, the progress of Chinese medicine, with its original native qualities for thousands of years only showed increase of clinical experiences, rather than scientific reformation of its essences. Therefore, Chinese medicine should also receive scientific "baptism" as Greek medicine. Ebb tide and see the real gold. The valuable medical experiences of Chinese medicine can be picked up for wide application, and its great historical achievements can be revealed for later pondering. PMID:23173244

  12. Pre-Clerkship Observerships to Increase Early Exposure to Geriatric Medicine

    PubMed Central

    You, Peng; Leung, Marie; Xu, Victoria Y. Y.; Astell, Alexander; Gill, Sudeep S.; Gibson, Michelle; Frank, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose To foster interest in geriatric care, the Queen’s Geriatrics Interest Group (QGIG) collaborated with the Division of Geriatric Medicine to arrange a Geriatrics Pre-Clerkship Observership Program. Methods Forty-two pre-clerkship medical students participated in the program between October 2013 and May 2014. Participants were paired with a resident and/or attending physician for a four-hour weekend observership on an inpatient geriatric rehabilitation unit. The program was assessed using: (1) internally developed Likert scales assessing student’s experiences and interest in geriatric medicine before and after the observership; (2) University of California Los Angeles–Geriatric Attitudes Scale (UCLA-GAS); and (3) narrative feedback. Results All participants found the process of setting up the observership easy. Some 72.7% described the observership experience as leading to positive changes in their attitude toward geriatric medicine and 54.5% felt that it stimulated their interest in the specialty. No statistically significant change in UCLA–GAS scores was detected (mean score pre- versus post-observership: 3.5 ± 0.5 versus 3.7 ± 0.4; p=.35). All participants agreed that the program should continue, and 90% stated that they would participate again. Conclusions The observership program was positively received by students. Structured pre-clerkship observerships may be a feasible method for increasing exposure to geriatric medicine. PMID:26740831

  13. Mesopotamian medicine.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots. PMID:17378276

  14. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions. PMID:24397599

  15. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. PMID:24957845

  16. The early years of coeducation at the Yale University School of Medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Baserga, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Yale School of Medicine began accepting women as candidates for the degree of medicine in the fall of 1916. This decision was consistent with the trend in medical education at the time. While Yale was not the first prestigious Eastern medical school to admit women, joining Johns Hopkins (1893) and the University of Pennsylvania (1914), it was not one of the last. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons admitted women a year later, but Harvard Medical School held out until 1945. The years 1916--1920 saw the number of women enrolled in medical school almost double. Yale's decision to admit women seems to have been made with little resistance from the faculty. The final decision was made through the encouragement and financial help of Henry Farnam, a professor of economics at Yale, who agreed to pay for the women's bathrooms. His daughter, Louise, was in the first class of women. At graduation she was awarded the highest scholastic honors, the Campbell Gold Prize. From Yale she travelled to the Yale-sponsored medical school in Changsha, China, where she became the first female faculty member, a position she held for twelve years. The impressions of Ella Clay Wakeman Calhoun, the only woman to graduate in the second class of women, are presented here. Since 1916 the Yale School of Medicine has undergone extensive physical and philosophical changes, developments in which women have participated. PMID:6996342

  17. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  18. Greeks in America and Greece. The 42-Cent Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    1981-01-01

    Culture conflict is reflected in Greek-American perceptions of themselves and of Greek nationals and vice versa. Greek Americans feel that hard work has resulted in wealth, education, and success; Greek nationals believe their American counterparts are mercenary and have forgotten old values. Greek Americans resent the behavior of newly arrived…

  19. Recruitment and Early Retention of Women with Advanced Breast Cancer in a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sikorskii, Alla; Wyatt, Gwen K.; Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Tamkus, Deimante

    2011-01-01

    More than 80% of women with breast cancer are now reported to be using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies during conventional treatment. A randomized clinical trial (RCT) of reflexology with late stage breast cancer patients serves as the data source for this article. The purposes were to investigate: (i) reasons for refusal to participate in a RCT of reflexology; (ii) the differences between those who completed the baseline interview and those who dropped out before baseline; and (iii) the utility of the Palliative Prognostic Score (PPS) as a prognostic screening tool in minimizing early attrition (before baseline) from the trial. Eligible women (N = 400) approached at 12 cancer centers in the Midwest had advanced breast cancer, were on chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, and had a PPS of 11 or less. Comparisons of those who dropped out early (N = 33) to those who stayed in the trial (N = 240) were carried out using Wilcoxon rank, t-, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. The reasons of being “too sick” or “overwhelmed” were given by less than 12% of the women who refused to participate. There was a higher early dropout rate among black women compared to other (primarily white) women (P = .01). Cancer recurrence and metastasis, age, and the PPS were not predictive of early retention of women. Specialized techniques may be needed to ensure black women remain in the trial once consented. Women with advanced disease were likely to enter and remain in the trial despite deterioration in health. PMID:19620179

  20. Early metabolism evaluation making traditional Chinese medicine effective and safe therapeutics*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Yang, Ling

    2006-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the scientific evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As many TCMs are capable of biotransformation in the gastrointestinal tract, attention to biotransformation of TCM in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to discovery of the active components and active mechanisms. In this article, we review reports that host metabolic enzymes and intestinal bacteria may be responsible for the metabolism of TCM. Good understanding of the in vivo course of TCM will help us to know how to conduct metabolism evaluation of TCM by using in vitro human-derived system. This evaluation system will create new views on TCM as effective and safe therapeutic agents. PMID:16421964

  1. In Search of an Audience: Popular Pharmacies and the Limits of Literate Medicine in Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century Russia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question of the limits of literate medicine in Europe, through an examination of the Russian literate medical world of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Russian courtly medicine had been dominated by Western Europeans from the 1480s, but in the early eighteenth century new licensing arrangements solidified the presence of these foreigners in the wider Russian medical world. Foreign medical practitioners took advantage of this development, aiming works at an increasingly large proportion of Russian literate society. These works, along with satirical and religious works emulating or deriding medical texts, show how by the 1720s the limits of literate medicine in Russia lay not at the edges of official court medicine, but rather at the edges of literate society. PMID:26725412

  2. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  3. Divergent Orientations to Greek and its Teaching in an Australian Greek School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Julie; Truckenbrodt, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    The Greek community in Australia attempts, with reasonable success, to maintain Greek language proficiency in succeeding generations, but attitudinal barriers within the community may be impeding the process. A study of the stakeholders (primary and secondary staff, parents, students and management) of one Greek independent school in Melbourne…

  4. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  5. Medicine, metals and empire: the survival of a chymical projector in early eighteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Koji

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that Newtonian philosophers such as Johan T. Desaguliers defined their authority in contradistinction to the 'projector', a promoter of allegedly impractical and fraudulent schemes. Partly due to the lack of evidence, however, we know relatively little about these eighteenth-century projectors, especially those operating outside learned networks without claims to gentility, disinterest or theoretical sophistication. This paper begins to remedy this lacuna through the case of a 'chymical' projector, Moses Stringer (fl. 1693-1714). Instead of aspiring to respectability, this London chymist survived by vigorously promoting new projects, thereby accelerating, rather than attenuating, the course of action that rendered him dubious in the first place. The article follows his (often abortive) exploitation of medicine, metals and empire, and thereby illuminates the shady end of the enlightened world of public science. PMID:26336059

  6. Performing arts medicine-a bibliographic retrospective of the early literature: an historical examination of bibliographic references pre-1975.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2013-03-01

    Performing arts medicine (PAM) emerged as a medical specialty around 1985. Prior to this time, relatively few publications addressed the identification and concerns of musicians' and dancers' medical problems. To determine what number and types of publications occurred prior to the actual beginnings of PAM as a discipline, and to determine how these original topics compared with present-day publications, a retrospective review of the current bibliographic database of the Performing Arts Medicine Association (PAMA) was undertaken. Out of a total of 12,600 entries to date, 489 references were found published from 1798 through 1974, which represent only 3.9% of the current database listings. One-sixth of the references were originally written in a language other than English. Journal articles were by far the most numerous type of publication. Topics with the highest number of entries included the neurobiology of music (n=77), dental/orofacial matters (71), and biographical accounts of composers or musicians and their illnesses (59). Other frequently published topics included hearing loss, physiology of playing instruments, and instrumental technique and teaching. Early topics with multiple publications included composers' biographies, dystonias, and surgery to improve finger independence for playing piano. Subjects whose publications occurred principally in the last two decades of this review included dermatological disorders, hearing loss, and ballet physiology, teaching, and technique. Those which remain popular to the present day include hearing loss, performance anxiety, focal dystonia, and dental/orofacial problems. PMID:23462904

  7. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

  8. Greek's health, waiting for the 'deus ex machina'.

    PubMed

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Greece from May 2010 has been following Troika's (European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund) austere policies in all over the public finance sector. Troika's instructions which are adopted by the politicians resulted to depressed and weak citizens. The consequences in health care sector are becoming visible across the society. A big part of Greek's society is uninsured without any access to public health care system. The vulnerable social groups confront catastrophic health care expenditures and impoverishment with no social net protection. Greeks are paying the price of their irrational way of living. The current paper has gathered from the literature the early effects of the implementation of these policies on public health and healthcare. PMID:24902711

  9. Ophthalmology in Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that ophthalmology is one of the foremost branches of medicine, conceptualization of the structure and function of the eye barely advanced in ancient Western civilizations. At the early recovery of Persian civilization (9th century AD) after the extinction of the Sassanid Empire (7th century AD), translations of Greek medical textbooks played an important role in the development of medicine and the emergence of great Persian physicians such as Rhazes, Avicenna and others. Rhazes was a leading Persian physician whose medical teachings have as yet not been thoroughly explored. In addition to numerous books and articles in various fields, he authored a great medical Encyclopedia (al-Hawi al-Kabir) in 25 volumes. In this article, we are going to compare Rhazes’ particular viewpoints about ophthalmology with those of other famous Persian physicians and some recent essays and textbooks. For this purpose we reviewed Rhazes’ second volume of al-Hawi that is dedicated exclusively to ophthalmology and contains some major topics of ophthalmology including anatomy, physiology, pathology, diseases, disorders and treatments. Important themes were carefully extracted and compared with the tenets of modern ophthalmology. After collating Rhazes’ viewpoints with the latest findings in this field, it was concluded that he had brilliantly written about the signs and symptoms, etiology and treatment of many eye disorders more than a thousand years ago. The amazing point is that there was no accurate equipment at the time to help him in his investigations. This study proved that Rhazes’ theories conform to recent knowledge about ophthalmology in many aspects, and could therefore be the subject of further investigations. PMID:26587199

  10. [The medicines of herbal and animal origin in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Skaltsa, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns an effort to present historic data on the evolution of the medicines used by the ancient Greeks from the prehippocratic period until the greco-roman times. In addition, information is given for the influence of this accumulated knowledge based on the greek traditional herbal medicines in the first editions of the Hellenic Pharmacopoeia (19th century) through the byzantin manuscripts. PMID:25668914

  11. South Africa's early experiment in social medicine: its pioneers and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, S

    1997-01-01

    The election of a democratic, nonracial government in South Africa has moved the health needs of the majority of the population to center stage. In the search for precedents, health policymakers have turned to South Africa's pioneering of health centers and social medicine in the 1940s. This paper looks at the intellectual context in which these ideas were first developed; the particular political circumstances and relationships between doctors and the state in the late 1930s, which facilitated the establishment of health centers; the role that the health centers were intended to play in South Africa's wider postwar health plans; and the reasons for the centers' failure. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it argues that the failure of the health centers and the wider health plans predated the advent of the National Party to power in 1948, and resulted mainly from the marginalization of the centers as a low-cost option for the poor, which was itself a consequence of underfunding and the vested interests of local health authorities and private practitioners. PMID:9096553

  12. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  13. Greek Talented Students' Motivation: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbainos, Dimitrios; Kyritsi, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    This article presents one of the few recent attempts to investigate aspects of motivation of Greek gifted students. This effort is particularly challenging since gifted education in Greece is a nonexistent concept, and any study of Greek gifted students has to overcome obstacles related to definition, location and identification of gifted…

  14. The Minimalist Syntax of Control in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapetangianni, Konstantia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates Control phenomena in three distinct domains of the grammar of Modem Greek (subjunctive complements, "V-ondas" adjuncts and ke-complements) and proposes a unifying syntactic account of Control by appealing to the tense properties of these domains. I argue that Control in Greek is best analyzed as an instance of…

  15. Bilingual Word Recognition in English and Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiri, Helena-Fivi; Willows, Dale M.

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated word recognition processes of Greek/English bilinguals in relation to linguistic and syntactic differences in the languages, then compared those processes with those of monolinguals. Bilingual readers performed differently in the languages, conforming more to monolingual patterns in their native language (Greek), interpreted…

  16. Greek University Students: A Discouraged Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Dimtrios M.; Karaliopoulou, Katerina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - The significance of young, well-educated workers in the Greek labour market has been largely neglected in studies addressing the issue of low participation rate in the labour force of the country. This study focuses on the reluctance of Greek students to enter the labour market and combine studies with paid work. This article reports on…

  17. Historical Digressions in Greek Geometry Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaidis, Yannis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an attempt to combine the history of mathematics of ancient Greece with the course on theoretical geometry taught in Greek secondary schools. Three sections present the history of ancient Greek geometry, geometrical constructions using straightedges and compasses, and an application of Ptolemy's theorem in solving ancient astronomy…

  18. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  19. The Greeks and the Education of Humanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Timothy J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Traces the roots of the concepts of the humanities and liberal arts education to the ancient Greeks, describing how their customs, language, philosophy, and literature have contributed to current concepts of education. Suggests that the Greek idea of education stressed the arts and mathematics but was opposed to all professionalism. (MAB)

  20. Morphology of the heart associated with its function as conceived by ancient Greeks.

    PubMed

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George

    2014-03-01

    According to their writings, ancient Greek physicians had explored the anatomy of the heart. Although pre-Hippocratic medicine, which relied on religion and mysticism, has nothing more to present than implausible theories and speculations, younger physicians thanks to their animal dissections were able to depict the heart with detail. Hippocratic "On the Heart", Aristotle's, Herophilus', Erasistratus' and Galen's writings provide us with the necessary data to take a look at the anatomy of the heart as it was described back then. Despite of some confusing passages in their writings and some erroneous notions, the heart was described with relative accuracy. In the years after antiquity and in the Middle Age the only information about the anatomy of the heart could be derived from the ancient Greek works and only anatomists of the Renaissance managed to displace them. In this paper we present the knowledge of all known ancient Greek physicians about the heart, with emphasis on its anatomy. PMID:24447741

  1. ‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  2. Further solar alignments of Greek Byzantine churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, I.; Vasiliou, H.

    Following the recent work on the solar alignment of Greek byzantine churches (Liritzis and Vassiliou 2006 a,b,c) the solar orientations of twenty one more churches are presented. The question examined is if the day of solar rise across the eastern direction of the church is related with the feast day of Patron Saint. Measurements were carried out with magnetic compass, inclinometer, portable GPS and appropriate corrections for the solar declination. The alignments towards eastern sunrise were examined for various angular altitudes of the perceptible horizon. At least for all Rhodean churches the patron's day is met when sun oblique path crosses horizon a few degrees beyond the intersection of extrapolated eastern axis of the church with horizons skyline. Therefore, taken the orientation as the glitter of first sunrays -early dawn- correlation of thirteen present churches are aligned near the autumnal equinox, three have relation with the feast of patron saint, four are related to the other important feast of Christianity and one seem orientated randomly. However accounting for a due east sun position a few degrees above horizon in early liturgy hours (6:30 - 9:30 am) all the Rhodean alignments coincides with Saint's name day.

  3. Islamic reception of Greek astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2011-06-01

    Research in Islamic science over the last half century or so has clearly established that such old myths as Islamic science being a preservation of Greek science, or that science was always in conflict with religion in Islamic civilization as it was in Europe, or that the European scientific Renaissance was independent of outside influences -a European phenomenon par excellence- are now all subjects of great dispute if not altogether dead. In what follows I will illustrate the evidence that has put such myths into question with only few examples, since time and space do not allow me to elaborate more.

  4. Pioneering early Intensive Care Medicine by the 'Scandinavian Method' of treatment for severe acute barbiturate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2015-07-01

    Between the 1920s and the mid-1950s, barbiturates were the sedative-hypnotic agents most used in clinical practice. Their ready availability and narrow therapeutic margin accounted for disturbingly high rates of acute poisoning, whether suicidal or accidental. Until the late 1940s, medical treatment was relatively ineffective, with mortality subsequently high - not only from the effects of coma, respiratory depression and cardiovascular shock with renal impairment, but also from complications of the heavy use in the 1930s and 1940s of analeptic stimulating agents. Incidence of barbiturate intoxication increased substantially following World War II and this paper details development of what became known as the 'Scandinavian Method' of treatment, which contributed substantially to the earliest establishment of intensive care units and to the practice and methods of intensive care medicine. Three names stand out for the pioneering of this treatment. Successively, psychiatrist, Aage Kirkegaard, for introducing effective anti-shock fluid therapy; anaesthetist, Eric Nilsson, for introducing anaesthesiologic principles, including manual intermittent positive pressure ventilation into management; and, psychiatrist, Carl Clemmesen, for introducing centralisation of seriously poisoned patients in a dedicated unit. Clemmesen's Intoxication Unit opened at the Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1949. ICU pioneer Bjørn Ibsen suggested it was the initial ICU, while noting that it supplied Intensive Therapy for one type of disorder only (as had HCA Lassen's Blegdam Hospital unit for Denmark's 1952 to 1953 polio epidemic). Treatment for barbiturate poisoning during the 1950s in some other Scandinavian hospitals will also be considered briefly. PMID:26126074

  5. Greek Physicians' Perceptions on Generic Drugs in the Era of Austerity

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Fanariotis, Michael; Kastanioti, Catherine; Alexias, Georgios; Protopapas, Adonis; Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Niakas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the beliefs and preferences of Greek physicians, regarding generic drugs, in the years of financial crisis. Setting. Multicentered, nationwide survey. Material and Methods. A custom questionnaire based on former similar studies was developed and administered to Greek physicians. The variable “perception on generics” was constructed after an exploratory study and the instrument was validated by conventional and Rasch analysis methods. 22 items formed 5 subscales that constructed the variable in question. Results. 908 physicians successfully participated in the study (response rate: 80%). Mean total scores to the instrument were 60.63 ± 12.12 for men and significantly less (58.24 ± 11.73) for women (p = 0.04). Greek physicians were not persuaded on the potential economic gain (45.79 ± 10.53); moreover they identified that Greek authorities cannot address the increased pharmacovigilance mandates. Physicians working in Athens and those working in surgical units demonstrated significantly worse scores than their colleagues from the rest of Greece and those working in Internal Medicine wards (p = 0.03).  Conclusion. Our results suggest an overall poor acceptance of the national initiative on generic drugs by Greek physicians. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01855802. PMID:26457225

  6. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. PMID:25725914

  7. Case Morphology and Word Order in Second Language Turkish: Evidence from Greek Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Spyropoulos, Vassilios; Kaili, Hasan; Prokou, Sophia; Revithiadou, Anthi

    2011-01-01

    The optional use of morphology attested in second language learners has been attributed either to a representational deficit or to a "surface" problem with respect to the realization of inflectional affixes. In this article we contribute to this issue by providing empirical data from the early interlanguage of Greek learners of Turkish. Three…

  8. The Transmission of Mathematics into Greek Education, 1800-1840: From Individual Initiatives to Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastanis, Iason; Kastanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, a number of Greek communities developed a remarkable education in mathematics. The subject matter for this instruction was drawn mainly from French textbooks, although some teachers displayed a preference for Prussian mathematical sources. These efforts, however, were thwarted by the religious conservatism of the…

  9. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, Religious Practices and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…

  10. Educational Resources and Implementation of a Greek Sign Language Synthesis Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpouzis, K.; Caridakis, G.; Fotinea, S.-E.; Efthimiou, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present how creation and dynamic synthesis of linguistic resources of Greek Sign Language (GSL) may serve to support development and provide content to an educational multitask platform for the teaching of GSL in early elementary school classes. The presented system utilizes standard virtual character (VC) animation technologies…

  11. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  12. Material Culture of Greek and Roman Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James

    In the Greek and Roman worlds, astronomy had a rich material culture. Many objects had practical applications to timekeeping or liberal education or astrological prediction, but many others were meant to express philosophical, religious, or political values.

  13. Reforming the Greek health system: a role for non-medical, clinical bioscientists.

    PubMed

    Kazanis, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of the recent debt crisis and the subsequently adopted austerity measures, the Greek health system faces important challenges including the necessity to rationalize public spending. One domain where there is scope for reducing expenses is laboratory medicine services, that are provided by both public and private facilities. Specialized non-medical, clinical bioscientists (such as molecular biologists, biochemists and geneticists) massively participate in the provision of laboratory medicine services in both sectors; however, they are excluded from key positions, such as the direction of laboratories and sitting in regulatory bodies. This is in breach with European standards of practice and also constitutes an impediment to the much anticipated rationalization of spending; therefore has to be addressed by the Greek health services authorities. PMID:22537581

  14. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us: A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Students' Programmed Text - Level Alpha. [Second Edition].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This is a students' programmed text for Level Alpha of a humanistic approach to the instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: (1) the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; (2) the…

  15. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us - A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Students' Programmed Text-Level Beta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This is a student's programmed text for Level Beta of a humanistic approach to instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: (1) the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; (2) the…

  16. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us. A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Teacher's Guide - Level Beta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This is a teacher's guide for Level Beta of a humanistic approach to instruction of Classical Greek and Greek culture in secondary schools. The goals of the program are to help students become aware of: (1) the impact of Hellenic civilization on contemporary society, including the impact of the Greek language on English; (2) the similarities and…

  17. Evidence-based practice of Chinese medicine in physical rehabilitation science.

    PubMed

    de Sá Ferreira, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Chinese medicine is among other traditional medical systems practiced either as a coadjutant intervention to Greek medicine or as the unique therapeutic intervention for illness prevention, treatment or rehabilitation. The complete spectrum from that traditional system includes acupuncture and moxibustion, herbal and food therapy, massage therapy (tuina), physical exercises (taijiquan), and breathing exercises (qigong). In this article, it is presented several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on the application of all therapeutic modalities from Chinese medicine in the physical rehabilitation scenario. The discussed studies encompasses both "positive" and "negative" results of Chinese medicine intervention for disabilities due to illnesses of the nervous, musculoskeletal or cardiovascular systems. Additionally, the importance of the personalized approach for Chinese medicine and rehabilitation is emphasized together with the need for reproducible methods for pattern differentiation and intervention selection. Chinese medicine resources are recognized as promising methods for therapeutic rehabilitation and can be incorporated into the rehabilitation science. The wide variety of therapeutic resources explains why Chinese medicine is currently a multidisciplinary practice for health protection and promotion, early diagnosis and treatment as well as rehabilitation with roles in the public health care system. PMID:23504579

  18. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

  19. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  20. Greek Day Education in and around Montreal: The Case for a Greek Trilingual High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    The history of the education of Montreal's Greek population is traced in this report, which is partly intended to act as a stimulus for future planning and development. Six chapters contain, respectively: (1) a history of Greek day education in and around Montreal, from its origin in 1910 with the founding of the "Plato" school to its securing of…

  1. "Can We Play Again with Picasso Miss?" The Effects of the Arts in Children's Involvement during Literacy Activities in the Early Years Settings: A Case Study in the Greek Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    Involvement is the cornerstone of the educational process, especially in the early years settings. It is a fundamental factor in people's actions particularly when they are deeply concentrated in an activity. However, little research has been conducted in the early years settings, with focus on teaching and learning. This piece of research…

  2. Adapting a receptive vocabulary test for preschool-aged Greek-speaking children

    PubMed Central

    Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan R.

    2010-01-01

    item from the two lists was a better fit. Finally, new starting levels (basals) were established for preschool ages. Conclusions & Implications The revised word list can serve as the basis for adapting a receptive vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken in testing larger numbers of 2-5;11 year old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation of language disorders in Modern Greek-speaking children. PMID:21281411

  3. Greek medical papyri from the Fayum village of Tebtunis: patient involvement in a local health-care system?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ann Ellis

    2005-01-01

    The Greek papyri of medical content from Tebtunis are conspicuous for their quantity and quality, when compared with neighbouring villages. By isolating another feature in which Tebtunis is also unique--namely, in the relatively large number of those of privileged status who maintained residences and left important documents in the village, it would appear that these outsiders were instrumental in interesting the local priests in sophisticated Greek medicine and in bringing medical texts into the village. Tebtunis may thus provide an ancient example of patients influencing the health care available to them and their families when resident in the village. PMID:17144084

  4. A Longitudinal Study about the Identity and Moral Development of Greek Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgannon, Suzanne M.; Erwin, T. Dary

    1992-01-01

    Examined moral reasoning and identity development of Greek and non-Greek men and women. Controlling for entering first-year levels, Greek men scored lower in Confidence component of identity development than did Greek women and non-Greeks. Covarying for entering first-year students' moral reasoning scores, sophomore non-Greek women scored higher…

  5. [Hermaphroditos in Greek mythology--DSD in moderne medicine].

    PubMed

    Oestmann, A; Mullis, P E; Stanga, Z

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of 34 year old woman how has been hospitalized at the age of 6 month with persistent vomitus. The vomitus was found to be caused by adrenal insufficiency with lack of all hormones of steroidobiosynthesis. The phenotypical femal child was diagnosed to have congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XY DSD. 24 years later a homozygote mutation in the StAR-gene (L260P), which was first described in Switzerland, has been identified. PMID:19374207

  6. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity. PMID:20695404

  7. [The role of papyri in the history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Marganne, Marie-Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Two papyri are very interesting for Medicine history of the Antiquity. The first one (a Greek papyrus prolifically illustrated between 100 B.C. and 100 A.D.) reveals the value of the illustrators of works in the Greek and Roman period and the second (the famous papyrus of Milan 300 B.C.) includes a part about the epigrams of curing. PMID:15359464

  8. Greek-English Word Processing on the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusten, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the complete Greek-English word processing system of the Apple Macintosh computer. Describes the features of its operating system, shows how the Greek fonts look and work, and enumerates both the advantages and drawbacks of the Macintosh. (SED)

  9. Focusing the lens of language experience: Perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual listeners are constrained by native language experience when categorizing and discriminating unfamiliar non-native contrasts. Are early bilinguals constrained in the same way by their two languages, or do they possess an advantage? Greek–English bilinguals in either Greek or English language mode were compared to monolinguals on categorization and discrimination of Ma'di stop-voicing distinctions that are non-native to both languages. As predicted, English monolinguals categorized Ma'di prevoiced plosive and implosive stops and the coronal voiceless stop as English voiced stops. The Greek monolinguals categorized the Ma'di short-lag voiceless stops as Greek voiceless stops, and the prevoiced implosive stops and the coronal prevoiced stop as Greek voiced stops. Ma'di prenasalized stops were uncategorized. Greek monolinguals discriminated the non-native voiced-voiceless contrasts very well, whereas the English monolinguals did poorly. Bilinguals were given all oral and written instructions either in English or in Greek (language mode manipulation). Each language mode subgroup categorized Ma'di stop-voicing comparably to the corresponding monolingual group. However, the bilinguals’ discrimination was unaffected by language mode: both subgroups performed intermediate to the monolinguals for the prevoiced-voiceless contrast. Thus, bilinguals do not possess an advantage for unfamiliar non-native contrasts, but are nonetheless uniquely configured language users, differing from either monolingual group. PMID:23556605

  10. Whistleblowing in medicine and in Homer's Iliad.

    PubMed

    Rodulson, Victoria; Marshall, Robert; Bleakley, Alan

    2015-12-01

    'Thinking with Homer', or drawing creatively on themes and scenes from Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, can help us to better understand medical culture and practice. One current, pressing, issue is the role of the whistleblower, who recognises and exposes perceived poor practice or ethical transgressions that compromise patient care and safety. Once, whistleblowers were ostracised where medical culture closed ranks. However, in a new era of public accountability, medicine looks to formally embrace whistleblowing to the point that not reporting transgressions can now constitute a transgression of professionalism. Where medical students identify with the history and traditions of medical culture, they inevitably find themselves in situations of conflicting loyalties if they encounter senior clinicians behaving unprofessionally. What are the implications of facing these dilemmas for students in terms of role modelling and shaping of character as a doctor, and how might a study of Homer help with such dilemmas? We suggest that a close reading of an opening scene in Homer's the Iliad can help us to better appreciate such ethical dilemmas. We link this with the early Greek tradition of parrhesia or 'truth telling', where frankly speaking out against perceived injustice is encouraged as resistance to power and inappropriate use of authority. We encourage medical educators to openly discuss perceived ethical dilemmas with medical students, and medicine as a culture to examine its conscience in a transition from an authoritarian to an 'open' society, where whistleblowing becomes as acceptable and necessary as good hygiene on the wards. PMID:25948788

  11. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  12. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  13. The Perfective Past Tense in Greek as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; Martzoukou, Maria; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

    2010-01-01

    This study reports results from four experiments investigating the perfective past tense of Greek in adult second language (L2) learners. The data come from L2 learners of Greek with intermediate to advanced L2 proficiency and different native language (L1) backgrounds, and L1 speakers of Greek. All participants were tested in both oral and…

  14. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  15. The Semantic Adaptation of Turkish Loanwords in Cypriot-Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlou, Pavlos Y.

    This paper examines the Turkish origins of a number of Cypriot-Greek words, explaining how some of these words have undergone a semantic shift. Words of Turkish origin can be divided into three classes: (1) culturally borrowed, those words that introduced a new concept into Cypriot-Greek and have no purely Greek equivalent; (2) doublets, those…

  16. In Search of Excellence: Historical Roots of Greek Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    This paper seeks to discover conditions that motivate people to achieve excellence and uses the Greek culture as an example of excellence. The document addresses the basic questions: (1) What were the social conditions that resulted in what is widely known as the "Greek Miracle"?; (2) What motivated the ancient Greeks to excel, especially their…

  17. The Classical Greek Program in the School District of Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    Classical Greek is taught as an elective to over 200 students in seven secondary schools of the School District of Philadelphia. In the past decade the restoration of Greek studies to the classical curriculum was called for, and in 1968 a Greek Curriculum Committee was established in Philadelphia to develop a program and instructional materials.…

  18. Chromium content of selected Greek foods.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S; Bratakos, Sotirios M

    2002-05-01

    The total chromium content of a wide variety of Greek foods was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). Meat, fish and seafood, cereals and pulses were rich sources of chromium (>0.100 microg/g). Fruits, milk, oils and fats and sugar were poor sources. Differences in chromium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Based on available food consumption data and chromium levels in this study, it was estimated that the chromium intake of Greeks is 143 microg/day, with vegetables, cereals and meat being the main contributors. PMID:12083715

  19. The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alun M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

  20. Ancient medicine--a review.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  1. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    PubMed

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization. PMID:21657100

  2. Development of Voice Onset Time in Standard-Greek and Cypriot-Greek-Speaking Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni; Karasimou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the development of voice onset time (VOT) in Standard-Greek (SG) and Cypriot-Greek (CG)-speaking children at age levels 2;0-2;5, 2;6-2;11, 3;0-3;5, and 3;6-4;0 years. SG presents with a two-way voicing contrast (voiced and voiceless unaspirated stops) whereas CG is a three-way contrast dialect containing…

  3. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  4. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  5. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday speech;…

  6. Greek Advisors' Perceptions of Sorority Hazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Deborah Lee; Morgan, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Examined Greek advisors' opinions on several issues related to sorority hazing. Results from 283 members of the Association of Fraternity Advisors revealed that, although almost all campuses had a hazing policy, over half of advisors felt that hazing still existed in some of their groups. Policies for handling hazing incidents were varied.…

  7. Greek Alcohol Survey: Results and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Wesley; And Others

    Alcohol use among 458 members of Greek fraternities and sororities at the University of North Dakota was surveyed. The survey instrument, which was an adaptation of a questionnaire developed by Michael A. Looney, was directed to frequency of use, amounts consumed, type of beverage, attitudes, and demographic information. It was found that…

  8. Temperament Styles of Greek and US Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2010-01-01

    Age, gender and cross-national differences of children ages 8 through 16 in Greece (n = 400) and the United States (n = 5,400) are examined on four temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible styles. In general, Greek children prefer extroverted to introverted styles and organized…

  9. Solar Alignments of Greek Temples Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.

    2005-08-01

    The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces approximately north-south, are noted in the literature, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations but predominately (about 80 Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan, Roman and Greek temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken three field seasons in Greece in order to check previously reported alignments. Where possible, in addition to determining the orientation of foundations, we have attempted to determine the, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues, horizon altitudes etc. In this preliminary study we hope to be able to discover patterns in the orientation of these temples which relate solar observations to temple ritual and thus extend Dinmoor's hypothesis. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our three field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with possible application. 1. Dinsmoor, W.B., The Architecture of Ancient Greece, 3rd ed. Rev. New York, 1975. 2. Nissen, H.,Das Templum,Antiquarische Untesuchungon (Berlin, 1896). 3. Penrose, F.C., Trans. Roy

  10. [The main sources of medieval Islamic medicine and the medical books translated into Turkish in the 10th century texts. Muslim scientists produced original medical works].

    PubMed

    Seşen, R

    1993-01-01

    Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884

  11. Greek fathers' participation in labour and care of the infant.

    PubMed

    Dragonas, T G

    1992-01-01

    Greek fathers' (n = 157) reactions to their presence at the delivery, their expectations about the baby and their childcare practices were explored at the 4th-6th week postpartum. Only 10% of the sample attended the delivery. Their non-attendance was attributed, by the greatest number of fathers, to official hospital policy while the rest claimed it was entirely their decision. Half of the non-attenders expressed the desire to have been present while a large percentage of mothers were said to have wanted them to be present. The small number of fathers who attended the birth felt strong and satisfied. In respect to early fatherhood, three main themes were explored: reaction to fatherhood, enjoyment of the child and involvement in childcare. All three dimensions were strongly correlated. PMID:1439376

  12. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  13. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  14. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us: A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Teacher's Guide-Level Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    A humanistic approach to the study of classical Greek and Greek culture at the secondary school level is detailed in this guide. References to the student programed text and other multisensory instructional materials used in the system focus on instructional objectives geared to students who are not necessarily college-bound. The standard Attic…

  15. Stephanion Observatory. Greek-Ukranian astrolink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Avgoloupis, S.; Mavridis, L. N.

    2000-09-01

    The Astronomical research developed during the 35 years of action of the Stephanion Observatory is reviewed in this report. During these years scientists from all the Astronomical Institutes of Greece as well as from many other countries conduct astronomical research programs realized in the Stephanion Observatory. The research on the red dwarfs is a dominant part of the scientific work done. The international cooperation of the Greek scientific teams was developed in the frame of this research. The Greek -- Ukrainian scientific cooperation during the last decade in the frame of broader international cooperation as well as the bilateral ones were very prosperous and set the basis of a promising scientific cooperation in the future in the field of Astronomy.

  16. Bullying in Greek Primary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapouna, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The problem of school bullying among Greek primary and secondary school children was investigated by using a translated version of the Olweus Questionnaire with a total of 1,758 students, mainly aged 10-14, from 20 schools in the greater Thessaloniki area. Overall, 8.2 percent of all students were victims, 5.8 percent were bullies and 1.1 percent…

  17. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression by deep sequencing in early somatic embryogenesis of endangered medicinal Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Zhao, Yue; Wu, Ying; Wang, Qiuyu; Yuan, Hongmei; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Wendong; You, Xiangling

    2016-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been studied as a model system to understand molecular events in physiology, biochemistry, and cytology during plant embryo development. In particular, it is exceedingly difficult to access the morphological and early regulatory events in zygotic embryos. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating early SE in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., we used high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to investigate its transcriptome. We obtained 58,327,688 reads, which were assembled into 75,803 unique unigenes. To better understand their functions, the unigenes were annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Digital gene expression libraries revealed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (embryogenic callus, yellow embryogenic callus, global embryo). We obtained a sequencing depth of >5.6 million tags per sample and identified many differentially expressed genes at various stages of SE. The initiation of SE affected gene expression in many KEGG pathways, but predominantly that in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction. This information on the changes in the multiple pathways related to SE induction in E. senticosus Maxim. embryogenic tissue will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in early SE. Additionally, the differentially expressed genes may act as molecular markers and could play very important roles in the early stage of SE. The results are a comprehensive molecular biology resource for investigating SE of E. senticosus Maxim. PMID:26657036

  18. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species. PMID:27395093

  19. [The "shoeleather epidemiology" or the reinvention of medical survey. Alice Hamilton and industrial medicine in early 20th century America].

    PubMed

    Rainhorn, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was a pioneer in industrial medicine, a new discipline that emerged with a new interest in working conditions and occupational hazards within an era of unprecedented industrial growth. From various sources, including her reports after she visited Arizona copper belt in 1919, my paper emphasizes the innovation of Hamilton's approach,"shoeleather epidemiology". She went to the source of information in workshops, plants and construction sites, observed the very concrete part of industrial work, interviewed many stakeholders in and around the workplace, making a methodological toolbox for industrial surveys. Her method combined an old medical practice (the medical inquiry) and a new clinical field (the plant) and placed the worker as a patient in the core of the issue of occupational health and safety. PMID:23923341

  20. Women and the practice and teaching of medicine in Bologna in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2003-01-01

    When Bologna's political and intellectual elites had control over the university and associated institutions during the eighteenth century, a few women were allowed to participate in medical fields not typically associated with their gender. Laura Bassi could occasionally teach and debate on anatomy at the university, and the practical anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini could make contributions to the research and teaching of anatomy. With the arrival of the French in Bologna in 1796, the control of the university and associated institutions passed from the local elite to the Ministry of Public Instruction in Milan. This article shows that a few women were awarded degrees in medicine, surgery, and pharmacy from the University of Bologna when the French were in control-however, these women, unlike Bassi and Morandi, were directed to fields deemed appropriate to their gender, such as the training of midwives, or apothecary practice within female institutions. PMID:14523259

  1. Disparities within traditional Mediterranean food patterns: an historical approach of the Greek diet.

    PubMed

    Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this study was to address the historical features underpinning the Greek variant of the Mediterranean diet and to examine whether relevant differences exist among dietary patterns followed in Greece prior to World War II and those recorded in the 1960s within the Seven Countries Study framework. For this purpose, archival data on family budgets were used to extract information on food availability and composition of the diets followed by two rural Greek populations prior to World War II. Results indicate that diets followed by rural Greeks in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century were characterized by a low availability of fat sources, olive oil included. Lipids represented 22-27% of the total available energy, saturated fatty acids accounted for less than 10% of the total energy, while monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 8-9% of the energy. Our results suggest that although the dietary patterns of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century are in line with the Cretan diet of the 1960s with regards to saturated fat intake, important differences can be traced with regards to total and monounsaturated fat intake. These findings suggest that the model of the Mediterranean diet represents a dietary pattern that has not persisted over a long time period in the region. PMID:17162331

  2. Forensic Medicine: An Aid to Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Deadman, William J.

    1965-01-01

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437

  3. FORENSIC MEDICINE: AN AID TO CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION.

    PubMed

    DEADMAN, W J

    1965-03-27

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others. PMID:14269437

  4. [Anastas Granitski and the first 'Practical Medicine'].

    PubMed

    Radeva, Svetla

    2002-01-01

    'Practical Medicine' by D. Pyros, translated by Anastas Granitski, and published in Konstantinople - 1854 appears to be the first textbook on Medicine in Bulgarian language during the Revival period. Anastas Granitski - a professional translator, a man of letters, an enlightener, a polyglot, who had graduated the Greek school in Kurucheshme, and studied for a certain period of time in the Emperor's Medical and Surgical Academy in Galata - Sarai. Among his 18 works as an author and a translator in various spheres there are some in the sphere of medicine including the most significant one - 'Practical Medicine'. It is translated by Granitski into Bulgarian language from Greek very professionally and its significance lies in teh fact that it is the first manual for Bulgarians on medicine. 'Practical Medicine' is interesting in its capacity as a material for the Bulgarian medical and pharmaceutical nomenclature; with its two lithographic tables, drawn by the translator; with its arguments and co-authorship of Granitski on the issues of medicine, included in the preface of the edition. PMID:16060042

  5. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  6. Multicountry survey of emergency and critical care medicine physicians’ fluid resuscitation practices for adult patients with early septic shock

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lauralyn; Rowe, Brian H; Walsh, Timothy S; Gray, Alasdair; Arabi, Yaseen; Perner, Anders; Gordon, Anthony; Marshall, John; Cook, Deborah; Fox-Robichaud, Alison; Bagshaw, Sean M; Green, Robert; Schweitzer, Irwin; Turgeon, Alexis; Zarychanski, Ryan; English, Shane; Chassé, Michaël; Stiell, Ian; Fergusson, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evidence to guide fluid resuscitation evidence in sepsis continues to evolve. We conducted a multicountry survey of emergency and critical care physicians to describe current stated practice and practice variation related to the quantity, rapidity and type of resuscitation fluid administered in early septic shock to inform the design of future septic shock fluid resuscitation trials. Methods Using a web-based survey tool, we invited critical care and emergency physicians in Canada, the UK, Scandinavia and Saudi Arabia to complete a self-administered electronic survey. Results A total of 1097 physicians’ responses were included. 1 L was the most frequent quantity of resuscitation fluid physicians indicated they would administer at a time (46.9%, n=499). Most (63.0%, n=671) stated that they would administer the fluid challenges as quickly as possible. Overall, normal saline and Ringer's solutions were the preferred crystalloid fluids used ‘often’ or ‘always’ in 53.1% (n=556) and 60.5% (n=632) of instances, respectively. However, emergency physicians indicated that they would use normal saline ‘often’ or ‘always’ in 83.9% (n=376) of instances, while critical care physicians said that they would use saline ‘often’ or ‘always’ in 27.9% (n=150) of instances. Only 1.0% (n=10) of respondents indicated that they would use hydroxyethyl starch ‘often’ or ‘always’; use of 5% (5.6% (n=59)) or 20–25% albumin (1.3% (n=14)) was also infrequent. The majority (88.4%, n=896) of respondents indicated that a large randomised controlled trial comparing 5% albumin to a crystalloid fluid in early septic shock was important to conduct. Conclusions Critical care and emergency physicians stated that they rapidly infuse volumes of 500–1000 mL of resuscitation fluid in early septic shock. Colloid use, specifically the use of albumin, was infrequently reported. Our survey identifies the need to conduct a trial on the efficacy of albumin and

  7. Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

  8. Traditional Formula, Modern Application: Chinese Medicine Formula Sini Tang Improves Early Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Sini Tang (SNT) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula consisting of four different herbs: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF-β1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI. PMID:24971143

  9. [The "good doctor". Physicians' morality and the self-conception of medicine since the early modern period].

    PubMed

    Polianski, Igor J

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the historical change in medical ethics since the beginning of the early modern period, drawing on normative sources, mostly of German origin. The theoretical frame of reference is provided by historical moral sociology and the history of the modernisation, as expounded in Niklas Luhmann's system theory. In a first step, evidence for the change in the moral codes of the various social systems (science, economy etc.) of the early modern period is assembled (1) in order to approach the question, taking the medieval medical doctrines of salvation as a starting point (2), whether structurally analogous processes of change can be made out in the medical system. These are identified in the removal of a moral evaluation of disease and in the moral neutralization of doctors' behaviour which is reflected in the spread of medical happiness doctrines (3). Following an interim reflection on moral theory (4), the enforcement of a modern behavioural code in 19th-century medical deontology is outlined, which was based on moral restraint (5) and the specific professional identity of the doctor (6). A summary of the results leads to a concluding outlook on current trends in medical ethics discourse (7). PMID:23213865

  10. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  11. Alternatives to Greek-Letter Organizations Warrant a Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Marc C.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the discriminatory practices and lack of appeal of many predominantly White Greek-letter organizations, students of color sought the development of their own. Alpha Phi Alpha, Rho Psi, MALIK Sigma Psi, Lambda Theta Phi, and Alpha Pi Omega set the stage for later African American, Asian, African, Latino and American Indian Greek-letter…

  12. The Standardization of the Concepts about Print into Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and standardize Concepts About Print (C.A.P.) into Greek, and to assess its psychometric properties. Particularly, this study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Greek version of C.A.P., and item difficulty and discrimination index and examined whether there were differences between boys and…

  13. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  14. Greek Membership: The Relationship with First-Year Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBard, Robert; Sacks, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for student involvement to build a sense of belonging on college campuses. However, when it comes to membership in Greek social organizations, such involvement has been largely cast as negative. Unlike many of the anecdotal articles critical of the influence joining a Greek social organization can have on…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Greek Special Education Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.; Morfidi, Eleni; Soulis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Special education teachers and related service providers were interviewed for their perspectives on Greek special education policies and practices and how these influenced their job preparation and duties. Specifically, they were asked about the impact of the following on their jobs: Greek law related to the education of students with…

  16. Report of the Greek and Italian Youth Employment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Christabel; And Others

    The results of a study which identified the employment aspirations and needs of Greek and Italian immigrant youth in Australia are presented in this book. There are 11 Chapters, the first three of which discuss, respectively; (1) research background and methodology; (2) the experience of Greek and Italian immigrant youth in Australia (a literature…

  17. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

  18. Evaluating and Recommending Greek Newspapers' Websites Using Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris; Kotsiantis, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate Greek newspaper websites using clustering and a number of criteria obtained from the Alexa search engine. Furthermore, a recommendation approach is proposed for matching Greek online newspapers with the profiles of potential readers. The paper presents the implementation and validation of a recommender…

  19. Home Space: Youth Identification in the Greek Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Pollard, Vikki

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on a larger study on schooling and diaspora using the case of the Greek community of Melbourne, Australia to examine processes of identification of young people with access to minority cultures. The Melbourne Greek community is long-standing, diverse, and well-established. Because of this, the young people involved in this study…

  20. Attitudes Towards Modifications in the Orthographic Representation of Modern Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papapavlou, Andreas N.

    A survey investigated the attitudes of educated Greeks about possible modifications in the orthographic representation of written Greek. Subjects were 82 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts program in English Language and Literature offered at the University of Cyprus. The subjects were administered a 20-item Likert-type questionnaire…

  1. On the Rarity Value of Translations from the Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grene, David

    1987-01-01

    Perceives a need for new translations and reinterpretations of classical Greek literature. Considers reasons that some translations have passed into oblivion while others remain unsurpassed. Discusses the relationship between modern and ancient languages, the small size of the extant body of classical Greek literature, and the influence of modern…

  2. A Longitudinal Literacy Profile of Greek Precocious Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia; Manolitsis, George

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this five-year longitudinal study was to examine whether 13 Greek precocious readers' performance on a variety of reading, spelling, and phonological-awareness tasks from kindergarten through the fourth grade was different from that of 12 Greek nonprecocious readers and, if there were differences between the two groups' performances,…

  3. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Diabetes Medicines What do diabetes medicines do? Over time, high levels of blood glucose, ... your diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. Medicines for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  4. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  5. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  6. [The art of therapy in Islamic medicine].

    PubMed

    Masić, I

    1997-01-01

    History is a witness of the great importance and influence of islamic science from the period of "Golden Age of Arabic Civilisation". A famous scientist said: "Sciences has no country, it is international; we all share in fruits of investigations of people from different traditions and all ages." Scientists from the early period of islamic era had set fire of a stream of man's thought and progress, observation, experiments and tradition, that have become a weapon of modern science. All of that was based upon Quran and Hadiths, that have been their guidelines when setting free human mind from taboos. Medieval Arabian scientists have followed the words of Holly Prophet Mohammad s.a.v.s., saying that searching for knowledge have had to be the most important task for people, and that ink more saint than blood of the saints. These attitudes of Holly Prophet have awaken desire for studying with muslim scientists. The result of that desire became a key of scientific progress. There are many worldwide famous arabian scientists: El-Kindi, Er-Razi, Ibn Sina, El-Biruni, Ibu Hajsem, Ez-Zahravi, El-Farabi, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Ruzd etc. These names, among several hundreds of arabian physicians, attribute "Golden Age" of islamic science. That period was characterised by movements, reprocessing of ideas. That reprocessing of ideas has gained the great minds together, and that process is continuous. That is why we have to be grateful to them. Famous Muslim physicians defined medicine as skill that dealt in keeping good health, coped with ills and health recovering. They have also modified many Greek writings and established basic principles of the art of medicine. What is significant is that, regardless of historical past and modern technical and technological presence, these principles are still accurate for understanding of medical science. These principles are what the author is discussing in detail in this paper about. PMID:9324575

  7. Greek Theatre: A Reflection of Ancient Greek Society (A Program Alternative for High School Gifted Students). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, M. Phyllis

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the paper describes a high school curriculum that examines the Greek theatre as a reflection of Greek society. The unit is designed to provide academic substance while developing higher level critical thinking skills. Following a brief introduction on the integration of theatre…

  8. Inhibitory effects of inhaled complex traditional Chinese medicine on early and late asthmatic responses induced by ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many formulae of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been used for antiasthma treatment dating back many centuries. There is evidence to suggest that TCMs are effective as a cure for this allergenic disease administered via gastric tubes in animal studies; however, their efficacy, safety and side effects as an asthmatic therapy are still unclear. Methods In this study, guinea pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) were used as an animal model for asthma challenge, and the sensitization of animals by bronchial reactivity to methacholine (Mch) and the IgE concentration in the serum after OVA challenge were estimated. Complex traditional Chinese herbs (CTCM) were administered to the animals by nebulization, and the leukocytes were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Results The results showed that inhalation of CTCM could abolish the increased lung resistance (13-fold increase) induced by challenge with OVA in the early asthmatic response (EAR), reducing to as low as baseline (1-fold). Moreover, our results indicated higher IgE levels (range, 78-83 ng/ml) in the serum of sensitized guinea pigs than in the unsensitized controls (0.9 ± 0.256 ng/ml). In addition, increased total leukocytes and higher levels of eosinophils and neutrophils were seen 6 hours after challenge, and the increased inflammatory cells were reduced by treatment with CTCM inhalation. The interleukin-5 (IL-5) level in BALF was also reduced by CTCM. Conclusion Our findings indicate a novel method of administering traditional Chinese medicines for asthma treatment in an animal model that may be more effective than traditional methods. PMID:21943157

  9. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul

  10. Cyclopia: from Greek antiquity to medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Kalantzis, George C; Tsiamis, Costas B; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie L

    2013-01-01

    Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly. These severe forebrain lesions often are accompanied by severe systemic malformations, and affected infants rarely survive. Neither true cyclopia nor synophthalmos are compatible with life because an anomalous development of the brain is involved. Thus, it is difficult to assume that ancient Greeks drew their inspiration from an adult patient suffering from cyclopia. Cyclops appear for the first time in literature in Homer's Odyssey (8th-7th century BC) and one of them, Polyphemus, is blinded by the hero of the epic poem. The description of the creature is identical with patients suffering from cyclopia; eyes are fused and above the median eye there is a proboscis, which is the result of an abnormal development of the surface ectodermal structures covering the brain. The next literature appearance of Cyclops is at the end of 7th century BC in "Theogonia", written by Hesiodus. Another interesting description is made by Euripides in his satyr play entitled 'Cyclops' (5th century BC). In conclusion, though it is not certain whether Homer's description of Cyclops was based on his personal experience or the narration of his ancestors, there is no doubt that the ophthalmological disease, cyclopia, was named after this mythical creature. PMID:24640588

  11. Photometric observations of the brightest Jupiter Greeks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Joseph P.; Henry, Todd J.; Pewett, Tiffany D.; French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.

    2013-02-01

    We propose to finish BVRI photometric observations of the 113 brightest Jupiter Trojans from both the L4 (Greek) and the L5 (Trojan) Lagrange points using the CTIO 0.9m, in conjunction with data gathered at Lowell Observatory. With these data we will investigate any color trends and/or differences between the largest members of the two camps as well as reveal any unusual outliers worthy of extensive followup. A comprehensive database of uniform photometry does not exist for this effectively complete sample, so robust comparisons are virtually impossible at this time. These data will also enable comparisons between the Greek and Trojan swarms and other Solar System populations to discover the possible origins of the two camps, which remain surprisingly obscure. In non-photometric conditions, we will measure light curves that yield information about albedo and color changes, shapes, and rotation periods. These data will also lead to important phase curves that can be used to determine surface features and composition. Here we propose for the last southern run for this ongoing photometry program. emphThe proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  12. Relationships between body composition analysis measures in Greek women and US white women.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Stavroula J; Theodorou, Daphne J; Kalef-Ezra, John; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Agnantis, Niki; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Tsampoulas, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the regional changes in body composition relative to age, in healthy Caucasian women living in the Mediterranean area. Body composition of total and subtotal body was measured, and fat mass (FM) ratios along with FM and lean mass (LM) indices were calculated in 330 women aged 20-85 years, using DXA. Data were compared with the NHANES reference database. Peak bone mineral density and bone mineral content of total body were 1.149 g/cm(2) and 2,209 g and were achieved between ages 41 and 50. Peak %FM of total body, FM index (FMI; FM/height(2)), FM of trunk to legs, and FM of trunk to limbs were 41.5%, 13.69 kg/m(2), 1.623, and 1.14, respectively. Peak %FM and FMI were achieved between 61 and 70 years. Unlike US counterparts, in our series, both FM ratios showed a propensity for women to accrue fat in the trunk following the android pattern of fat distribution. Peak LM index for total body (LMI; LM/height(2)) and limbs (ASMMI; appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2)) was 18.08 kg/m(2) and 7.33 kg/m(2), respectively, and was achieved between 61 and 70 years. For Greeks, the ASMMI was greater from 55 years onwards. Greek women have increasing bone mass in early adulthood followed by significant decline during fifties and onwards. Compared with US white women, Greek women have significantly greater truncal fat for all ages, implying a greater risk of obesity-associated diseases. Middle-aged and older Greek women have greater appendicular skeletal muscle mass, which may eliminate the overall risk of sarcopenic obesity. PMID:25366468

  13. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  14. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 8: Modern Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis, A. M.; And Others

    The status of modern Greek in Australian society and education are detailed in this report. Chapters include discussion of these issues: the history of modern Greek in Australia (Greek immigration and settlement, public and private domains of use, language maintenance and shift, and language quality); the functions of modern Greek in Australia…

  15. Subject Area Glossary: Greek-English Vocabulary. Curriculum Bulletin Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A glossary of Greek counterparts for terms used in the Chicago public schools' curricula is intended to be used by teachers of native Greek-speaking, limited-English speaking students. An introductory section outlines Greek phonology and pronunciation, and ensuing sections provide English vocabulary lists with both the Greek orthography and…

  16. The Greek Elementary School System. Curriculum Bulletin Number Twenty-Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ress, Constantine

    The Greek elementary school system is described in this booklet, which was developed for those teaching Greek children who come directly from Greek elementary schools to Chicago public schools. The Greek school system is described as different from the Chicago one in both content and methods of instruction; thus, the purpose of this document is to…

  17. Language Attitudes, Shift and the Ethnolinguistic Vitality of the Greek Orthodox Community in Istanbul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komondouros, Markos; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The Greek Orthodox community of Istanbul has long existed as a bilingual Greek and Turkish grouping and remains largely unstudied. The sharp decrease in the size of this community to approximately 1000 members raises questions as to the maintenance of Greek in this setting. This study attempts to establish the current status of Greek in the…

  18. [Methods and possibilities of research in medicine in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Quack, Joachim Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    A recent monograph on Ancient Egyptian medicine provided the occasion for this article. Apart from highlighting the monograph's shortcomings, this article discusses some crucial problems of research and possible avenues for future investigations in this field. Much additional information can be expected from hitherto unpublished sources. Also the already known source materials permit further insights. Relevant aspects are, among others, the order of recipes and the structure of texts, the relationship of magic to medicine, and the secret names for ingredients. Intensified research on the late period data will further clarify the issue of contacts to Greek medicine and of influences on Coptic medicine. PMID:14509232

  19. Early Prediction of Disease Progression in Small Cell Lung Cancer: Toward Model-Based Personalized Medicine in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Buil-Bruna, Núria; Sahota, Tarjinder; López-Picazo, José-María; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Ribba, Benjamin; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

    2015-06-15

    Predictive biomarkers can play a key role in individualized disease monitoring. Unfortunately, the use of biomarkers in clinical settings has thus far been limited. We have previously shown that mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling enables integration of nonvalidated biomarker data to provide predictive model-based biomarkers for response classification. The biomarker model we developed incorporates an underlying latent variable (disease) representing (unobserved) tumor size dynamics, which is assumed to drive biomarker production and to be influenced by exposure to treatment. Here, we show that by integrating CT scan data, the population model can be expanded to include patient outcome. Moreover, we show that in conjunction with routine medical monitoring data, the population model can support accurate individual predictions of outcome. Our combined model predicts that a change in disease of 29.2% (relative standard error 20%) between two consecutive CT scans (i.e., 6-8 weeks) gives a probability of disease progression of 50%. We apply this framework to an external dataset containing biomarker data from 22 small cell lung cancer patients (four patients progressing during follow-up). Using only data up until the end of treatment (a total of 137 lactate dehydrogenase and 77 neuron-specific enolase observations), the statistical framework prospectively identified 75% of the individuals as having a predictable outcome in follow-up visits. This included two of the four patients who eventually progressed. In all identified individuals, the model-predicted outcomes matched the observed outcomes. This framework allows at risk patients to be identified early and therapeutic intervention/monitoring to be adjusted individually, which may improve overall patient survival. PMID:25939602

  20. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    PubMed

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development. PMID:11337752

  1. Ancient Greek Heliocentric Views Hidden from Prevailing Beliefs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Coucouzeli, Alexandra

    2008-03-01

    We put forward the working hypothesis that the heliocentric, rather than the geocentric view, of the Solar System was the essential belief of the early Greek philosophers and astronomers. Although most of them referred to the geocentric view, it is plausible that the prevalent religious beliefs about the sacred character of the Earth as well as the fear of prosecution for impiety (asebeia) prevented them from expressing the heliocentric view, even though they were fully aware of it. Moreover, putting the geocentric view forward, instead, would have facilitated the reception of the surrounding world and the understanding of everyday celestial phenomena, much like the modern presentation of the celestial sphere and the zodiac, where the Earth is at the centre and the Sun makes an apparent orbit on the ecliptic. Such an ingenious stance would have set these early astronomers in harmony with the dominant religious beliefs and, at the same time, would have helped them to 'save the appearances', without sacrificing the essence of their ideas. In Hellenistic and Roman times, the prevailing view was still the geocentric one. The brilliant heliocentric theory advanced by Aristarchos in the early third century B.C. was never established, because it met with hostility in Athens - Aristarchos was accused of impiety and faced the death penalty. The textual evidence suggests that the tight connection which existed between religion and the city-state (polis) in ancient Greece, and which led to a series of impiety trials against philosophers in Athens during the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., would have made any contrary opinion expressed by the astronomers seem almost a high treason against the state.

  2. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ2 test, student’s t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students’ physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students’ experiences in school (P<0.02), students’ experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders. PMID:26973952

  3. Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescent Students in Greek High Schools.

    PubMed

    Zacharopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsironi, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Gialama, Fotini; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Avraam, Nikolaos; Prezerakos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-01

    Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the presence of depressive symptoms in Greek adolescent high school students and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. For that purpose, a cross-sectional study design was conducted in two public schools in Megalopolis, Greece, from April 2012 to July 2012, using a self-administered questionnaire based on DSM-IV. The target population involved 222 high school students and the response rate was 74.75%. Data was analyzed using trend χ(2) test, student's t-test and bivariate analysis. The analysis of survey data was conducted using the SPSS (19.0). Main findings demonstrate that 3.6% had symptoms of major depressive episode. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in girls, while statistically significant relationships were found between students' physical (P<0.01) and mental health (P<0.008), students' experiences in school (P<0.02), students' experiences with friends (P<0.008) and the frequency of depressive symptoms. Overall, the study results reveal that depressive symptoms can occur in adolescents. Early diagnosis, as well as the need for psychological care at adolescence is necessary for the prevention of major depressive disorders. PMID:26973952

  4. Monastic incorporation of classical botanic medicines into the Renaissance pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Petrucelli, R J

    1994-01-01

    Ancient Greek physicians believed that health resulted from a balance of natural forces. Many, including Dioscorides, made compilations of plants and medicines derived from them, giving prominence to diuretics, cathartics and emetics. During the Roman Empire, although Greek physicians were highly valued, the Roman matron performed many medical functions and magic and astrology were increasingly used. In Judaic and later Christian societies disease was equated with divine disfavor. After the fall of Rome, the classical Greek medical texts were mainly preserved in Latin translation by the Benedictine monasteries, which were based around a patient infirmary, a herb garden and a library. Local plants were often substituted for the classical ones, however, and the compilations became confused and inaccurate. Greek medicine survived better in the remains of the Eastern Roman Empire, and benefitted from the influence of Arab medicine. Intellectual revival, when it came to Europe, did so on the fringes of the Moslem world, and Montpellier and Salerno were among the first of the new medical centers. Rather than relying on ancient experts, the new experimental method reported the tested effects of substances from identified plants. This advance was fostered by the foundation of universities and greatly aided by the later invention of the printing press, which also allowed wider dissemination of the classical texts. PMID:7847452

  5. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  6. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

  7. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-12-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  8. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  9. Aligning Greek-English parallel texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiotou, Eleni; Koronakis, George; Lazari, Vassiliki

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues concerning the alignment of parallel texts written in languages with different alphabets based on an experiment of aligning texts from the proceedings of the European Parliament in Greek and English. First, we describe our implementation of the k-vec algorithm and its application to the bilingual corpus. Then the output of the algorithm is used as a starting point for an alignment procedure at a sentence level which also takes into account mark-ups of meta-information. The results of the implementation are compared to those of the application of the Church and Gale alignment algorithm on the Europarl corpus. The conclusions of this comparison can give useful insights as for the efficiency of alignment algorithms when applied to the particular bilingual corpus.

  10. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  11. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  12. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  13. Understanding Greek Primary School Children's Comprehension of Sun Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Papadimitriou, Vasiliki; Piperakis, Michael M.; Zisis, Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Assesses Greek primary school children's understanding of sun exposure during summer vacation. Results indicate that children know the damaging effects of long time exposure and the precautions that should be taken during summer bathing. (Author/SOE)

  14. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê. PMID:25643891

  15. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424

  16. Low all-cause mortality despite high cardiovascular risk in elderly Greek-born Australians: attenuating potential of diet?

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Elderly Greek-born Australians (GA) consistently show lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with Australian-born. Paradoxically, however, this is in spite of a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. This paper reviews the findings from the Food Habits in Later Life (FHILL) study, other studies on Greek migrants to Australia and clinical studies investigating dietary mechanisms which may explain the "morbidity mortality paradox". The FHILL study collected data between 1988 and 1991 on diet, health and psycho-social variables on 818 people aged 70 and over from Sweden, Greece, Australia (Greeks and Anglo-Celts), Japan and were followed up for 5-7 years to determine survival status. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5-7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, elderly GA had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other CVD risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). GA appeared to be "getting away" with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence in old age to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may, in part, be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors in GA by beneficially altering the gut microbiome and its metabolites. PMID:25516310

  17. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  18. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  19. Influence of Shiftwork on Greek Nursing Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Korompeli, Anna; Muurlink, Olav; Tzavara, Chara; Velonakis, Emmanouel; Lemonidou, Chrysoula; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the burden experienced by nursing personnel working irregular shifts in Greece and to conduct the first test of a Greek version of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI). Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The SSI was completed by 365 nurses and nursing assistants working shifts, including nights. Results Female nursing personnel and those suffering from a chronic disease were most affected by working rotating shifts as they had elevated scores on the majority of the SSI scales, such as sleep, chronic fatigue, digestive and cardiovascular problems, general health questionnaire, cognitive and somatic anxiety, shift time satisfaction, engagement and disengagement strategies, languidity, flexibility, and neurotisicm. Nurses with longer working experience and those with family responsibilities also scored higher on some of the SSI scales, such as the sleep, shift time satisfaction, social and domestic disruption, disengagement strategies, morningness, and languidity scales. Conclusion Shiftwork affects female nurses, those with chronic disease, older age, and domestic responsibilities more severely. Therefore management should take these factors into account when designing work schedules to alleviate the burden caused by shiftwork. PMID:25180137

  20. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Tsiori, Sofia; Koundi, Kalliopi; Pappa, Xenia; Sakkas, Pavlos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024) and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039) respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7%) do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life. PMID:25938913

  1. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  2. [The cult of Asklepios and the doctors in Greek epigraphical evidence].

    PubMed

    Nissen, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    Greek inscriptions afford several examples of the relationship between Asklepios, the god of medicine, and human doctors in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Many dedications of steles, statues, altars and even sanctuaries were consecrated to Asklepios by physicians. Other physicians have undertaken the offices of zacorate or priesthood in the worship of Asklepios. In some cities, notably at Athens and Ephesos, the doctors sacrificed collectively to the physician-god. The aim of this paper is to explain these cult relations between Asklepios and the doctors. After the Asklepiads, doctors at Kos and Knidos, who were believed to be the descendants of Asklepios, all the ancient doctors were connected with Asklepios by their techne; the physician-god was the divine patron of the physicians. Furthermore although the doctors rejected the divine origin of the diseases, they acknowledged the healing power of the gods, especially Asklepios, and could seek his help. PMID:19069070

  3. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027749

  4. S2e guideline: positioning and early mobilisation in prophylaxis or therapy of pulmonary disorders : Revision 2015: S2e guideline of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI).

    PubMed

    Bein, Th; Bischoff, M; Brückner, U; Gebhardt, K; Henzler, D; Hermes, C; Lewandowski, K; Max, M; Nothacker, M; Staudinger, Th; Tryba, M; Weber-Carstens, S; Wrigge, H

    2015-12-01

    The German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) commissioneda revision of the S2 guidelines on "positioning therapy for prophylaxis or therapy of pulmonary function disorders" from 2008. Because of the increasing clinical and scientificrelevance the guidelines were extended to include the issue of "early mobilization"and the following main topics are therefore included: use of positioning therapy and earlymobilization for prophylaxis and therapy of pulmonary function disorders, undesired effects and complications of positioning therapy and early mobilization as well as practical aspects of the use of positioning therapy and early mobilization. These guidelines are the result of a systematic literature search and the subsequent critical evaluation of the evidence with scientific methods. The methodological approach for the process of development of the guidelines followed the requirements of evidence-based medicine, as defined as the standard by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. Recently published articles after 2005 were examined with respect to positioning therapy and the recently accepted aspect of early mobilization incorporates all literature published up to June 2014. PMID:26335630

  5. Voice onset time is necessary but not always sufficient to describe acquisition of voiced stops: The cases of Greek and Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eun Jong; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The age at which children master adult-like voiced stops can generally be predicted by voice onset time (VOT): stops with optional short lag are early, those with obligatory lead are late. However, Japanese voiced stops are late despite having a short lag variant, whereas Greek voiced stops are early despite having consistent voicing lead. This cross-sectional study examines the acoustics of word-initial stops produced by English-, Japanese-, and Greek-speaking children aged 2 to 5, to investigate how these seemingly exceptional mastery patterns relate to use of other phonetic correlates. Productions were analyzed for VOT, f0 and spectral tilt (H1-H2) in Japanese and English, and for amplitude trajectory in Greek and Japanese. Japanese voiceless stops have intermediate lag VOT values, so other “secondary” cues are needed to differentiate them from the voiced short lag VOT variant. Greek voiced stops are optionally prenasalized, and the amplitude trajectory for the voice bar during closure suggests that younger children use a greater degree of nasal venting to create the aerodynamic conditions necessary for voicing lead. Taken together, the findings suggest that VOT must be supplemented by measurements of other language-specific acoustic properties to explain the mastery pattern of voiced stops in some languages. PMID:23105160

  6. Maternal attitudes of Greek migrant women.

    PubMed

    Dikaiou, M; Sakka, D; Haritos-fatouros, M

    1987-03-01

    This study examines groups of Greek migrant mothers and their attitudes towards their children in different stages of the migratory process. There were 2 lots of samples of Greek migrants mothers who had at least 2 children 8-10 years old, 1 from the home country (5 villages of the District Drama in East Macedonia) and 1 from the receiving country (the area of Baden-Wurtenberg, where most of the migrants from East Macedonia are living). The 4 groups are: 1) 20 mothers who have always lived with their child in the host country; 2) 20 mothers who live in the host country where their child has joined them in the last 2-4 years; 3) 27 mothers who have lived in the host country with their child and have returned home in the last 2-4 years; and 4) 24 non-migrant mothers who have always lived with their families in the home country (control group). Women were interviewed using 2 questionnaires: a survey and an attitude questionnaire. The range of mothers' ages was 20-50 years. The youngest mothers were in the control group whereas group 1 mothers were the oldest. Groups 1 and 2 were mostly unskilled workers; groups 3 and 4 were mostly housewives. The returnees stayed in the host country a mean of 10 years, whereas the other 2 migrant groups were there 14.6 years. There were significantly fewer children in the families of groups 1 and 2 than 3 and 4. The attitude questionnaire covered the following child rearing practices: 1) training the child to participate in home duties; 2) keeping clean and tidy; 3) self-reliance and social behavior towards visitors; 4) ways of dealing with a child's obedience/disobedience; 5) dealing with favor-seeking behavior, food, and sleeping problems; and 6) mother's degree of permissiveness, supervision, and intervention on child's personal and interpersonal sphere of life. Findings show that moving from home to host country and coming back home creates the most controlling mothers, probably because mothers and children face anxiety

  7. Greek Participation to Solar Orbiter Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Greece, via its PRODEX membership intends to meaningfully participate to the instrument development of a flagship ESA mission, the Solar Orbiter (SolO). This involvement pertains to hardware development for SolO's Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX), namely, STIX's movable attenuator. SolO will allow close-up and high-latitude studies of our mother star, the Sun, based mostly on remote-sensing measurements (imaging). STIX is a critical SolO instrument, enabling one of its major science goals: understanding and acceleration of electrons at the Sun and their transport into interplanetary space. The attenuator, or shutter, that will be developed by the Greek team, is a critical component of the STIX instrument. Attenuators are dictated by the substantial dynamical range of incident X-ray fluxes from solar flares: the largest X-ray flares can give as many as 105 more count rates in X-ray photons compared to those of the smallest microflare that STIX can detect. It is proposed that two mechanisms are developed for a comparative study. First, a mechanism based on sensitive Shape Memory Alloy actuators and, second, one based on a piezoelectric actuator module. Both mechanisms will be designed and manufactured and then tested in vacuum and alternating high-low temperature conditions. Evaluation of reliability and accuracy in assembly and operation will follow. A vibrating table will be used for the dynamical analysis of the mechanism and independent strength tests of the various parts of the mechanism will follow.

  8. Psychosocial impacts of infertility on Greek couples.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, I; Tarlatzis, B C; Diakogiannis, I; Bontis, J; Lagos, S; Gavriilidou, D; Mantalenakis, S

    1993-03-01

    Psychosocial impacts of infertility were investigated in couples undergoing different treatment procedures in our clinic. Couples were interviewed in a semi-structured way by a psychologist or a psychiatrist and responded to three specially structured questionnaires: the Life Events Scale, the Marlowe-Crowne/Taylor Scale and the Side Effect Checklist. The data were analysed in terms of demographic characteristics as well as treatment procedure. The psychosocial, psychosexual and emotional outcomes of their infertility problem and Greek traditional culture laws are discussed. Stress has been identified in both sexes, depression mostly in women, while men showed a tendency towards repressed anxiety and thus a greater risk of psychosomatic illness, a finding supported by their response to the Side Effect Checklist. Women showed a high defensive anxiety and also reported numerous psychosomatic symptoms. These couples seem to have special needs and fears, both general and treatment specific. Very few of our couples would be considered as severely emotionally disturbed. Women seem to have more difficulties in social adjustment. Sexual dysfunction was reported by almost half of our subjects, although this was associated with a degree of deterioration in their marriage. Guilt feelings, particularly connected with previous abortions, seem to be torturing most women. Finally, both partners seem to have psychological problems irrespective of the one in whom the aetiological problem was found. Moreover, traditional rules seem to impose a special burden on people coming from rural areas. Our results strongly support the belief that infertile couples undergoing different treatments need psychological counselling and supportive psychotherapy. PMID:8473455

  9. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  10. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  11. Calcidius, witness to Greek medical theories: eye anatomy and pathology.

    PubMed

    Bakhouche, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    Calcidius is the only exegete of Plato's Timaeus whose commentary on this Greek dialogue concerned with eyesight has not been lost. This document is all the more valuable since the Latin version is the only testimony regarding theories of and treatments for eye diseases--two domains in which, as can be deduced from the terms used, the commentator is dependent on Greek. The part of the commentary about eyesight is also worthy of interest because it is the only one that openly attacks the iuniores with an overtly hostile tone. We propose to study Calcidius' exegesis of Plato's Timaeus, focusing on Calcidius' portrayal of Greek ophthalmological theories and practices and his representation of a group of people he openly attacks. PMID:25195325

  12. Selenium concentration in serum of healthy Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, R; Robberecht, H; Deelstra, H; Picramenos, D; Kostakopoulos, A

    1994-06-01

    Serum selenium levels of 160 healthy Greeks were determined by Zeeman-effect background-corrected atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean value for 101 men (70.7 +/- 16.2 micrograms/L) tended to be higher, but not statistically significant, compared to the mean value for 59 women (64.9 +/- 14.7 micrograms/L). When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase as a function of age. Compared to the extensive literature data on serum Se levels for various countries healthy Greeks proved to be at the lower concentration range. The scarce, but conflicting literature data on serum Se values for Greeks is discussed. PMID:7881284

  13. 'Schizophrenia' on Twitter: Content Analysis of Greek Language Tweets.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Sakellari, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an online space whose users can create and share ideas and information instantly. The term schizophrenia is frequently used in a stigmatizing way in Greek language. In Greece, Twitter is the tenth most popular website. Tweets related to schizophrenia in Greek language, have not been investigated. We aimed to examine schizophrenia Tweets in comparison with other illness (diabetes). Deductive content analysis was applied. Schizophrenia Tweets (n=239), tended to be more negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically than diabetes Tweets (n=205). Our findings confirm the frequent, non-medical misuse of the term 'schizophrenia' in online sources written in Greek language. These results show that mental health education interventions are needed to raise awareness among the general population, in order to eliminate stigmatizing behaviors. Future anti-stigma actions, could also raise awareness among Internet users about the importance of, avoiding using medical terms in negative or sarcastic ways, and eliminate any potential stigmatizing content. PMID:27350523

  14. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment. PMID:15617601

  15. Greek Life on Campus. How Will a Changing Society Affect It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Susan L.; Gallup, Theresa

    1988-01-01

    The future of Greek letter organizations on campus and the effects of demographic trends and societal changes are considered. In the last decade, Greek membership has increased despite the decrease in students between the ages of 18 and 24 entering college full-time. Greek chapters are primarily at four-year institutions and their members are…

  16. The Emotional Readiness of Greek Cypriot Teachers for Peaceful Co-Existence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Kendeou, Panayiota; Michaelidou, Athina

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we: (1) offer a conceptualisation of what it means for Greek Cypriot teachers to be "reconciled" with the "other side" (i.e. Turkish Cypriots) in Cyprus; (2) examine Greek Cypriot teachers' emotional responses to the new educational objective of cultivating peaceful coexistence in schools; and (3) investigate how Greek Cypriot…

  17. Greek Environments: An Update on the Effects of Fraternities and Sororities on Health-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Christopher S.; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Greek affiliation and living in Greek housing significantly influence college students' health-related behaviors. In addition, based on the findings, this study provides some important implications about the current practice of Greek society in higher education. The authors empirically tested a path model using…

  18. A Sound Mind in a Sound Body: That's the Philosophy behind This Classical Greek Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    Central City High School, Kansas City, Missouri, has found its identity in the past. As part of comprehensive desegregation program, this magnet school offers its students classical Greek program that, like ancient Greek civilization, calls for as much attention to body as to mind. The costly Olympic athletic program and classical Greek curriculum…

  19. Examining the Complex Relationship between Greek Life and Alcohol: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Cherry; Taylor, Simone Himbeault; Hartford, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether membership in a Greek organization contributes to the drinking behaviors of college students. Research findings are divided into these major categories: drinking frequency; motivation; predicting Greek membership; culture of Greek life; perception bias; and consequences of drinking. Conclusions suggest that…

  20. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  1. Diglossic Past and Present Lexicographical Practices: The Case of Two Greek Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseronis, Assimakis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses publication of two recent dictionaries of Modern Greek. Suggests their respective lexical coverage reveals the continuing survival of the underlying ideologies of the two sponsoring institutions concerning the history of the Greek language and their opposing standpoints in relation to Greek diglossia. The two dictionaries proceed from…

  2. Rape Supportive Attitudes among Greek Students before and after a Date Rape Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Genie O.; Rawlins, Melanie E.

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed rape supportive attitudes of sorority and fraternity members and evaluated a date rape education program with comparison to a non-Greek group studied earlier. Greek students registered more desirable scores than non-Greeks on an attitudes measure, but the education program did not improve their scores. (Author)

  3. Medicine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

    Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

  4. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  5. Follow-up study of indoor radon in Greek buildings.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Kolovou, M; Potiriadis, C; Takoudis, G; Guilhot, J

    2013-12-01

    The Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (NTL-AUTh) and the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) have a continuous collaboration on indoor radon measurements in Greek buildings since 1999. In the present work, the existing database was enriched with 590 indoor radon measurements in 295 houses and 76 indoor radon measurements in 38 workplaces. In total in the present work, 1948 indoor radon measurements in 974 buildings performed by the NTL-AUTh and GAEC from 1999 to 2012 in 8 of the 13 administrative regions of Greece are presented and discussed. PMID:23704362

  6. The nature of water: Greek thought from Homer to Acusilaos.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Rosa Maria; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Pollastro, Rosa Maria; Raiola, Ilaria; De Santo, Luca Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Greek philosophy finds its roots in the myth of Homer's and Hesiod's poems and especially in Orphism which introduced the concept of a soul separated from the body with an independent principle, psiche (soul), to be rewarded or punished after death. Orphism was an important step in Greek culture. It introduced the divine into man, the soul which does not die with the body and reincarnates. From Orphism started the need of rituals capable of separating the spirit from the body. From Homer to Acusilaos, water was a very important element which connected humans and gods, long before Thales of Miletus defined it the arche. PMID:20013739

  7. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice. PMID:26738718

  8. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production. PMID:22301976

  9. Eclipse prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikythera Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon's node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era. PMID:25075747

  10. Greeks in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    Part of the Ethnic Heritage in America curriculum materials, this unit is about Greeks in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Greece, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Greece, historical chronological outline, list of Greeks in U.S. history, bibliography about Greeks, Greek publications in the United…

  11. Analyzing the Greek Marine Manpower in the Passenger and Cruise Markets Using System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, A. B.; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    This The authors have applied the methodology of system dynamics modeling and simulation in the study of the depletion of the Greek maritime workforce with respect to parameters such as the flagging out rate from the Greek flag, the national maritime policy on the proportion of Greek and foreign seamen onboard Greek ships and the investment in seamen's life-long training, as well as in improving the safety and quality of Greek ships. This work is in progress and this paper presents an initial approach to the problem, as well as some first insights gained.

  12. Playing with Porn: Greek Children's Explorations in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the research findings of the Greek Kids Go Online project and the EU Kids Online I network research on children and online technologies in Europe, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme, 2006-2009. It explores the experiences of young people aged between 9 and 17 with pornographic texts online, and…

  13. Greek Children's Alternative Conceptions on Weather and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiropoulou, D.; Kostopoulos, D.; Jacovides, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a survey of Greek schoolchildren's alternative conceptions about weather and climate. Finds that misconceptions exist, including confusion between the meanings of the terms "weather" and "climate", inflated estimates of temperature, and a belief that yearly weather data define climate. Suggests ways to help students overcome these…

  14. Production of Modal and Negative Particles in Greek Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukoulioti, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the production of the Greek modal and negative particles by non-fluent aphasic patients. These particles belong to the highest part of the verb periphrasis, so they are likely to be impaired in non-fluent aphasia, according to some hypotheses about agrammatic language. Moreover, there is an agreement relation…

  15. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  16. Students Teach Students: Alternative Teaching in Greek Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Anastasios; Antoniou, Angeliki; Lepouras, George

    2016-01-01

    The students of a Greek junior high school collaborated to prepare the teaching material of a theoretical Computer Science (CS) course and then shared their understanding with other students. This study investigates two alternative teaching methods (collaborative learning and peer tutoring) and compares the learning results to the traditional…

  17. The On-Line Processing of Unaccusativity in Greek Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the on-line processing of unaccusative and unergative sentences in a group of eight Greek-speaking individuals diagnosed with Broca aphasia and a group of language-unimpaired subjects used as the baseline. The processing of unaccusativity refers to the reactivation of the postverbal trace by retrieving the mnemonic representation…

  18. When It Seems Your Campus Greek System Is Unraveling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Discusses approaches to relations with college/university alumni members of fraternities and sororities in the context of widely reported incidents of serious accidents, hazing, and alcohol abuse. Offers examples of ways to reach out to Greek alumni from Hamilton College (New York), Bowdoin College (Maine), Dartmouth College (New Hampshire),…

  19. The Change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines the distribution of clause types in ancient Greek during the Homeric (pre-800 B.C.) and Hellenistic (ca. 100 A.D.) periods, as well as an intermediate period (ca. 450 B.C.), delineating the evolution from a subject-object-verb (SOV) to a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure. (49 references) (MDM)

  20. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  1. Religion in Greek Education in a Time of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstathiou, Ioannis; Georgiadis, Fokion; Zisimos, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    In a great number of countries religion plays an important role in public life. As far as Greece is concerned, it has always been a key element in public life including education. Religious education is a compulsory subject taught in a confessional and catechist way, while Orthodoxy saturates school culture, making the Greek educational system…

  2. Empirical Foundations of Atomism in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atoms at a time when the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. Concludes that similar experiences can be used in teaching the concept today. (JRH)

  3. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

  4. Reforms, Leadership and Quality Management in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…

  5. The Greek Financial Crisis: Discourses of Difference or Solidarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickes, Hans; Otten, Tina; Weymann, Laura Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    The so-called Greek Financial Crisis, which has been the object of close attention in the German media since the end of 2009, has caused a public debate on who should be held responsible for the decline of crisis-hit Greece, the common currency and the Eurozone. The media's enduring and controversial public discussion has lately been referred to…

  6. Greek University Students with Dyslexia: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the personal and educational experiences of Greek students with dyslexia in higher education. Interviews with 16 students with dyslexia (11 male and five female) were conducted to investigate how they experienced school, peer relations, labelling, family support, university, self-esteem and how they made their…

  7. Greek Literature and Culture in a World Literature Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herington, C. John

    1977-01-01

    Stresses the importance of teaching the Greek classics so that they both "speak directly to the student" about matters of importance to modern life and provide an initiation into the ancient ways of life out of which they were written. (Editor)

  8. Using Greek Mythology as a Metaphor To Enhance Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Carol A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews some uses of myths and stories in counselor education and supervision. Notes that collaborative supervision is especially relevant to the exploration of alternative views of supervisee growth that may be mirrored in myths and stories and in their multiple interpretations. The interpretation of the Greek myth of Psyche is examined as a…

  9. Child Involvement and Stress in Greek Mothers of Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulou, Venetta; Konstantareas, M. Mary

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 42 mothers of Greek children with deafness found mothers of younger children, of boys, and those reporting greater stress, had longer and more frequent involvement with their children. Mothers with greater stress were more likely to rate the affective tone of their involvement as more chorelike. (Author/CR)

  10. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    PubMed

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed. PMID:19045647

  11. What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

  12. Images of Nature in Greek Primary School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korfiatis, Kostas J.; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Paraskevopoulos, Stephanos

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the environmental content of the textbooks used for the teaching of natural sciences in Greek primary schools was examined. Specifically, by employing the method of content analysis, both representational (metaphors, depictions, values, etc.) and cognitive ecological concepts) elements, building images of nature, and shaping our…

  13. The Integration of Traditional Greek Dance in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartzonika, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    This paper researches the statutory educational regulations used as a foundation to introduce traditional Greek dance in the school curriculum and which transformed it into a taught subject with connections to the ideological-political and social conditions prevalent in Greece at the time. It particularly concerns the connection between the aims…

  14. Student Misbehaviour in Secondary Education: Greek Teachers' Views and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines Greek secondary education teachers' views on and attitudes towards in-classroom students' misbehaviour. Eight hundred and sixty-nine participants provided information, firstly, on the frequency and the forms of in-class misbehaviour incidents, secondly, on their beliefs about the origins of students' misbehaviour, and,…

  15. Coordination of Prosodic Gestures at Boundaries in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsika, Argyro

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how boundary temporal and tonal events are coordinated to oral constrictions in Greek. Regarding the temporal events, most studies agree in that boundary lengthening is cumulative (i.e., larger the stronger the boundary) (e.g., Cho & Keating 2001, Tabain 2003b) and progressive (i.e., decreasing with distance from…

  16. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  17. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  18. Reading Strategies Employed by Greek Braille Readers: Miscue Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakali, Anthi; Evans, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Reading development is said to progress in a series of developmental skills and stages that need to be acquired by emerging young readers. The literature on Greek braille reading and its development found that print readers opt for the same text decoding strategy even at the initial stages of development. This article explores the development of…

  19. The Perfective Past Tense in Greek Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulou, Nikolitsa; Clahsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of a group of eight Greek-speaking adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) (aged 12.1-18.7) to handle the perfective past tense using an acceptability judgement task. The performance of the DS participants was compared with that of 16 typically-developing children whose chronological age was matched with the mental…

  20. Examining Greek Special Education Teachers' Individual and Collaborative Teaching Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morfidi, Eleni; Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors examine Greek special education teachers' individual and collaborative teaching experiences in the context of their literacy instruction. The Five Foci Framework, situated in Vygotskian theory, is utilized in the study's design to examine special education teachers' individual and collaborative experiences…

  1. Evaluation of the Training Program for Greek Olympic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios; Papacharisis, Vasilios; Koustelios, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the educational program's training. The program used for this purpose was the Olympic Education Program, which has been implemented in Greek primary and secondary schools since 2000. First, the face validity of items was evaluated, second, the pool of the items selected was factor…

  2. School Voices in Leadership for Learning within the Greek Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demertzi, Vasiliki; Bagakis, George; Georgiadou, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the outcomes in one of the three Greek schools participating in the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project based at Cambridge University. It focuses on the data obtained from teacher and student interviews and uses a framework of analysis based on two qualitative methodological approaches for analysing narrative…

  3. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients. PMID:22492738

  4. Some Greek Girls: On Teaching Sappho and Praxilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikelianos, Eleni

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the lives and poetry of two female writers from Greek antiquity, Sappho and Praxilla. Describes using Sappho's poems with sixth graders and includes some student poems written in response. Describes using Praxilla as a writing model in conjunction with Sappho while teaching American high school students. (SR)

  5. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  6. The Perfective Past Tense in Greek Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the perfective past tense of Greek in an elicited production and an acceptability judgment task testing 35 adult native speakers and 154 children in six age groups (age range: 3;5 to 8;5) on both existing and novel verb stimuli. We found a striking contrast between sigmatic and non-sigmatic perfective past tense forms. Sigmatic…

  7. Adjustment Difficulties in Preschool Education: Greek Educators' Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontopoulou, Melanthia

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated 100 Greek nursery school teachers' views on children's transition to nursery school and the difficulties children face during adjustment. Findings indicated that although 70 percent of teachers reported 1 to 4 "difficult" children, problems were attributed primarily to family and social environments. Findings highlighted…

  8. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  9. Going Greek: Academics, Personal Change, and Life after College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routon, Wesley; Walker, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Social Greek-letter organizations, more commonly known as fraternities (male-only) and sororities (female-only), are a longstanding tradition at colleges and universities in the United States. They claim to instill leadership skills in and offer a support network for members. However, in this article Wesley Routon and Jay Walker state that…

  10. Assessment of Quality for Inclusive Programs in Greek Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyssa, Aristea; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the practices that Greek teachers use to support the inclusion of children with disabilities in general preschools. Fifty-two preschool units for children between 4 and 6 years of age participated in this study. Data were collected through systematic observation with the use of the Inclusive…

  11. Personality and Resilience Characteristics of Greek Primary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaridou, Angeliki; Beka, Apostolia

    2015-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the personality traits and resilience that a sample of Greek school principals displayed. It probed also for differences associated with sex, age and years of service in the current leadership position, as well as relationships between personality characteristics and resilience strengths. To investigate…

  12. Performance of Students from the Former USSR in Greek Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitakidou, S.; Tourtouras, C.; Tressou, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Greece received, among other immigrants from different regions of the world, repatriates from the former USSR as well as refugees from the same region. This article outlines part of a research study focusing on the children of both Greek and other origins, who emigrated to Greece from the former USSR and who attended primary schools…

  13. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  14. Lexical and Default Stress Assignment in Reading Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

    2006-01-01

    Greek is a language with lexical stress that marks stress orthographically with a special diacritic. Thus, the orthography and the lexicon constitute potential sources of stress assignment information in addition to any possible general default metrical pattern. Here, we report two experiments with secondary education children reading aloud…

  15. Sources of Information for Stress Assignment in Reading Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Gerakaki, Svetlana; Alexandri, Stella

    2007-01-01

    To assign lexical stress when reading, the Greek reader can potentially rely on lexical information (knowledge of the word), visual-orthographic information (processing of the written diacritic), or a default metrical strategy (penultimate stress pattern). Previous studies with secondary education children have shown strong lexical effects on…

  16. Ancient Greek and Roman Rhetoricians: A Biographical Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    This biographical dictionary contains over 200 entries on Greek and Roman rhetoricians. The compilation omits persons who were exclusively performers or composers unless they were also theorists, critics, authors of treatises or textbooks, or teachers of speech. Bibliographical notes are attached to particular biographies rarely and only for…

  17. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    PubMed

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  18. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process. PMID:27544982

  19. Cytomics in predictive medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Valet, Guenther K.

    2004-07-01

    Predictive Medicine aims at the detection of changes in patient's disease state prior to the manifestation of deterioration or improvement of the current status. Patient-specific, disease-course predictions with >95% or >99% accuracy during therapy would be highly valuable for everyday medicine. If these predictors were available, disease aggravation or progression, frequently accompanied by irreversible tissue damage or therapeutic side effects, could then potentially be avoided by early preventive therapy. The molecular analysis of heterogeneous cellular systems (Cytomics) by cytometry in conjunction with pattern-oriented bioinformatic analysis of the multiparametric cytometric and other data provides a promising approach to individualized or personalized medical treatment or disease management. Predictive medicine is best implemented by cell oriented measurements e.g. by flow or image cytometry. Cell oriented gene or protein arrays as well as bead arrays for the capture of solute molecules form serum, plasma, urine or liquor are equally of high value. Clinical applications of predictive medicine by Cytomics will include multi organ failure in sepsis or non infectious posttraumatic shock in intensive care, or the pretherapeutic identification of high risk patients in cancer cytostatic. Early individualized therapy may provide better survival chances for individual patient at concomitant cost containment. Predictive medicine guided early reduction or stop of therapy may lower or abrogate potential therapeutic side effects. Further important aspects of predictive medicine concern the preoperative identification of patients with a tendency for postoperative complications or coronary artery disease patients with an increased tendency for restenosis. As a consequence, better patient care and new forms of inductive scientific hypothesis development based on the interpretation of predictive data patterns are at reach.

  20. 77 FR 18897 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-7640 Filed 3-27-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Two hundred and thirty-six years ago, a new American Nation was founded on an old Greek principle... nation. Today, on the 191st anniversary of Greece's independence, we commemorate that struggle to...

  1. Standard Modern Greek and Greek-Cypriot Dialect in Kindergarten Classroom Interaction: Teachers' and Learners' Language Attitudes and Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophocleous, Andry; Wilks, Clarissa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates language use and language attitudes in state kindergarten education in Cyprus. Kindergarten education is the primary setting where Greek-Cypriots learn to employ the standard variety on a systematic basis. Consequently, the context of kindergarten education is a principal setting for examining language attitudes and…

  2. The role of early inter-professional and inter-agency encounters in increasing students' awareness of the clinical and community context of medicine.

    PubMed

    Thandi, Charankumal Singh; Forrest, Simon; Williamson, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Coordinated input from a variety of health and social care professionals into medical education helps students to become strong, effective, successful and competent future practitioners able to function within the multi-disciplinary environment which characterizes modern medicine. This paper presents a new model of teaching developed within the context of the Phase 1 Medicine Programme at Durham, which has been used to help prepare students for this by intertwining a selection of lectures and activities run by external organizations with additional clinical exposure and experience. This one-week learning journey was called the Additional Clinical Experience (ACE) week, and now forms an integral part of the curriculum at Durham University. PMID:27432369

  3. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  4. Assessment of the Greek worry-related metacognitions: the Greek version of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30).

    PubMed

    Typaldou, G M; Konstantakopoulos, G; Roxanis, I; Nidos, A; Vaidakis, N; Papadimitriou, G N; Wells, A

    2014-01-01

    The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), developed by Wells and Cartwright-Hatton (2004), represents a multidimensional measure of metacognitive factors considered to be important in the metacognitive model of psychological disorders. The primary aim of the present study was to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and the factor structure of the Greek version of the MCQ-30. Moreover, we investigated the associations of the extracted factors with trait anxiety in a Greek sample. The study sample consisted of 547 non-clinical participants (213 males and 334 females). All participants completed the Greek version of the MCQ-30. A subsample of 157 participants also completed the Trait Anxiety subscale of the State -Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Meta-worry subscale of the Anxious Thought Inventory. Thirty participants were retested with the MCQ-30 over a retest interval ranging from three to five weeks. The results confirmed the dimensionality of the MCQ-30 and five factors were extracted consistent with the original English version: (1) positive beliefs about worry, (2) negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger, (3) cognitive confidence, (4) beliefs about the need to control thoughts and the negative consequences of not controlling them, and (5) cognitive selfconsciousness. The MCQ-30 showed high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The correlation between MCQ-30 total score and AnTI-MW was strong, indicating high level of convergent validity. Moreover, all correlations between MCQ-30 total and subscale scores and STAI-T were significant apart from the correlation between 'cognitive confidence' and trait anxiety. The Greek sample scored higher in the MCQ-30 and its subscales than the English sample in the original study. Women scored significantly higher than men in the overall MCQ-30 and the "uncontrollability and danger" and "need to control thoughts" subscales, whereas no

  5. Healing and medicine in the Aegean Bronze Age.

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, R

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations of Crete and Greek mainland, a systematic understanding has been gained of their material culture and social structures. Nevertheless, because of the absence of textual and pictorial evidence of medicine of the kind which exists in the contemporary societies of Egypt and the Near East, little work has been produced on the subject of disease and the practice of medicine in the period. However, new pathological evidence throws much light on this hitherto largely unknown aspect of their civilization. Images Figure 1 PMID:8778434

  6. History of carotid surgery: from ancient greeks to the modern era.

    PubMed

    Tallarita, Tiziano; Gerbino, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    A relationship between decreased carotid arterial flow and apoplectic manifestations was already suspected by the ancient Greeks. Early attempts at carotid surgery, however, were limited to emergency arterial ligation in patients with neck trauma. Attempts to suture arterial stumps together to restore blood flow paved the way for Carrel's revolutionary idea of reconstructing the resected or injured arterial segment with an interposition vein graft. DeBakey and Eastcott were the first to perform carotid endarterectomy in North America and the United Kingdom, respectively. In 1959, DeBakey proposed a cooperative study to assess the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The study was officially designated the Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion and represented the first trial in the United States in which large numbers of patients were randomly allocated to surgical or nonsurgical therapy. PMID:24357636

  7. Conceptual Ecology of the Evolution Acceptance among Greek Education Students: Knowledge, religious practices and social influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship between the acceptance and parents' education level, thinking dispositions and frequency of religious practice as independent variables. Students' moderate acceptance of evolution theory is positively correlated with the frequency of religious practices and thinking dispositions. Our findings indicate that studying a controversial issue such as the acceptance of evolution theory in a multivariate fashion, using conceptual ecology as a theoretical lens to interpret the findings, is informative. They also indicate the differences that exist between societies and how socio-cultural factors such as the nature of religion, as part of the conceptual ecology, influence acceptance of evolution and have an influence on evolution education.

  8. Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moon: Greek and Arabic Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, J. L.; Sidoli, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the 1920s, T. L. Heath pointed out that historians of mathematics have "given too little attention to Aristarchus". This is still true today. The Greek text of Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moon has received little attention; the Arabic editions virtually none. Much of what this text has to tell us about ancient and medieval mathematics and the mathematical sciences has gone unnoticed. It should be taken as an important source for our understanding of the mathematical sciences of the early Hellenistic period.

  9. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  10. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  11. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  12. Medicine Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine! TIME MEDICINE DOSAGE Name: Physician’s Information Name: Phone Number: NOTES ✓ Mon 11/19 Morning Antibiotic 1 tsp. With food ✓ For more useful tools, visit www.aapcc.org POISON HELP LINE: 1-800-222-1222 Lost track of your meds? Think you may have taken ...

  13. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2003-03-01

    Complementary medicine has become an important subject for rheumatologists, not least because many patients try complementary treatments. Recent clinical trials yield promising results. In particular, evidence suggests that several herbal medicines and dietary supplements can alleviate the pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clearly, rigorous testing of complementary treatments is possible, and considering their popularity, should be encouraged. PMID:12598804

  14. Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

  15. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  16. Medicine and medical sciences in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gathiram, Prem; Hänninen, Osmo

    2014-06-01

    The year 2014 is an important year because it will mark the 25th Anniversary of the founding of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS) and initial talks to launch the International Society for Pathophysiology (ISP). Both these organizations had a foothold in Finland and both occurred during the IUPS Centennial Celebration Congress in 1989. The congress was hosted by the Finnish Physiological Society in Helsinki, Finland in July 1989. For both organizations, Prof OsmoHänninen was instrumental in the launching and inauguration of AAPS and also to initiate the creation of ISP. In order to celebrate the 25th Anniversaries of both organizations it was decided to hold the ISP2014 congress on the African soil. Hence in 2004, at the 4th international congress of AAPS held in Morocco, Wail Benjeloun.the then secretary general of AAPS, submitted successfully a bid to host ISP2014 in Morocco. Following the inauguration of AAPS in Helsinki, the 1st Congress of AAPS was held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1992 where the Constitution of AAPS was drawn up. The Constitution was adopted at the 2nd congress of AAPS in Durban, South Africa in 1997. Following this congress, the next congress, as scheduled, was held in Pretoria, South Africa in 2000. The last congress (6th) of AAPS was held on 1-5 September 2012 in Ismailia, Egypt. This was an historical congress because of many reasons and amongst these was the appointment of Anthony B. Ebeigbe, Department of Physiology, University of Benin, Nigeria as its first Editor-in-Chief of its official journal, the Journal of the African association of Physiological Sciences (JAAPS). He successfully published the first issue in June 2013, as mandated in Ismailia. The World's medicine has its initial root in Africa and in fact it was in Memphis, Egypt as early as 2700 BC. During the Ptulomaic period the seat of medicine was in Alexandria, Egypt and Medical knowledge then spread to the Greeks 330 BC. Many western medical scientists

  17. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  18. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  19. Wilderness medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:25215140

  20. Inter-rater reliability of the Greek version of CAARMS among two groups of mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Kollias, C; Kontaxakis, V; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Simmons, M B; Stefanis, N; Papageorgiou, C

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest within the Greek psychiatric community in the early detection and prevention of psychotic disorders. To support this, there is a need for a valid and reliable tool to identify young people that may be at risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Our team has previously translated the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS). The validity of the CAARMS was ensured by the procedure of translation and the aim of the current study was to estimate the interrater reliability of the CAARMS Greek translation among residents in psychiatry and specialized mental health professionals. 43 mental health workers (27 residents in psychiatry and 16 specialized mental health professionals (i.e. 11 psychiatrists and 5 psychologist) participated in two seminars that covered theoretical information about the ultra high risk concept and training in the CAARMS. During the seminars, 10 vignettes with psychiatric history cases were presented, including healthy, ultra high risk and first episode psychosis. The mean correlated percentage of agreement with the correct answers regarding diagnosis of the presented history cases among all our subjects was 81.42, among specialized mental health professionals 77.88, and among residents 84.46. Intraclass correlation co-efficients were 0.994 for specialized mental health professionals and 0.997 for residents. The translated Greek version of CAARMS presents a satisfying interrater reliability when used by both residents and specialized mental health professionals. Residents declare even higher intraclass correlation co-efficients and mean correlated percentage of agreement than specialized mental health professionals, which indicate that residents are capable of using the CAARMS in early intervention units. PMID:26480226

  1. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  2. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories." PMID:12179830

  3. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period. PMID:19891848

  4. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    PubMed Central

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  5. Medicines management.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-04-15

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the fifth essential skills cluster – medicines management. Nursing students should work to attain the knowledge and skills required for effective medicines management throughout their pre-registration education. The roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse in the area of medicines management are discussed in this the final article of the essential skills cluster series. PMID:25872850

  6. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

    1998-01-01

    The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care. PMID:9584661

  7. The use of the kidneys in secular and ritual practices according to ancient Greek and Byzantine texts.

    PubMed

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios; Skarpelos, Andreas; Tsiros, Georgios

    2005-07-01

    The use of kidneys in secular and spiritual practices was very common for centuries. In this article we present some references on their employment as sacrificial offers, as plain food or as a source for medicaments. Our material derives from Greek texts of the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras. Relevant extracts from the Old Testament are also included, as they have become part of a common cultural heritage in that period of syncretism, when Jews were Hellenized and Greeks orientized. From the fragments cited in this article, it is obvious that the practical use of kidneys by priests, doctors, and lay persons in the periods under discussion was widespread. The sacrificial offering was based on the religious significance of the organ. The dietary consumption of the kidneys was limited by their function as urine producers. Their medicinal use was dictated first, by the abundance of the adipose tissue surrounding them, which was an ideal warming and binding substance. Second, it may be explained by the deeply rooted conviction that eating a particular organ led to the incorporation of its strength, thus protecting the corresponding eater's organs. Those practices should not surprise us in view of their corresponding modern use. Currently, kidney donors offer their organs in a sacrificial gesture, kidneys are consumed as a delicacy worldwide, and renal tissue is therapeutically used in transplantations and, until very recently, as a source for hormonal substances. PMID:15954932

  8. How Greek healthcare services are affected by the Euro crisis.

    PubMed

    Kalafati, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Greece's economic crisis is having a detrimental effect on the country's health service. Government cutbacks have forced hospitals to merge, reduced nurse-to-patient ratios and have led to pay cuts and poorer conditions for staff. Emergency nurses must work longer hours with fewer resources for less money, when emergency admissions in the public sector are rising as a result of the economic pressures on Greek society. PMID:22852184

  9. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative. PMID:26537093

  10. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted. PMID:25376129

  11. Stress effects on coarticulation in English and Greek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Laura; Okalidou, Areti

    2003-04-01

    The effects of stress on production variability and V-to-V coarticulation were compared in American English and Greek, two languages which differ in vowel inventory size and in the magnitude of V-to-V coarticulation (Okalidou and Koenig, 1999). Six speakers, one male and two females from each language, were recorded producing nonsense VCV utterances in a carrier phrase, with randomly alternating stress. The Greek stimuli included all five vowels of the language; the English stimuli included the closest counterparts of the Greek vowels. The medial plosive consonants alternated between the bilabial and alveolar place of articulation, yielding different degrees of coarticulatory resistance (Recasens, 1985, 1989). Plosives were chosen to have similar VOT values across languages in order to minimize duration effects. A comparison of stressed versus unstressed vowel areas reveals significant differences across languages. Specific vowel effects and language effects are also noted with respect to changes in production variability under the stressed versus unstressed conditions. The magnitude of V-to-V influences as a function of stress and position is discussed in terms of the above crosslinguistic comparison in order to obtain further insight on the coarticulatory behavior of languages which differ in the size of vowel inventory (Manuel and Krakow, 1984).

  12. Ayurvedic Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in varying forms in Southeast Asia. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... and integrative health approaches you use. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Ayurvedic Medicine Research ...

  13. Taking Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, it is converted into products called metabolites. Usually, these metabolites are not as strong as the original drug. ... by too much medicine in the body. Drug metabolites often return to the liver and are chemically ...

  14. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are ... go through the testing that drugs do. Some herbs, such as comfrey and ephedra, can cause serious ...

  15. Eclipse Prediction on the Ancient Greek Astronomical Calculating Machine Known as the Antikythera Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Freeth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon’s node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era. PMID:25075747

  16. Integrative Medicine and Case Management.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the integration of health care modalities has changed. The National Institutes of Health founded office of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the early 1990s to investigate integrative therapies through scientific research. In December 2014, the name and mission were updated to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Case managers, the coordinators of health care, must understand the changes to "integrative medicine" and the allure of the alternative modalities. PMID:27035081

  17. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Take these simple steps to avoid problems with medicines. Follow the directions on the medicine label carefully. ...

  18. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  19. Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158806.html Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First: Study But delay ... 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with early stage breast cancer who turn to alternative medicine may delay recommended ...

  20. Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158806.html Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First: Study But delay in getting chemotherapy may ... with early stage breast cancer who turn to alternative medicine may delay recommended chemotherapy, a new study suggests. ...

  1. [The Hannover School of Veterinary Medicine in the Third Reich. Part 1: early history, assumption of power and consolidation of the Nazi regime].

    PubMed

    Schimanski, M; Schäffer, J

    2001-09-01

    During the time of the Weimar republic the professors and students at the School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover had a national-conservative political attitude with a clearly anti-republican tendency. Before 1933 the National Socialism did not play a role at the school. After the assumption of power by Hitler the 'Gleichschaltung'--which also took place at the universities--ran mostly smoothly at the veterinary school. 75% of the teaching staff and 50% of the students had joined the NSDAP (nazi party) respectively the NSDStB (nazi student organisation) at the end of the summer semester 1933. The following development of the school until World War II is closely connected with the foundation of the Military Veterinary Academy in Hannover in 1935. During the years 1935-1939 offerings were made in a traditional way and without political considerations playing a major role. With the beginning of World War II the school developed into the centre of veterinary studies in Germany. In order to meet the demand of veterinary officers and civil veterinarians the studies were shortened, trimesters were temporarily introduced und standards of examinations were lowered. At the end of the war around 45% of the school was destroyed. In the beginning the denazification meant a significant turning point but it developed into a mere episode of the history of the school by the reappointment of all the seven professors who had been dismissed in 1945/46. PMID:11599440

  2. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm. PMID:26866600

  3. [Overdiagnosis and defensive medicine in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Berral, Alessandro; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio

    2014-01-01

    In clinical medicine since some years overdiagnosis is giving rise to growing attention and concern. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of a "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. It is a side effect of testing for early forms of disease which may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm. Overdiagnosis occurs when a disease is diagnosed correctly, but the diagnosis is irrelevant. A correct diagnosis may be irrelevant because treatment for the disease is not available, not needed, or not wanted. Four drivers engender overdiagnosis: 1) screening in non symptomatic subjects; 2) raised sensitivity of diagnostic tests; 3) incidental overdiagnosis; 4) broadening of diagnostic criteria for diseases. "Defensive medicine" can play a role. It begs the question of whether even in the context of Occupational Medicine overdiagnosis is possible. In relation to the double diagnostic evaluation peculiar to Occupational Medicine, the clinical and the causal, a dual phenomenon is possible: that of overdiagnosis properly said and what we could define the overattribution, in relation to the assessment of a causal relationship with work. Examples of occupational "diseases" that can represent cases of overdiagnosis, with the possible consequences of overtreatment, consisting of unnecessary and socially harmful limitations to fitness for work, are taken into consideration: pleural plaques, alterations of the intervertebral discs, "small airways disease", sub-clinical hearing impairment. In Italy the National Insurance for occupational diseases (INAIL) regularly recognizes less than 50% of the notified diseases; this might suggest overdiagnosis and possibly overattribution in reporting. Physicians dealing with the diagnosis of occupational diseases are obviously requested to perform a careful, up-to-date and active investigation. When applying to the diagnosis of occupational diseases, proper

  4. 75 FR 41274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Art of Ancient Greek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Art of Ancient Greek Theater... Ancient Greek Theater,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  5. Wilderness Medicine.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Whitney; Bright, Steven; Burns, Patrick; Townes, David

    2016-03-01

    Wilderness medicine encompasses prevention and treatment of illness and injury, education and training, emergency medical services, and search and rescue in the wilderness. Although traumatic injuries, including minor injuries, outnumber medical illness as the cause of morbidity in the wilderness, basic understanding of the prevention and management of injury and illness, including recognition, identification, treatment, initial management, and stabilization, is essential, in addition to the ability to facilitate evacuation of affected patients. An important theme throughout wilderness medicine is planning and preparation for the best- and worst-case scenarios, and being ready for the unexpected. PMID:26900118

  6. Clinical holistic medicine: tools for a medical science based on consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2004-05-26

    Biomedicine focuses on the biochemistry of the body, while consciousness-based medicine--holistic medicine--focuses on the individual"s experiences and conscious whole (Greek: holos, whole). Biomedicine perceives diseases as mechanical errors at the micro level, while consciousness-based medicine perceives diseases as disturbances in attitudes, perceptions, and experiences at the macro level--in the organism as a whole. Thus, consciousness-based medicine is based on the whole individual, while biomedicine is based on its smallest parts, the molecules. These two completely different points of departure make the two forms of medicine very different; they represent two different mind sets and two different frames of reference or medical paradigms. This paper explains the basic tools of clinical holistic medicine based on the life mission theory and holistic process theory, with examples of holistic healing from the holistic medical clinic. PMID:15175833

  7. Teachers' Emerging Stances and Repertoires towards Reconciliation: Potential and Challenges in Greek-Cypriot Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine Greek-Cypriot teachers' positions towards the--largely unfamiliar--concept of reconciliation within the Greek-Cypriot community. Looking at a set of 40 interviews conducted in spring 2009, this study is set against the broader historical context of the continuing Cyprus Problem and the development of ethnic rivalry between…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Exercise Identity Scale among Greek Adults and Cross-Cultural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Kaperoni, Maria; Moustaka, Frederiki C.; Anderson, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study reported on translating the Exercise Identity Scale (EIS: Anderson & Cychosz, 1994) into Greek and examining its psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity based on U.S. individuals' EIS responses. Using four samples comprising 33, 103, and 647 Greek individuals, including exercisers and nonexercisers, and a similar…

  9. Familiarity with Latin and Greek Anatomical Terms and Course Performance in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampush, James D.; Petto, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used technical anatomy and physiology (A&P) terms are predominantly rooted in Latin and Greek vocabulary, so it is commonly inferred that a solid grounding in Latin and Greek roots of medical terminology will improve student learning in anatomy and related disciplines. This study examines the association of etymological knowledge of A&P…

  10. Differences in College Greek Members' Binge Drinking Behaviors: A Dry/Wet House Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan

    2015-01-01

    College Greek life students self-report high rates of binge drinking and experience more alcohol-related problems than students who are not members of the Greek system. But little research has been conducted to measure differences in alcohol-free housing (dry) and alcohol-allowed housing (wet). The purpose of this quantitative study was to…

  11. The Public Debate on a Quality Assurance System for Greek Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamelos, George; Kavasakalis, Aggelos

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the regular functioning of Greek universities has been disrupted several times due to various reforming governmental efforts by major Greek political parties. Actors inside (academics, students) and outside (policy-makers and analysts, experts, journalists) university resist the implementation of certain European education…

  12. Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Instructional Assignment-Related Sources of Stress in Greek Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platsidou, Maria; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    In the literature concerning Greek special education teachers, there is little evidence regarding the perceived levels of burnout, job satisfaction, and job-related stress factors. The present study focused on the above issues. A sample of 127 Greek special education teachers at the primary school level was tested with the Maslach Burnout…

  13. Children's Construction and Experience of Racism and Nationalism in Greek-Cypriot Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings that highlight children's construction and experience of racism and nationalism among a sample of Greek-Cypriot (the majority) and Turkish-speaking (the minority) children in Greek-Cypriot schools through the lens of intersectionality theory. The article first reviews previous work in relation to children, racism and…

  14. Evaluation of Ninety-Three Major Greek University Departments Using Google Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanopoulou, Panagiota; Dontsidou, Maria; Tselios, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    In this article, 93 Greek university departments were evaluated according to their academics' h-index. A representative sample from the fields of social sciences and humanities, sciences, engineering, pharmacy and economics was adopted. In the reported study, 3354 (approximately 1 out of 3) academics serving in Greek universities were evaluated.…

  15. Pushed to the Margins--Sex and Relationships in Greek Primary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerouki, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, the Greek Government introduced sex and gender relationships education as a thematic unit for interdisciplinary Health Education activities. However, the diffusion of such programmes remains extremely limited. The present paper discusses how sex and relationships issues are presented in contemporary Greek primary school textbooks since…

  16. The Post-Modern Rhetoric of Recent Reforms in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvias, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, radical neo-liberal reforms have been introduced in the Greek Higher Education sector. The new "reforms" challenge the traditionally high autonomy of Higher Education (HE) institutions in matters of administrative regulations, study structures, assessment of students and teachers. The new rhetoric of the Greek government is…

  17. Who Carries the National Flag?: The Politics of Cultural Identity in the Increasingly Multicultural Greek School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios; Roussakis, Yiannis; Theocharis, Dimitris

    2006-01-01

    The change in the composition of the school population as a result of the extensive influx of immigrants in Greece has brought in a recurrent controversy on the issue of allowing non-Greek citizen to carry the national flag, the Greek's most cherished national emblem, as a reward for an excellent school performance. When a state legislator, many…

  18. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  19. Postcollege Criminal Convictions: A Comparison of Greek, Athlete, and Other Student Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin; Hein, Ella

    2014-01-01

    This article examines postcollege criminal convictions among students who recorded a substance use-related arrest while attending college from 1996-99. Specifically, this study assesses whether Greek or athletic membership offered protective or elevated odds of a conviction over the next 14-17 years, relative to non-Greeks and non-athletes. The…

  20. Club Hellas Presents: An Interdisciplinary Model for Team-Teaching Greek Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyrino, Monica S.

    A team-taught course on Greek civilization was designed to reach a broad audience of majors and non-majors at the University of New Mexico and has changed in response to faculty and student responses. The first version of the course covered Greek and Roman culture and presented a variety of guest lecturers, but student comments indicated that too…

  1. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  2. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  3. School Leadership and Educational Equality: Analysis of Greek Secondary School Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Using data derived from interviews with Greek school principals, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to investigate whether or not equitable access to schools is for all children; and (b) to determine the extent to which the Greek educational system, in particular, offers equal opportunities to immigrant students. The results showed that…

  4. Language Learning in Conflictual Contexts: A Study of Turkish Cypriot Adolescents Learning Greek in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tum, Danyal Oztas; Kunt, Naciye; Kunt, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities in Cyprus have been divided for the last five decades. This study investigated whether the recent introduction of Greek language studies in Turkish Cypriot secondary schools affects students' attitudes towards the language, its speakers and culture, and motivation to study the language. Findings…

  5. Gambling by Greek-Affiliated College Students: An Association between Affiliation and Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockey, Donald L.; Beason, Kim R.; Howington, Eric B.; Rockey, Christine M.; Gilbert, James D.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation compared the prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling between Greek-affiliated and non-Greek-affiliated college students. The 954 participants volunteered to take the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; Lesieur & Blume, 1987), which measures gambling disorders. A statistically significant association was found between…

  6. The first medical ethics and deontology in Europe as derived from Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Meropi K; Pavlides, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki

    2016-01-01

    Medical ethics and deontology are mentioned in Greek myths long before 700 B.C. We collected and present information derived from ancient Greek mythology and related to (how) ancient physicians took care of the sick or injured and how they were rewarded for their services. PMID:27331210

  7. A Review of the Factorial Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): Greek Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Costantinos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the psychometric evidence on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in a sample of Greek-speaking adults (N = 818). Alpha coefficients for the nine dimensions indicated high consistency among the comprising items of each scale. The convergent and discriminant validity of the Greek-BSI were checked against the personality constructs…

  8. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

  9. The Persistent Pledging of Black Greeks: A Student Development Approach for Understanding and Challenging the Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Walter M.; Sutton, E. Michael

    The development of the Greek system on college campuses as brought about an evolution of a unique student culture within higher education. Most of the research on the Greek experience does not acknowledge the presence of Black fraternities and sororities although these organizations have over 90 years experience on campuses. This paper describes…

  10. Social Values Priorities and Orientation towards Individualism and Collectivism of Greek University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastylianou, Dona; Lampridis, Efthymios

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the value priorities of Greek young adults and their orientation towards individualism and collectivism and to investigate for possible relationships between value types and individualism and collectivism. Greek undergraduate students (n = 484) completed the Social Values Survey, the Auckland's Individualism and…

  11. The Greek Life Self-Study: A Powerful Process for Change on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuberger, Carmen G.; Hanson, Gail Short

    1997-01-01

    Describes the work, findings, and recommendations of a self-study team that examined Greek life at a liberal arts college and the compatibility of its Greek organizations with the mission of the college. A review of changes after five years suggests the efficacy of this type of self-study. (RJM)

  12. The Role of Teaching Poetry in Developing Literacy in Greek Primary School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravani, Evagelia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the ways in which the systematic teaching of poetry reading at Greek primary school enhances children's interest in reading and helps develop their oral skills by enriching their vocabulary and creative thinking. The present poetry project was implemented at a Greek public kindergarten in Rethymno,…

  13. Who Killed Homer? The Demise of Classical Education and the Recovery of Greek Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Victor Davis; Heath, John

    This book argues that if we lose our knowledge of the Greek classics, we lose our understanding of Western culture and who we are. Familiarity with the literature, art, and philosophy of the classical world has been synonymous with "education" in the West for over two millennia. The Greek tenets of democracy, capitalism, materialism, personal…

  14. "Republica de Kubros": Transgression and Collusion in Greek-Cypriot Adolescents' Classroom Silly-Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Constadina

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on seemingly "silly" talk, whispered by Greek-Cypriot students during Turkish-language classes. Taking into account the history of violent conflict between the Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot communities, Turkish-language learners' silly-talk emerges as an interactional space that refracts larger discourses and ideologies, and…

  15. Production and Comprehension of Pronouns by Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; van der Lely, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the characterization of the deficit in specific language impairment (SLI) by investigating whether deficits in the production and comprehension of pronouns in Greek children with SLI are best accounted for by domain-general or domain-specific models of the language faculty. The Greek pronominal system distinguishes…

  16. A Phenomenographic Study of Greek Primary School Students' Representations Concerning Technology in Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonidou, Christina; Tassios, Athanassios

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigated and studied students' representations about daily life technologies, in a prospect of studying technology in Greek primary education. In the research participated 60 Greek primary school students aged 9 to 12 years old. Research data were collected through semi-structured, personal, clinical-type interviews. Each…

  17. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  18. A View from the Portico: Lessons from the Greeks. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Charles M.

    Views on the 1985 Association of American Colleges' (AAC) report, "Integrity in the College Curriculum," are presented based on lessons from the Greeks and specifically the period 450 to 350 B.C.E. Seven inferences are made on what an Athenian might offer in response to the AAC Report. For the Greeks, the goal of education was wisdom and the…

  19. Assessing the Students' Evaluations of Educational Quality (SEEQ) Questionnaire in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Linardakis, M.; Gregoriadis, A.; Oikonomidis, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of the teaching effectiveness in the Greek higher education system. Other objectives of the study were (a) the examination of the dimensionality and the higher-order structure of the Greek version of Students' Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ)…

  20. Alleviative Effects of a Kampo (a Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Maoto (Ma-Huang-Tang)” on the Early Phase of Influenza Virus Infection and Its Possible Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Erika; Aoki, Yuka; Hokari, Rei

    2014-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, maoto, has been prescribed in an early phase of influenza-like illness and used for a treatment of influenza clinically in Japan these days. However, the efficacy of maoto against the virus infection remains to be elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the alleviative effects of maoto against early phase of influenza virus infection and its preliminary mode of actions through immune systems. When maoto (0.9 and 1.6 g/kg/day) was orally administered to A/J mice on upper respiratory tract infection of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 from 4 hours to 52 hours postinfection (p.i.) significant antipyretic effect was shown in comparison with water-treated control. Administration of maoto (0.8 and 1.3 g/kg/day) significantly decreased the virus titers in both nasal (NLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) at 52 hours p.i., and significantly increased the anti-influenza virus IgM, IgA, and IgG1 antibody titers in NLF, BALF, and serum, respectively. Maoto also increased significantly the influenza virus-bound IgG1 and IgM antibody titers in serum and the virus-bound IgM antibody titer in even the BALF of uninfected A/J mice. These results indicate that maoto exerts antipyretic activity in influenza virus-infected mice and virus reducing effect at an early phase of the infection through probably augmentation of the virus-bound natural antibodies. PMID:24778699

  1. [The Pangenetic theory in the tradition of Greek medical science].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The Pangenetic theory which holds that sperm comes from all the body seems to have been one of the most remarkable doctrines in Greek biology in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, since Aristotle gives a detailed description of the theory and criticizes it severely. The main sources of information about the Pangenetic theory are several medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus. There are only some mentions of it in the extant fragments ascribed to Democritus. It would be probable, therefore, that the theory had the origin of its theoretical form in the tradition of Greek medical science, and then came to the focus of attention among the Presocratic philosophers. Some scholars, on the other hand, claim that Democritus had a decisive role in the formation and development of the theory, which was then taken over by the Hippocratic doctors in their attempt to give a systematic explanation for some of the important genetic issues, such as the inheritance of similarities from parents to their children. It must be kept in mind, however, that Hippocratic doctors thought of particular fluids or humours with their inherent powers (delta upsilon nu alpha mu epsilon iotas) as the essential constituents of human body. This fact leads us to have an idea that the doctors had a completely different view of matter from the corpuscular theory, although Lesky (1950) and Lonie (1981) assume them to have been almost dependent on the atomism of Democritus. We can conclude that the Pangenetic theory came originally from Greek medical science, and then developed into the most influential doctrine before Aristotle. PMID:19824316

  2. Transfer Effects in Spelling from Transparent Greek to Opaque English in Seven-to-Ten-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated single-word spelling performance of 33 English- and 38 Greek-speaking monolingual children, and 46 English- and Greek-speaking bilingual children (age range from 6;7 to 10;1 years). The bilingual children were divided into two groups on the basis of their single-word reading and spelling performance in Greek. In line with…

  3. Bioenergetic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a specific therapeutic strategy we call ‘bioenergetic medicine’. Bioenergetic medicine refers to the manipulation of bioenergetic fluxes to positively affect health. Bioenergetic medicine approaches rely heavily on the law of mass action, and impact systems that monitor and respond to the manipulated flux. Since classically defined energy metabolism pathways intersect and intertwine, targeting one flux also tends to change other fluxes, which complicates treatment design. Such indirect effects, fortunately, are to some extent predictable, and from a therapeutic perspective may also be desirable. Bioenergetic medicine-based interventions already exist for some diseases, and because bioenergetic medicine interventions are presently feasible, new approaches to treat certain conditions, including some neurodegenerative conditions and cancers, are beginning to transition from the laboratory to the clinic. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24004341

  4. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  5. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  6. [Osteopathic medicine].

    PubMed

    Klein, P; Lepers, Y; Salem, W

    2011-09-01

    Osteopathy is originated in the 19th century in the United States. Andrew Taylor Still seek for an alternative medical system to the orthodox medicine largely empirical and advocating bloodletting, calomel, etc., all of which was resumed with terms like" heroic medicine". Osteopathy as other alternative medical practices (homeopathy, eclecticism, etc.) based on rational and metaphysical postulates as vitalism or the fact that man is a divinely ordained machine. Still's approach was essentially manual and based on manipulation of the joints. Today osteopaths challenge these dogmas and seek to agree their practice within scientific biomedical standards. Even if strong randomized clinical trials are lacking, several surveys report how osteopathy gained public notoriety. Several recent meta-analyses pinpoint the benefit of the spinal manipulative treatment and even if there is no evidence that such an approach is superior to other advocated therapies there is no evidence that these therapies are more effective than the first one. The major indications for such a treatment are cervical and low back pain, either chronic or acute. The quality of the relationship between the practitioner and patient together with the placebo effect are important components of a treatment effect. Osteopathic education is an important aspect and only higher education institutions, i.e. universities can achieve and maintain adequate standards. Materia medica and surgery represent the two major therapeutic mainstreams in medicine; osteopathy considered as manual medicine could be the third one. PMID:22034767

  7. Managing Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... other strategies that don’t use medicine have • Call the ADEAR Center toll-free: 1-800-438-4380 been tried. ... dose, patient’s name, dosage frequency, and expiration date. • ... Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center is a service of the National Institute on ...

  8. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

  9. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

  10. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society. PMID:24153380

  11. Religious fundamentalism and religious orientation among the Greek Orthodox.

    PubMed

    Mora, Louis Ernesto; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; McDermut, Wilson

    2014-10-01

    The experimenters explored how religious fundamentalism related with religious orientation, irrational thinking, and immature defense mechanisms. They also explored the possible moderational role of the Big 5 personality factors. The participants were predominantly Greek Orthodox College students from a Cypriot University. The experimenters employed a cross-sectional design and required participants to complete a series of self-report measures. Religious fundamentalism significantly predicted irrational thinking. Intrinsic and personal extrinsic religious orientations significantly predicted religious fundamentalism. The results provide support for the idea that the more dogmatically one holds their religious beliefs, the more likely they are to think irrationally. PMID:23716083

  12. Untying the Gordian knot of creation: metaphors for the Human Genome Project in Greek newspapers.

    PubMed

    Gogorosi, Eleni

    2005-12-01

    This article studies the metaphorical expressions used by newspapers to present the near completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) to the Greek public in the year 2000. The analysis, based on cognitive metaphor theory, deals with the most frequent or captivating metaphors used to refer to the human genome, which give rise to both conventional and novel expressions. The majority of creative metaphorical expressions participate in the discourse of hope and promise propagated by the Greek media in an attempt to present the HGP and its outcome in a favorable light. Instances of the competing discourse of fear and danger are much rarer but can also be found in creative metaphorical expressions. Metaphors pertaining to the Greek culture or to ancient Greek mythology tend to carry a special rhetorical force. However, it will be shown that the Greek press strategically used most of the metaphors that circulated globally at the time, not only culture specific ones. PMID:16610131

  13. Chronic Pain Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of chronic pain usually involves medicines and therapy. Medicines used for chronic pain include pain relievers, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Different types of medicines help ...

  14. [Greek medical science and its understanding of physis, as conceptualized in the Hippocratic Treatise De Natura Hominis].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    It has often been claimed the Greek medical science has its origin in the rational explanation of the world among the early Greek philosophers that constituted their inquiry into nature. However, there were doctors who made an attempt to establish medical science as existing independently of any philosophical intrusion. This can be elucidated through the analysis of the medical term physis, conceptualized, among others, in the well-known treatise in the Hippocratic Corpus, entitled De Natura Hominis (NH). In NH, the Hippocratic doctor criticizes the philosophical anthropology and medical theory, which hold that human nature comes into being emergently from single elemental stuff such as Air, Water etc, or from a single humor. His own view of human nature claims that the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) constitute the nature (physis) of human body. The human body has its natural powers inherently for preserving health, and, if anything does harm to it, it functions autonomously for restoring its normal condition. In this context, the term physis denotes what determines the normality of the body, in which its humoral constituents remain harmonized with each other. THrough the conception of physis, applied principally to the body, the human body will be demarcated as the physical or material aspect of human nature, as opposed to the monistic view of human nature, which has not drawn a categorical distinction between the material and the non-material. PMID:15977374

  15. The innovations in science and technology as a demand for bio-better medicines in Europe.

    PubMed

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the role of the scientific excellence of innovative medicines as the key element in the development process in Greece. The collected statistical information and data on the absorbability of funds for research of innovative medicines, diagnostics, and advanced drug delivery systems pointed out that the Greek scientists could take advantage of the "Horizon 2020" on the continuity of their investigation, whilst how the accumulation of knowledge at Greek universities and research foundations could be translated into industrial products with added value, safe and effective for the European consumers. In conclusion, this review also is considered to provide the potential benefits in order to adapt the signaling of the "Horizon 2020" for the development of a bio-better Europe based on scientific inspirations. This approach could be considered as an interplay between countries and even between the north and west located countries in the European landscape. PMID:25416993

  16. Global financial crisis and surgical practice: the Greek paradigm.

    PubMed

    Karidis, Nikolaos P; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-11-01

    Apart from the significant implications of recent financial crisis in overall health indices and mortality rates, the direct effect of health resources redistribution in everyday clinical practice is barely recognized. In the case of Greece, health sector reform and health spending cuts have already had a major impact on costly interventions, particularly in surgical practice. An increase in utilization of public health resources, lack of basic and advanced surgical supplies, salary deductions, and emerging issues in patient management have contributed to serious dysfunction of a public health system unable to sustain current needs. In this context, significant implications arise for the surgeons and patients as proper perioperative management is directly affected by reduced public health funding. The surgical community has expressed concerns about the quality of surgical care and the future of surgical progress in the era of the European Union. Greek surgeons are expected to support reform while maintaining a high level of surgical care to the public. The challenge of cost control in surgical practice provides, nevertheless, an excellent opportunity to reconsider health economics while innovation through a more traditional approach to the surgical patient should not be precluded. A Greek case study on the extent of the current situation is presented with reference to health policy reform, serving as an alarming paradigm for the global community under the pressure of a profound financial recession. PMID:21879425

  17. American and Greek Children's Visual Images of Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Bonoti, Fotini; Kontopoulou, Argiro

    2016-08-01

    This study explores American and Greek primary pupils' visual images of scientists by means of two nonverbal data collection tasks to identify possible convergences and divergences. Specifically, it aims to investigate whether their images of scientists vary according to the data collection instrument used and to gender. To this end, 91 third-grade American ( N = 46) and Greek ( N = 45) pupils were examined. Data collection was conducted through a drawing task based on Chambers (1983) `Draw-A-Scientist-Test' (DAST) and a picture selection task during which the children selected between 14 pairs of illustrations those that were most probable to represent scientists. Analysis focused on stereotype indicators related with scientists' appearance and work setting. Results showed that the two groups' performance varied significantly across the tasks used to explore their stereotypic perceptions, although the overall stereotypy was not differentiated according to participants' ethnic group. Moreover, boys were found to use more stereotypic indicators than girls, while the picture selection task elicited more stereotypic responses than the drawing task. In general, data collected by the two instruments revealed convergences and divergences concerning the stereotypic indicators preferred. Similarities and differences between national groups point to the influence of a globalized popular culture on the one hand and of the different sociocultural contexts underlying science curricula and their implementation on the other. Implications for science education are discussed.

  18. Empirical foundations of atomism in ancient Greek philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-07-01

    The way by which ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atom is presented. The concept of atom, a great creation of the human mind, gave a direct, modern-like explanation of the world, at times in which the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. This lack proved not an impossible obstacle for ancient Greek atomistic philosophers. The continuous regeneration, which makes Nature seem eternal, the physiology of nourishment, the orderly growth and decay of humans, animals and plants, the spreading of a sent, the evaporation and condensation of water, the wearing out of a pavement by the steps of passers-by etc., led philosophers to the concept of atoms. Similar experiences can be appealed to in teaching the concept today. Nevertheless, the concept of atom was not conceived in the same way in all ancient philosophical schools. The struggle to understand Nature, brought forth brilliant ideas and intuitions, which are directly connected to modern aspects of atomic theory, like the atomicity of time and the symmetries of the world of elementary particles. Teachers today can, with benefit to their students, retrace the ancient steps to atomic theory.

  19. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46+/-23.56 microg/dl and 77.11+/-17.67 microg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries. PMID:15955548

  20. Euthanasia in Greece: Greek nurses' involvement and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Patelarou, Evridiki; Vardavas, Constantine I; Fioraki, Ioanna; Alegakis, Thanasis; Dafermou, Maria; Ntzilepi, Penelope

    2009-05-01

    Euthanasia has become a prominent social and ethical issue in which nurses play an important role. This study evaluated, for the first time in Greece, the acceptance and enactment of passive euthanasia among Greek nursing staff, measured in relation to the type of patients cared for. Passive euthanasia, illegal in Greece, is defined as either withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment. Fifty-one per cent responded that they would not be willing to withhold life-sustaining treatment if legalized, while almost 30% responded that they had withheld life-sustaining treatment from a patient at least once in the past; specifically 47.7% of intensive care unit nurses (OR 8.2; 95% CI: 1.6-41.3), 20% of cancer ward nurses (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 0.5-15.6) and 8.3% of other nurses from other wards (P = 0.001). Age, gender and self-reported levels of religiosity among Greek nurses were not found to affect statistically any variable regarding euthanasia and its enactment. PMID:19491750

  1. Dance medicine.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, S R

    1984-08-01

    Dance medicine is a subdivision of sports medicine that utilizes the same basic orthopedic concepts. It studies motions common to dance, which may not be common to other athletic activity, and the injuries that develop secondary to these peculiar movements. The best defense mechanism against injury and overuse syndrome development is a well-toned, strong, flexible body. Appropriate alignment and range of motion of large joints are necessities for dance activity. Biomechanical analyses are useful in treating and guiding the dancer through injuries that she may incur as well as prevention of such injuries. "Forcing the turnout" is a common problem with many dancers. This motion causes pedal pronation and a myriad of overuse syndromes that can be related to pronatory changes. PMID:6536400

  2. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Your doctor may prescribe medicines to help lower your risk of fractures. These medicines make the bones in your hips, spine, and other areas denser. ...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  4. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  5. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet ePublications Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet Print this fact sheet Pregnancy and ... pregnancy and medicines Is it safe to use medicine while I am pregnant? There is no clear- ...

  6. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

  7. Medicines by Design

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside the Body ... CYP 450 enzymes » more Chapter 3: Drugs from Nature, Then and Now Drugs from plants, oceans and ...

  8. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ... types of care, it is called integrative medicine. Alternative medicine is used instead of mainstream medical care. The ...

  9. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. DO NOT call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...

  10. Transfusion medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  11. The MAP2K5-linked SNP rs2241423 is associated with BMI and obesity in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the last intron of MAP2K5 associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in adults. MAP2K5 is a component of the MAPK-family intracellular signaling pathways, responding to extracellular growth factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). In this study, we examined the association of this variant in two cohorts of children from Sweden and Greece. Methods We examine the association of rs2241423 to BMI in a cohort of 474 Swedish children admitted for treatment of childhood obesity and 519 children matched for gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic background from the Stockholm area, as well as a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children (Healthy Growth Study). Children were genotyped using a predesigned TaqMan polymorphism assay. Logistic regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to obesity in the cohort of Swedish children. Linear regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to BMI z-score and phenotypic measurements of body adiposity in the cohort of Greek children. Models were adjusted for age and gender. In the cohort of Greek children the model was also adjusted for stage of pubertal development. Results The minor allele of rs2241423, allele A, was associated with a protective effect against obesity in the cohort of Swedish children (p = 0.029, OR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64–0.98)), and with a lower BMI z-score in the cohort of Greek children (p = 0.028, β = −0.092). No association to phenotypic measurements of body fat distribution could be observed in our study. Conclusions rs2241423 was associated with BMI and obesity in two independent European cohorts suggesting a role for MAP2K5 in early weight regulation. PMID:22594783

  12. Haptic medicine.

    PubMed

    Mason, Cindy; Mason, Earl

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces haptic medicine--healthcare based on loving touch for healing and preventing disease. We describe the effects of loving touch (a square inch of our skin has over 1000 nerves) on the body, brain and mind. We describe two web-based health education and media projects. The first, HYPERLINK "http://www.21stcenturymed.org" www.21stcenturymed.org is a place for health practitioners to start learning about touch and resources. The second project, Humans Without Borders, is a multi-lingual self help education website for everyday people. Teaching materials for these projects are based on our previous work with a form of haptic medicine known as psychophysiophilosophy with patients at Stanford Hospital, Kaiser Permanente and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital. We describe psychophysiophilosophy, relate motherly love to recent discoveries in neurosciences and give hints on ways to increase motherly love in each of us. We present a plan for moving into the future by re-introducing haptic medicine into our daily lives through self-help and as an adjunct for current physician practice. There is an exercise in self-help for the reader and an appendix of recent clinical research with profound benefits on the use of human touch for over 40 conditions. PMID:19745495

  13. Developments in space medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The principal directions and results of space medicine studies are reviewed, starting with the early 1950s. The effects of prolonged inaction, a gravity-free environment, and isolation on the survival and functioning of man in space are examined. Quarantine and other measures developed to guard the health of astronauts during space missions are described. Space radiation hazards and means of overcoming them are discussed. The development of exobiology as a new field of science from our increasing knowledge of the universe is noted, together with some technological and medical advances resulting from space research.

  14. Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Prakash, Jai; Srivastava, Sushma

    2002-07-01

    In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities. PMID:12597545

  15. [The "medical school" of Alexandria and its influence upon medicine in Graeco-Roman Egypt].

    PubMed

    Marganne, Marie Hélène

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides new information on the most famous centre of rational medicine in the Graeco-Roman world and its influence in Egypt. It uses at its point of departure a remarkable but insufficiently known documentation: Greek literary papyri (from IV/III B.C. to A.D. VI/VII), which often are unique witnesses to lost medical works, bearing testimony to original theories, practices and vocabulary. PMID:14509988

  16. Influence of religious belief on Mongolian medicine.

    PubMed

    Caijilahu, C

    1999-04-01

    Religious belief exerts certain influence on early development of Mongolian medicine. Up to early 20th century, some aspects of Mongolian medicine, including diagnostic methods and therapeutic remedies were all dyed with religion. Hence, the study of Mongolian medical history involves culture, philosophy and religious belief, especially culture in its broad sense, and micro - religion, such as the witchery culture of remote ancient time, totem in primitive religion and all kinds of worshipping and beliefs. PMID:11623862

  17. Sciatica: a historical perspective on early views of a distinct medical syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karampelas, Ioannis; Boev, Angel N; Fountas, Kostas N; Robinson, Joe Sam

    2004-01-15

    The authors offer a brief overview of early theories and treatments of sciatica. Tracing medical traditions through early Greek, Roman, and Eastern epochs, the authors demonstrate the slow sequential steps that were required to delineate this disease as a uniquely human affliction. PMID:15264784

  18. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  19. CO2 fertilization and enhanced drought resistance in Greek firs from Cephalonia Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2013-02-01

    Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (ad 1820-2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However, this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20th-early 21st century, there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover, growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in ad 1988-1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water-use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean. PMID:23504790

  20. Wintertime Air Pollution and the Greek Financial Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florou, Kalli K.; Pikridas, Michael; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2013-04-01

    During the last couple of years, because of the current high prices of diesel, Greeks have turned to more traditional ways of residential heating, such as fireplaces and pellet stoves. These combustion sources which use different types of biofuels, instead of fossil fuel or natural gas have become prevalent even in the major Greek cities. Wood combustion (WC) during winter is one of the major sources of organic aerosol in central and northern Europe (Puxbaum et al., 2007). Two field campaigns were conducted during the winter of 2012 and 2013 in two of the largest Greek cities (Patras and Athens) in order to quantify the levels of organic aerosols from domestic WC and to characterize the corresponding particulate matter. The instrumentation used included an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a selection of on-line aerosol size distribution and concentration instruments (APS, SMPS, TEOM, MAAP) was deployed. In February of 2012, a significant increase of particulate matter less than 1 μm (PM1) was observed every evening after 6 pm in Patras (Pikridas et al., 2013). The concentration of PM1usually exceeded 80 μg m-3 often reaching values above 150 μg m-3. Organic particulate matter represented more than 90% of the fine PM during these high PM periods. The concentration of black carbon was as high as 10 μg m-3often exceeding the sulfate levels in the same area. High potassium and nitrate levels were also observed during the night. These concentrations were a lot higher (approximately double on average) than the concentrations measured in Patras during previous winters. In January 2013, these measurements were repeated both in Athens and Patras using a number of field stations. Wood burning once more resulted in extremely high nighttime PM levels. The spatial and temporal distribution of fine PM will be discussed and the effects of the change in heating fuels will be quantified. References Pikridas M., Tasoglou A., Florou K

  1. Greek traditional dances and quality of old people's life.

    PubMed

    Mavrovouniotis, Fotios H; Argiriadou, Eirini A; Papaioannou, Christina S

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of Greek traditional dances on the improvement of old people's quality of life. A hundred and eleven subjects (75 women and 36 men) 60-91 years old, were divided into an experimental group (n=76) which participated in Greek traditional dances and a control group (n=35) which was discussing and watching television, both for 1h. The Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale [McAuley, E., Courneya, K., 1994. The Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES): development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 16, 163-177] was used to measure positive well-being, psychological distress, and fatigue and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R., Lushene, R., 1970. Manual for the State-trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologists, Palo Alto] to measure state and trait anxiety respectively. Correlational analyses, between the various measures taken postdance, showed that the overall set of relations between the SEES subscales and the SAI-Y1 subscale supports the criterion-related validity of this measure of exercise-induced psychological responses. The independent groups t-tests showed that the control group in comparison to experimental group, at rest as well as on the second measurement, has significantly higher levels of state anxiety (t=-4.45, p<0.001 &t=-6.56, p<0.001), psychological distress (t=-4.30, p<0.001 &t=-5.46, p<0.001), and fatigue (t=-3.16, p<0.01 &t=-3.46, p<0.001), while it has significantly lower levels of positive well-being (t=4.23, p<0.001 &t=6.90, p<0.001). After dancing approximately 63% of maximum heart rate of experimental group was activated, while from paired t-tests significant decreases in state anxiety (t=5.02, p<0.001) and psychological distress (t=3.14, p<0.01) were observed, as well as significant increases in positive well-being (t=-4.44, p<0.001) and fatigue (t=-2.15, p<0.05). On the other hand, no significant difference in

  2. Alcohol Use in the Greek System, 1999–2009: A Decade of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Capone, Christy

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the empirical literature on fraternity and sorority drinking published during the last decade. This body of 69 research studies indicates that both socialization and selection influence alcohol use in the Greek system, as do normative perceptions and the enabling environment of Greek housing. This review also details the individual and chapter-level interventions that have been implemented to address drinking in the Greek system. Limitations of the current survey and intervention literature suggest several promising directions for future research. PMID:20443768

  3. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1]. PMID:27508219

  4. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology. PMID:18644217

  5. Suicidal ideation, substance use, and sense of coherence in Greek male conscripts.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis

    2003-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the comorbidity of suicidal behavior and substance use in young male conscripts and to analyze the association between personal coping resources and the severity of these behaviors. A total of 1,098 Greek male conscripts participated in this study, completing the Antonovsky's sense of coherence questionnaire and a standard questionnaire concerning their lifetime and current suicidal and substance-use behavior. A proportion of 11.7% and 24%, respectively, had lifetime and current feelings that life is not worth living. The differences between past and current death wishes (8.9% vs. 9.2%), suicidal thoughts (8.3% vs. 7.6%), and suicide attempts (2.4% vs. 2.9%) were not significant. All of the subgroups with suicidal ideation or behavior showed a significantly lower sense of coherence questionnaire score as compared with the whole sample. The comorbidity of past and current suicide thoughts and substance use ranged from 16.4% to 33.3% and 31.4% to 44.2%, respectively, depending on the kind of the substance. Finally, the subjects with past or current substance use had a significantly higher incidence of past or current, respectively, suicidal ideation or behavior, as compared with those without a history of substance use. We suggest the necessity of the early detection of these high-risk behaviors applying closer monitoring and integrated prevention programs. PMID:12834133

  6. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Eric Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  7. [Study on development history of Taoist medicine in Wudang].

    PubMed

    Xu, D

    2000-10-01

    This accomplishment of textual research on the development of Wudang Taoist medicine covers the history from the record on Wudang priests practicing medicine in early period, herb pills and internal alchemy in Song - Yuan period to Taoist medicine when at its peak and the strive of doctors of Taoist priests made a vitalize Taoism after its period of declination. PMID:11871434

  8. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Economides, S; Tritakis, P; Papadomarkaki, E; Carinou, E; Hourdakis, C; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2006-01-01

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included. PMID:16143723

  9. A directed network of Greek and Roman mythology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon-Mu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2007-08-01

    We construct a directed network using a dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology in which the nodes represent the entries listed in the dictionary and we make directional links from an entry to other entries that appear in its explanatory part. We find that this network is clearly not a random network but a directed scale-free network in which the distributions of out-degree and in-degree follow a power-law with exponents γout≈3.0 and γin≈2.5, respectively. Also we measure several quantities which describe the topological properties of the network and compare it to that of other real networks.

  10. The art of providing anaesthesia in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Ntaidou, T K; Siempos, I I

    2012-07-01

    We endeavored to thoroughly review Greek mythology and collect tales dealing with anaesthesia and myochalasis (paralysis). Among the evaluated sources were the poems of Hesiod, the epics of Homer, the tragedies of the great Athenian poets (namely Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides) as well as the contributions of several Latin writers, including Ovid. We found several examples of achieving hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia through the administration of drugs (inhaled or not) and music. Adverse events of drugs used for this purpose, such as post-anaesthetic emergence delirium, hallucinations, respiratory arrest and penis erection, were described in the presented myths. We noted that providing sleep was considered a divine privilege, although several mortals (mainly women) exhibited such powers as well. The concepts of sleep and death were closely associated in ancient classical thought. This review may stimulate anaesthetists' fantasy and may help them realise the nobility of their medical specialty. PMID:23230686

  11. 'Nature and the Greeks' and 'Science and Humanism'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    2014-11-01

    Foreword; Part I. Nature and the Greeks: 1. The motives for returning to ancient thought; 2. The competition, reason v. senses; 3. The Pythagoreans; 4. The Ionian enlightenment; 5. The religion of Xenophanes, Heraclitus of Ephesus; 6. The atomists; 7. What are the special features?; Part II. Science and Humanism: 1. The spiritual bearing of science on life; 2. The practical achievements of science tending to obliterate its true import; 3. A radical change in our ideas of matter; 4. Form, not substance, the fundamental concept; 5. The nature of our 'models'; 6. Continuous descriptions and causality; 7. The intricacy of the continuum; 8. The makeshift of wave mechanics; 9. The alleged breakdown of the barrier between subject and object; 10. Atoms or quanta - the counter-spell of old standing, to escape the intricacy of the continuum; 11. Would physical indeterminacy give free will a chance?; 12. The bar to prediction, according to Niels Bohr; Literature.

  12. MEG as a Medical Diagnostic Tool in the Greek Population.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Photios; Adamopoulos, Adam; Kotini, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the recording of the magnetic field produced by the flowing of ions in the brain. This article reports our experience in the application of MEG in patients and healthy volunteers in the Greek population. We provide a brief description of our research work. The MEG data were recorded in a magnetically shielded room with a whole-head 122 channel or an one-channel biomagnetometer. Our results lead us to believe that the MEG is an important research field which is evolving quickly with a number of interesting findings with respect to normal and abnormal functions of the human brain. It could provide clinical practice with an easy to perform non invasive method, which could be adjunct to conventional methods for the evaluation of brain disorders. PMID:26686946

  13. [Descartes and medicine].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650) gave a high priority to medicine and dedicated a great deal of his life to medical studies. Nevertheless his relation to medicine has always been much discussed. However, a number of recent works have contributed to reassessing the earlier critique which nearly wrote him out from medical history. The recent biographical dismissal of a number of earlier allegations and the recent interpretations of the medical contents of his collected writings ought to result in Descartes' reinstatement in medical history. His novel anti-Aristotelian methodology had a crucial influence on the medicine of the subsequent decades. Also his early defense of Harvey's theory of blood circulation had great influence. Especially his thoughts about a mechanical physiology by means of which the functions of the body could be explained without involvement of "occult faculties" influenced that time. His empirical mistakes, including the central role which he ascribed to the corpus pineale, are offset, which already Steno noted, by his brilliant thoughts about the function and importance of the brain. Although he did not make any really new empirical discoveries within medicine, he advanced a number of concrete ideas which later lead to actual discoveries such as visual accommodation, the reflex concept and the reciprocal innervations of antagonistic muscles. Descartes' psychosomatic view of the importance of the interplay between sensations, "the passions of the soul", and the free will in the preservation of health shows in addition that his fundamental soul-body dualism was far more nuanced than is often claimed. PMID:15685778

  14. Knowledge about umbilical cord blood banking among Greek citizens

    PubMed Central

    Karagiorgou, Louiza Z.; Pantazopoulou, Maria-Nikoletta P.; Mainas, Nikolaos C.; Beloukas, Apostolos I.; Kriebardis, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood supplies in Greece are not sufficient to meet the high transfusion needs. This study was designed to determine Greeks’ opinion about umbilical cord blood, identify the reasons for the lack of motivation to donate umbilical cord blood and allow experts to establish better recruitment campaigns to enrich the donor pool. Materials and methods The attitudes and knowledge about umbilical cord blood of randomly selected Greek citizens (n=1,019) were assessed by means of a standardised anonymous questionnaire. The results were analysed using the χ2test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results Forty-eight percent of respondents knew about umbilical cord blood and had full knowledge about what storage/donation offers. Media (35%) and doctors (25%) were the main source of information. The information from the state was considered either inadequate or non-existent by 85% of the responders. Ninety-five percent of the people questioned would like further information regarding umbilical cord blood transplantation and umbilical cord blood storage/donation. Six percent of the respondents who had children and were in favour of umbilical cord blood transplantation, had stored/donated UCB. With regards to future decisions, 84% of the sample would store/donate umbilical cord blood, of whom 57% would keep the umbilical cord blood in a private bank. Discussion It was concluded that Greek citizens receive information about umbilical cord blood from both the state and advertising campaigns by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. A kind of cooperation between all hospitals and public umbilical cord blood banks would be advisable in order to facilitate access to umbilical cord blood donations. PMID:24120604

  15. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  16. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population

    PubMed Central

    Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder

    2016-01-01

    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas. PMID:27490348

  17. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27508236

  18. Rhea Was a Broad: Pre-Hellenic Greek Myths for Post-Hellenic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a number of techniques employed by the Greek mythographers in the reconstruction of ancient myths to appear as if the male Olympian deities and the patriarchal social order that they modeled were both of vast antiquity, even autochthonic. (HOD)

  19. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline. PMID:20734558

  20. Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: a Greek prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bakoula, Chryssa; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Veltsista, Alexandra; Gika, Artemis; Chrousos, George P

    2009-11-01

    Systematic research about the continuity of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence is limited, but necessary to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We used a population-based representative sample of Greek adolescents, followed-up from birth to the age of 18 years, to assess early influences on and the persistence of mental health problems in youth. We examined the role of peripartum, early development and parental characteristics in predicting mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Results suggest a strong relationship between behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence for both genders, while emotional problems were more likely to persist in boys. Age and sex-specific models revealed significant positive associations between higher scores on the behavioural and emotional problems scales and higher frequency of accidents in preschool years, physical punishment in early childhood, lack of parental interest in child's school and activities, and perceived maternal stress in all children. Perceived paternal stress was associated with higher scores on the Total and Internalizing problems scales in the total population. Our results suggest that early interventions are necessary as mental health problems strongly persist from childhood to late adolescence. The adverse effects of parental stress and poor care-giving practices on child's psychopathology need to be recognised and improved. PMID:19206015

  1. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  2. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  3. Medicinal cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  4. The Hellebore, the Plant beloved by the Greeks: the Reasons behind a Myth.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Maria do Sameiro

    2015-12-01

    This article surveys the characteristics and therapeutic use of black and white hellebore, the beloved plants of the Greeks. It tries to assess the reasons for their possible correct or disastrous use, according to the Greek texts, focusing on some evidence of drug experiments on tolerance to poisons, performed before Mithidrates Eupator's pioneering approach to toxicology. It also draws on new insights into promising remedies obtained from Helleborus provided by phytochemically active compounds. PMID:27172731

  5. The use of early immobilization in the management of acute soft-tissue injuries of the knee: results of a survey of emergency physicians, sports medicine physicians and orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeldt, Mark; Bouliane, Martin; Otto, David; Rowe, Brian H.; Beaupre, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based guidelines on the use of immobilization in the management of common acute soft-tissue knee injuries do not exist. Our objective was to explore the practice patterns of emergency physicians (EPs), sports medicine physicians (SMPs) and orthopedic surgeons (OS) regarding the use of early immobilization in the management of these injuries. Methods We developed a web-based survey and sent it to all EPs, SMPs and OS in a Canadian urban centre. The survey was designed to assess the likelihood of prescribing immobilization and to evaluate factors associated with physicians from these 3 disciplines making this decision. Results The overall response rate was 44 of 112 (39%): 17 of 58 (29%) EPs, 7 of 15 (47%) SMPs and 20 of 39 (51%) OS. In cases of suspected meniscus injuries, 9 (50%) EPs indicated they would prescribe immobilization, whereas no SMPs and 1 (5%) OS would immobilize (p = 0.002). For suspected anterior cruciate ligament injuries, 13 (77%) EPs, 2 (29%) SMPs and 5 (25%) OS said they would immobilize (p = 0.005). For lateral collateral ligament injuries, 9 (53%) EPs, no SMPs and 6 (32%) OS would immobilize (p = 0.04). All respondents would prescribe immobilization for a grossly unstable knee. Conclusion We found that EPs were are more likely to prescribe immobilization for certain acute soft-tissue knee injuries than SMPs and OS. The development of an evidenced-based guideline for the use of knee immobilization after acute soft-tissue injury may reduce practice variability. PMID:25621910

  6. Diabetic neuropathy: comparison between Bangladeshi immigrants and Greek-born subjects.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Thomas; Papadakis, George; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Michalopoulou, Maria; Kokotis, Panagiotis; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare Bangladeshi immigrants with diabetes to native Greeks with diabetes and to distinguish the different risk factors for polyneuropathy (PN) in the two ethnic groups. Subjects were recruited from the outpatient diabetic clinic of a general hospital. A total of 111 Bangladeshi immigrants (97 men and 14 women of mean age 47 years) and 101 native Greeks (82 men and 19 women of mean age 49 years) were included in the study. Sex, mean age, age at diabetes diagnosis, and diabetes duration did not differ between the two groups. PN was diagnosed in 53 (48%) Bangladeshi and in 59 (58%) Greek patients (p = 0.12). Large fiber neuropathy was less prevalent among Bangladeshis (18%) than in Greeks (53%) (p < 0.01). Small fiber neuropathy on the contrary were more frequent in Bangladeshis (18% vs. 7%) (p < 0.02). Regarding the risk factors for PN, Greek patients were taller, with higher BMI, and smoked more cigarettes (p < 0.001). They were also treated with more anti-lipid and antihypertensive agents. The higher percentage of SFN in Bangladeshi was mainly a result of the significantly greater incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in their group (68 Bangladeshi vs. 38 Greek men). It is well known that there are many causes of ED aside from SFN which were not evaluated in this study. Thus this conclusion should be taken with caution. PMID:25583079

  7. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity

    PubMed Central

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Materials, Methods and Results: Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their

  8. Medicinal brandy☆

    PubMed Central

    Guly, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of brandy and other forms of alcohol in the latter part of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Its prime use was as a cardiac stimulant as it seemed to increase the cardiac output and blood pressure. However it was also recognised as a depressant and was used as a sedative. Reconciling these two actions caused difficulties. In addition it was used as a food for invalids. PMID:21481513

  9. Establishment of dose reference levels for nuclear medicine in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Kipouros, P; Chobis, M

    2011-09-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Licensing and Inspections conducted a national survey for the establishment of nuclear medicine (NM) dose reference levels (DRLs) for adult patients, in Greece. The administered activities (AAs) (MBq) were collected from 120 NM departments (88 % of total), during on-site inspections for licensing purposes. Factors influencing the image quality were also investigated. The established national DRLs represent the AA value corresponding to the 75th percentile of the AA frequency distributions. In their majority, national DRLs and average AAs are comparable with the ones published in the international literature. In the light of new technologies, there might be potential for reducing the higher values of AAs, in co-operation with the nuclear medicine experts. PMID:21765158

  10. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  11. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000534.htm Storing your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... child latch or lock. Do not use Damaged Medicine Damaged medicine may make you sick. DO NOT ...

  12. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why you may Need More Than one Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  13. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Sep 2,2016 If you have heart ... Weight • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  15. Medicines: Use Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Track of Your Medicines Taking Medicines Safely Saving Money on Medicines, Shopping Online For More Information about ... half doses of a prescription drug to save money. ( Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you ...

  16. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  17. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  18. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  19. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  20. [Ethics and medicine in Michel Foucault: the humanistic dimension of medicine derived from a genealogy of morality].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Benjamim

    2005-01-01

    The article presents the results of a doctoral dissertation defended at the Universidad de Salamanca, based on Foucault's final decade of writings. If Foucault's goal in writing The History of Sexuality was to fashion a genealogy of ethics, my goal in analyzing this book, along with his other writings, is to demonstrate his last contribution to the history of medicine. He moves from a conception of power over others towards a conception of power over oneself, an exclusive terrain of ancient Greek morality. As a thinker who tries to understand today's problems by going to their roots, Foucault develops less a history than a philosophy of history. Considered an anti-humanist, he leaves us with a portrait of a wholly ethical-humanistic medicine. PMID:17500131

  1. Medicine organizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  2. Contribution of astrology in medicine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Prasad, P V V; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Astrology is the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). Both Ayurveda and Astrology have established a way of life in India since time immemorial. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian Holy scriptures and transmitted from generation to generation. Although both Astrology and medicine were developed as a part of religion in ancient India, astrological principles related to prevention, health care and relief from illness were applied as rituals (religious ceremonies). An astrologer gives guidance for taking medicines at suitable time for the best remedy of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and used at appropriate times for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurveda are inseparable in human life. Role of the Astrology in healthy life and pathogenesis of the disease is well known to Indians. When a physician knows etiology of the disease, he attempts to treat the disease with specific medication, diet and life style and also avoiding causative factors. In a case where a physician is unable to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and to treat, the patient depends upon Astrology. Account of good and bad deeds during this life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life which orderly, when, what and how will be clearly known through Astrology. It gives guidelines about welfare not only to human being but also to whole creation and also indicates about calamities and their solutions as possible extent. Hence a concise astrological evaluation related to prevention, health care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases is being presented in this article. PMID:19569452

  3. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  4. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  5. Magnetism in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenck, John

    2000-03-01

    For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing

  6. [The research on medicine in Greco-Roman Egypt in the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CEDOPAL) of the University of Liège].

    PubMed

    Marganne, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the research on medicine in Greco-Roman Egypt conducted in the last forty years at the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CEDOPAL) at the University of Liège. It describes the main results obtained by deciphering, editing, translating and commenting Greek and Latin medical papyri, be they literary, documentary or magical. PMID:26492678

  7. Performing arts medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ostwald, P F; Baron, B C; Byl, N M; Wilson, F R

    1994-01-01

    Arts medicine has come of age, resulting from 3 important developments over the past decade: improved methods of diagnosis and treatment, an awareness that artists suffer from special problems related to their occupation and lifestyle, and the establishment of health programs emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to these patients. We focus on the patterns of illness afflicting performing artists, specifically dancers, singers, actors, and instrumental musicians, and explain some of the things a health care team can do in treating these patients. The conditions governing these patients' lives--early exposure to high expectations of excellence, incessant demands for perfection, long periods of intense practicing, fierce competition, high levels of anxiety associated with performance, and uncertain careers--need to be understood. Levels of disease and disability are remarkably high, but artists often ignore symptoms. We discuss the musculoskeletal, neurologic, vocal, psychological, and other syndromes found among performers and some of the difficulties in treating them. The prevention of injury, conservative management, collaboration with teachers, and a psychotherapeutic approach are desirable. Arts medicine programs for professional consultation exist in several major cities of the United States and abroad. Although research is needed regarding the effectiveness of health care services for performing artists, the scientific literature devoted to this field is growing. PMID:8128702

  8. Heuristic Medicine: The Methodists and Metalepsis.

    PubMed

    Webster, Colin

    2015-09-01

    In the first century B.C.E., a group of Greek physicians called the Methodists denied that medicine could be based on such "hidden causes" as humors, atoms, or elements. They argued that the inner workings of the body were ultimately unknowable, existing beyond the limits of human knowledge and inference. Yet they insisted that medical certainty was still possible, claiming that every disease shared one of three directly apprehensible "manifest commonalities"--stricture, laxity, or some mixture of the two. Medicine could therefore be a science; it was simply noncausal in structure. This essay examines these medical theories in light of Herbert Simon's concept of "bounded rationality," suggesting that the Methodists were proposing a type of medical "heuristic" in response to the limitations of human knowledge and processing power. At the same time, the essay suggests that such an epistemology had its consequences, setting up an ontological crunch whereby the demands formerly placed on diseases and their causes transferred to "affections" and the commonalities, with successive generations of Methodists disagreeing about the status of symptoms, signs, and diseased states. Borrowing vocabulary from the Methodists themselves, the essay calls the consequent ontological slippage between causes and effects "metalepsis". PMID:26685524

  9. Microflora of Feta cheese from four Greek manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Urso, Rosalinda; Dolci, Paola; Comi, Giuseppe; Cocolin, Luca

    2008-08-15

    The components of the microflora of four Feta cheeses, produced by different Greek manufacturers, were determined by culture dependent and independent techniques. Isolates from microbiological media were first grouped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and then representatives of each DGGE group were sequenced for identification purposes. DNA and RNA, extracted directly from the cheese, were subjected to PCR-DGGE. Moreover, Feta cheeses were subjected to FISH analysis in order to identify viable bacterial populations. The microbial ecology, as represented by the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and yeast populations, was different for the four cheeses. The main LAB species isolated were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis and Lactobacillus fermentum. However, some inconsistencies were observed between the results obtained with the culture dependent and the culture independent approach. In the case of the yeasts, the results obtained by PCR-DGGE compared very well with those obtained by the conventional microbiological analysis and the main species found were Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia fermentans and C. zeylanoides. FISH analysis highlighted viable but not culturable populations of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus spp. RAPD-PCR performed on the L. plantarum isolates revealed a cheese specific distribution and a temperature dependent clustering. PMID:18555549

  10. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  11. Picking Sides: Classifying Jupiter’s Greeks and Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd J.; French, Linda M.; Trilling, David E.

    2014-11-01

    The L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter are populated with thousands of known, and possibly hundreds of thousands of unknown, Greek and Trojan Asteroids. As a robust, intermediate population, these objects represent a crucial dynamical group for testing the viability of various Solar System formation models and mechanisms. A detailed examination of these two camps is therefore necessary for fully understanding Solar System formation. We have collected hundreds of visible photometric observations for 110 of the brightest (H ≤ 10.0) members from both camps using several different observatories in both hemispheres in an effort to precisely classify these objects in a way readily comparable both to the Main Belt population as well as to populations of icy bodies further out in the Solar System. Here we present the full results of our photometric survey and analysis. These data also allow for a visible wavelength comparison between the two camps as well a search for a similar visible color bimodality in the populations as has been suggested by some Infrared spectroscopic observations. Ultimately such information will help us better understand this very important group of objects and how they came to reside in their current orbits. This in-turn will provide insight into the very formation of the Solar System.

  12. Voiced stop prenasalization in two dialects of Greek

    PubMed Central

    Jong Kong, Eun; Syrika, Asimina; Edwards, Jan R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the phonetic realization of voiced stops in the Cretan and Thessalonikan dialects of Modern Greek. Six males and six females of each dialect were recorded in a sentence-reading task. Duration and amplitude were measured to compare the degree of nasality of voiced stops to that of nasals in different phonetic contexts. Results showed that amplitude changes during the voicing bar of the voiced stops varied both within and across speakers. In some instances, there was consistently low amplitude throughout the voicing bar (characteristic of voiced stops), whereas in other instances, there was high amplitude at the closure onset followed by decreasing amplitude toward the burst (characteristic of prenasalization). By contrast, nasals had consistently high amplitude throughout the murmur. The mixed-effects models suggest that there were complex and interactive influences of dialect, gender, prosodic position, and stress in realizing prenasality in the voiced stops. In particular, Cretan male speakers showed the least clear tendency of prenasalization consistent with earlier impressionistic studies. Furthermore, productions of Cretan males showed less prenasalization than those of females in both prosodic positions. The procedures in this study can be used to describe prenasalization in other dialects or languages where prenasalization has been observed. PMID:23145624

  13. Identifying important motivational factors for professionals in Greek hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Paleologou, Victoria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify important motivational factors according to the views of health-care professionals in Greek hospitals and particularly to determine if these might differ in the public and private sectors. Methods A previously developed -and validated- instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Three categories of health care professionals, doctors (N = 354), nurses (N = 581) and office workers (N = 418), working in public and private hospitals, participated and motivation was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The range of reported motivational factors was mixed and Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed. The highest ranked motivator for the entire sample, and by professional subgroup, was achievements (P < 0.001). Within subgroups, motivators were similar, and only one significant difference was observed, namely between doctors and nurses in respect to co-workers (P < 0.05). Remuneration (and salary in particular) was reported as a significant incentive only for professionals in managerial positions. Health professionals in private hospitals were motivated by all factors significantly more than their public-hospital counterparts. Conclusion The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care workers. This study showed that intrinsic factors are particularly important and should become a target for effective employee motivation. PMID:19754968

  14. Inherited anaemias in the Greek community of Cape Town.

    PubMed Central

    Bonafede, R P; Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Cape Town has a Greek community of about 5000, of whom approximately 75% originate from the island of Lesbos. In a survey of inherited haematological conditions in this population, 250 unrelated volunteers were investigated. The prevalence of heterozygous beta-thalassaemia was found to be 6.4%, with a gene frequency of 0.033. G6PD deficiency was detected in 10 males and it can be estimated that the prevalence in the male members of this population is 6.7%, with a gene frequency of 0.067. Hereditary spherocytosis was found in three respondents and this represents a prevalence of 1.2%, with a gene frequency of 0.006. One subject was heterozygous for the sickle cell trait (HbS) and another volunteer had haemoglobin Lepore, which had already been diagnosed in Greece. Our findings with respect to beta-thalassaemia and G6PD deficiency are similar to those reported from regions in Greece where malaria is not highly endemic. PMID:469897

  15. Rationality versus irrationality in Egyptian medicine in the pharaonic and Graeco-Roman periods.

    PubMed

    David, R

    2004-01-01

    During the Ptolemaic Period (332 BC-31 BC), many Greek medical practitioners settled in Egypt where they established an outstanding medical school and developed a distinctive rational approach to diagnosis and treatment which some scholars have regarded as a significant advance on earlier Egyptian procedures. However, Egyptian medicine itself combined both 'rational' and 'irrational' procedures, and extant ancient sources indicate that 'rationality' was not a new concept. Also, several other medical advances that modern writers have usually attributed to the Greeks can be identified in earlier Egyptian traditions. Nevertheless, the limitations of extant textual and archaeological evidence constrain the scope of studies in this area, and new information is required to carry the debate forward. PMID:17152171

  16. Prevalence of HPV infection among Greek women attending a gynecological outpatient clinic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a causative factor for cervical cancer. Early detection of high risk HPV types might help to identify women at high risk of cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the HPV prevalence and distribution in cervical smears in a sample of Greek women attending a gynecological outpatient clinic and to explore the determinants of the infection. Methods A total of 225 women were studied. All women underwent a regular gynecological control. 35 HPV types were studied; 6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85 and 89. Also, basic demographic information, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior were recorded. Results HPV was detected in 22.7% of the study population. The percentage of the newly diagnosed women with HPV infection was 17.3%. HPV-16 was the most common type detected (5.3%) followed by HPV-53 (4.9%). 66.2% of the study participants had a Pap test during the last year without any abnormalities. HPV infection was related positively with alcohol consumption (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.04-4.63, P = 0.04) and number of sexual partners (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.44-3.25, P < 0.001), and negatively with age (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99, P = 0.03), and monthly income (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89, P = 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence of HPV in women attending an outpatient clinic is high. Number of sexual partners and alcohol consumption were the most significant risk factors for HPV infection, followed by young age and lower income. PMID:20156352

  17. The frequency of non-syndromic distomolar teeth in a Greek population sample?

    PubMed Central

    Vardas, Emanouel; Papachatzopoulou, Angeliki; Kalfountzos, Georgios; Leventis, Minas; Tsiklakis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the frequency of non-syndromic distomolars in a Greek population sample. Material and Methods The study population of this retrospective study consisted of 859 Orthopantomograms (OPGs) of 425 male and 434 female patients, attended the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Dental School of Athens seeking for treatment. The OPGs were taken as a part of the patients treatment planning. Patients’ mean age was 33.57 years. Exclusion criteria from this study was cleft lip ± palate and diseases associated with systemic conditions and syndromes (such as cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner syndrome). OPGs were only included in the study if at least one 3rd molar was present. The data collected were the number of 3rd molars, the number of distomolars, the age and the gender of each patient, information concerning previous extraction of 3rd molars. Statistical evaluation of the data included descriptive and bivariate analyses (Chi-square test and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient). In an attempt to further estimate the correlation between the presence of upper and lower 3rd conditions we assumed that the absence of 3rd molars, the presence of 3rd molars, and the presence of distomolars was ordinal in nature and we calculated the Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Results The number of distomolars was greater in the maxilla than in the mandible. In the maxilla the distomolars were located almost equally in both left and right side. It was more possible lower left distomolars to be present in males than in females. Furthermore, males present higher prevalence of supernumerary teeth than females. Conclusions Early radiographic diagnosis of distomolars is fundamental so as to prevent complications such malocclusion, delayed eruption or displacement root or/ and resorption of adjacent teeth, pulp necrosis, follicular cyst, pain. Key words:Non syndromic, distomolars, supernumerary molars, fourth molars. PMID:26644834

  18. Biofield therapies: energy medicine and primary care.

    PubMed

    Rindfleisch, J Adam

    2010-03-01

    Energy medicine modalities, also known as biofield therapies, are perhaps the most mysterious and controversial complementary alternative medicine therapies. Although many of these approaches have existed for millennia, scientific investigation of these techniques is in its early stages; much remains to be learned about mechanisms of action and efficacy. These techniques are increasingly used in clinical and hospital settings and can be incorporated into an integrative primary care practice. This article describes several energy medicine and biofield therapies and outlines key elements they hold in common. Several specific approaches are described. Research findings related to the efficacy of energy medicine are summarized, and proposed mechanisms of action and safety issues are discussed. Guidelines are offered for primary care providers wishing to advise patients about energy medicine or to integrate it into their practices, and Internet and other resources for obtaining additional information are provided. PMID:20189005

  19. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  20. Effects of Self-Esteem and Narcissism on Bullying and Victimization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…