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Sample records for early growth period

  1. Side-stream tobacco smoke-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in early postnatal period is involved nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z-X; Hunter, D D; Batchelor, T P; Dey, R D

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that children are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects of passive smoking than adults. The goal of this study is to elucidate the possible neural mechanism induced by exposure to passive smoking during early life. Postnatal day (PD) 2 and PD 21 mice were exposed to side-stream tobacco smoke (SS), a surrogate to secondhand smoke, or filtered air (FA) for 10 consecutive days. Pulmonary function, substance P (SP) airway innervation, neurotrophin gene expression in lung and nerve growth factor (NGF) release in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were measured at different times after the last SS or FA exposure. Exposure to SS significantly altered pulmonary function in PD2, accompanied with an enhanced SP innervation in airway. However, exposure to SS during the later developmental period (PD21) did not appear to affect pulmonary function and SP innervation of the airways. Interestingly, SS exposure in PD2 group significantly induced an increased gene expression on NGF, and decreased NGF receptor P75 in lung; parallel with high levels of NGF protein in BAL. Furthermore, pretreatment with NGF antibody significantly diminished SS-induced airway hyperresponsivenss and the increased SP airway innervation in the PD2 group. These findings suggest that enhanced NGF released in the lung contributes to SS-enhanced SP tracheal innervation and airway responsiveness in early life. PMID:26638730

  2. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    PubMed

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    < 0.05) and 22-h (60% of total intake; P < 0.10) tests, respectively. In conclusion, feed supplementation with the FA1, FA2, and FA3 from weaning did not induce beneficial effects on feed intake and growth performance during the early postweaning period. The FA2 increased palatability and acceptance of the unfamiliar starter diet the day of feed transition, while the FA1 and FA3 increased palatability of the starter diet only after a few days of exposure, most likely through long-term familiarization processes. PMID:24668952

  3. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997–2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

  4. Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of early marine entry timing and body size on the marine (smolt-to-adult) survival of Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We used data from coded wire tag release groups of hatchery Chinook salmon to test whether hatchery release date, release size, and size in offshore waters in July and September influenced marine survival. Marine survival was most strongly related to the average body size in July, with larger sizes associated with higher survivals. This relationship was consistent over multiple years (1997-2002), suggesting that mortality after July is strongly size-dependent. Release size and date only slightly improved this relationship, whereas size in September showed little relationship to marine survival. Specifically, fish that experienced the highest marine survivals were released before 25 May and were larger than 17 g (or 120 mm fork length) by July. Our findings highlight the importance of local conditions in Puget Sound (Washington, USA) during the spring and summer, and suggest that declines in marine survival since the 1980s may have been caused by reductions in the quality of feeding and growing conditions during early marine life.

  5. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets. PMID:26917333

  6. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice. PMID:26580942

  7. Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns.

    PubMed

    Panella, G

    1971-09-17

    The early-stage annual rings in otoliths from some cold-temperate fish consist of thin growth bands, the number of which corresponds to that of the days in a year. This indicates that growth takes place by daily increments. Other recurrent patterns show a fortnightly and monthly periodicity. Spawning rings are microscopically distinguishable from winter rings. PMID:5098955

  8. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  9. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland

    2013-01-01

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders. PMID:23586744

  10. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  11. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  12. Periodic optimization of continuous microbial growth processes.

    PubMed

    Abulesz, E M; Lyberatos, G

    1987-06-01

    Steady-state operation of continuous bioreactors is not necessarily the optimum type of operation. The method of pi-criterion is used in this work to determine whether periodic variation of the dilution rate can enhance the performance of continuous fermentation processes. It is found that the presence of time delay in the dynamic response of the chemostat renders a periodic operation of bioreactors, used for biomass production, superior to any steady-state operation. Also, employing Williams' structured model it is shown that cycling improves the average protein productivity. PMID:18576558

  13. Early warning signals of tipping points in periodically forced systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, M. S.; Bathiany, S.; Lenton, T. M.

    2015-11-01

    The prospect of finding generic early warning signals of an approaching tipping point in a complex system has generated much recent interest. Existing methods are predicated on a separation of timescales between the system studied and its forcing. However, many systems, including several candidate tipping elements in the climate system, are forced periodically at a timescale comparable to their internal dynamics. Here we find alternative early warning signals of tipping points due to local bifurcations in systems subjected to periodic forcing whose time scale is similar to the period of the forcing. These systems are not in, or close to, a fixed point. Instead their steady state is described by a periodic attractor. We show that the phase lag and amplification of the system response provide early warning signals, based on a linear dynamics approximation. Furthermore, the power spectrum of the system's time series reveals the generation of harmonics of the forcing period, the size of which are proportional to how nonlinear the system's response is becoming with nonlinear effects becoming more prominent closer to a bifurcation. We apply these indicators to a simple conceptual system and satellite observations of Arctic sea ice area, the latter conjectured to have a bifurcation type tipping point. We find no detectable signal of the Arctic sea ice approaching a local bifurcation.

  14. Early warning signals of tipping points in periodically forced systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Bathiany, Sebastian; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-04-01

    The prospect of finding generic early warning signals of an approaching tipping point in a complex system has generated much interest recently. Existing methods are predicated on a separation of timescales between the system studied and its forcing. However, many systems, including several candidate tipping elements in the climate system, are forced periodically at a timescale comparable to their internal dynamics. Here we use alternative early warning signals of tipping points due to local bifurcations in systems subjected to periodic forcing whose timescale is similar to the period of the forcing. These systems are not in, or close to, a fixed point. Instead their steady state is described by a periodic attractor. For these systems, phase lag and amplification of the system response can provide early warning signals, based on a linear dynamics approximation. Furthermore, the Fourier spectrum of the system's time series reveals harmonics of the forcing period in the system response whose amplitude is related to how nonlinear the system's response is becoming with nonlinear effects becoming more prominent closer to a bifurcation. We apply these indicators as well as a return map analysis to a simple conceptual system and satellite observations of Arctic sea ice area, the latter conjectured to have a bifurcation type tipping point. We find no detectable signal of the Arctic sea ice approaching a local bifurcation.

  15. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  16. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-01

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes. PMID:14523444

  17. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  18. Telomere dynamics in wild brown trout: effects of compensatory growth and early growth investment.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Joacim; Pauliny, Angela; Blomqvist, Donald; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-04-01

    After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived fish and a non-deprived control group was then monitored in the wild during 1 year. Fin tissue samples were taken at the start of the experiment and 1 year after food deprivation to monitor the telomere dynamics, using reduced telomere length as an indicator of maintenance cost. The food-deprived fish showed partial compensatory growth in both mass and length relative to the control group. However, we found no treatment effects on telomere dynamics, suggesting that growth-compensating brown trout juveniles are able to maintain their telomeres during their second year in the stream. However, body size at the start of the experiment, reflecting growth rate during their first year of life, was negatively correlated with change in telomere length over the following year. This result raises the possibility that rapid growth early in life induces delayed costs in cellular maintenance. PMID:25698140

  19. Early growth response-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khachigian, Levon M

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the regulatory roles of the immediate-early gene product and prototypic zinc finger transcription factor, early growth response-1 in models of cardiovascular pathobiology, focusing on insights using microRNA, DNAzymes, small hairpin RNA, small interfering RNA, oligonucleotide decoy strategies and mice deficient in early growth response-1. PMID:27251707

  20. Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Szrek, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Katarzyna; Narkiewicz, Marek; Ahlberg, Per E

    2010-01-01

    The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish-tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record. PMID:20054388

  1. Early corn growth and development in response to weed, nitrogen, and shade stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season crop-weed interactions during a critical weed-free period (CWFP) influence corn growth that commonly results in reduced yield. Yield loss is not mitigated by weed removal after the CWFP, hence, weeds cause an irreversible negative impact on growth and development during the CWFP. Howeve...

  2. Astronomical pacing of methane release in the Early Jurassic period.

    PubMed

    Kemp, David B; Coe, Angela L; Cohen, Anthony S; Schwark, Lorenz

    2005-09-15

    A pronounced negative carbon-isotope (delta13C) excursion of approximately 5-7 per thousand (refs 1-7) indicates the occurrence of a significant perturbation to the global carbon cycle during the Early Jurassic period (early Toarcian age, approximately 183 million years ago). The rapid release of 12C-enriched biogenic methane as a result of continental-shelf methane hydrate dissociation has been put forward as a possible explanation for this observation. Here we report high-resolution organic carbon-isotope data from well-preserved mudrocks in Yorkshire, UK, which demonstrate that the carbon-isotope excursion occurred in three abrupt stages, each showing a shift of -2 per thousand to -3 per thousand. Spectral analysis of these carbon-isotope measurements and of high-resolution carbonate abundance data reveals a regular cyclicity. We interpret these results as providing strong evidence that methane release proceeded in three rapid pulses and that these pulses were controlled by astronomically forced changes in climate, superimposed upon longer-term global warming. We also find that the first two pulses of methane release each coincided with the extinction of a large proportion of marine species. PMID:16163353

  3. Palaeoceanography: methane release in the Early Jurassic period.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Paul B; McArthur, John M; Little, Crispin T S; Hallam, Anthony

    2006-06-01

    Dramatic global warming, triggered by release of methane from clathrates, has been postulated to have occurred during the early Toarcian age in the Early Jurassic period. Kemp et al. claim that this methane was released at three points, as recorded by three sharp excursions of delta13C(org) of up to 3 per thousand magnitude. But they discount another explanation for the excursions: namely that some, perhaps all, of the rapid excursions could be a local signature of a euxinic basin caused by recycling of isotopically light carbon from the lower water column. This idea has been proposed previously (see ref. 3, for example) and is supported by the lack evidence for negative delta13C excursions in coeval belemnite rostra. Kemp et al. dismiss this alternative, claiming that each abrupt shift would have required the recycling of about double the amount of organic carbon that is currently present in the modern ocean; however, their measurements are not from an ocean but from a restricted, epicontinental seaway and so would not require whole-ocean mixing to achieve the excursions. PMID:16738612

  4. Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Modified Growth Solow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabião, Fátima; Borges, Maria João

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic of the Solow growth model with a Cobb-Douglas production function. For this purpose, we consider that the labour growth rate, L'(t)/L(t), is a T-periodic function, for a fixed positive real number T. We obtain the closed form solutions for the fundamental Solow equation with the new description of L(t). Using notions of the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations and nonlinear functional analysis, we prove that there exists one T-periodic solution for the Solow equation. From the economic point of view this is a new result which allows a more realistic interpretation of the stylized facts.

  5. Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period

    PubMed Central

    Teltathum, Tawatchai; Mekchay, Supamit

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i) the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05), (ii) the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05) and (iii) the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05), whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period. PMID:19893640

  6. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  7. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  8. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scherdel, Pauline; Dunkel, Leo; van Dommelen, Paula; Goulet, Olivier; Salaün, Jean-François; Brauner, Raja; Heude, Barbara; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic review to address two key and interconnected questions underlying growth monitoring: which conditions should be targeted, and how should abnormal growth be defined? We systematically searched for studies reporting algorithms for growth monitoring in children and studies comparing the performance of new WHO growth charts with that of other growth charts. Among 1556 identified citations, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Six target conditions have mainly been studied: Turner syndrome, coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, growth hormone deficiency, renal tubular acidosis, and small for gestational age with no catch-up after 2 or 3 years. Seven algorithms to define abnormal growth have been proposed in the past 20 years, but their level of validation is low, and their overall sensitivities and specificities vary substantially; however, the Grote and Saari clinical decision rules seem the most promising. Two studies reported that WHO growth charts had poorer performance compared with other existing growth charts for early detection of target conditions. Available data suggest a large gap between the widespread implementation of growth monitoring and its level of evidence or the clinical implications of early detection of serious disorders in children. Further investigations are needed to standardise the practice of growth monitoring, with a consensus on a few priority target conditions and with internationally validated clinical decision rules to define abnormal growth, including the selection of appropriate growth charts. PMID:26777129

  9. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  10. 78 FR 21979 - Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Early Career Doctorates Survey; Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notification of Extension of Public Comment Period. SUMMARY: The National Science...

  11. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  12. Early global warming in the period 1850 to 1920

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf; Brandsma, Theo; Auchmann, Renate; Esper, Jan; Haustein, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The current global temperature datasets show no warming in the land surface temperature and the sea surface temperature for the period between 1850 and 1920. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the Earth's surface was warming during this period. Every line of evidence by itself is currently not compelling, but the consilience of evidence at least makes a good case for further research. This period is characterized by the introduction of Stevenson screens, which reduce radiation errors more than the monitoring methods used before. As a consequence, Stevenson screens typically observe cooler temperatures than earlier observations. Recent analyses of parallel measurements suggest that this cooling bias is larger than previously thought. Physical reasoning suggests this bias to be largest in sub-tropical and tropic regions; this pattern is also found in the limited number of parallel measurements available. We are missing information from continental climates. The Global Historical Climate Network (GHCNv3) does not change the trend between 1870 and 1920 and adjust 0.1°C between 1850 and 1970. This small adjustment seems to be less than needed for this transition compared to the size of this jump estimated from the limited evidence we have from parallel measurements Further evidence for warming during this period can be found in lake and river freeze and breakup times, which show a clear shortening of the freezing period between 1850 and 1920. Most of the glaciers for which we have data from this period show reductions in their lengths, which signals clear warming. Also temperature reconstructions from proxies show warming. The CMIP model ensemble shows 0.2°C warming in the global mean temperature. We will be looking at well-homogenized national datasets and compare them to the national averages from the global collections. For this period we have up to now 3 such comparisons (Austria, Italy and Spain), these have too much scatter relative to the BEST

  13. Early infancy – a critical period for development of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Abundant epidemiologic evidence from the developed world now shows that more rapid weight gain during the first half of infancy predicts later obesity and cardio-metabolic risk. In countries in transition in which stunting is still prevalent, distinguishing the effects of gain in weight from linear growth remains a challenge. Moreover very few studies to date have incorporated body composition measures during infancy, which is key to understanding determinants of infant weight gain that also predict later obesity. In addition to infant feeding type potential determinants include the perinarai endocrine milieu. Animal and emerging human data raise the possibility chat ensuring adequate leptin exposure to the growing fetus may regulate energy balance as the infant grows. Understanding these pathways as well as examining the balance between cardiovascular and cognitive effects in both term and preterm infants will point the way toward effective interventions to alter infant growth to prevent later obesity. PMID:25141932

  14. Critical Thinking about Critical Periods. A Series from the National Center for Early Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr., Ed.; Bruer, John T., Ed.; Symons, Frank J., Ed.; Lichtman, Jeff W., Ed.

    The concept of critical or sensitive periods in child development provides an example around which to organize discussion of what is known and not known about brain development and the implications of brain science on early childhood policy and practice. This book reviews the early history of critical periods and evidence for their existence in…

  15. Maternal Alcohol Consumption During the Perinatal and Early Parenting Period: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design. Methods General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort. Results Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35. Conclusions for practice There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols. PMID:26520156

  16. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  17. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  18. The early growth of the first black holes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-04

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur atmore » super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.« less

  19. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-01

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research. PMID:24873697

  20. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  1. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children’s inhibitory control from ages 2 to 4, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the Family Check-Up (FCU), children’s inhibitory control was assessed yearly at ages 2, 3, and 4. Inhibitory control was initially low and increased linearly to age 4. High levels of harsh parenting and male gender were associated with low initial status in inhibitory control. High levels of supportive parenting were associated with faster growth. Extreme family poverty and African American ethnicity were also associated with slower growth. The results highlight parenting as a target for early interventions in contexts of high socioeconomic risk. PMID:20376201

  2. 76 FR 50201 - National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver AGENCY... Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center to receive funding from October 1, 2011 through September 30.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 7, 2011, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (76...

  3. Net Photosynthesis and Early Growth Trends of a Dominant White Oak (Quercus alba L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Phillip M.; Teskey, Robert O.; Phelps, John E.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between photosynthesis and growth of a dominant white oak (Quercus alba L.) tree has shown that most growth processes were either completed or well underway before the establishment of significant positive rates of net photosynthesis. Growth was initiated first in the root system (March 3), followed by stem cambial growth (March 26) and later by flower, leaf, and branch growth (April 10). During the period of rapid leaf and branch growth, root and cambial growth ceased and then resumed as the leaves approached maturity. The rapid rate of leaf maturation, the early appearance of positive rates of net photosynthesis in leaves (15% of final size) and the CO2-refixing capability of elongating branch tissue reduced the period of time that this white oak tree was dependent on stored reserves. Lower temperature optima and compensation points in developing leaves and stems indicated that the growth-temperature response was optimized for the lower seasonal temperatures observed during the spring. This temperature adaptation further reduced the time that this tree was dependent on stored reserves. Images PMID:16661108

  4. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  5. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  6. Food, growth and time: Elsie Widdowson's and Robert McCance's research into prenatal and early postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2014-09-01

    Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance. PMID:24378592

  7. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  8. Epitaxial growth of VO{sub 2} by periodic annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Tashman, J. W.; Paik, H.; Merz, T. A.; Lee, J. H.; Moyer, J. A.; Schiffer, P.; Misra, R.; Mundy, J. A.; Spila, T.; Schubert, J.; Muller, D. A.; Schlom, D. G.

    2014-02-10

    We report the growth of ultrathin VO{sub 2} films on rutile TiO{sub 2} (001) substrates via reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The films were formed by the cyclical deposition of amorphous vanadium and its subsequent oxidation and transformation to VO{sub 2} via solid-phase epitaxy. Significant metal-insulator transitions were observed in films as thin as 2.3 nm, where a resistance change ΔR/R of 25 was measured. Low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the film/substrate interface and revealed the vanadium to be tetravalent and the titanium interdiffusion to be limited to 1.6 nm.

  9. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor. PMID:27043180

  10. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor.

  11. Impacts of Parasites in Early Life: Contrasting Effects on Juvenile Growth for Different Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Thomas E.; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Takahashi, Emi A.; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age. PMID:22384190

  12. The Relationship between Early Growth and Survival of Hatchling Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Matthew L.; Webb, Grahame J.; McGuinness, Keith; Christian, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by “runtism” or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days). Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d), was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d) was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d), with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches) on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245), mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7) that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5) that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species. PMID:24960026

  13. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Brien, Matthew L; Webb, Grahame J; McGuinness, Keith; Christian, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days). Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d), was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d) was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d), with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches) on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245), mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7) that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5) that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species. PMID:24960026

  14. The Growth of Early Galaxies and Reionization of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Chary, Ranga

    2012-07-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium about a billion years after the Big Bang was an important event which occurred due to the release of ionizing photons from the growth of stellar mass and black holes in the early Universe. By leveraging the benefits of field galaxy surveys, I will present some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how the earliest galaxies in the Universe evolved. I will present evidence that unlike in the local Universe where galaxy growth occurs through intermittent cannibalism, star-formation in the distant Universe is a more continuous if violent process with an overabundance of massive stars. Implications for the reionization history of the Universe will also be discussed.

  15. Growth of river delta networks: Thresholds, periodicity, aging and self similarity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Reitz, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    The surfaces of river deltas and alluvial fans (collectively fans) are often dissected by a small number of channels radiating from the fan apex. These dispersive, depositional systems do not exhibit the fractal scaling typical of erosional drainage networks. On long timescales, fan channels migrate via avulsion - the process of channel bed deposition and abandonment. What governs the selection of new flow paths, or the ultimate number of active channels, is poorly understood. Here we present results of an experimental fan that allow us to examine the growth of a depositional channel network. Flow over the fan collapses into a single channel whose dimensions adjust to threshold transport conditions for the imposed sediment load. This channelization causes localized shoreline growth, which diminishes transport capacity of the channel until the slope drops below the threshold value. This leads to deposition within the channel and widespread flooding; avulsion is completed when a new channel path is selected. This cycle is remarkably periodic, and dynamics suggest that fan slope oscillates between two thresholds - entrainment and distrainment - analogous to static and dynamic angles of repose in grain flows. Selection of a new flow path is inherently stochastic, but previously abandoned channels act as significant attractors for the flow. In the early stages of fan growth, new channels are likely to be created. Once a critical density of flow paths has been established, however, the flow oscillates among the same 3-5 channels indefinitely. These dynamics are similar to the aging phenomenon observed in the growth of fractures in brittle materials under stress. We demonstrate that a directed random walk model with memory quantitatively reproduces these dynamics and limiting behavior, and is consistent with natural fans. Because our experimental fan is built by the recurring avulsion sequence, its shoreline shape is a series of lobes that indicate persistent upstream

  16. Continuity and Change From Full-Inclusion Early Childhood Programs Through the Early Elementary Period.

    PubMed

    Guralnick, Michael J; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A; Connor, Robert T

    2008-06-01

    A large and well-characterized group of children with mild developmental delays initially enrolled in full-inclusion preschool or kindergarten programs was followed for 3 years. Changes in the type of inclusive placements as children transitioned to first and second grades were monitored, and associations between placement type and child and family characteristics were examined. Results revealed a high level of continuity in that most children remained in partial or full inclusion settings over time. However, a substantial reduction in full-inclusion placements occurred between the 2nd and 3rd year when children were completing the transition to first and second grades. Placements in less inclusive settings were associated with children's levels of cognitive and language development but not their adaptive, social, or behavioral characteristics. A hypothesis was put forward that placement in full-inclusion programs during the early childhood years creates a momentum to continue maximum participation in inclusive settings over time. PMID:20890373

  17. Dissolved iron supply limits early growth of estuarine mangroves.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Three mesocosm experiments were performed in an outdoor facility to quantify the responses of five mangrove species grown from seedling to sapling stage to increasing rates of dissolved iron supply. Stem extension and biomass of mangroves were measured in the first two experiments, and in the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were measured in relation to stem extension of two mangrove species. In all experiments, mangrove growth was enhanced by increasing iron supply, although some species showed iron toxicity at the higher supply rates. In the first two experiments, stem extension rates of Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Xylocarpus moluccensis best fit Gaussian curves with maximal growth at supply rates of 50-60 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1), whereas growth of Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal increased to the highest rate (100 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1)) of iron supply. Changes in leaf chlorophyll concentrations and iron content of roots mirrored the growth responses. In the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were greater with R. apiculata and A. marina than in controls without plants; for both species, there was a positive relationship between stem extension and iron reduction. The rates of iron reduction and rates of iron supplied to the plants were well within the range of interstitial iron concentrations and rates of iron reduction found in the natural mangrove soils from which the seedlings were obtained. The responses of these species show that mangroves growing from seedling to sapling stage have a strong nutritional requirement for iron, and that there is a close relationship between plant roots and the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. These results suggest that mangrove growth may be limited in some natural forests by the rate at which iron is solubilized by iron-reducing bacteria. Such biogeochemical conditions have significant implications for successful recruitment, establishment, and early growth of

  18. Early development and allometric growth patterns of the grumatã (Prochilodus vimboides Kner, 1859).

    PubMed

    Souza, Guilherme; Melo, Edésio J T; Caramaschi, Erica P; Andrade, Dalcio R; Monteiro, Leandro R

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the early development and allometric growth of the grumatã (Prochilodus vimboides). We describe a sample of 266 eggs and larvae obtained through induced spawning. The eggs were spherical (mean 3.7 mm diameter), exhibited a yellow yolk and were non-adhesive and pelagic after fertilization and hydration. The time elapsed between the early cleavage and post-flexion stages was considered short (328 hours, 8054 hour-degrees) in regard to the development times of other Neotropical rheophilic species, but time to hatching was considerably longer than in other Prochilodus species. The most notable anatomical changes were observed between the end of the yolk larval stage and the beginning of the pre-flexion stage, when the larvae displayed directed swimming and the digestive system became functional, enabling the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding. After hatching, the larvae grew from 6.04 to 15.15 mm in total length average. Two growth phases were observed at this stage: a non-linear asymptotic curve in yolk-sac larvae, and a linear constant-rate growth phase after exogenous feeding started. Allometric growth related to standard length was positive for head length, negative for eye diameter, and switched between phases from negative to positive in body depth and head height. Morphological development and allometric growth in different larval phases impose drastic anatomical and physiological changes that are synchronic with habitat changes and the flood cycles during the reproductive period. PMID:26199146

  19. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  20. Lymph Region in the Female Internal Reproductive Organs during the Early Postpartum Period after Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Borodin, Yu I; Gorchakov, V N; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    The structural and functional changes in the lymph region of the female internal reproductive organs in rats were studied during the early postpartum period after normal pregnancy. The results indicated that the main role of the lymph region in pregnancy consisted in supporting sufficient lymph production and drainage in the hypertrophic uterus. PMID:26601833

  1. A Developmental Approach to Helping: The Epigenetic Model Applied to the Period of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Susan H.

    1973-01-01

    The article describes application of the epigenetic model to work with children in the period of early childhood development. The focus is placed on verbal learning. Projects wherein disadvantaged children gain in verbal skills through supervised mother-child interactions are described. The response of families to this approach suggests important…

  2. The Phonological Awareness Scale of Early Childhood Period (PASECP) Development and Psychometric Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…

  3. Factors associated with parenting behavior of mothers in the early postpartum period in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Calışır, Hüsniye; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2011-12-01

    This study determined the factors associated with parenting behavior during the early postpartum period in first-time mothers. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the postpartum ward of a state hospital in Aydın, Turkey. The study included 207 first-time mothers selected by non-probability sampling method. A significant weak, positive correlation was found between the Postpartum Parenting Behavior Scale score at the time of initial acquaintance with her infant and the Labor Agentry Scale score. Stepwise multiple regression analyses, performed to determine factors associated with the parenting behavior score of the mothers in the early postpartum period, revealed two statistically significant variables, which increased the strength of the model: maternal age and infant's birth weight. Midwives should observe early parenting behaviors, particularly of younger mothers having babies with low birth weight, appreciate their positive behaviors, and encourage them to develop appropriate behavior. PMID:22070622

  4. The Rapid Growth of Fibroids during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benaglia, Laura; Cardellicchio, Lucia; Filippi, Francesca; Paffoni, Alessio; Vercellini, Paolo; Somigliana, Edgardo; Fedele, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies aimed to disentangle whether pregnancy influences the growth of uterine fibroids but results were inconsistent. In this study, we speculated that fibroid enlargement during pregnancy may not be linear and we hypothesized that this phenomenon may mainly occur during initial pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, we set up a prospective cohort study of women with fibroids undergoing IVF. Cases were women achieving a viable pregnancy. Controls were the subsequent women with fibroids but failing to become pregnant. Twenty-five cases and 25 controls were recruited. The total number of fibroids in the two groups was 46 and 41, respectively. The mean ± SD diameter of the fibroids was 17±10 and 20±11 mm, respectively (p = 0.18). A statistically significant enlargement emerged exclusively in pregnant women. The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the diameter of the lesions in cases and controls was +34% (+6%/+65%) and +2% (−6%/+12%), respectively (p<0.001). The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the volume of the lesions was +140% (+23%/+357%) and 0% (−18%/+37%), respectively (p<0.001). In pregnant women, we failed to document any significant correlation between the magnitude of the growth and ovarian responsiveness to hyper-stimulation, suggesting that steroids hormones are not the unique factors involved. In conclusion, fibroids undergo a rapid and remarkable growth during initial pregnancy. Reasons behind this phenomenon remain to be clarified. The early rise in steroids hormones during early pregnancy may not be sufficient to explain the process. Other pregnancy-related hormones and proteins may play also key roles. PMID:24465797

  5. Early growth response 1 regulates glucose deprivation-induced necrosis

    PubMed Central

    JEON, HYUN MIN; LEE, SU YEON; JU, MIN KYUNG; KIM, CHO HEE; PARK, HYE GYEONG; KANG, HO SUNG

    2013-01-01

    Necrosis is commonly found in the core region of solid tumours due to metabolic stress such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Necrosis promotes tumour growth and development by releasing the tumour-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); however, the molecular mechanism underlying necrotic cell death remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner by GD in several cell lines such as A549, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells that exhibit necrosis upon GD. We found that Egr-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) prevented GD-induced necrosis and HMGB1 release. Necrosis-inhibiting activity of Egr-1 shRNA was also seen in multicellular tumour spheroids (MTSs), an in vitro tumour model system. In contrast, Egr-1 overexpression appeared to make tumour cells more susceptible to GD-induced necrosis. Finally, Egr-1 shRNA suppressed the growth of MTSs. These findings demonstrate that Egr-1 is implicated in GD-induced necrosis and tumour progression. PMID:23152075

  6. Relationship between early growth and CVD risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Musa, M G; Kagura, J; Pisa, P T; Norris, S A

    2016-04-01

    Low birth weight and a rapid weight gain in early childhood may lead to an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease later in life, such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. In this study, we examined the associations between size at birth, relative weight gain in infancy and childhood with specific cardiovascular disease risk factors in early adulthood. Adolescents (n=1935) from the Birth to Twenty plus (BT20+) cohort were included in the analysis. The following were treated as exposure variables: weight at birth, and relative conditional weight gain (CW), independent of height, between ages 0-24 months and 24-48 months. Outcomes were serum lipids and body composition variables at age 18 years. After adjusting for sex and other confounders, early life exposures were not associated with adolescent lipid profile. Following adjustment for sex and height (body size), birth weight [β=0.704 (0.40, 1.01)], CW 0-24 [β=1.918 (1.56, 2.28)] and CW24-48 [β=1.485 (1.14, 1.82)] accounted for 48% of the variance in fat mass. However, birth weight [β=0.773 (0.54, 1.01)], CW 0-24 [β=1.523 (1.24, 1.80)] and CW24-48 [β=1.226 (0.97, 1.49)] were also positively predicted and accounted for 71% of the variance in fat mass in adolescence (P<0.05). Our data suggests that birth weight and weight gain during infancy and early childhood independent of linear growth are related to adolescent body composition but not blood lipid profiles in an urban African population. PMID:26810380

  7. Postnatal Growth Velocity and Overweight in Early Adolescents: A Comparison of Rural and Urban African Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chirwa, ED; Griffiths, P; Maleta, K; Ashorn, P; Pettifor, JM; Norris, SA

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare growth velocity of two African child cohorts and examine the relationship between postnatal growth velocity in infancy/early childhood and the risk of overweight/stunting in early adolescence. Methods The study used data from two child cohorts from urban (Birth to Twenty Cohort, South Africa) and rural (Lungwena Child Survival Study, Malawi) African settings. Mixed effect modelling was used to derive growth and peak growth velocities. T-tests were used to compare growth parameters and velocities between the two cohorts. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between growth velocity and early adolescent (ages 9–11 years) body mass index and odds of being overweight. Results Children in the BH cohort were significantly taller and heavier than those in the Lungwena cohort, and exhibited faster weight and height growth velocity especially in the first year of life (P < 0.05). No significant association was shown between baseline weight (αw) and overweight in early adolescence (OR = 1.25, CI = 0.67, 2.34). The weight growth velocity parameter βw was highly associated with odds of being overweight. Association between overweight in adolescence and weight velocity was stronger in infancy than in early childhood (OR at 3 months = 4.80, CI = 2.49, 9.26; OR at 5 years = 2.39, CI = 1.65, 3.47). Conclusion High weight and height growth velocity in infancy, independent of size at birth, is highly associated with overweight in early adolescence. However, the long term effects of rapid growth in infancy may be dependent on a particular population's socio-economic status and level of urbanization. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:643–651, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24948025

  8. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth. PMID:18785651

  9. 75 FR 24953 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules... this waiting period prior to its expiration and requires that notice of this action be published in the Federal Register. The following transactions were granted early termination of the waiting period...

  10. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  11. Evaluation of Craniofacial Morphology of Children with Dental Fluorosis in Early Permanent Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Methods Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and grew up in Isparta (girls:75, boys:49) whereas control group of children (n=92: 46 girls and 46 boys) had no dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was classified using Thylstrup Fejerskov Fluorosis Index. Radiological evaluation was performed by cephalometric tracing using Björk analysis. Statistical evaluation in between study and control groups was done by Independent Samples T test and comparison with Björk’s standards was done by One Sample T test analysis. The association between two quantitative variables was evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (rho). Results The mean dental fluorosis level was 4.6±1.8 for children with fluorosis. Systemic fluorosis affect girls no different than boys in the early permanent dentition period because none of the angular measurements show significant difference between boys and girls in the fluoridated group. Comparison of craniofacial angular values of boys with fluorosis show greater diversity compared to boys without fluorosis against Björk’s mean values for boys. Conclusions Craniofacial morphology of children with fluorosis did not show great diversity than the ones without fluorosis in the early permanent dentition period. None of the angular measurements were significantly different between boys and girls in the fluoridated group which might imply that systemic fluorosis did not show gender difference in the early permanent dentition. (Eur J Dent 2009;3:304–313) PMID:19826603

  12. The progress of early growth response factor 1 and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Li, Ziwei; Han, Yang; Jiang, Tao; Song, Xiaoming; Jiang, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Summary Early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) widely exists in the cell nucleus of such as, zebrafish, mice, chimpanzees and humans, an it also can be observed in the cytoplasm of some tumors. EGR1 was named just after its brief and rapid expression of different stimuli. Accumulating studies have extensively demonstrated that the widespread dysregulation of EGR1 is involved in hematological malignancies such as human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and B cell lymphoma. With the deep research on EGR1, its expression, function and regulatory mechanism has been gradually elucidated, and provides more possibilities for treatment strategies of patients with leukemia. Herein, we summarize the roles of EGR1 in its biological function and relationship with leukemia. PMID:27195189

  13. The progress of early growth response factor 1 and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Li, Ziwei; Han, Yang; Jiang, Tao; Song, Xiaoming; Jiang, Guosheng

    2016-05-01

    Early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) widely exists in the cell nucleus of such as, zebrafish, mice, chimpanzees and humans, an it also can be observed in the cytoplasm of some tumors. EGR1 was named just after its brief and rapid expression of different stimuli. Accumulating studies have extensively demonstrated that the widespread dysregulation of EGR1 is involved in hematological malignancies such as human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and B cell lymphoma. With the deep research on EGR1, its expression, function and regulatory mechanism has been gradually elucidated, and provides more possibilities for treatment strategies of patients with leukemia. Herein, we summarize the roles of EGR1 in its biological function and relationship with leukemia. PMID:27195189

  14. The effects of early time laser drive on hydrodynamic instability growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Suter, L. J.; Masse, L. P.

    2014-09-15

    Defects on inertial confinement fusion capsule surfaces can seed hydrodynamic instability growth and adversely affect capsule performance. The dynamics of shocks launched during the early period of x-ray driven National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions determine whether perturbations will grow inward or outward at peak implosion velocity and final compression. In particular, the strength of the first shock, launched at the beginning of the laser pulse, plays an important role in determining Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillations on the ablation front. These surface oscillations can couple to the capsule interior through subsequent shocks before experiencing Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. We compare radiation hydrodynamic simulations of NIF implosions to analytic theories of the ablative RM and RT instabilities to illustrate how early time laser strength can alter peak velocity growth. We develop a model that couples the RM and RT implosion phases and captures key features of full simulations. We also show how three key parameters can control the modal demarcation between outward and inward growth.

  15. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  16. Developmental programming: variations in early growth and adult disease.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2013-11-01

    Suboptimal conditions in utero are associated with the development of adult-onset diseases in offspring. Uteroplacental insufficiency in rats is a well-established animal model used to mimic and study the effects of developmental insults relevant to countries of abundant nutrient supply. However, wide-ranging outcomes for the offspring are apparent between the different investigators that use this model and also between cohorts generated in our laboratory. We aimed to explore the reasons for variability in rat models of uteroplacental insufficiency between different investigators and also between our own animal cohorts. We suggest differences in growth and disease development reflect uniqueness in susceptibility and highlight the complexity of interactions between genetic potential and environmental exposures. The impact of adverse exposures in utero has been described as having far-reaching effects that extend well beyond the first, directly exposed generation. However, the resulting phenotypes are not consistent between generations. This suggests that programmed effects are established de novo in each generation and challenges the prediction of disease. Characterization of growth and disease in the numerous rat models has led to our understanding of the impact of early life experiences on adult health. In order to drive the development of preventative and/or treatment strategies, future studies should focus on identifying the initial cause(s) of uteroplacental insufficiency, including genetic origins and the influence of poor diets. PMID:23581813

  17. Early signaling dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raven J; Gajadhar, Aaron S; Swenson, Eric J; Rothenberg, Daniel A; Curran, Timothy G; White, Forest M

    2016-03-15

    Despite extensive study of the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling network, the immediate posttranslational changes that occur in response to growth factor stimulation remain poorly characterized; as a result, the biological mechanisms underlying signaling initiation remain obscured. To address this deficiency, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach to measure system-wide phosphorylation changes throughout the network with 10-s resolution in the 80 s after stimulation in response to a range of eight growth factor concentrations. Significant changes were observed on proteins far downstream in the network as early as 10 s after stimulation, indicating a system capable of transmitting information quickly. Meanwhile, canonical members of the EGFR signaling network fall into clusters with distinct activation patterns. Src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein (Shc) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylation levels increase rapidly, but equilibrate within 20 s, whereas proteins such as Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab1) and SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) show slower, sustained increases. Proximity ligation assays reveal that Shc and Gab1 phosphorylation patterns are representative of separate timescales for physical association with the receptor. Inhibition of phosphatases with vanadate reveals site-specific regulatory mechanisms and also uncovers primed activating components in the network, including Src family kinases, whose inhibition affects only a subset of proteins within the network. The results presented highlight the complexity of signaling initiation and provide a window into exploring mechanistic hypotheses about receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) biology. PMID:26929352

  18. Simulations of nucleation and early growth stages of protein crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Kierzek, A M; Wolf, W M; Zielenkiewicz, P

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of known protein crystal structures reveals that interaction energies between monomer pairs alone are not sufficient to overcome entropy loss related to fixing monomers in the crystal lattice. Interactions with several neighbors in the crystal are required for stabilization of monomers in the lattice. A microscopic model of nucleation and early growth stages of protein crystals, based on the above observations, is presented. Anisotropy of protein molecules is taken into account by assigning free energies of association (proportional to the buried surface area) to individual monomer-monomer contacts in the lattice. Lattice simulations of the tetragonal lysozyme crystal based on the model correctly reproduce structural features of the movement of dislocation on the (110) crystal face. The dislocation shifts with the speed equal to the one determined experimentally if the geometric probability of correct orientation is set to 10(-5), in agreement with previously published estimates. At this value of orientational probability, the first nuclei, the critical size of which for lysozyme is four monomers, appear in 1 ml of supersaturated solution on a time scale of microseconds. Formation of the ordered phase proceeds through the growth of nuclei (rather then their association) and requires nucleations on the surface at certain stages. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:9251778

  19. Periodic Endoscopies Might Not Increase the Detection of Early Gastric Cancer in a Young Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Kim, Eun Hye; Chung, Hyunsoo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Yong Chan; An, Ji Yeong; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening endoscopies in individuals 40 years or older in regions where gastric cancer is prevalent increase the diagnosis of gastric cancer at an early stage. However, the benefits of screening endoscopies in a young population (<40 years) have not been evaluated. Methods We reviewed data from patients less than 40 years old who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or surgery for initial-onset gastric cancer. We also administered a questionnaire to gather information concerning periodic endoscopic inspections and the period from the penultimate endoscopy to diagnosis. Results Of the 564 patients in this study, 101 (17.9%) patients underwent screening endoscopy within 24 months of their gastric cancer diagnosis. Lesion size was significantly smaller in the ≤24 months group than in the >24 month group (23.8 mm [standard deviation, 22.2 mm] vs. 30.5 mm [standard deviation, 23.1 mm], P = 0.008). However, the proportion of patients with early gastric cancer did not differ between the two groups (≤24 months vs. >24 months group; 67.6% vs. 65.7%, P = 0.712). On multivariable analysis, periodic endoscopies did not influence the early diagnosis of gastric cancer (with >24 months as the reference group: ≤24 months, odds ratio = 0.939, 95% confidence interval = 0.583–1.513). Conclusion Although periodic endoscopies aided in the detection of gastric cancer when lesions were smaller in size, they seemed not to increase the proportion of patients with early gastric cancer in young patients diagnosed with resectable gastric cancer. PMID:27448311

  20. Early depolarizing GABA controls critical period plasticity in the rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Deidda, Gabriele; Allegra, Manuela; Cerri, Chiara; Naskar, Shovan; Bony, Guillaume; Zunino, Giulia; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Cancedda, Laura

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates “critical periods” for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here, we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in controlling plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical period plasticity in visual cortical circuits, without affecting overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, down-regulation of BDNF expression, and reduced density of extracellular matrix-perineuronal nets. Early interference with depolarizing GABA decreased perinatal BDNF signaling, and pharmacological increase of BDNF signaling during GABA interference rescued the effects on plasticity and its regulators later in life. We conclude that depolarizing GABA exerts a long-lasting, selective modulation of plasticity of cortical circuits by a strong crosstalk with BDNF. PMID:25485756

  1. Ten days of darkness causes temporary blindness during an early critical period in felines

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Donald E.; Crowder, Nathan A.; Holman, Kaitlyn; Smithen, Matthew; Duffy, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Extended periods of darkness have long been used to study how the mammalian visual system develops in the absence of any instruction from vision. Because of the relative ease of implementation of darkness as a means to eliminate visually driven neural activity, it has usually been imposed earlier in life and for much longer periods than was the case for other manipulations of the early visual input used for study of their influences on visual system development. Recently, it was shown that following a very brief (10 days) period of darkness imposed at five weeks of age, kittens emerged blind. Although vision as assessed by measurements of visual acuity eventually recovered, the time course was very slow as it took seven weeks for visual acuity to attain normal levels. Here, we document the critical period of this remarkable vulnerability to the effects of short periods of darkness by imposing 10 days of darkness on nine normal kittens at progressively later ages. Results indicate that the period of susceptibility to darkness extends only to about 10 weeks of age, which is substantially shorter than the critical period for the effects of monocular deprivation in the primary visual cortex, which extends beyond six months of age. PMID:25673680

  2. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  3. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  4. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Hatfield, B.B.; Ralls, K.; Ames, J.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated mortality appears to be the main reason for both sluggish growth and periods of decline in the threatened California sea otter population. We assessed causes of mortality from salvage records of 3,105 beach-cast carcasses recovered from 1968 through 1999, contrasting two periods of growth with two periods of decline. Overall, an estimated 40%-60% of the deaths were not recovered and 70% of the recovered carcasses died from unknown causes. Nonetheless, several common patterns were evident in the salvage records during the periods of population decline. These included greater percentages of (1) prime age animals (3-10 yr), (2) carcasses killed by great white shark attacks, (3) carcasses recovered in spring and summer, and (4) carcasses for which the cause of death was unknown. Neither sex composition nor the proportion of carcasses dying of infectious disease varied consistently between periods of population increase and decline. The population decline from 1976 to 1984 was likely due to incidental mortality in a set-net fishery, and the decline from 1995 to 1999 may be related to a developing live-fish fishery. Long-term trends unrelated to periods of growth and decline included a decrease in per capita pup production and mass/length ratios of adult carcasses over the 31-yr study. The generally high proportion of deaths from infectious disease suggests that this factor has contributed to the chronically sluggish growth rate of the California sea otter population.

  5. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  6. Acclimation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to water stress through exposure to differing periods of early season drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is able to withstand periods of water scarcity either in the early or late periods of the growing season, but suffers significant stress and yield loss during drought periods in mid-season, or the period coinciding with peak flower production and pod maturation. In fact...

  7. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. PMID:24504211

  8. High nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth in diverse Grevillea species (Proteaceae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Tianhua; Fowler, William M.; Causley, Casey L.

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the rich floristic diversity in regions characterised by nutrient-impoverished soils; however, none of these hypotheses have been able to explain the rapid diversification over a relatively short evolutionary time period of Grevillea, an Australian plant genus with 452 recognised species/subspecies and only 11 million years of evolutionary history. Here, we hypothesise that the apparent evolutionary success of Grevillea might have been triggered by the highly efficient use of key nutrients. The nutrient content in the seeds and nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth of 12 species of Grevillea were compared with those of 24 species of Hakea, a closely related genus. Compared with Hakea, the Grevillea species achieved similar growth rates (root and shoot length) during the early stages of seedling growth but contained only approximately half of the seed nutrient content. We conclude that the high nutrient-use efficiency observed in Grevillea might have provided a selective advantage in nutrient-poor ecosystems during evolution and that this property likely contributed to the evolutionary success in Grevillea. PMID:26607493

  9. High nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth in diverse Grevillea species (Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Fowler, William M; Causley, Casey L

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the rich floristic diversity in regions characterised by nutrient-impoverished soils; however, none of these hypotheses have been able to explain the rapid diversification over a relatively short evolutionary time period of Grevillea, an Australian plant genus with 452 recognised species/subspecies and only 11 million years of evolutionary history. Here, we hypothesise that the apparent evolutionary success of Grevillea might have been triggered by the highly efficient use of key nutrients. The nutrient content in the seeds and nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth of 12 species of Grevillea were compared with those of 24 species of Hakea, a closely related genus. Compared with Hakea, the Grevillea species achieved similar growth rates (root and shoot length) during the early stages of seedling growth but contained only approximately half of the seed nutrient content. We conclude that the high nutrient-use efficiency observed in Grevillea might have provided a selective advantage in nutrient-poor ecosystems during evolution and that this property likely contributed to the evolutionary success in Grevillea. PMID:26607493

  10. Estimating the critical and sensitive periods of investment in early childhood: a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Popli, Gurleen; Gladwell, Daniel; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2013-11-01

    The identification of critical periods in early human development requires statistical analyses beyond simple cross tabulation of correlations of observed variables. This paper provides an overview of different quantitative methods available for the statistical analysis of longitudinal data regarding child development, and in particular the identification of critical and sensitive periods for later abilities. It draws heavily on the work on human skill formation developed by the economist James Heckman, which treats ability as a latent variable and explains its formation through the simultaneous estimation of structural equations of investments and achieved abilities across time. We distinguish between two specifications of the ability formation function. One of them (the 'recursive') format explains current ability as a function of the ability and investment at the immediately preceding period. The other (the 'non-recursive') format explains current ability as a function of a series of past investments. In order to fully examine critical and sensitive periods of investments, the non-recursive formulation needs to be used. Furthermore, true abilities of an individual cannot be directly observed: what we observe are the test scores, for example, on reading and writing. We outline an approach, structural equation modelling, that treats actual test scores as measurements of the latent ability variable, and show how it can be used in the recursive and non-recursive formulation. In order to fully examine critical and sensitive periods of investments, we argue that the non-recursive formulation of this structural model is necessary. However, the non-recursive formulation requires more data than the recursive formulation, and to the best of our knowledge, has never been used in the identification of critical and sensitive periods in early childhood development. PMID:23591330

  11. Adult consequences of growth failure in early childhood123

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Maluccio, John A; Melgar, Paul; Quisumbing, Agnes R; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D; Yount, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. Objective: We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. Design: In 2002–2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25–42 y) who were studied as children in 1969–1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Conclusion: Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital. PMID:24004889

  12. Disentangling direct and growth-mediated influences on early survival: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Plard, Floriane; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bonenfant, Christophe; Klein, François; Warnant, Claude; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    1. Early survival is a key life-history trait that often accounts for a large part of the variation in individual fitness and shapes population dynamics. The factors influencing early survival are multiple in large herbivores, including malnutrition, predation, cohort variation or maternal effects. However, the mechanistic pathways connecting these drivers to variation in early survival are much less studied. Indeed, whether these factors influence early survival directly or indirectly through early growth remains to be disentangled. 2. In this study, we used a path analysis to separate the direct and indirect (i.e. mediated by early growth) pathways through which sex, birth date, cohort and family effects influence early survival. We used a large data set of marked roe deer newborns collected from 1985 to 2010 in the intensively monitored population of Trois Fontaines (France). 3. We found that most drivers have indirect influences on early survival through early growth. Indeed, cohort effects influenced early survival through the indirect effect of precipitation around birth on early growth. Precipitation also had direct effects on early survival. Family effects indirectly influenced early survival. Twins from the same litter grew at about the same rate, so they had the same fate. Moreover, some factors, such as birth date, had both direct and indirect effects on roe deer early survival, with fawns born early in the season benefiting from high early survival both because they have more time to grow before the harsh season and because they grow faster during their first days of life than late-born fawns. 4. These findings suggest that most drivers of early survival previously identified in large mammalian herbivores may affect early survival primarily through their influence on early growth. Disentangling the direct and indirect pathways by which different factors influence early survival is of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms shaping this key

  13. Spatial patterns of substantial climate impact from anthropogenic aerosols in the early instrumental period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undorf, Sabine; Bollasina, Massimo; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    While many aspects of climate variation in the early instrumental period (1860-1950) are still unexplained, for instance the early twentieth-century warming from the 1910s to the 1940s, the role of anthropogenic aerosols in this period has been overlooked. Yet, the period is also an interesting case study to isolate aerosol impacts since it is characterised by the increase of North American and especially European aerosol emissions concurrently with negligible Asian emissions and relatively low carbon dioxide concentrations. We thus analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol impact for this period in available observations (NOAA 20th-century reanalysis, etc.) and historical single-forcing and all-forcing experiments with state-of-the-art CMIP5 models. We make use of coupled empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) applied to surface temperature -the most reliable variable in observations- and different aerosol indicating variables such as aerosol optical depth and short-wave downward radiation, some of which include aerosol indirect effects. The principal components of the most important EOFs are then regressed onto sea level pressure, winds, and other variables to identify associated circulation patterns. A decomposition into multi-decadal and longer time scales is performed by filtering the data prior to the analysis. Our analysis reveals both statistically significant local and non-local aerosol impact and identifies circulation states associated with the temperature response. The results are consistent across different aerosol variables, and show a strong non-local response as well as specific differences between time scales. We find a distinctive circulation pattern which strongly resembles observations and might explain the observed early twentieth century warming in the Arctic.

  14. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Hilsted, Linda; Langhorn, Louise; Jelsing, Jacob; Sangild, Per Torp

    2016-04-15

    Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition a few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 wk after birth and that early enteral nutrition promotes maturation. Preterm or term cesarean-delivered pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition, or partial enteral nutrition [Enteral (Ent), 16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1) of bovine colostrum] for 5 days, followed by full enteral milk feeding until day 26 The intestine was collected for histological and biochemical analyses at days 0, 5, and 26 (n = 8-12 in each of 10 treatment groups). Intestinal weight (relative to body weight) was reduced in preterm pigs at 0-5 days but ENT feeding stimulated the mucosal volume and peptidase activities. Relative to term pigs, mucosal volume remained reduced in preterm pigs until 26 days although plasma glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulin-trophic peptide (GIP) levels were increased. Preterm pigs also showed reduced hexose absorptive capacity and brush-border enzyme (sucrase, maltase) activities at 26 days, relative to term pigs. Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, whereas some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 wk. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal maturation in the postnatal period of preterm infants because some intestinal functions may show long-term developmental delay. PMID:26822913

  15. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Selda; Uslu, Fazil E; Kowalski, William J; Ermek, Erhan; Keller, Bradley B; Pekkan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS) between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis. PMID:27552150

  16. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Selda; Uslu, Fazil E.; Kowalski, William J.; Ermek, Erhan; Keller, Bradley B.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS) between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis. PMID:27552150

  17. Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period.

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, S R; Julian, J; Munir, M I; Soares, M J

    1987-01-01

    The peri-implantation period extends from the time the blastocyst is free in the uterus, through the processes of recognition and attachment, to the beginning of trophoblast differentiation and the interactions between the embryo and the uterine endometrium which initiate establishment of the hemochorial placenta. It is during the peri-implantation period that the embryo and hormonally regulated endometrial cells appear to be most sensitive to factors which introduce risk into the intrauterine environment. There are no markers which can be used practically to assess pregnancy risk during the peri-implantation period of either human or laboratory rodents. Experimental studies, using in vitro laboratory models of differentiating trophoblast cells, have identified peptide hormone markers of pivotal developmental processes. Exposure of trophoblast during the expression of these processes could have severe and far-reaching effects individually and societally. While these trophoblast signals are limited in their utility with respect to health monitoring extrapolation of these findings to human pregnancy, the signals could serve to identify more practical and sensitive markers to assess risk in early gestation. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used extensively as a marker to assess risk during the early stages of pregnancy. Extrapolation of experimental data indicates how hCG could be used more effectively in analyses of possible cause and effect relationships. The limitations of hCG as a marker for risk during the human peri-implantation period are discussed. Peptide hormones which could serve to assess risk during this critical period of extraordinary sensitivity to toxic factors are introduced. PMID:3319548

  18. Biological markers during early pregnancy: trophoblastic signals of the peri-implantation period

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.R.; Julian, J.; Munir, M.I.; Soares, M.J.

    1987-10-01

    The peri-implantation period extends from the time the blastocyst is free in the uterus, through the processes of recognition and attachment, to the beginning of trophoblast differentiation and the interactions between the embryo and the uterine endometrium which initiate establishment of the hemochorial placenta. It is during the peri-implantation period that the embryo and hormonally regulated endometrial cells appear to be most sensitive to factors which introduce risk into the intrauterine environment. There are no markers which can be used practically to assess pregnancy risk during the peri-implantation period of either human or laboratory rodents. Experimental studies, using in vitro laboratory models of differentiating trophoblasst cells, have identified peptide hormone markers of pivotal developmental processes. Exposure of trophoblast during the expression of these processes could have severe and far-reaching effects individually and societally. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been used extensively as a marker to assess risk during the early stages of pregnancy. Extrapolation of experimental data indicates how hCG could be used more effectively in analyses of possible cause and effect relationships. The limitations of hCG as a marker for risk during the human peri-implantation period are discussed. Peptide hormones which could serve to assess risk during this critical period of extraordinary sensitivity to toxic factors are introduced.

  19. Early spring leaf out enhances growth and survival of saplings in a temperate deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, Carol K

    2008-05-01

    Saplings of many canopy tree species in winter deciduous forests receive the major portion of their light budget for their growing season prior to canopy closure in the spring. This period of high light may be critical for achieving a positive carbon (C) gain, thus contributing strongly to their growth and survival. This study of saplings of Aesculus glabra and Acer saccharum in Trelease Woods, Illinois, USA, tested this hypothesis experimentally by placing tents of shade cloth over saplings during their spring period of high light prior to canopy closure in three consecutive years. Leaf senescence began 16 days (year 0) and 60 days (year 1) earlier for shaded A. glabra saplings than control saplings. No change in senescence occurred for A. saccharum. The annual absolute growth in stem diameter of both species was negligible or negative for shaded saplings, but positive for control saplings. Only 7% of the shaded A. glabra saplings were alive after 2 years, while all control saplings survived for 3 years; only 20% of the shaded A. saccharum saplings survived for 3 years, while 73% of control saplings were alive after the same period. Early spring leaf out is a critical mechanism that allows the long-term persistence of saplings of these species in this winter deciduous forest. Studies and models of C gain, growth, and survival of saplings in deciduous forests may need to take into account their spring phenology because saplings of many species are actually "sun" individuals in the spring prior to their longer period in the summer shade. PMID:18347817

  20. Reappraisal of twinning: epidemiology and outcome in the early neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Goel, Neerja; Zaidi, Zeashan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology, maternal complications and adverse neonatal outcomes associated with twin births at a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS A prospective observational study was conducted on all successively born twin pairs (≥ 23 weeks of gestation) and their mothers from January to September 2005. Main outcome measures included maternal medical/obstetric complications, labour characteristics and the morbidities/mortality observed during the early neonatal period. RESULTS The twinning rate was 1 in 54 deliveries. Around 10% of mothers had a predisposition for twinning in the form of familial tendency or consumption of clomiphene. Anaemia (85%) was the most common maternal complication, followed by gestational hypertension (17%). Nearly one-third of births were delivered via Caesarean section. Prematurity (61%) was the most common neonatal complication followed by early-onset neonatal sepsis (21%). The risk of early neonatal death was 27%. Shorter gestation and low birth weight were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcome (p < 0.05). Factors such as chorionicity, mode of delivery, birth order, inter-twin delivery time interval, gender and intra-pair birth weight discordance did not affect neonatal morbidity or mortality (p ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION The rates of maternal complications and early neonatal morbidities/mortality were quite high in twin gestations. Except for the prematurity and low birth weight, none of the other factors, including inter-twin delivery time interval of more than 15 mins, were found to affect neonatal outcome. PMID:25017406

  1. Stochastic resonance induced by Lévy noise in a tumor growth model with periodic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Hao, Mengli; Gu, Xudong; Yang, Guidong

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a tumor growth model under subthreshold periodic therapy and Lévy noise excitation is investigated. The possible reoccurrence of tumor due to stochastic resonance is discussed. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated numerically to measure the stochastic resonance. It is found that smaller stability index is better for avoiding tumor reappearance. Besides, the effect of the skewness parameter on the tumor regrowth is related to the stability index. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of periodic treatment does not always facilitate tumor therapy. These results are beneficial to the optimization of periodic tumor therapy.

  2. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max) Using Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Yang, Jiyu; Li, Candong; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Guo, Yong; Chang, Ruzhen; Wang, Dechun; Wang, Shuming; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for number of days to flowering (ETF), number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM), and number of days to maturity (ETM) using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding. PMID:27367048

  3. Brain Growth Periodization Research: Curricular Implications for Nursery Through Grade 12 Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    Research indicates that the brain grows in spurts occurring every two years or so and alternating with plateau periods in which the gains due to growth are consolidated. While the number of brain cells no longer increases after the age of about 18 months, substantial increases in the complexity of neural networks occur generally between the ages…

  4. Index selection in terminal sires improves early lamb growth.

    PubMed

    Márquez, G C; Haresign, W; Davies, M H; Emmans, G C; Roehe, R; Bünger, L; Simm, G; Lewis, R M

    2012-01-01

    The use of terminal sires (TS) for crossbreeding is integral to the UK sheep industry where approximately 71% of market lambs are sired by TS rams. Early growth of these crossbred lambs affects profitability. The objectives of this study were i) to evaluate the effectiveness of index selection among TS on BW and ADG of their crossbred offspring; and ii) to compare the efficacy of that selection within TS breeds. The most widely used TS breeds in the United Kingdom are Charollais, Suffolk, and Texel. These participated in sire referencing schemes in which they were evaluated on a lean growth index designed to increase carcass lean weight at a given age. From 1999 to 2002, approximately 15 high and 15 low lean growth index rams per breed (93 in total, differing in index on average by 4.6 SD) were selected from within their sire referencing schemes and mated to Welsh and Scottish Mule ewes. Their crossbred offspring were reared commercially on 3 experimental farms in England, Scotland, and Wales. A total of 6,515 lambs were born between 2000 and 2003. Lambs were weighed at birth (BWT), 5 wk (5WT), and 10 wk (10WT), and their ADG from birth to 10 wk was calculated. Lambs sired by high index rams were on average, across breeds, heavier at all ages (P < 0.01) with 0.07 ± 0.03, 0.3 ± 0.1, and 0.4 ± 0.1 kg greater BWT, 5WT, and 10WT, respectively. Their ADG was 5.1 ± 1.9 g/d greater than low-index-sired lambs (P < 0.01). Suffolk-sired lambs were on average heavier at all ages, with greater ADG, whereas Charollais-sired lambs were lightest with smallest ADG. Overall, there was no significant interaction between sire index and sire breed (P > 0.10). Within Suffolk-sired lambs, there was little difference between high and low index sires for the traits studied (P > 0.3). High and low index Charollais-sired lambs differed in BWT (0.09 ± 0.04 kg) and 5WT (0.3 ± 0.1 kg), and Texel-sired lambs differed in 5WT (0.5 ± 0.1 kg), 10WT (0.9 ± 0.2 kg), and ADG (10.2 ± 3.3 g

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF EARLY NEONATAL GROWTH RETARDATION: EFFECTS OF A-DIFLUOROMETHYLORNITHINE ON RENAL GROWTH AND FUNCTION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological consequences of early neonatal growth retardation in the kidney are investigated using DFMO (a-difluoromethylornithine), a specific irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines. e administered 500 eg/kg/...

  6. Spatial Patterns of Climate Impact from Anthropogenic Aerosols in the Early Instrumental Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Undorf, S.; Hegerl, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols have emerged as an important player affecting global and regional climate with significant impacts on both the energy and water cycles. The early instrumental period (1850-1950), characterized by the increase of North American and especially European aerosol emissions concurrently with negligible Asian emissions and relatively low carbon dioxide concentrations, is an interesting case study to isolate the aerosol impact.Observations and historical experiments with state-of-the-art CMIP5 models are used to identify regions affected by aerosols. We compare the spatial and temporal patterns of climate variables such as surface temperature and precipitation with those of aerosol emissions and aerosol optical depth (AOD). In addition to regions showing the expected relationship between increasing sulfate emissions and decreasing surface temperatures, we see regions and decades with a more complex temperature response, and the first third of the twentieth century stands out as an especially interesting period. The contribution of atmospheric circulation changes is also pointed out.

  7. Period-luminosity-colour relation for early-type contact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Michał

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the analysis of 64 early-type, massive contact or near-contact eclipsing systems from the Large Magellanic Cloud discovered by the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III). It presents the determination of the period-luminosity-colour relation followed by these objects, that is different from the one previously known for late-type W UMa stars. The relation for massive stars has a significantly steeper dependence on the colour, which is related to a much higher bolometric correction, however it is shallower in the period term. This leads to the conclusion, that the relation for the total population of main-sequence contact binaries is non-linear. When studied separately, genuinely contact and near-contact systems follow two slightly different relations.

  8. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhang, Shuyong; Li, Tian; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. PMID:25401150

  9. Growth of Sobolev Norms in Linear Schrödinger Equations with Quasi-Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    In this paper, we consider the following problem. Let iut+Δu+V(x,t)u= 0 be a linear Schrödinger equation ( periodic boundary conditions) where V is a real, bounded, real analytic potential which is periodic in x and quasi periodic in t with diophantine frequency vector λ. Denote S(t) the corresponding flow map. Thus S(t) preserves the L2-norm and our aim is to study its behaviour on Hs(TD), s> 0. Our main result is the growth in time is at most logarithmic; thus if φ∈Hs, then More precisely, (*) is proven in 1D and 2D when V is small. We also exhibit examples showing that a growth of higher Sobolev norms may occur in this context and (*) is thus essentially best possible.

  10. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  11. Hemodynamic performance of NMES in the early post operative period following orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Barry J; Breathnach, Oisín; Masterson, Eric; Breen, Paul P; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2011-01-01

    Patients post total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain at high risk of developing Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) during the recovery period following surgery. The use of calf muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during the hospitalized recovery period on this patient group may be effective at preventing DVT. However, the haemodynamic effectiveness and comfort characteristics of NMES in post-THA patients immediately following surgery has yet to be demonstrated. The popliteal veins of 5 patients, who had undergone unilateral total hip replacement surgery on the day previous to the study, were measured using Doppler ultrasound during a 4 hour calf-muscle NMES session. The effect of calf muscle NMES on peak venous velocity and volume flow were compared to resting values. Comfort was assessed using a 100 mm non-hatched visual analogue scale taken before application of NMES, once NMES was initiated and before NMES was withdrawn. Results of the study showed that NMES produces a beneficial hemodynamic response in patients in the early postoperative period following orthopaedic surgery. This patient group found extended periods of calf-muscle NMES tolerable. PMID:22256105

  12. Metabolic effects of growth factors and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on cultured human placental cells of early and late gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Guyda, H.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The metabolic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-II were determined on human placental cells in monolayer culture obtained from early gestation (less than 20 weeks) and late gestation (38-42 weeks). Parameters studied were uptake of aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), uptake of 3-O-methylglucose and (3H)thymidine incorporation into cell protein. Since benzo(alpha)pyrene (BP) inhibits EGF binding and autophosphorylation in cultured human placental cells, particularly in early gestation, we also studied the effect of benzo(alpha)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on EGF-mediated AIB uptake. The metabolic effects of EGF, insulin, and the IGFs in cultured human placental cells varied with gestational age and the growth factor studied. All three classes of growth factors stimulated AIB uptake in both early and late gestation at concentrations from 10-100 micrograms/L, well within a physiological range. However, insulin stimulation of AIB uptake was maximal at a high concentration in both early and late gestation cells, suggesting an action via type 1 IGF receptors rather than via insulin receptors. EGF stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake only in term placental cells. No significant stimulation of (3H)thymidine incorporation by any of the growth factors tested was seen with either early or late gestation cells. The effect of PAHs on AIB uptake by cultured placental cells was variable. BP alone stimulated AIB uptake by both very early and late gestation cells and enhanced EGF-stimulated AIB uptake. alpha-naphthoflavone alone inhibited AIB uptake at all gestational ages and inhibited EGF-stimulated AIB uptake. beta-Naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene minimally inhibited AIB uptake by early gestation cells and did not modify EGF-stimulated uptake at any gestational period.

  13. Epidermal growth factor: Porcine uterine luminal epithelial cell migratory signal during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Jung, Seoungo; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa; Kim, Jinyoung

    2016-01-15

    The majority of early conceptus mortality in pregnancy occurs during the peri-implantation period, suggesting that this period is important for conceptus viability and the establishment of pregnancy. Successful establishment of pregnancy in all mammalian species depends on the orchestrated molecular events that transpire at the conceptus-uterine interface during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. This maternal-conceptus interaction is especially crucial in pigs because they have a non-invasive epitheliochorial placentation during a protracted peri-implantation period. During the pre-implantation period of pregnancy, conceptus survival and the establishment of pregnancy depend on the developing conceptus receiving an adequate supply of histotroph which contains a wide range of nutrients and growth factors. Evidence links epidermal growth factor (EGF) to embryogenesis or implantation in various mammalian species. EGF exhibits potential growth-promoting activities on the conceptus and endometrium; however, in the case of pigs, little is known its functions, especially their regulatory mechanisms at the maternal-conceptus interface. EGF receptor (EGFR) mRNA and protein are abundant in endometrial luminal (LE) and glandular (GE) epithelia and conceptus trophectoderm on Days 13-14 of pregnancy, suggesting that EGF provides an autocrine signal to uterine LE and GE just prior to implantation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the potential intracellular signaling pathways responsible for the activities of EGF in porcine uterine LE (pLE) cells; and 2) the changes in cellular activities induced by EGF. EGF treatment of pLE cells increased the abundance of phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2, p-P70RSK and p-RPS6 compared to that for control cells. Furthermore, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK was inhibited in pLE cells transfected with an EGFR siRNA compared with control siRNA-transfected pLE cells. Moreover, EGF stimulated migration of

  14. Factors associated with early growth in Egyptian infants: implications for addressing the dual burden of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kavle, Justine A; Flax, Valerie L; Abdelmegeid, Ali; Salah, Farouk; Hafez, Seham; Ramzy, Magda; Hamed, Doaa; Saleh, Gulsen; Galloway, Rae

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical to the attainment of healthy growth, human capital and sustainable development. In Egypt, infants and young children face overlapping forms of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, stunting and overweight. Yet, in this setting, little is known about the factors associated with growth during the first year of life. A rise in stunting in Lower Egypt from 2005 to 2008 prompted this implementation research study, which followed a longitudinal cohort of infants from birth to 1 year of age within the context of a USAID-funded maternal and child health integrated programme. We sought to determine if growth patterns and factors related to early growth differed in Lower and Upper Egypt, and examined the relationship between weight loss and subsequent stunting at 12 months of age. Growth patterns revealed that length-for-age z-score (LAZ) decreased and weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) increased from 6 to 12 months of age in both regions. One-quarter of infants were stunted and nearly one-third were overweight by 12 months of age in lower Egypt. Minimum dietary diversity was significantly associated with WLZ in Lower Egypt (β = 0.22, P < 0.05), but not in Upper Egypt. Diarrhoea, fever and programme exposure were not associated with any growth outcome. Weight loss during any period was associated with a twofold likelihood of stunting at 12 months in Lower Egypt, but not Upper Egypt. In countries, like Egypt, facing the nutrition transition, infant and young child nutrition programmes need to address both stunting and overweight through improving dietary quality and reducing reliance on energy-dense foods. PMID:26373408

  15. Early life-stage test in zebrafish versus a growth test in rainbow trout to evaluate toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bresch, H. )

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the work presented in this paper was to compare toxic threshold concentrations of three substances obtained from growth test in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with data from early life-stages in zebrafish. The growth test was conducted over a period of 7 wk in case of 4-chloroaniline and 4 wk in case of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon. The data from the experiment in zebrafish originate from life-cycle studies; here, only the results obtained within the first 6 wk of development after fertilization are considered. These time limits have been set, as in the FRG a growth test in rainbow trout extending over 4 wk and an early life-stage test in zebrafish extending over 6 wk are being discussed for the Chemical Act.

  16. Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics: Does It Promote Growth and Stability of Growth in Achievement across Mathematical Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), the present study examined whether early acceleration of students into formal algebra at the beginning of middle school promoted evident growth in different mathematical areas (basic skills, algebra, geometry, and quantitative literacy) and stable growth across these mathematical…

  17. Medicinal exploitation of inorganic substances in the Levant in the Medieval and early Ottoman periods.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-11-01

    Various minerals, metals, clays, and rocks were among the natural medicinal substances used by physicians and pharmacists in early times in different cultures, for example, the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Classical physicians such as Hippocrates and Dioscorides mention tens of inorganic medicinal substances in their writings. Many references to minerals and chemicals are also found in the Muslim medical literature of the Eastern and Western Caliphates. The historical research presented in this article focuses on the inorganic substances applied as remedies by the medieval and early Ottoman (7th-17th) inhabitants of the Levant. The article is based upon a literature review covering tens of different historical sources, from the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Relevant information was found in the works of physicians such as al-Tamimi, Benevenutus, Ibn al-Baytar, Daud al-Antaki, and Hayyim Vital. The research revealed evidences of the medicinal uses of fifteen inorganic substances: Alum, Arsenic, Sulphide, Asphalt, Jew's stone, Earth sp., Galena, Haematite, iron, Lead, Pyrite, Salt, Sulphur, Thermal water, Green Vitriol, and Zinc. Inorganic materials comprise 5.2% of the list of medicinal substances. The geographic origin of most of these substances is the Levant, in which two geo-historical centers have been recorded: the Rift Valley and the northern region of the Levant, including upper Galilee, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon. A notable tendency to use these substances for treating diseases of the skin, the eyes, the sexual organs, and haemorrhoids was detected. PMID:20329348

  18. Environmental influences on kelp performance across the reproductive period: an ecological trade-off between gametophyte survival and growth?

    PubMed

    Mohring, Margaret B; Kendrick, Gary A; Wernberg, Thomas; Rule, Michael J; Vanderklift, Mathew A

    2013-01-01

    Most kelps (order Laminariales) exhibit distinct temporal patterns in zoospore production, gametogenesis and gametophyte reproduction. Natural fluctuations in ambient environmental conditions influence the intrinsic characteristics of gametes, which define their ability to tolerate varied conditions. The aim of this work was to document seasonal patterns in reproduction and gametophyte growth and survival of Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh in south-western Australia. These results were related to patterns in local environmental conditions in an attempt to ascertain which factors explain variation throughout the season. E. radiata was fertile (produced zoospores) for three and a half months over summer and autumn. Every two weeks during this time, gametophytes were grown in a range of temperatures (16-22 °C) in the laboratory. Zoospore densities were highly variable among sample periods; however, zoospores released early in the season produced gametophytes which had greater rates of growth and survival, and these rates declined towards the end of the reproductive season. Growth rates of gametophytes were positively related to day length, with the fastest growing recruits released when the days were longest. Gametophytes consistently survived best in the lowest temperature (16 °C), yet exhibited optimum growth in higher culture temperatures (20-22 °C). These results suggest that E. radiata releases gametes when conditions are favourable for growth, and E. radiata gametophytes are tolerant of the range of temperatures observed at this location. E. radiata releases the healthiest gametophytes when day length and temperature conditions are optimal for better germination, growth, and sporophyte production, perhaps as a mechanism to help compete against other species for space and other resources. PMID:23755217

  19. Periodic increases in elongation rate precede increases in cytosolic Ca2+ during pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Messerli, M A; Créton, R; Jaffe, L F; Robinson, K R

    2000-06-01

    Pollen tubes grown in vitro require an intracellular tip-high gradient of Ca2+ in order to elongate. Moreover, after about 2 h in vitro both the tip Ca2+ and the elongation rate of lily tubes begin to oscillate regularly with large amplitudes. This raises the question of the phase relation between these two oscillations. Previous studies lacked the temporal resolution to accurately establish this relationship. We have studied these oscillations with a newly developed, high temporal resolution system and the complementary use of both luminescent and fluorescent calcium reporters. We hereby show that the periodic increases in elongation rate during oscillatory growth of Lilium longiflorum pollen tubes clearly precede those in subtip calcium and do so by 4.1 +/- 0.2 s out of average periods of 38.7 +/- 1.8 s. Also, by collecting images of the light output of aequorin, we find that the magnitude of the [Ca2+] at the tip oscillates between 3 and 10 microM, which is considerably greater than that reported by fluorescent indicators. We propose an explanatory model that features cyclic growth and secretion in which growth oscillations give rise to secretion that is essential for the subsequent growth oscillation. We also critically compile data on L. longiflorum stylar growth rates, which show little variation from in vitro rates of pollen tubes grown in optimal medium. PMID:10885748

  20. Patterns and rates of enamel growth in the molar teeth of early hominids.

    PubMed

    Beynon, A D; Wood, B A

    A recent study of the surface manifestation of incremental lines associated with enamel formation suggested that the crowns of early hominid incisor teeth were formed more rapidly than those of modern humans. In the absence of comparative data, the authors were forced to assume that enamel increments in fossil teeth were similar to those in modern humans. We have used evidence from the fractured surfaces of molar teeth to deduce estimates for both long- and short-period incremental growth markers within enamel in east African 'robust' australopithecine and early Homo teeth. We conclude that in these early hominids, crown formation times in posterior teeth, particularly in the large thick enamelled molar teeth of the east African 'robust' australopithecines, were shorter than those of modern humans. This evidence, considered together with data on crown and root formation times in modern apes, suggests that the posterior teeth in these hominids both formed and erupted more rapidly than those of modern man. These results have implications for attempts to assess dental and skeletal maturity in hominids. PMID:3104794

  1. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    PubMed

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension. PMID:23389675

  2. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  3. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  4. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfer, A.E.; Nassaux, P.; Emory, R.; Wray, H.L.; Schaudies, R.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing.

  5. Single-sided deafness leads to unilateral aural preference within an early sensitive period.

    PubMed

    Kral, Andrej; Hubka, Peter; Heid, Silvia; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral deafness has a high incidence in children. In addition to children who are born without hearing in one ear, children with bilateral deafness are frequently equipped only with one cochlear implant, leaving the other ear deaf. The present study investigates the effects of such single-sided deafness during development in the congenitally deaf cat. The investigated animals were either born with unilateral deafness or received a cochlear implant in one ear and were subjected to chronic monaural stimulation. In chronically stimulated animals, implantation ages were at the following three critical developmental points: 'early' during the peak of functional cortical synaptogenesis in deaf animals; 'intermediate' at the age when synaptic activity in the deaf cats dropped to the level of hearing control cats and finally, 'late' at the age when the evoked synaptic activity fell below the level of hearing control cats. After periods of unilateral hearing, local field potentials were recorded from the cortical surface using a microelectrode at ∼100 recording positions. Stimulation was with cochlear implants at both ears. The measures evaluated were dependent only on the symmetry of aural input: paired differences of onset latencies and paired relations of peak amplitudes of local field potentials. A massive reorganization of aural preference in favour of the hearing ear was found in these measures if the onset of unilateral hearing was early (before or around the peak of functional synaptogenesis). The effect was reduced if onset of unilateral hearing was in the intermediate period, and it disappeared if the onset was late. In early onset of unilateral deafness, the used ear became functionally dominant with respect to local field potential onset latency and amplitude. This explains the inferior outcome of implantations at the second-implanted ear compared with first-implanted ear in children. However, despite a central disadvantage for the deaf ear, it still

  6. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; ITO, Nozomi; NAGASHIMA, Shuntarou; MATSUI, Motozumi; SAWADA, Kumiko; SCHWEIGERT, Florian J.; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0–3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7–4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3–1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0–3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  7. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  8. Controlled Cell Growth and Cell Migration in Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica/Alginate Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Seda Kehr, Nermin; Riehemann, Kristina

    2016-01-21

    Nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels with different periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) concentrations and a NC hydrogel bilayer with various PMO concentrations inside the layers of the hydrogel matrix are prepared. The effect of the PMO concentration on cell growth and migration of cells is reported. The cells migrate in the bilayer NC hydrogel towards higher PMO concentrations and from cell culture plates to NC hydrogel scaffolds. PMID:26648333

  9. Regulation of early human growth: impact on long-term health.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Chourdakis, Michael; Grote, Veit; Hellmuth, Christian; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Growth and development are central characteristics of childhood. Deviations from normal growth can indicate serious health challenges. The adverse impact of early growth faltering and malnutrition on later health has long been known. In contrast, the impact of rapid early weight and body fat gain on programming of later disease risk have only recently received increased attention. Numerous observational studies related diet in early childhood and rapid early growth to the risk of later obesity and associated disorders. Causality was confirmed in a large, double-blind randomised trial testing the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'. In this trial we found that attenuation of protein supply in infancy normalized early growth and markedly reduced obesity prevalence in early school age. These results indicate the need to describe and analyse growth patterns and their regulation through diet in more detail and to characterize the underlying metabolic and epigenetic mechanisms, given the potential major relevance for public health and policy. Better understanding of growth patterns and their regulation could have major benefits for the promotion of public health, consumer-orientated nutrition recommendations, and the development of improved food products for specific target populations. PMID:25413647

  10. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning. PMID:26802463

  11. Growth periodicity, biomass and nutrient content of fine roots in a northern hardwood forest

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M.K.; Raynal, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    Seasonal periodicity of growth, biomass and nutrient content of fine roots were estimated in a beech-birch-maple forest in the Adirondack Mountains. Root elongation rate was measured at regular intervals for one calendar using rhizotrons. Root growth was minimal from January to April and from September to December. Initiation of fine root growth occurred in mid-April, remained high throughout the summer months and declined sharply during August. Fine root biomass, necromass, length, and nutrient content (Ca, Mg, K, N, P and S) were estimated from soil core samples. Estimates for each parameter generally declined with depth in the profile. Fine root production is strongly seasonal, decreases with depth, and accounts for a significant portion of the soil nutrient capital.

  12. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children's inhibitory control from the ages of two to four years, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the family check-up, children's inhibitory…

  13. A case of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia during early postoperative period after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alici, I O; Yekeler, E; Yazicioglu, A; Turan, S; Tezer-Tekce, Y; Demirag, F; Karaoglanoglu, N

    2015-04-01

    Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a distinct histologic pattern usually classified under the term chronic lung allograft dysfunction. We present a 48-year-old female patient who experienced AFOP during the 2nd week of double lung transplantation for pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and secondary pulmonary hypertension. During the 8th day after transplantation, fever and neutrophilia developed together with bilateral consolidation. Infection markers were elevated. Despite coverage of a full antimicrobial spectrum, the situation progressed. The patient was diagnosed with AFOP with transbronchial biopsy. The infiltration resolved and the patient improved dramatically with the initiation of pulse corticosteroid treatment. AFOP should be suspected when there is a pulmonary consolidation after lung transplantation, even in the very early post-transplantation period. Several causes, such as alveolar damage and drug reactions, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25891742

  14. [Effects some drugs of re-epithelialization in the early postoperative period after photorefraction keratectomy].

    PubMed

    Kurenkov, V V; Smirennaia, E V; Polunin, G S; Makarov, I A

    1999-01-01

    Terms of re-epithelialization, severity of the painful syndrome, intensity of corneal "crepe" (opacity) are assessed in myopic patients treated by maxitrol, eubetal, colbiocin ointments and maxitrol eyedrops in the early postoperative period after photorefraction keratectomy. The crepe intensity was assessed routinely according to a clinical score: 0) transparent cornea, 1) trace crepe; 2) moderate crepe; and 3) intensive crepe. Biomicroscopy on day 4 after photorefraction keratectomy showed complete epithelialization in 91.7% patients after colbiocin ointment, in 91.% after maxitrol eyedrops, 87% after eubetal ointment, and 82.6% after maxitrol ointment. The least corneal opacity (0 and 0-1) was observed after eubetal ointment and maxitrol eyedrops. The mean score for pain was virtually the same in all groups; in the colbiocin ointment group more patients complained of pain for more than 24 h in comparison with other groups. PMID:10665290

  15. Biological and spatial structure of an early classic period cemetery at Charco Redondo, Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Butler, Michelle M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of biological and spatial patterning of an Early Classic (A.D. 250-500) Chatino cemetery at the archaeological site of Charco Redondo, located in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The Early Classic was a time of political instability positioned between two phases of state-level centralization within the coastal valley. The communal cemetery at Charco Redondo adds significantly to the inventory of excavated graves from this time period and provides novel data on mortuary practices during a critical phase in the development of state level polities in the region. Cluster analysis of mortuary data is combined with intracemetery biodistance approaches to reconstruct how the Charco Redondo cemetery was organized with respect to biological relationships. Cluster analysis of mortuary data identified three groupings of burials. Multidimensional scaling of Euclidean distances and Gower coefficients based on 45 odontometric and 13 dental morphological variables suggests a strong relationship between grave characteristics and locations and phenotypic variation. In other words, the cemetery at Charco Redondo appears biologically kin-structured. The communal nature of the cemetery conflicts with the assumed "household" burial model for this time period. We propose the observed combination of features represents a transitional practice in which aspects of community, kin, and individual identity were signaled simultaneously within the funerary environment during a time of political transition in the Valley. This article highlights the utility of intracemetery biodistance analyses for examining dimensions of kinship, "house," and community throughout Mesoamerica where overarching models often mask regional variability. PMID:24000131

  16. Incidence, etiology, and significance of acute kidney injury in the early post-kidney transplant period.

    PubMed

    Panek, Romuald; Tennankore, Karthik K; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence, causes, and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early transplant period. This study used a definition as >26 μmol/L increase in creatinine within 48 h or >50% increase over a period >48 h. In 326 adult consecutive recipients of a solitary kidney transplant from 2006 to 2014 followed at this center, 21% developed AKI within the first six months. Most etiologies were CNI toxicity (33%) or unknown (26%), whereas acute rejection accounted for 17% and urinary tract obstruction for 10%. Those with AKI had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at one-yr post-transplant (adjusted beta coefficient -5.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95% CI: -10.4, -0.7, p = 0.025) in a multivariable linear regression model. However, the AKI definition missed 6 of 19 episodes of acute rejection and 4 of 10 episodes of urinary tract obstruction. When acute rejection (including those that did not satisfy AKI criteria) was included in the model, other causes of AKI were not significantly associated with GFR at year 1. Although AKI, using current criteria, is likely to be a significant predictor of later outcomes, important causes are missed and the criteria are not sensitive for clinical decision-making. PMID:26497636

  17. Vision-Based Sensor for Early Detection of Periodical Defects in Web Materials

    PubMed Central

    Bulnes, Francisco G.; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Molleda, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the production of web materials such as plastic, textiles or metal, where there are rolls involved in the production process, periodically generated defects may occur. If one of these rolls has some kind of flaw, it can generate a defect on the material surface each time it completes a full turn. This can cause the generation of a large number of surface defects, greatly degrading the product quality. For this reason, it is necessary to have a system that can detect these situations as soon as possible. This paper presents a vision-based sensor for the early detection of this kind of defects. It can be adapted to be used in the inspection of any web material, even when the input data are very noisy. To assess its performance, the sensor system was used to detect periodical defects in hot steel strips. A total of 36 strips produced in ArcelorMittal Avilés factory were used for this purpose, 18 to determine the optimal configuration of the proposed sensor using a full-factorial experimental design and the other 18 to verify the validity of the results. Next, they were compared with those provided by a commercial system used worldwide, showing a clear improvement. PMID:23112629

  18. Early MRI changes in glioblastoma in the period between surgery and adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Amelio, Dante; Ricciardi, Giuseppe K; Zoccatelli, Giada; Magon, Stefano; Pizzini, Francesca; Alessandrini, Franco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Amichetti, Maurizio; Beltramello, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the increase in MRI contrast enhancement (CE) occurring in glioblastoma during the period between surgery and initiation of chemo-radiotherapy, thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were analyzed by early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) imaging within three days of surgery and by pre-adjuvant magnetic resonance (PAMR) examination before adjuvant therapy. Areas of new CE were investigated by use of EPMR diffusion-weighted imaging and PAMR perfusion imaging (by arterial spin-labeling). PAMR was acquired, on average, 29.9 days later than EPMR (range 20-37 days). During this period an increased area of CE was observed for 17/37 patients. For 3/17 patients these regions were confined to areas of reduced EPMR diffusion, suggesting postsurgical infarct. For the other 14/17 patients, these areas suggested progression. For 11/17 patients the co-occurrence of hyperperfusion in PAMR perfusion suggested progression. PAMR perfusion and EPMR diffusion did not give consistent results for 3/17 patients for whom small new areas of CE were observed, presumably because of the poor spatial resolution of perfusion imaging. Before initiation of adjuvant therapy, areas of new CE of resected glioblastomas are frequently observed. Most of these suggest tumor progression, according to EPMR diffusion and PAMR perfusion criteria. PMID:23264191

  19. Variations in growth of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Zingo, J.M.; Gough, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We measured growth of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at a colony in Connecticut in 10 successive years. Data on body mass during the first three to four days of life were fitted to a quadratic regression model, yielding three parameters of early growth for each of 1,551 chicks: mass at hatching (Mo), linear growth (a) and quadratic growth (b). First chicks in each brood (A-chicks) exceeded second chicks (B-chicks) in each of the three growth parameters; A-chicks from broods of two grew faster than single chicks during the first three days. Mo depended on egg mass, hatch order, hatch date, and year. The linear coefficient (a) depended on hatch date, hatch order, and year, but not on egg mass or Mo. The quadratic coefficient (b) depended on a, hatch date, Mo, and hatch order. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks were predicted well by these parameters of early growth, with b contributing more to these predictions than Mo or a. After controlling for effects of early growth, none of the other variables measured (hatch date, egg mass, parental age, hatch interval between chicks, mass difference between chicks, female-female pairing, or trapping) contributed significantly to explaining later growth and survival. Year effects were substantial in only two of the 10 years of study. Individual pairs were consistent in performance (as indexed by chick growth) in successive years. These results suggest that growth and survival of Roseate Tern chicks are determined primarily by parental quality; much of the information about parental quality is expressed by the time the eggs are laid, and most of it is expressed by the time the chicks are three days old.

  20. Early growth, dominance acquisition and lifetime reproductive success in male and female cooperative meerkats.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Huchard, Elise; Nielsen, Johanna F; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2013-11-01

    In polygynous species, variance in reproductive success is higher in males than females. There is consequently stronger selection for competitive traits in males and early growth can have a greater influence on later fitness in males than in females. As yet, little is known about sex differences in the effect of early growth on subsequent breeding success in species where variance in reproductive success is higher in females than males, and competitive traits are under stronger selection in females. Greater variance in reproductive success has been documented in several singular cooperative breeders. Here, we investigated consequences of early growth for later reproductive success in wild meerkats. We found that, despite the absence of dimorphism, females who exhibited faster growth until nutritional independence were more likely to become dominant, whereas early growth did not affect dominance acquisition in males. Among those individuals who attained dominance, there was no further influence of early growth on dominance tenure or lifetime reproductive success in males or females. These findings suggest that early growth effects on competitive abilities and fitness may reflect the intensity of intrasexual competition even in sexually monomorphic species. PMID:24340181

  1. North Atlantic Surface and Deep-Water Hydrography during the Early Pliocene Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, A. H. L.; Evans, H. F.; Naafs, B. D.; Cavaleiro, C. D.; Rebotim, A.; Ventura, C.; Stein, R. H.; Channell, J. E. T.

    2014-12-01

    The early Pliocene, with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at levels similar to today, is seen as a case study for Earth's future climate evolution. During this period the progressive closing of the Central American Seaway led to increased poleward heat and salt transport within the Atlantic with North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) becoming warmer and saltier and resulting in an enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In order to understand how stable the AMOC really was we produced millennial-scale (1-2 kyr) surface and deep-water records for IODP Site U1313 (41°N, 33°W, 3412m) for the interval from 3.4 to 4.1 Ma. This site is ideally located to monitor past AMOC changes with North Atlantic Drift waters at the surface and NADW in the deep. Although interglacial/glacial cycles are visible, the higher frequency oscillations recorded in both the planktonic G. ruber (white) and benthic Cibicidoides sp. δ18O records impede tuning to the LR04 stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). We therefore exploit a different approach: using the magnetic polarity chrons (Gilbert, Cochiti) as recorded at Site U1313 as framework, we tune our benthic δ18O record to that of ODP Site 1085 (on LR04 ages). The benthic δ13C record shows millennial-scale oscillations, and the values indicate nearly continuous NADW presence and confirm a strong AMOC, also during most of the glacial periods. Varying surface water conditions, especially during the younger interglacial periods, are reflected in the G. ruber isotope data and appear to be linked to salinity changes since they are not recorded in the alkenone sea-surface temperature data. Although glacial stages Gi 2 and Gi 4 show the expected higher benthic δ18O values, Gi 6 was the glacial period with the strongest impact on the AMOC as revealed by cooler, less ventilated surface waters and a less ventilated NADW. Overall, the AMOC was strong throughout, but experienced high frequency oscillations at a level similar to

  2. Early Adaptations to Six Weeks of Non-Periodized and Periodized Strength Training Regimens in Recreational Males

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Eduardo O.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Lowery, Ryan P.; Aihara, André Y.; Leão, Alberto R.S.; Wilson, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength (1RM) after three different short-term strength training (ST) regimens (i.e. non-periodized [NP], traditional-periodization [TP], and undulating-periodization [UP]) matched for volume load in previously untrained individuals. Thirty-one recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 9; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 5. Experimental groups underwent a 6-week program consisting of two training sessions per week. Muscle strength was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Dominant leg quadriceps CSA was obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 48h after the last training session. Results The 1RM increased from pre to post only in the NP and UP groups (NP = 17.0 %, p = 0.002; UP = 12.9 %, p = 0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences in 1RM for LP and C groups after 6 weeks (TP = 7.7 %, p = 0.58, C = 1.2 %, p = 1.00). The CSA increased from pre to post in all of the experimental groups (NP = 5.1 %, p = 0.0001; TP = 4.6 %, p = 0.001; UP = 5.2 %, p = 0.0001), with no changes observed in the C group (p = 0.93). Conclusion Our results suggest that different ST periodization regimens over a short-term (i.e. 6 weeks), volume load equated conditions seem to induce similar hypertrophic responses regardless of the loading scheme employed. In addition, for those recreational males who need to develop muscle strength in the short-term, the training regimen should be designed properly. Key points Muscle hypertrophy occurs within six weeks in recreationally active men regardless the ST training regimen employed. When the total volume is similar, training at greater intensities will demonstrate superior gains in the 1RM performance. Some caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings since long-term periodized regimens could produce different training-induced responses. PMID:25177188

  3. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities. PMID:27603537

  4. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period. PMID:18222445

  5. Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling; Shi Yonghong; Liu Yaling; Dong Hui; Liu, Maodong; Li Ying; Duan Huijun

    2007-11-09

    Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

  6. Gestational weight gain and offspring longitudinal growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. Aim To examine the GWG-infant growth association. Methods Pregnant women (n=743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate, or excessive based on current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-for-age z-scores (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)), and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months using the 2006 WHO growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-scores from birth to 36 months by GWG. Results The mean (SD) WAZ was −0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to approximately 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8, and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Conclusion Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth. PMID:26279171

  7. Delayed Phenotypic Expression of Growth Hormone Transgenesis during Early Ontogeny in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)?

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Darek T. R.; Gamperl, A. Kurt; Fletcher, Garth L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Should growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals. PMID:24763675

  8. Growth factors in the treatment of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Civinini, Roberto; Nistri, Lorenzo; Martini, Caterina; Redl, Birgit; Ristori, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Regenerative medicine is the science that studies the regeneration of biological tissues obtained through use of cells, with the aid of support structures and with biomolecules such as growth factors. As regards the growth factors the PRP, or the platelet-rich plasma, obtained from a withdrawal of autologous blood, concentrating the platelets, represents a safe, economical, easy to prepare and easy to apply source of growth factors. Numerous growth factors are in fact within the platelets and in particular a large number of them have a specific activity on neo-proliferation, on cartilage regeneration and in particular also an antiapoptotic effect on chondroblasts: - The PDGF which regulates the secretion and synthesis of collagen;- The EGF that causes cellular proliferation, endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis;- The VEGF that increases angiogenesis and vascular permeability;- The TGF-beta that stimulates the proliferation of undifferentiated MSC, stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells and angiogenesis;- The bFGF that promotes the growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts stimulates mitogenesis of mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. These properties have led to the development of studies that evaluated the efficacy of treatment of infiltrations in the knee and hip with platelet-derived growth factors. Regarding the knee it was demonstrated that in patients with moderate degree of gonarthrosis, the PRP is able to significantly reduce the pain and improve joint function, both on placebo and towards infiltrations with hyaluronic acid. The success of the treatment was proportional to the age of and inversely proportional to the severity of osteoarthritis according to Kellgren and Lawrence classification. The possibility of infiltrations guided with ultrasound into the hip led us to extend the indications also to hip arthrosis, as already showed by Sanchez. Even in coxarthrosis preliminary results at 6 and 12 months show that

  9. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-07-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) from 0 to 5, 5 to 9, 9 to 18 and 18 to 36 months were analysed for relations with body composition (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance) at 3 years by multivariate regression analysis. BWZ and change in WAZ from 0 to 5 months were positively associated with BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P = 0.01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P = 0.009). No effect modification of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass. PMID:26131962

  10. [Reverse myocardial remodeling in patients with aortic valve disease and mitral insufficiency in early postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Belov, Iu V; Katkov, A I; Seslavinskaia, T V; Vinokurov, I A; Salagaev, G I

    2015-01-01

    Surgical treatment of patients with aortic valve disease and concomitant mitral insufficiency remains debatable. We analyzed early postoperative results of surgical treatment of 80 patients depending on type of surgery. All patients were divided into three groups: the 1st - aortic valve replacement in patients without mitral valve dysfunction (control group) (n=44); the 2nd - isolated aortic valve replacement in patients with concomitant mitral regurgitation degree 2-3 (n=18), the 3rd - simultaneous aortic and mitral valve replacement (n=18). Combined valve replacement was associated with more intraoperative blood loss (852.78±442.08 ml) compared with aortic valve replacement (658.7±374.09 ml), p<0.05. In patients with mitral regurgitation greater hematocrit decrease was observed (22.13±3.6% in group 2 and 21.4±4.48 in group 3) in comparison with control group (24.17±3.72% in group 1), p<0.05. Incidence of postoperative complications did not differ in all groups. Mortality rate was 6.8% in group 1 and 11.1% in group 3, there were no deaths in group 2. Both valves correction provided faster myocardial remodeling. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased on 50 ml in group 3, on 33.67 ml in group 2 and on 50.73 ml in group 1 (p<0.05). Pulmonary pressure decreased on 20 mm Hg in group 3, on 13 mm Hg - in group 2 and on 12.57 mm Hg - in group 1, p<0.05. In groups 1 and 3 pulmonary pressure became normal after operation, in group 2 signs of pulmonary hypertension were observed (pressure - 35.3 mm Hg). Analysis of the results showed that simultaneous mitral and aortic valves replacement initiates normalization of intracardiac hemodynamics in early postoperative period. PMID:26081181

  11. Risk factors of early onset of MS in women in reproductive age period: survival analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Kazemitabaee, Maryamsadat; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in over the last decades in women, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of early onset multiple sclerosis in women during reproductive years. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted on 200 women aged 15 to 50 years with MS, registered by the MS Society in Isfahan. Data gathering was fulfilled by standard questionnaire including variables about reproductive period, demographic characteristics, and history of diseases. Kaplan-Mayer with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used in predicting of the age of effective factors in onset of MS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of studied women was 31.77 ± 8.13 years and the mean and median age of onset the symptoms of MS was 26.79 ± 7.77 and 26 years, respectively. Based on the cox results occurring menarche at 15 years and higher increase the risk of MS 2.8-fold than those their menarche occurred at 12 years and lower (HR: 2.81, 95 % CI; 1.58-4.98).In addition, having only one pregnancy is related to higher risk of MS than other parities and increase the risk of MS 4.5-fold comparing to without parities. Age of menarche and parity numbers was the most important reproductive factors of MS in women. Nevertheless, history of autoimmune diseases, animal bite, childhood disease, family history of MS, regional area (tropical), and living in rural area were not related to early onset of MS. PMID:26790684

  12. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  13. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  14. [Spectrometric determination of trace elements in 'Jinguang' prunus mume var. bungo of different growth periods].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-lai; Fan, Wen-xiu; Gao, Qi-ming; Jing, Rui-jun; Lin, Zi-yu

    2005-07-01

    A study was carried out on the content of trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu of prunus mume var. bungo in different growth periods by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that the linear relationships of different elements within the limits of working curves are good and the range of the recovery is 98% -105%, hence showing that the results are satisfactory. The total content of these five trace elements increases as the fruit grows, but the concentration is related to the growth of fruit and fruit core, which provides us with valuable data. The contents of the trace elements essential to human body are relatively high, which shows that this fruit breed has a relatively high nutritive value. PMID:16241076

  15. Role of ghrelin in fertilization, early embryo development, and implantation periods.

    PubMed

    Luque, Eugenia Mercedes; Torres, Pedro Javier; de Loredo, Nicolás; Vincenti, Laura María; Stutz, Graciela; Santillán, María Emilia; Ruiz, Rubén Daniel; de Cuneo, Marta Fiol; Martini, Ana Carolina

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the physiological role of ghrelin in gestation, we evaluated the effects of administration of exogenous ghrelin (2 or 4 nmol/animal per day) or its antagonist (6 nmol/animal per day of (d-Lys3)GHRP6) on fertilization, early embryo development, and implantation periods in mice. Three experiments were performed, treating female mice with ghrelin or its antagonist: i) starting from 1 week before copulation to 12 h after copulation, mice were killed at day 18 of gestation; ii) since ovulation induction until 80 h later, when we retrieved the embryos from oviducts/uterus, and iii) starting from days 3 to 7 of gestation (peri-implantation), mice were killed at day 18. In experiments 1 and 3, the antagonist and/or the highest dose of ghrelin significantly increased the percentage of atrophied fetuses and that of females exhibiting this finding or a higher amount of corpora lutea compared with fetuses (nCL/nF) (experiment 3: higher nCL/nF-atrophied fetuses: ghrelin 4, 71.4-71.4% and antagonist, 75.0-62.5% vs ghrelin 2, 46.2-15.4% and control, 10-0.0%; n=7-13 females/group; P<0.01). In experiment 2, the antagonist diminished the fertilization rate, and both, ghrelin and the antagonist, delayed embryo development (blastocysts: ghrelin 2, 62.5%; ghrelin 4, 50.6%; and antagonist, 61.0% vs control 78.4%; n=82-102 embryos/treatment; P<0.0001). In experiment 3, additionally, ghrelin (4 nmol/day) and the antagonist significantly diminished the weight gain of fetuses and dams during pregnancy. Our results indicate that not only hyperghrelinemia but also the inhibition of the endogenous ghrelin effects exerts negative effects on the fertilization, implantation, and embryo/fetal development periods, supporting the hypothesis that ghrelin (in 'adequate' concentrations) has a physiological role in early gestational events. PMID:24821833

  16. Mental development and growth in children with chronic liver disease of early and late onset.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S M; Uauy, R; Kennard, B D; Waller, D A; Benser, M; Andrews, W S

    1988-08-01

    Comparison was made of the mental function and physical growth of 21 children in whom liver disease occurred in the first year of life with 15 patients with late (17 months of age to 12 years of age) manifestation of liver disease. Ages (mean +/- SD) at testing for the two groups was 8 +/- 3 years for the early group and 11 +/- 5 years for the late group. Wechsler verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ scores were lower for the early group (range of mean scores: early, 85 to 86 v late, 96 to 103). Growth measures were significantly different in the two groups. Means +/- SD (percentage of standard) were: length for early group, 92 +/- 9; for late, 99 +/- 7; and head circumference for early, 98 +/- 4; for late, 101 +/- 2. The groups were similar in severity of liver disease and acute nutritional status, however. Patients with intellectual impairment had a longer duration of illness, poor nutritional status, and vitamin E deficiency; 82% of impaired patients were in the early group. The data suggest that liver disease during early life has pernicious effects on intellectual function and linear growth. Careful monitoring of nutritional status of children with early-onset liver disease and aggressive nutritional support beginning at the time of diagnosis may help reduce delays in growth and mental development. PMID:3399290

  17. [Reactions of neural elements of neocortex on action of hypoxia at the early neonatal period in rats].

    PubMed

    Otellin, V A; Khozhai, L I; Shishko, T T

    2014-01-01

    In this work we studied reactions of neural elements of various neocortex areas (sensomotor, visual, auditory) on action of acute normobaric hypoxia. The study is performed on the model of human premature pregnancy (action of normobaric hypoxia on rat pups at the 2nd postnatal day). There are revealed monotypical and monodirected structural reconstructions in all studied neocortex parts. The chosen parameters of hypoxic action initiate several direct reactions as early as at the next day: a decrease in sizes of cell bodies and in volume of the cytoplasm, as well as an enhancement, as compared with control, of the apoptotic cell death. By the end of the neonatal period (5 days), several ultrastructural alterations indicating deceleration of processes of differentiation of nerve cells are revealed: arrest of processes of complication of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and of Golgi apparatus, a small number of single ribosomes and polysomes in the cytoplasm, a decrease of the number of growth cones of axons and dendrites in neuropil, delay and disturbance of myelination processes in nerve fibers. The detected morphofunctional reconstructions can serve the structural ground for development of neonatal encephalopathies. PMID:25486820

  18. [Reactions of neural elements of neocortex on action of hypoxia at the early neonatal period in rats].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    In this work we studied reactions of neural elements of various neocortex areas (sensomotor, visual, auditory) on action of acute normobaric hypoxia. The study is performed on the model of human premature pregnancy (action of normobaric hypoxia on rat pups at the 2nd postnatal day). There are revealed monotypical and monodirected structural reconstructions in all studied neocortex parts. The chosen parameters of hypoxic action initiate several direct reactions as early as at the next day: a decrease in sizes of cell bodies and in volume of the cytoplasm, as well as an enhancement, as compared with control, of the apoptotic cell death. By the end of the neonatal period (5 days), several ultrastructural alterations indicating deceleration of processes of differentiation of nerve cells are revealed: arrest of processes of complication of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and of Golgi apparatus, a small number of single ribosomes and polysomes in the cytoplasm, a decrease of the number of growth cones of axons and dendrites in neuropil, delay and disturbance of myelination processes in nerve fibers. The detected morphofunctional reconstructions can serve the structural ground for development of neonatal encephalopathies. PMID:25508951

  19. The Early Communication Indicator for Infants and Toddlers: Early Head Start Growth Norms from Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Buzhardt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is a measure relevant to intervention decision making and progress monitoring for infants and toddlers. With increasing recognition of the importance of quality early childhood education and intervention for all children, measurement plays an important role in documenting children's progress and outcomes of…

  20. [Thrombodynamic properties of arterial and venous blood in ischemic patients in preoperative and early postoperative periods after coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Kuznik, B I; Bogdanov, I G; Isakova, N V; Serebrijskij, I I; Kas'janenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    In the preoperative period ischemic patients show a significant increase in thrombodynamic properties of fibrin clots. It is more than at a half of patients in the presurgical period as in an arterial, and venus blood the spontaneous growth of a clot comes to light that is practically not observed at healthy people. In the early postoperative period ischemic patients demonstrate a general sharp decrease in thrombodynamic properties of fibrin clots, but in arterial blood, as opposed to venous blood, such properties sharply grow. Based on the data obtained it may be concluded that in ischemic patients venous blood levels cannot be used as a judgement for arterial blood fibrin clot properties. PMID:26255313

  1. Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

  2. Nerve growth factor preserves a critical motor period in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Wolansky, M J; Paratcha, G C; Ibarra, G R; Azcurra, J M

    1999-01-01

    We previously found the occurrence of a critical motor period during rat postnatal development where circling training starting the 7-day schedule at 30 days-but not before or after-induces a lifetime drop in the binding to cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in striatum. Here, we studied whether nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in this restricted period of muscarinic sensitivity. For this purpose, we administered mouse salival gland 2.5S NGF (1.4 or 0.4 microg/day, infused by means of ALZA minipumps) by intrastriatal unilateral route between days 25 and 39, and then trained rats starting at 40 days. Under these conditions, NGF induced a long-term reduction in the striatal [3H] quinuclidilbenzylate (QNB) binding sites despite the fact that motor training was carried out beyond the natural critical period. Thus, at day 70, measurement of specific QNB binding in infused striata of trained rats showed decreases of 42% (p < .0004) and 33% (p < .02) after administration of the higher and lower NGF doses, respectively, with respect to trained rats treated with cytochrome C, for control. Noncannulated striata of the NGF-treated rats also showed a decrease in QNB binding sites (44%; p < .0001) only at the higher infusion rate. This effect was not found in the respective control groups. Our observations show that NGF modulates the critical period in which activity-dependent mAChR setting takes place during rat striatal maturation. PMID:10027568

  3. The Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia Study: Cognitive Function Over a 4-Year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia; Hadjulis, Michael; Vourdas, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Generalized cognitive deficits have been consistently reported in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia (EOS; defined as onset before the age of 17 years). The impact on cognition of potential interactions between disease pathology and brain maturation remains unclear. We therefore compared cognitive function between 20 EOS patients and 20 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and parental socioeconomic status at 2 time points, when aged 15.58 (2.27) and after a mean interval of 4 ± 1.08 years when aged 19.46 (2.21) years. Repeated measures analyses revealed no differences between patients and controls in the degree of change over this time period in general intellectual function and planning ability as measured by the Tower of London. There was deterioration in the verbal memory and attentional control index scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised but relative improvement in Part A of the Trail Making Test. Patients’ level of symptomatology as well as the type and dose of medication were comparable at both time points. We conclude that most aspects of cognitive function remain relatively stable in EOS patients during adolescence; there is evidence for deterioration in immediate verbal memory and attention while speed of information processing may show improvement. PMID:18024468

  4. Endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors during the early neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Ayusawa, M; Minato, M; Takada, M; Takahashi, S; Harada, K

    1997-08-01

    The interaction and relative potency of nitric oxide, an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and endothelin-1, an endothelium-derived contracting factor, may be important in the transition from fetal to extrauterine life. The change in level of nitric oxide during the early neonatal period has not been measured. Accordingly, the serum levels of nitric oxide metabolites (the sum of nitrite and nitrate) and plasma endothelin-1 were determined in 20 healthy neonates at birth, at 12 and 24 h postnatally, and at the age of 5 d. The lowest serum concentration of nitric oxide metabolites was observed at birth (26.2 +/- 9.1 micromol l(-1), mean +/- SD) and increased with age, whereas the highest plasma concentration of endothelin-1 was observed at birth (14.0 +/- 6.7 pg ml(-1)) and decreased with age. These changes suggest that nitric oxide and endothelin-1 play roles in the circulatory adaptation of the neonate to extrauterine life. PMID:9307162

  5. Changes in the bovine whey proteome during the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Senda, Akitsugu; Fukuda, Kenji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Urashima, Tadasu

    2011-10-01

    To investigate time-dependent change in the bovine whey proteome during the early lactation period, a two-dimensional gel-based approach was used in this study. Milk samples were collected from five healthy Friesian-Holstein dairy cows up to 10 days postpartum. Spot patterns of whey proteins varied drastically from immediately after parturition to 48 h, but no significant changes occurred thereafter. Protein identification by mass spectrometry revealed that the ratios of caseins and immunoglobulins drastically decreased during 48 h postpartum, while those of lower molecular mass proteins such as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin increased. More than 100 spots were detected, being much more abundant in colostral whey than in mature milk whey. Of a total of 25 proteins identified, four, viz. zinc-α-2-glycoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein, immunoglobulin G2 chain C and β2-microglobulin, were detectable only in colostrum. Our results indicate that most of the minor whey proteins in colostrum relate to the passive immunity of newborn calves, but some of them play significant roles in nutritional supplementation of the neonate. The characteristics of whey proteins in transition imply that enhancement of innate immunity becomes more important than protection of the neonate against pathogens via passive immunity after 48 h postpartum. PMID:21951907

  6. Factors associated with veterinarians’ career path choices in the early postgraduate period

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray D.; Campbell, John R.; MacGregor, Michael W.; Watts, Jon M.

    2009-01-01

    Veterinarians who graduated between 2000 and 2004, inclusive, were surveyed to determine the factors associated with career path (job) switching in the early postgraduate period. The sampling frame consisted of 348 veterinarians, 285 of whom were contacted and of these, 192 (67.4%) responded to the survey. Only 28.4% of respondents had remained with their initial employer. Three main factors were associated with employee retention: the type of practice/caseload, the workload (hours worked and number of nights on-call), and the level of mentorship and support provided by the practice. Workload and mentorship were also cited as the main reasons for leaving a place of employment. More than a third (38.0%) of respondents reported leaving a position solely because of inadequate mentorship and support. A third (33.7%) of respondents who began their careers in mixed or food animal practice were no longer in these types of practice; the main reasons for leaving were related to workload and mentorship. PMID:19949554

  7. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth. PMID:25239433

  8. Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth Trajectories Using a Large, Internet-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…

  9. Early canine pregnancy--a battle for successful growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Somi, S

    2012-12-01

    Currently, no early pregnancy marker has been identified in the bitch. However, significantly decreased concentrations of heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2,9 were detected in serum from bitches during the pre-implantation period between days 5 and 13 after mating, that is, 2-3 days after ovulation as determined by the measurement of progesterone and vaginal cytology. Especially during the implantation period and thereafter (days 15-55), high serum concentrations of antibodies against desmin are present, which is believed to indicate or regulate decidualization. Pre-implantation embryos express mRNA for enzymes and cytokines, known to promote and regulate trophoblast growth, and some intrauterine changings like the increased activity of MMP 2,9 in maternal endometrium are dependant on the presence of embryos. Some mechanisms that protect canine embryos from attack by the maternal immune system can also be identified. The embryos express CD4, a receptor known to interact with immune cells. They, furthermore, do not express MHC I and II, which might prevent them from being recognized as foreign antigen. Pre-implantation embryos express FasL, which probably renders them able to destroy Fas-bearing cytotoxic T cells. Furthermore, the uterus during pre-implantation and implantation expresses cytokines that modulate the intrauterine milieu towards a predominance of Th2 cells. During pre-implantation and implantation, an increased uterine expression of platelet activating factor (PAF) and PAFR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EGFR2 as well as epithelial growth factor (EGF) is characteristic. Towards placentation, the upregulation of leukaemia inhibiting factor (LIF) and at placentation the expression of insulin-like growth factor(IGF)2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are striking. Progesterone receptor (PR) appears to be downregulated inside the uterus except at placentation

  10. [Hyperspectral prediction model for maize leaf SPAD in the whole growth period].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Bai, You-Lu; Yang, Li-Ping; Lu, Yan-Li; Wang, He; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    In the present article, a 2-year maize field experiment for the whole growth period was conducted. Hyperspectral data and chlorophyll contents (SPAD) of maize leaves were measured respectively using portable spectrometer and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Various spectral parameters were selected to build construct prediction models for maize leaf SPAD in annual growth periods based on correlation analysis of the two factors, and detailed validation and evaluation were made. The results showed that there was little difference between the mean curves of spectral reflectance or its first derivative in the two years; the sensitive areas were basically the same about the correlation coefficient curves of leaf SPAD and spectral reflectance or its first derivative; prediction models built with spectral parameters based on first derivative were unstable; prediction models built with LCI, DSI(R(550around), R(680around)) and DSI(R(680around), R(710around)) were all in good conditions, and maize leaf SPAD could be effectively predicted. PMID:24409746

  11. Retrieving chronological age from dental remains of early fossil hominins to reconstruct human growth in the past

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A chronology of dental development in Pan troglodytes is arguably the best available model with which to compare and contrast reconstructed dental chronologies of the earliest fossil hominins. Establishing a time scale for growth is a requirement for being able to make further comparative observations about timing and rate during both dento-skeletal growth and brain growth. The absolute timing of anterior tooth crown and root formation appears not to reflect the period of somatic growth. In contrast, the molar dentition best reflects changes to the total growth period. Earlier initiation of molar mineralization, shorter crown formation times, less root length formed at gingival emergence into functional occlusion are cumulatively expressed as earlier ages at molar eruption. Things that are similar in modern humans and Pan, such as the total length of time taken to form individual teeth, raise expectations that these would also have been the same in fossil hominins. The best evidence there is from the youngest fossil hominin specimens suggests a close resemblance to the model for Pan but also hints that Gorilla may be a better developmental model for some. A mosaic of great ape-like features currently best describes the timing of early hominin dental development. PMID:20855313

  12. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the liver of dairy cows in the transition period and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Keller, J; Schwarz, F J; Windisch, W; Eder, K

    2012-07-17

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been identified as a novel hormonal factor involved in the regulation of metabolic adaptations during energy deprivation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of the FGF21 gene in the liver of dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Therefore, the relative mRNA abundance of FGF21 in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 weeks pre-partum) and early lactation (1, 5, 14 weeks post-partum) was determined. It was observed that hepatic mRNA abundance of FGF21 at 1 week post-partum was dramatically increased (110-fold) compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). With progress of lactation, mRNA concentration of FGF21 was declining; nevertheless, mRNA abundance at 5 and 14 weeks post-partum remained 25- and 10-fold increased compared to 3 weeks pre-partum (p < 0.001). Using a gene array technique, it was found that many genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis were up-regulated during early lactation compared to late pregnancy. Moreover, there were positive linear correlations between hepatic mRNA concentration of FGF21 and mRNA concentrations of genes involved in ketogenesis as well as carnitine synthesis and carnitine uptake at various time-points during lactation, indicating that FGF21 could play a role in ketogenesis and carnitine metabolism in the liver of dairy cows (p < 0.05). In overall, the present study shows that expression of the FGF21 gene is strongly up-regulated during the transition period. It is assumed that the up-regulation of FGF21 might play an important role in the adaptation of liver metabolism during early lactation in dairy cows such as in other species. PMID:22805261

  13. Growth and hemodynamics after early embryonic aortic arch occlusion*

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephanie E.; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William J.; Shekhar, Akshay; Yalcin, Huseyin C.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of severe clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with great artery lesions, including hypoplastic, double, right or interrupted aortic arch morphologies. While fetal and neonatal interventions are advancing, their potential ability to restore cardiac function, optimal timing, location, and intensity required for intervention remain largely unknown. We here combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with in vivo experiments to test how individual pharyngeal arch artery hemodynamics alters as a result of local interventions to obstruct individual arch artery flow. Simulated isolated occlusions within each pharyngeal arch artery were created with image derived three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of normal chick pharyngeal arch anatomy at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) developmental stages HH18 and HH24. Acute flow redistributions were then computed using in vivo measured subject-specific aortic sinus inflow velocity profiles. A kinematic vascular growth-rendering algorithm was then developed and implemented to test the role of changing local wall shear stress patterns in downstream 3D morphogenesis of arch arteries. CFD simulations predicted that altered pressure gradients and flow redistributions were most sensitive to occlusion of the IVth arches. To evaluate these simulations experimentally, a novel in vivo experimental model of pharyngeal arch occlusion was developed and implemented using two-photon microscopy guided femtosecond laser based photodisruption surgery. The right IVth arch was occluded at HH18, and resulting diameter changes were followed for up to 24 hours. Pharyngeal arch diameter responses to acute hemodynamic changes were predicted qualitatively but poorly quantitatively. Chronic growth and adaptation to hemodynamic changes however were predicted in a subset of arches. Our findings suggest that this complex biodynamic process is governed through more complex forms of mechanobiological

  14. Proteomic and metabolic analyses of early berry development in Vitis spp. including the period of ontogenic gain of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early development of grape berries is marked by several biological changes, including cell division and expansion, as berries initiate double sigmoid growth. In most genotypes, a significant gain of ontogenic resistance (OR) to some pathogens, including powdery mildew (PM) (Uncinula necator), also o...

  15. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID

  16. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions. PMID:22400043

  17. Monitoring brain activation changes in the early postoperative period after radical prostatectomy using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Seseke, S; Baudewig, J; Ringert, R-H; Rebmann, U; Dechent, P

    2013-09-01

    Urinary incontinence is a major concern following radical prostatectomy. The etiology is multifactorial involving intrinsic sphincter deficiency and/or detrusor hyperactivity and/or decreased bladder compliance. Recent studies employing functional imaging methodology nicely demonstrated the reference regions of the micturition circuit. Based on these landmarks this work complements this field of research by studying patients with bladder dysfunction. Our aim was to evaluate, whether iatrogenic impairment of the pelvic floor muscles after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) causes detectable changes in fMRI in the early postoperative period. fMRI was performed at 3T in 22 patients before and after RRP with urge to void due to a filled bladder. In a non-voiding model they were instructed to contract or to relax the pelvic floor muscles repetitively. As previously reported in healthy men, contraction and relaxation of pelvic floor muscles induced strong activations in the brainstem and more rostral areas in our group of patients before and after RRP. In general, all of them had stronger activations during contraction than during relaxation in all regions before and after the operation. Even though there was no difference in the activation level when relaxing the pelvic floor before and after the operation, we found stronger activation during contraction when comparing the preoperative with the postoperative level in some of the regions. The results suggest that the same cortical and subcortical networks can be demonstrated for micturition control in patients with prostate cancer as in healthy subjects. However, impaired pelvic floor muscle function after RRP seems to induce different activation intensities. PMID:23583743

  18. MOSFIRE ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF z > 2 QUIESCENT GALAXIES: PROBING A PERIOD OF RAPID SIZE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Newman, Andrew B.

    2014-06-20

    Using the MOSFIRE near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph on the Keck 1 Telescope, we have secured high signal-to-noise ratio absorption line spectra for six massive galaxies with redshift 2 < z < 2.5. Five of these galaxies lie on the red sequence and show signatures of passive stellar populations in their rest-frame optical spectra. By fitting broadened spectral templates we have determined stellar velocity dispersions and, with broad-band Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer photometry and imaging, stellar masses and effective radii. Using this enlarged sample of galaxies, we confirm earlier suggestions that quiescent galaxies at z > 2 have small sizes and large velocity dispersions compared to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The dynamical masses are in very good agreement with stellar masses (log M {sub *}/M {sub dyn} = –0.02 ± 0.03), although the average stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio is larger than that found at lower redshift (–0.23 ± 0.05). By assuming evolution at fixed velocity dispersion, not only do we confirm a surprisingly rapid rate of size growth but we also consider the necessary evolutionary track on the mass-size plane and find a slope α = dlog R{sub e} /dlog M {sub *} ≳ 2 inconsistent with most numerical simulations of minor mergers. Both results suggest an additional mechanism may be required to explain the size growth of early galaxies.

  19. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. PMID:25592941

  20. Phosphoproteome Dynamics Upon Changes in Plant Water Status Reveal Early Events Associated With Rapid Growth Adjustment in Maize Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Ludovic; Valot, Benoît; Tardieu, François; Zivy, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth adjustment during water deficit is a crucial adaptive response. The rapid fine-tuned control achieved at the post-translational level is believed to be of considerable importance for regulating early changes in plant growth reprogramming. Aiming at a better understanding of early responses to contrasting plant water statuses, we carried out a survey of the protein phosphorylation events in the growing zone of maize leaves upon a range of water regimes. In this study, the impact of mild and severe water deficits were evaluated in comparison with constant optimal watering and with recovery periods lasting 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min. Using four biological replicates per treatment and a robust quantitative phosphoproteomic methodology based on stable-isotope labeling, we identified 3664 unique phosphorylation sites on 2496 proteins. The abundance of nearly 1250 phosphorylated peptides was reproducibly quantified and profiled with high confidence among treatments. A total of 138 phosphopeptides displayed highly significant changes according to water regimes and enabled to identify specific patterns of response to changing plant water statuses. Further quantification of protein amounts emphasized that most phosphorylation changes did not reflect protein abundance variation. During water deficit and recovery, extensive changes in phosphorylation status occurred in critical regulators directly or indirectly involved in plant growth and development. These included proteins influencing epigenetic control, gene expression, cell cycle-dependent processes and phytohormone-mediated responses. Some of the changes depended on stress intensity whereas others depended on rehydration duration, including rapid recoveries that occurred as early as 5 or 10 mins after rewatering. By combining a physiological approach and a quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis, this work provides new insights into the in vivo early phosphorylation events triggered by rapid changes in

  1. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Khoriauli, Lela; Nergadze, Solomon G.; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Santagostino, Marco; Saino, Nicola; Giulotto, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age) and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual’s siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and relative telomere

  2. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Robert P; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Norman, Marc D

    2003-10-01

    The tectonic setting in which the first continental crust formed, and the extent to which modern processes of arc magmatism at convergent plate margins were operative on the early Earth, are matters of debate. Geochemical studies have shown that felsic rocks in both Archaean high-grade metamorphic ('grey gneiss') and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are comprised dominantly of sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite of rocks. Here we present direct experimental evidence showing that partial melting of hydrous basalt in the eclogite facies produces granitoid liquids with major- and trace-element compositions equivalent to Archaean TTG, including the low Nb/Ta and high Zr/Sm ratios of 'average' Archaean TTG, but from a source with initially subchondritic Nb/Ta. In modern environments, basalts with low Nb/Ta form by partial melting of subduction-modified depleted mantle, notably in intraoceanic arc settings in the forearc and back-arc regimes. These observations suggest that TTG magmatism may have taken place beneath granite-greenstone complexes developing along Archaean intraoceanic island arcs by imbricate thrust-stacking and tectonic accretion of a diversity of subduction-related terranes. Partial melting accompanying dehydration of these generally basaltic source materials at the base of thickened, 'arc-like' crust would produce compositionally appropriate TTG granitoids in equilibrium with eclogite residues. PMID:14534583

  3. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach. PMID:20826195

  4. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China. PMID:25985677

  5. A Guide to Administration, Diagnosis, and Treatment for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Gerald; Scovell, Melvin

    Provided are guidelines on administration, diagnosis, and treatment in federally funded EPSDT--Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Programs, a system for providing health care services to Medicaid-eligible children. Detailed in part one are factors involved in developing EPSDT programs. Four chapters consider the need for EPSDT,…

  6. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  7. 78 FR 5179 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, requires...

  8. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  9. 75 FR 32781 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, requires...

  10. 75 FR 38813 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, requires...

  11. 78 FR 28219 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodin Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, requires...

  12. 77 FR 61753 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, requires...

  13. 76 FR 70452 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification Rules Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by Title II of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, requires...

  14. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  15. Krüppel-Like Factor 12 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Growth through Early Growth Response Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Yun-Yong; Cho, Sung-Nam; Margalit, Ofer; Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) is a transcription factor that plays a role in normal kidney development and repression of decidualization. KLF12 is frequently elevated in esophageal adenocarcinoma and has been reported to promote gastric cancer progression. Here, we examined the role of KLF12 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Indeed, KLF12 promotes tumor growth by directly activating early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). The levels of KLF12 and EGR1 correlate synergistically with a poor prognosis. These results indicate that KLF12 likely plays an important role in CRC and could serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:27442508

  16. Examining Breast Cancer Growth and Lifestyle Risk Factors: Early Life, Childhood, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Dorgan, Joanne F.; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2009-01-01

    The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

  17. Examining breast cancer growth and lifestyle risk factors: early life, childhood, and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Dorgan, Joanne F; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Hartman, Terryl J

    2008-08-01

    The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

  18. Preparation of Special Educators in Essential Early Education. Funding Period: August 1989-July 1992. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Wayne L.; Capone, Angela

    This report describes a graduate program at the University of Vermont's Center for Developmental Disabilities. The program's objective was to prepare essential early educators to meet Vermont's need for highly trained early childhood special educators to assume educational leadership roles. Upon successful completion of the training program…

  19. Early Childhood Education Administration in the New Period: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a keynote speech delivered at the National Symposium of Early Childhood Education) held by the Ministry of Education, December 16-19, 2004. In this paper, Jiang Jin first analyzed the difficulties and challenges that China faced in the development of early childhood education (ECE), including the partially dissolved ECE system,…

  20. Women's Perceptions of Breastfeeding Barriers in Early Postpartum Period: A Qualitative Analysis Nested in Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Josephine; Bonuck, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This study examined women's perceptions of early infant feeding experiences and identified early postpartum barriers to successful breastfeeding. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semistructured exit interviews at 6 months postpartum with a subsample of participants (n=67) enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of breastfeeding promotion. Study arms included (1) routine pre- and postnatal visits with an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) (LC group), (2) electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP group), (3) EP+LC combined, and (4) standard of care (control group). Interview transcripts were coded using grounded theory and analyzed in MAXqda. Code matrices were used to identify early postpartum breastfeeding barriers and were further examined in relation to treatment group using a mixed methods analysis. Results: The majority of the participants reported experiencing at least one barrier to breastfeeding. Barriers to breastfeeding were more commonly reported in the early postpartum than late postpartum period. The most common barrier during the early postpartum period was the perception of inadequate milk supply (“lactational”) (n=18), followed by problems with latch, medical problems that were perceived as precluding breastfeeding, and medical staff and hospital practices. Participants frequently reported that the IBCLCs assisted them in anticipating, managing, and overcoming these barriers. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of integrating IBCLCs into routine pre- and postpartum care because they provide critical support that effectively addresses early postpartum barriers to breastfeeding. PMID:24304033

  1. Stroke risk in the early period after carotid related symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsantilas, P; Kühnl, A; Kallmayer, M; Knappich, C; Schmid, S; Kuetchou, A; Zimmermann, A; Eckstein, H H

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend performing carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid disease as soon as possible after the neurological index event. However, early stroke risk has not been well documented for this patient group. We therefore conducted a systematic analysis of the current literature on the recurrent risk of ischemic events in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. Systematic review was performed by searching the MEDLINE® database from 1950 until June 8, 2015 (key words: cerebral ischemia, transient ischemic attack, amaurosis fugax, stroke, symptomatic carotid stenosis, recurrent risk, outcome, prognosis, follow-up, cohort and natural history). All studies reporting stroke risks in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis after neurologic index events within a period of 7 days were included. Cumulative stroke risks with 95% confidence intervals after a neurologic index event were recalculated at 2-3, 7, 14 and 30 days and a meta-analysis including an analysis of heterogeneity were performed using the statistical package R and Excel for Mac 2003. Ten studies with a total number of 2634 patients were included. Results of an overall stroke risk were as follows: 2.0-17.2% at 2-3 days, 0-22.1% at 7 days, 0-29.6% at 14 days and 0-11.1% at 30 days in patients with a symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis. The pooled stroke risk in the six studies with active follow-up was 6.0% (95% CI 2.4-14.4) at 2-3 days, 10.9% (6.1-18.7) at 7 days and 17.6% (9.7-29.9) at 14 days. Pooled stroke risk in the three studies with uncensored populations was even higher with 6.4% (1.5-23.8%) at 2-3 days, 19.5% (12.7-28.7) at 7 days and 26.1% (20.6-32.5%) at 14 days. Significant heterogeneity (P<0.001) could be explained by the different inclusion criteria and the study's design. Retrospective studies with passive follow-up had the lowest stroke risk whereas prospective studies with active follow-up and without bias through early intervention by carotid

  2. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  3. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake. PMID:26947308

  4. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea).

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  5. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea)

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V.

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  6. Analysis of integrins and vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms mRNA expression in the canine uterus during perimplantation period.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Jackowska, M; Woźna, M; Antosik, P; Piotrowska, H; Jaśkowski, J M

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are the major receptors within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that mediate several functions connected with cell life and metabolism, such as cell adhesion, migration, cytoskeletal organization, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. A vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important angiogenic factors. It has been suggested that the expression of this gene may play crucial physiological roles in reproductive organs. All investigated endometrial tissues were isolated on day 10-12 after mating. Control bitches, used in this study, were in metestrus, which was determined according to the vaginal cytology and progesterone level in blood. Early pregnancy was verified by flushing the uterine horns with PBS. Total RNA was isolated from the bitches endometrium by means of the Chomczyński and Sacchi method, treated by DNase I, and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. A quantitative analysis of integrins alpha2b, beta2 and beta3, VEGF 164, 182 and 188 cDNA was performed by RT-PCR. In results we have shown an increased expression of all investigated genes (integrins alpha2b, beta2 and beta3, VEGF 164, 182, and 188) in pregnant bitches uterus as compared to non-pregnant females (P < 0.001). Our results indicated that the expression of genes encoding integrins and vascular endothelial growth factors is different in relation to the time of the embryo implantation and it is increased in the first period of this process. This may be associated with the induction of specific mechanisms responsible for receptivity of uterus following the embryo attachment. In addition, all of investigated genes are up-regulated in a pregnancy-specific manner and the increased expression of these genes may regulate the uterus function during the implantation of canine embryos. PMID:21721410

  7. First Look at a Major Transition Period in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    New Observations of Intergalactic Helium Absorption Observations of the bright southern quasar HE 2347-4342 with telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided a group of European astronomers [1] with an exceptional glimpse into an early, still unexplored transition period of the Universe. At that time, many billions of years ago, some of the enormous gaseous clouds of hydrogen and helium left over from the Big Bang had not yet been fully ionized by the increasingly strong radiation from emerging galaxies and stars. In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars , a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5 o x 5 o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or

  8. Orbital-scale glacio-eustasy during the transition between the Early Ordovician warm period (greenhouse) and the Late Ordovician cool period (icehouse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrick, M.; Reardon, D.; Labor, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies using oxygen isotopes from conodont apatite and carbonate clumped isotopes suggest that the transition from the Early Ordovician warm period (greenhouse) to the Latest Ordovician glacial period (icehouse) occurred in two stages- cooling during the Early and Middle Ordovician and another, more abrupt cooling in the Latest Ordovician (Hirnantian). These results come from samples collected at time intervals of >0.5 My; therefore, the data does not resolve orbital-scale climatic changes. This study utilizes oxygen isotopes from conodont apatite collected across multiple, orbital-scale carbonate cycles (or parasequences) in the early Late Ordovician to evaluate high-frequency paleoclimate changes. More specifically, we are addressing whether the observed carbonate cycles formed in response to orbital-scale, glacio-eustasy and to shed light on the dynamics of the Ordovician warm-to-cool climatic transition. The Upper Ordovician (early Katian) Lexington Limestone of Kentucky is characterized by cyclic carbonates and shales deposited in southern subtropical waters of the Laurentian craton. Orbital-scale (~15-130 ky) subtidal cycles (1-3 m) are composed of offshore limestone and shale, overlain by lower shoreface, then upper shoreface skeletal carbonates and show no evidence of subaerial exposure at cycle tops. δ18Oapatite values from multiple cycles range from ~18-19.5%. The majority of cycles record low isotopic values in the deepest water facies (during sea-level rise and highstand) and higher isotopic values in the shallowest water facies (during sea-level fall and lowstand). The magnitude of isotopic shift across individual cycles is up to ~1%. Estimated subtropical SSTs range from ~28°-34°C. If the intracycle isotopic shifts were due only to SST changes, then the temperatures fluctuated up to 4°C during individual cycle formation; estimated thermo-eustatic changes given these SST changes are not sufficient in magnitude to generate the observed

  9. The effects of stress during early postnatal periods on behavior and hippocampal neuroplasticity markers in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, M A; Grosse, J; Zanoletti, O; Papilloud, A; Sandi, C

    2015-12-17

    Infancy is a critical period for brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that stress experienced during that period can have long-term programming effects on the brain and behavior. However, whether different time periods represent different vulnerabilities to the programming of different neurobehavioral domains is not yet known. Disrupted maternal care is known to interfere with neurodevelopmental processes and may lead to the manifestation of behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Mouse dams confronted with insufficient bedding/nesting material have been shown to provide fragmented maternal care to their offspring. Here, we compared the impact of this model of early-life stress (ELS) during different developmental periods comprising either postnatal days (PNDs) 2-9 (ELS-early) or PND 10-17 (ELS-late) on behavior and hippocampal cell adhesion molecules in male mice in adulthood. ELS-early treatment caused a permanent reduction in bodyweight, whereas this reduction only occurred transiently during juvenility in ELS-late mice. Anxiety was only affected in ELS-late mice, while cognition and sociability were equally impaired in both ELS-treated groups. We analyzed hippocampal gene expression of the γ2 subunit of the GABAa receptor (Gabrg2) and of genes encoding cell adhesion molecules. Gabrg2 expression was increased in the ventral hippocampus in ELS-late-treated animals and was correlated with anxiety-like behavior in the open-field (OF) test. ELS-early-treated animals exhibited an increase in nectin-1 expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and this increase was associated with the social deficits seen in these animals. Our findings highlight the relevance of developmental age on stress-induced long-term behavioral alterations. They also suggest potential links between early stress-induced alterations in hippocampal Gabrg2 expression and the developmental programming of anxiety and between changes in hippocampal nectin-1 expression and stress-induced social

  10. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  11. Early Childhood Memory and Attention as Predictors of Academic Growth Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipek, Deborah; Valentino, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to assess how well measures of short-term and working memory and attention in early childhood predicted longitudinal growth trajectories in mathematics and reading comprehension. Analyses also examined whether changes in memory and attention were more…

  12. Ultrastructure of Pseudomonas saccharophila at early and late log phase of growth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, H. L.; Chao, F.-C.; Turnbill, C.; Philpott, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the fine structure of Pseudomonas saccarophila at the early log phase and the late log phase of growth, such as shown by electron microscopy with the aid of various techniques of preparation. The observations reported suggested that, under the experimental conditions applied, P. saccharophila multiplies by the method of constrictive division.

  13. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  14. Germination and early growth of Brassica juncea in copper mine tailings amended with technosol and compost.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  15. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    PubMed Central

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  16. Effects of early-developmental stress on growth rates, body composition and developmental plasticity of the HPG-axis.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Tara M; Morgan, Amanda; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-10-01

    In altricial songbirds, food restriction in early development has adverse effects on various physiological systems. When conditions improve birds can accelerate growth, but this compensatory strategy is associated with long-term adverse consequences. One system affected by altered growth rates is the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Here, we subjected European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to an unpredictable food manipulation from 35 to 115days of age. We assessed the effects of the treatment by measuring overall body mass and body composition during and following the treatment period (i.e., accelerated growth). In adulthood, we measured the long-term effects of the treatment on overall body mass, testis volume, and HPG axis function in both sexes by quantifying androgen levels before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. During the treatment period, treatment birds had less body fat than controls. Following the treatment period, treatment birds weighed more than controls, but these gains were attributed to changes in lean mass. In adulthood, treatment males had lower baseline androgen levels, but there was no difference in peak androgen levels compared to controls. Treatment females did not differ from controls on any of the androgen measures. However, females that accelerated growth faster following the termination of the treatment had lower integrated androgen levels. When faced with limited developmental resources, birds may alter the developmental trajectory of physiological systems as a compensatory strategy. Such a strategy may have long-term consequences on endocrine regulation that could affect courtship and reproductive behaviors. PMID:26253500

  17. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  18. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  19. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-11-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure-ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure-ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96-119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236-259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure-ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure-ground segregation such as surface segregation. PMID:23170239

  20. [Influence of laser -- infrared irradiation on local complications of early postoperative period in hernias of anterior abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Gasymov, E M

    2005-01-01

    Results of laser-infrared irradiation (LIRI) of postoperative wound after surgical treatment of recurrent hernias of anterior abdominal wall were analyzed. LIRI decreased number of local complications in early postoperative period in patients both with recurrent and primary hernias. The method was more effective for the treatment of local complication in patients with recurrent hernia that is confirmed by reduced of frequency of infiltrates, seromas and suppurations. PMID:16247383

  1. Estimation of abbreviated mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve during early posttransplant period by limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, A-H; Nazemian, F; Abtahi, B; Naghibi, M; Gholami, K; Rezaee, S; Nazari, M-R A; Rajabi, O

    2008-12-01

    Area under the concentration curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) could help to optimize therapeutic drug monitoring during the early post-renal transplant period. The aim of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate an abbreviated MPA AUC within the first month after renal transplantation. In this study we selected 19 patients in the early posttransplant period with normal renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate > 70 mL/min). Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MPA AUC(0-12h) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the minimal and convenient time points of MPA levels that could be used to derive model equations best fitted to MPA AUC(0-12h). The regression equation for AUC estimation that gave the best performance was AUC = 14.46 C(10) + 15.547 (r(2) = .882). The validation of the method was performed using the jackknife method. Mean prediction error of this model was not different from zero (P > .05) and had a high root mean square prediction error (8.06). In conclusion, this limited sampling strategy provided an effective approach for therapeutic drug monitoring during the early posttransplant period. PMID:19100462

  2. Evaluation of hyperketonemia risk period and screening protocols for early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, A; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the onset of hyperketonemia, the number of positive hyperketonemia test results, and the duration of the longest hyperketonemic period during the first 42 d in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Furthermore, we set out to evaluate test characteristics of single and repeated measurements of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) during this period to diagnose hyperketonemia. Using an electronic handheld meter, 252 cows from 3 farms were tested twice weekly for hyperketonemia (blood BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L) during the first 42 DIM, resulting in 12 test results per cow (i.e., in lactation wk 0.5 to 6). Prevalence and incidence of hyperketonemia were calculated for the 12 examination days and the 42-d period, respectively. Test characteristics for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia were calculated for 4 different testing scenarios (testing all cows 1, 2, 3, or 6 times during the first 42 DIM) and 2 different gold-standard definitions (BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L at least once during the observation period or BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L at least twice during the observation period). Mean prevalence of hyperketonemia was 11.8%, ranging from 9.6% in lactation wk 0.5 and 2.0 to 14.6% in lactation wk 5.5. In total, 134 cows (53.2%) had at least 1 positive hyperketonemia test result during the whole 42-d period. Of these cows, 46.3% had only 1 positive result. The median first positive hyperketonemia test result was in lactation wk 2.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.0-3.5]. Median frequency of positive test results in cows affected by hyperketonemia was 2 positive test results (IQR 1-3). Median duration of the longest hyperketonemic period per cow affected was 1 examination interval (3-4 d; IQR 1-2). Considering a minimum of 1 positive hyperketonemia test result during the first 42 DIM as the gold standard, sensitivity of a single BHBA measurement during this period to diagnose hyperketonemia was 21%. A weekly testing protocol had a sensitivity of 72%. Specificity was 100

  3. Effect of thermal environment and caloric intake on head growth of low birthweight infants during late neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, L; Lala, R V; Jaiswal, V; Nigam, S K

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of ambient thermal conditions on postnatal head growth in low birth weight infants, 42 asymtomatic neonates were reared under 4 combinations of caloric intake and thermal environment after the first week of life. Exposure to a subthermoneutral temperature (abdominal skin temperature of 35 degrees C), together with a relatively low caloric intake (120 cal/kg per day), was associated with significant retardation of head growth over a 2-week study period. PMID:1167073

  4. The critical period of infant feeding for the development of early disparities in obesity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem, particularly among minority infants and young children. Disparities in overweight prevalence persist and widen with age, highlighting the need to identify factors contributing to early excess weight gain. We review the behavioral, social and macro-environmental factors contributing to the development of obesogenic early feeding practices among African-American infants and young children. We then examine the sociodemographic, household factors, feeding beliefs and infant characteristics associated with age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids (inappropriate feeding) among mothers and infants participating the U.S. Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 low-income, first-time mothers and infants followed from 3 to 18 months of age. Maternal and infant anthropometry, infant diet, and maternal and household characteristics were collected at home visits at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. Mixed logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal and infant characteristics and inappropriate feeding. Rates of age-inappropriate feeding are high; over 75% of infants received solids or juice by 3 months of age. The odds of age-inappropriate feeding were higher among mothers who were single, depressed or believed that their infant is a "greedy" baby. Inappropriate feeding was associated with higher daily energy intake in infants (β = 109.28 calories, p = 0.01) and with increased odds of high infant weight-for-length (WFL; OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.01-3.01). Our findings suggest that age-inappropriate complementary feeding influences current energy intakes and infant WFL, factors that may increase long-term obesity risk by shaping infant appetite, food preferences, and metabolism. Given the intractability of pediatric obesity, understanding the role of early feeding in shaping long-term health disparities is critical for developing prevention strategies to stem obesity in

  5. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate

    PubMed Central

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E.; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. AIM: This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. RESULTS: We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  6. Early vertebrate whole genome duplications were predated by a period of intense genome rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Hufton, Andrew L.; Groth, Detlef; Vingron, Martin; Lehrach, Hans; Poustka, Albert J.; Panopoulou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    Researchers, supported by data from polyploid plants, have suggested that whole genome duplication (WGD) may induce genomic instability and rearrangement, an idea which could have important implications for vertebrate evolution. Benefiting from the newly released amphioxus genome sequence (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate that researchers have hoped is representative of the ancestral chordate genome, we have used gene proximity conservation to estimate rates of genome rearrangement throughout vertebrates and some of their invertebrate ancestors. We find that, while amphioxus remains the best single source of invertebrate information about the early chordate genome, its genome structure is not particularly well conserved and it cannot be considered a fossilization of the vertebrate preduplication genome. In agreement with previous reports, we identify two WGD events in early vertebrates and another in teleost fish. However, we find that the early vertebrate WGD events were not followed by increased rates of genome rearrangement. Indeed, we measure massive genome rearrangement prior to these WGD events. We propose that the vertebrate WGD events may have been symptoms of a preexisting predisposition toward genomic structural change. PMID:18625908

  7. Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs): growth trajectories using a large, internet-based sample.

    PubMed

    Roseth, Cary J; Missall, Kristen N; McConnell, Scott R

    2012-08-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later achievement delays. There were three major findings. First, results identified sensitivity to longitudinal change for all three EL-IGDIs (i.e., Picture naming, Rhyming, and Alliteration). Second, results demonstrated age-related differences in growth rates between 3- and 4-year-olds, especially for Rhyming and Alliteration. Third, preliminary national norms were reported. Discussion highlights the need for research examining the sensitivity of EL-IGDIs for younger preschoolers. PMID:22710017

  8. Early Detection, Referral, Investigation, and Diagnosis of Children with Growth Disorders.

    PubMed

    Savage, Martin O; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Calzada, Raúl; Cianfarani, Stefano; Dunkel, Leo; Koledova, Ekaterina; Wit, Jan M; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis is a key objective in clinical medicine, and early detection of pathological short stature has tangible benefits for growth prognosis and the well-being of the child. Despite late diagnosis being common in growth disorders, programmes of height screening in primary care are not universal in developed countries and may be random or non-existent. A notable exception is automated growth monitoring in Finland, where an algorithm to detect abnormal growth is integrated into children's electronic health records, resulting in increased diagnoses of pathological short stature. Evidence-based anthropometric criteria for referral of short stature to secondary or tertiary care are now published, due largely to excellent studies in the Netherlands. Following referral of the short child, the protocol for laboratory investigations remains somewhat controversial because in healthy children their diagnostic yield can be too low for cost-effectiveness. However, outside of tertiary academic paediatric endocrinology centres, baseline screening tests are considered worthwhile and may speed up diagnosis and treatment. Finally, auxological cut-offs cannot replace good clinical practice, and the understanding that early and effective management depends on commitment to a diagnosis and individualisation of therapy in the short child cannot be overemphasised. PMID:27055026

  9. Seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica) vertical growth as an early indicator of fish farm-derived stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbà, Núria; Santiago, Rocío; Díaz-Almela, Elena; Álvarez, Elvira; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2006-04-01

    The usefulness of vertical rhizome growth as an early indicator of fish farm impacts to Posidonia oceanica meadows was tested by comparing annual estimates of vertical rhizome growth, quantified retrospectively, at distances ranging between 5 and 1200 m from fish cages at four Mediterranean locations (Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Spain). The studied fish farms had been operating since, at least, 1997, producing between 150 and 1150 tons yr -1 of sea bream ( Sparus aurata) and sea bass ( Dicentrachus labrax), and, at Italy, also sharpsnout sea bream ( Diplodus puntazzo). The reconstructed vertical rhizome growth spanned from 19 to 25 years of growth, depending on sites, and the average vertical rhizome growth before the onset of fish farm operations ranged between 4.48 and 8.79 mm yr -1. The vertical rhizome growth after the onset of farming activities declined significantly ( t-test, P < 0.05) from the control station (at >800 m from the farm; vertical growth rate averaged 6.79, 5.52, 3.89 and 3.70 mm yr -1 at Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Spain control stations, respectively) to the impacted one (at 5-300 m from the farm; vertical growth rate was 4.82, 3.52, 2.77 and 1.92 mm yr -1 at Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Spain impacted stations, respectively) at each farm. Moreover, vertical growth significantly ( t-test, P < 0.05) declined by about twofold following the onset of fish farm operations for the extant meadow nearest to the cages, as well as those supporting intermediate impacts at distances 35-400 m from the cages. Vertical rhizome growth was not significantly affected after the onset of fish farm operations for the meadows located more than 800 m from the farm, except in those from the Italian site, the largest farm. Examination of the time course of vertical growth for individual rhizomes in the areas of the meadow nearest to the farms, except for those at Cyprus, showed that the decline in vertical growth was initiated within the year of the onset of farming

  10. Further evidence of an early critical period in the development of the cat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sherman, S M; Wilson, J R

    1981-03-01

    The concept of an early postnatal critical period of development for the lateral geniculate nucleus was assessed by determining in adult cats whether previously established properties of geniculate neurons could be altered by varying the cat's visual experience. The analysis was limited to lamina A1 and the binocular segment of lamina A, and the properties studied were the percentage of physiologically recorded Y-cells and cell soma size. Eleven experimental cats in four groups were studied, and three cats reared normally plus three cats reared with continuous monocular lid suture served as controls. Two cats raised first with monocular suture followed by a prolonged period in adulthood with both eyes open had cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions that were indistinguishable from cats raised with continuous monocular suture. Four cats raised first with one eye sutured underwent a reverse suture procedure in adulthood (i.e., the originally sutured eye opened and the other closed) and were maintained in this fashion for a prolonged period. These cats also had geniculate cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions that were indistinguishable from cats raised with continuous monocular suture. Two cats were raised first with binocular suture followed by a prolonged period in adulthood with one eye opened. Their geniculate cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions showed no effect on the adult monocular deprivation and were indistinguishable from previously published data concerning cats raised with continuous binocular suture. Finally, three normally raised cats underwent a prolonged period of monocular suture in adulthood. Their geniculate cell size distributions and Y-cell proportions showed no effects on the adult monocular deprivation. From these data, we conclude that an early critical period of development occurs for geniculate cell sizes and Y-cell proportions. Adult visual environments, whether normal or abnormal, had no detectable effect on

  11. Increased perinatal remodelling of the pancreas in somatostatin-deficient mice: potential role of transforming growth factor-beta signalling in regulating beta cell growth in early life.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C C; To, K; Foot, V L; Hauge-Evans, A C; Carmignac, D; Christie, M R

    2015-01-01

    Early postnatal life is a critical period for development of the endocrine pancreas, involving remodelling of islet cells and maturation of secretory responses. Factors that regulate these processes are undefined. Somatostatin-secreting delta-cells are abundant in the developing pancreas and, because somatostatin inhibits growth, the hormone may regulate islet expansion in early life. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of somatostatin-deficiency on proliferation, apoptosis and pancreas expansion in the first 3 weeks of life in mice. Pancreases from control or somatostatin-knockout mice were analysed for beta cell, alpha cell and pancreatic volumes by morphometry, proliferation by BrdU incorporation and apoptosis by TUNEL labelling. Signalling pathways associated with proliferation and apoptosis were studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Knockout mice grew normally in the first 3 weeks of life, but had high circulating insulin that normalised by day 21. Beta cell, alpha cell and pancreatic volumes were decreased in knockout mice, accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. Decreased growth was not due to impaired Akt signalling, as Akt phosphorylation and nuclear cyclin-D2 increased in the knockout pancreas. Levels of TGF-β1, a factor implicated in tissue remodelling, together with SMAD phosphorylation through which TGF-β mediates its effects, were increased in the knockout pancreas. Beta cell expansion was impaired in knockout mice, potentially compensating for increased insulin secretion from islets lacking inhibitory effects of somatostatin, and was associated with increased TGF-β1 levels. TGF-β1 may represent an important regulator of beta cell mass in early life. PMID:25350519

  12. First look at a major transition period in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars, a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5o x 5o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or, in other words, those intrinsically bright and remote quasars which are located in directions where the Universe is unusually transparent for ultraviolet light. With a 'clear view' thus ensured, it would subsequently be possible to study such far-away objects and the intergalactic gas out there in unprecedented detail with large telescopes. The greater the distance, the longer has the light been underway, the longer is the 'look-back' time and the earlier is the epoch about which we then obtain new information. Discovery of a unique quasar Altogether, more than 650 bright

  13. A global search reveals epistatic interaction between QTL for early growth in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Carlborg, Orjan; Kerje, Susanne; Schütz, Karin; Jacobsson, Lina; Jensen, Per; Andersson, Leif

    2003-03-01

    We have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large proportion of the variation in body weights at different ages and growth between chronological ages in an F(2) intercross between red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. QTL were mapped using forward selection for loci with significant marginal genetic effects and with a simultaneous search for epistatic QTL pairs. We found 22 significant loci contributing to these traits, nine of these were only found by the simultaneous two-dimensional search, which demonstrates the power of this approach for detecting loci affecting complex traits. We have also estimated the relative contribution of additive, dominance, and epistasis effects to growth and the contribution of epistasis was more pronounced prior to 46 days of age, whereas additive genetic effects explained the major portion of the genetic variance later in life. Several of the detected loci affected either early or late growth but not both. Very few loci affected the entire growth process, which points out that early and late growth, at least to some extent, have different genetic regulation. PMID:12618372

  14. Prevention-centered caries management strategies during critical periods in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Chi, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    The current caries management model in the United States is based on restoring teeth rather than preventing disease. Scarce resources make this approach unsustainable, especially in clinical settings that serve vulnerable child populations. This paper presents specific prevention-centered caries management strategies that should form the basis of clinical interventions targeted at children during four critical periods in childhood: pre-age 1, ages 1-3, ages 4-5, and ages 6-7. PMID:22132585

  15. NEURODEVELOPMENT. Adult cortical plasticity depends on an early postnatal critical period.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Stuart D; Juczewski, Konrad; de Haan, Annelies M; Seaton, Gillian; Fox, Kevin; Hardingham, Neil R

    2015-07-24

    Development of the cerebral cortex is influenced by sensory experience during distinct phases of postnatal development known as critical periods. Disruption of experience during a critical period produces neurons that lack specificity for particular stimulus features, such as location in the somatosensory system. Synaptic plasticity is the agent by which sensory experience affects cortical development. Here, we describe, in mice, a developmental critical period that affects plasticity itself. Transient neonatal disruption of signaling via the C-terminal domain of "disrupted in schizophrenia 1" (DISC1)—a molecule implicated in psychiatric disorders—resulted in a lack of long-term potentiation (LTP) (persistent strengthening of synapses) and experience-dependent potentiation in adulthood. Long-term depression (LTD) (selective weakening of specific sets of synapses) and reversal of LTD were present, although impaired, in adolescence and absent in adulthood. These changes may form the basis for the cognitive deficits associated with mutations in DISC1 and the delayed onset of a range of psychiatric symptoms in late adolescence. PMID:26206934

  16. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity. PMID:26161272

  17. Assessment of Autism Symptoms During the Neonatal Period: Is There Early Evidence of Autism Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Kelsey; Oberle, Sarah; Inder, Terrie; Rogers, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To define neonatal social characteristics related to autism risk. METHOD. Sixty-two preterm infants underwent neonatal neurobehavioral testing. At age 2 yr, participants were assessed with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. RESULTS. Positive autism screening was associated with absence of gaze aversion, χ = 5.90, p =.01, odds ratio = 5.05, and absence of endpoint nystagmus, χ = 4.78, p = .02, odds ratio = 8.47. Demonstrating gaze aversion was related to better language outcomes, t(55) = −3.07, p ≤ .003. Displaying endpoint nystagmus was related to better language outcomes, t(61) = −3.06, p = .003, cognitive outcomes, t(63) = −5.04, p < .001, and motor outcomes, t(62) = −2.82, p = .006. CONCLUSION. Atypical social interactions were not observed among infants who later screened positive for autism. Instead, the presence of gaze aversion and endpoint nystagmus was related to better developmental outcomes. Understanding early behaviors associated with autism may enable early identification and lead to timely therapy activation to improve function. PMID:26114457

  18. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P.; Acock, Alan C.; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  19. Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Duncan, Robert; Bowles, Ryan P; Acock, Alan C; Miao, Alicia; Pratt, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Children's behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control) are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start) were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA) model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics. PMID:25071619

  20. Toxic Effects of Lithium Chloride during Early Neonatal Period of Rat Development.

    PubMed

    Menshanov, P N; Bannova, A V; Dygalo, N N

    2016-02-01

    Lithium chloride (85, 255, or 255+127 μg/kg) or dexamethasone (0.2 or 2 mg/kg) were subcutaneously injected to 3-day-old rat pups, whose excretory system did not yet attain functional maturity. Both agents retarded the growth of rat pups and delayed the appearance of negative geotaxis. LD50 and therapeutic index of lithium chloride were 255 μg/kg and TI≤3, respectively. Thus, lithium salts even in low doses can be highly toxic for the developing organism. PMID:26906201

  1. A Tale of Two Generations: Creativity Growth and Gender Differences over a Period of Education and Curriculum Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ping Chung; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    The Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests were translated into Chinese and later fully computerized for research in Hong Kong. The normative data of two cohorts (1994 and 2002) of school children were employed to test the hypothesis that growth in creative thinking occurs in a society or culture during a period of education and curriculum reforms that…

  2. Assessment of chromium efficacy on germination, root elongation, and coleoptile growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth periods.

    PubMed

    Dotaniya, M L; Das, H; Meena, V D

    2014-05-01

    The tannery effluents contain a high concentration of chromium (Cr). It drastically reduces the crop yield when used for irrigation purpose. A huge volume of tannery effluents is available as irrigation for crop production. It is negatively affecting germination as well as yield of the crop. The wheat seeds were exposed to five different concentrations of Cr (0, 20, 40, 80, and 100 ppm). In Petri plates, 100 seeds were placed and the germination percent was recorded after 72 hour (h). Root elongation and coleoptile growth were measured at 72, 120, 168, and 240 h. Results showed that the germination percent of the test crop decreased with increasing Cr levels. It decreased by 6, 14, 30, and 37 % under the Cr concentration of 20, 40, 80, and 100 ppm, respectively. The root elongation was more sensitive than the coleoptile growth. The negative correlation was found between Cr levels and root elongation as well as coleoptile growth. These growth parameters were significantly affected up to 80 ppm of Cr level. The wheat growers using tannery effluent as irrigation should be well treated prior to application. PMID:24415062

  3. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. PMID:24445174

  4. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation on the Effects of Feeds on the Growth and Early Reproductive Performance of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of several commercially available feeds and different feeding regimes on the growth and early reproductive performance of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Juvenile zebrafish (n= 20; 5.06 ± 0.69 mg) were stocked into each of 24 tanks (volume, 2 L); 3 tanks were assigned to each of 8 feeding combinations for a period of 60 d. At the end of 60 d, 2 male and 2 female fish from each tank were pooled by dietary treatment (n = 6) and used to evaluate the effects of feeding combinations on early reproductive performance. Zebrafish fed dietary treatments 3 and 7 had significantly greater weight gain than zebrafish fed diet 5. Mean spawning success was significantly greater in zebrafish fed the control diet (Artemiaonly) than in those fed diet 1. Mean hatch rates were greater in zebrafish fed the control feed and diets 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 than zebrafish fed diet 4. Additional results suggest that female zebrafish are sexually mature after 90 d post fertilization and that fertilization rates are the limiting factor in early reproduction. PMID:23043806

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period induces impairment in brain myelination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Larissa H; Annoni, Raquel; Balestrin, Natalia T; Coleto, Priscila L; Duro, Stephanie O; Garcia, Raphael C T; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Camarini, Rosana; Britto, Luiz R G; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in children. However, few studies focus on the brain development effects of ETS exposure. Myelination mainly occurs in the early years of life in humans and the first three postnatal weeks in rodents and is sensitive to xenobiotics exposure. This study investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on myelination. BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes from the third to the fourteenth days of life. The myelination of nerve fibers in the optic nerve by morphometric analysis and the levels of Olig1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) were evaluated in the cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon, and brainstem in infancy, adolescence, and adulthood. Infant mice exposed to ETS showed a decrease in the percentage of myelinated fibers in the optic nerve, compared with controls. ETS induced a decrease in Olig1 protein levels in the cerebellum and brainstem and an increase in MBP levels in the cerebellum at infant. It was also found a decrease in MBP levels in the telencephalon and brainstem at adolescence and in the cerebellum and diencephalon at adulthood. The present study demonstrates that exposure to ETS, in a critical phase of development, affects the percentage of myelinated fibers and myelin-specific proteins in infant mice. Although we did not observe differences in the morphological analysis in adolescence and adulthood, there was a decrease in MBP levels in distinctive brain regions suggesting a delayed effect in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:25182420

  7. Urea-based osmoregulation in the developing embryo of oviparous cartilaginous fish (Callorhinchus milii): contribution of the extraembryonic yolk sac during the early developmental period.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Bell, Justin D; Toop, Tes; Donald, John A; Hyodo, Susumu

    2014-04-15

    Marine cartilaginous fish retain a high concentration of urea to maintain the plasma slightly hyperosmotic to the surrounding seawater. In adult fish, urea is produced by hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycles (OUCs). However, little is known about the urea retention mechanism in developing cartilaginous fish embryos. In order to address the question as to the mechanism of urea-based osmoregulation in developing embryos, the present study examined the gene expression profiles of OUC enzymes in oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) embryos. We found that the yolk sac membrane (YSM) makes an important contribution to the ureosmotic strategy of the early embryonic period. The expression of OUC enzyme genes was detectable in the embryonic body from at least stage 28, and increased markedly during development to hatching, which is most probably due to growth of the liver. During the early developmental period, however, the expression of OUC enzyme genes was not prominent in the embryonic body. Meanwhile, we found that the mRNA expression of OUC enzymes was detected in the extra-embryonic YSM; the mRNA expression of cmcpsIII in the YSM was much higher than that in the embryonic body during stages 28-31. Significant levels of enzyme activity and the existence of mitochondrial-type cmgs1 transcripts in the YSM supported the mRNA findings. We also found that the cmcpsIII transcript is localized in the vascularized inner layer of the YSM. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that the YSM is involved in urea-based osmoregulation during the early to mid phase of development in oviparous cartilaginous fish. PMID:24363418

  8. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to Simulated High Altitude Does Not Modify Postnatal Body Mass Growth Trajectory in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Champin, Graciela M.; Bozzini, Clarisa; Alippi, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bozzini, Carlos E, Graciela M. Champin, Clarisa Bozzini, and Rosa M. Alippi. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to Simulated High Altitude Does Not Modify Postnatal Body Mass Growth Trajectory in the Rat. High Alt Med Biol 15:418–421, 2014.—Postnatal hypoxia blunts body mass growth. It is also known that the quality of the fetal environment can influence the subsequent adult phenotype. The main purpose of the study was to determine whether gestational hypoxia and early postnatal hypoxia are able to blunt growth when the offspring is raised under normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia was induced in simulated high altitude (SHA) chambers in which air was maintained at 380 mmHg (5450 m). Mature Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were divided in normoxic (NX) and hypoxic (HX) groups and, in the case of the HX group, maintained for 1 month at 5450 m. Mating was then allowed under NX or HX conditions. Offspring were NX-NX, NX-HX, HX-HX, or HX-NX: the first term indicates NX or HX during both gestation and the first 30 days of life; the second term indicates NX or HX during postnatal life between days 30 and 133. Body mass (g) was measured periodically and body mass growth rate (BMGR, g/d) was estimated between days 33 and 65 of postnatal life. Results can be summarized as follows: 1) BM was significantly higher in NX than in HX rats at weaning; 2) BMGR was not significantly different between NX-NX and HX-NX rats, and between HX-HX and NX-HX animals; and 3) BMGR was significantly higher in rats living under NX conditions than in those living under HX conditions during postnatal life. Data suggest that that hypobaric hypoxia during gestational and early postnatal development of rats does not alter the regulation of body mass growth in rats when compared to that seen under sea-level conditions. PMID:25184739

  9. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  10. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  11. Determination of induction period and crystal growth mechanism of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in methanol-acetone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxun; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli

    2005-02-01

    The induction period of dexamethasone sodium phosphate at different supersaturation was experimentally determined in a methanol-acetone system. The laser monitoring observation technique was used to determine the appearance of the first nucleus in solution. The effect of solution composition on induction period was discussed. Based on classical homogeneous nucleation theory, the solid-liquid interfacial tension and surface entropy factor were calculated from the induction period data. The experimentally determined values of interfacial tension are in agreement with the theoretical values predicted by the Mersmann equation. It was found that the nucleus of dexamethasone sodium phosphate grows continuously in pure methanol and turns from continuous growth to birth and spread growth with increasing acetone content in a methanol-acetone mixture.

  12. Spatial periodicity in growth plate shear mechanical properties is disrupted by vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sevenler, Derin; Buckley, Mark R.; Kim, Grace; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The growth plate is a highly organized section of cartilage in the long bones of growing children that is susceptible to mechanical failure as well as structural and functional disruption caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D. The shear mechanical properties of the proximal tibial growth plate of rats raised either on normal or vitamin D and calcium deficient diets were measured. A sinusoidal oscillating shear load was applied to small excised growth plate specimens perpendicular to the direction of growth while imaging the deformation in real time with a fast confocal microscope. Local deformations and shear strains were quantified using image correlation. The proliferative zone of the growth plate bores the majority of the shear strain and the resting, hypertrophic and calcification zones deformed less. Surprisingly, we regularly observed discontinuous deformations in the proliferative zone in both groups that resembled cell columns sliding past one another in the direction of growth. These discontinuities manifested as regions of concentrated longitudinal shear strain. Furthermore, these shear strain concentrations were spaced evenly in the proliferative zone and the spacing between them was similar across growth plate regions and across control specimens. In contrast to the healthy controls, the vitamin D deficient growth plate exhibited larger variations in the size and orientation of cellular columns in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. High strains were observed between columns, much as they were in the controls. However, the regular spacing of shear strain concentrations was not preserved, echoing the observation of decreased structural organization. PMID:23706979

  13. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  14. Effect of levels of starch, fiber, and lactose on digestion and growth performance of early-weaned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, I; Espinosa, A; García, J; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2002-04-01

    The effect of source of carbohydrate on gut histology, digestion efficiency, and growth performance in early-weaned (25 d) rabbits at the starter period (25 to 39 d) was investigated. Six diets were factorially arranged to study the effect of partial substitution of starch (0, 25, or 50%) by lactose at two levels of fiber (30 or 36% NDF). Diets were formulated to meet or exceed essential nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. A feeding trial was conducted to measure the effect of treatments on growth performance in 252 rabbits that were fed the experimental diets in the starter period and thereafter received a common feed until 60 d of age. Fecal apparent digestibility was determined at 35 d of age in nine animals per diet. The four diets with extreme lactose content were used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of starch and lactose (nine replicates per diet), weights of stomach and cecum, stomach pH, cecal fermentation traits, amylase and disaccharidase activities (10 animals per diet), and jejunal morphology (six animals per diet). Weaning increased (P < 0.001) amylase activity by 59% but decreased (P < 0.001) maltase, sucrase, and lactase activities by 30, 48, and 72%, in parallel with a reduction of villus height by 19%. Dietary NDF level did not affect either jejunal morphology or sucrase and lactase activities but increased amylase (P = 0.05) and maltase (P < 0.001) activities by 22 and 92%, respectively. Substitution of starch by lactose had no effect on jejunal morphology or enzymatic activity. Ileal lactose and starch digestibility were not affected by dietary NDF or lactose level and averaged 73.8 and 90.8%, respectively. Substitution of starch by fiber and lactose affected ileal flux of starch plus lactose (by -0.5 and +1.7 g/d) and cecal pH (by +2.1 and -2.8%, respectively). Fecal NDF digestibility was relatively low (23.1% on average) and was not affected by treatments, whereas that of lactose and starch was almost complete. An increase of

  15. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming. PMID:25470520

  16. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  17. Lung Dendritic Cell Developmental Programming, Environmental Stimuli, and Asthma in Early Periods of Life

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shanjana; Singh, Bhupinder; Welliver, Robert C.; Dietert, Rodney R.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important cells of our innate immune system. Their role is critical in inducing adaptive immunity, tolerance, or allergic response in peripheral organs—lung and skin. The lung DCs are not developed prenatally before birth. The DCs develop after birth presumably during the first year of life; exposures to any foreign antigen or infectious organisms during this period can significantly affect DC developmental programming and generation of distinct DC phenotypes and functions. These changes can have both short-term and long-term health effects which may be very relevant in childhood asthma and predisposition for a persistent response in adulthood. An understanding of DC development at molecular and cellular levels can help in protecting neonates and infants against problematic environmental exposures and developmental immunotoxicity. This knowledge can eventually help in designing novel pharmacological modulators to skew the DC characteristics and immune responses to benefit the host across a lifetime. PMID:23209481

  18. Growth and characterization of periodically polarity-inverted ZnO structures on sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinsub; Yao, Takafumi

    2012-10-15

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of periodically polarity inverted (PPI) ZnO heterostructures on (0 0 0 1) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. For the periodically inverted array of ZnO polarity, CrN and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} polarity selection buffer layers are used for the Zn- and O-polar ZnO films, respectively. The change of polarity and period in fabricated ZnO structures is evaluated by diffraction patterns and polarity sensitive piezo-response microscopy. Finally, PPI ZnO structures with subnanometer scale period are demonstrated by using holographic lithography and regrowth techniques.

  19. Propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Wayne P; Kennedy, Peter G; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-05-01

    Variation in rates of seedling recruitment, growth, and survival can strongly influence the rate and course of forest regeneration following disturbance. Using a combination of field sampling and shadehouse experiments, we investigated the influence of propagule size and predispersal insect damage on the establishment and early growth of the three common mangrove species on the Caribbean coast of Panama: Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. In our field samples, all three species exhibited considerable intraspecific variation in mature propagule size, and suffered moderate to high levels of predispersal attack by larval insects. Rates of insect attack were largely independent of propagule size both within and among trees. Our experimental studies using undamaged mature propagules showed that, for all three species, seedlings established at high rates regardless of propagule size. However, propagule size did have a marked effect on early seedling growth: seedlings that developed from larger propagules grew more rapidly. Predispersal insect infestations that had destroyed or removed a substantial amount of tissue, particularly if that tissue was meristematic or conductive, reduced the establishment of propagules of all three species. The effect of sublethal tissue damage or loss on the subsequent growth of established seedlings varied among the three mangrove species. For Avicennia, the growth response was graded: for a propagule of a given size, the more tissue lost, the slower the growth of the seedling. For Laguncularia, the response to insect attack appeared to be all-or-none. If the boring insect penetrated the outer spongy seed coat and reached the developing embryo, it usually caused sufficient damage to prevent a seedling from developing. On the other hand, if the insect damaged but did not penetrate the seed coat, a completely healthy seedling developed and its growth rate was indistinguishable from a seedling developing from an

  20. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  1. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Scott; Maltrud, Mathew; Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Cameron-Smith, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH4 distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  2. Determinants of HIV-induced brain changes in three different periods of the early clinical course: A data mining analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bokai; Kong, Xiangnan; Kettering, Casey; Yu, Philip; Ragin, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To inform an understanding of brain status in HIV infection, quantitative imaging measurements were derived at structural, microstructural and macromolecular levels in three different periods of early infection and then analyzed simultaneously at each stage using data mining. Support vector machine recursive feature elimination was then used for simultaneous analysis of subject characteristics, clinical and behavioral variables, and immunologic measures in plasma and CSF to rank features associated with the most discriminating brain alterations in each period. The results indicate alterations beginning in initial infection and in all periods studied. The severity of immunosuppression in the initial virus host interaction was the most highly ranked determinant of earliest brain alterations. These results shed light on the initial brain changes induced by a neurotropic virus and their subsequent evolution. The pattern of ongoing alterations occurring during and beyond the period in which virus is suppressed in the systemic circulation supports the brain as a viral reservoir that may preclude eradication in the host. Data mining capabilities that can address high dimensionality and simultaneous analysis of disparate information sources have considerable utility for identifying mechanisms underlying onset of neurological injury and for informing new therapeutic targets. PMID:26413474

  3. Periodic stripe formation by a Turing-mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Andrew D.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Sharpe, Paul T.; Kondo, Shigeru; Basson, M. Albert; Gritli-Linde, Amel; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Green, Jeremy B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present direct evidence of an activator-inhibitor system in the generation of the regularly spaced transverse ridges of the palate. We show that new ridges, or rugae, marked by stripes of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression, appear at two growth zones where the space between previously laid-down rugae increases. However, inter-rugal growth is not absolutely required: new stripes still appear when growth is inhibited. Furthermore, when a ruga is excised new Shh expression appears, not at the cut edge but as bifurcating stripes branching from the neighbouring Shh stripe, diagnostic of a Turing-type reaction-diffusion mechanism. Genetic and inhibitor experiments identify Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Shh as an activator-inhibitor pair in this system. These findings demonstrate a reaction-diffusion mechanism likely to be widely relevant in vertebrate development. PMID:22344222

  4. Sexual behavior of Pecari tajacu (Cetartiodactyla: Tayassuidae) during periovulatory and early gestation periods.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Oba, Eunice; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; Mayor, Pedro; de Araujo Guimarães, Diva Anelie

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the sexual behavior in female and male collared peccary. Twenty females and twelve males were monitored in familiar and non-familiar units for two 60 days periods. During both phases, we recorded 2747 sexual interactions initiated by 20 different females toward males and 4461 sexual interactions initiated by 12 males toward females. The frequency of sexual interactions initiated per female significantly increased from proestrus to estrus, and they were significantly more frequently courted. Females initiated olfactory inspections 15.42 times more and were mounted 22.6 times more during estrus than during proestrus. Nulliparous and primiparous females copulated only when exposed to non-parental males. After estrus, the frequency of sexual interactions received by females sharply decreased. One mating event was recorded during the first gestation week and 31 mountings were observed after the second week. In conclusion, the behavioral monitoring is a useful procedure for the recognition of estrus. Our results suggest that ovulation may be associated with the end of the estrus, which will support future work in assisted reproduction in this species. To promote good handling practices, females of reproductive age should be removed from their family unit of origin. PMID:27553126

  5. Plasma epidermal growth factor decreased in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  6. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, J. Casey; Takahashi, Ayuko; Glotzbecker, Michael P.; Snyder, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age) is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old). Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old). Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8). Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55°) had decreased body weight (89%), right (59%) and left (86%) lung mass, right (74%) and left (69%) radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%), and forced vital capacity (75%). Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may also have

  7. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20. PMID:27274149

  8. [EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN ADULT RATS AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF INTERLEUKIN-1beta DURING DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EARLY LIFE].

    PubMed

    Abdurasulova, I N; Zubareva, O E; Zhitnuhin, Yu L; Ischenko, A M; Klimenko, V M

    2015-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the CNS that affects people of working age, in which the targets of aggressive immune cells become the myelin and myeline producing cells, as well as neurons. It is assumed that a predisposition to MS is forming in childhood, due to common infections. In this paper the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was examined in rats administered IL-1beta at different periods of the early postnatal ontogenesis. EAE was induced in rats at the age of 3 months by single subcutaneous immunization with a homologous homogenate of spinal cord in complete Freund's adjuvant. The number of sick animals were evaluated, as well as the severity of the disease and its duration. It was shown that in rats after administration of IL-1beta on 1st and on 4th week of life EAE is more severe than corresponding control groups of rats. Discusses the damaging or protective effects of injections of IL-1beta during different periods of early postnatal ontogenesis, role of stress reactivity and communication with the "hygiene hypothesis". PMID:26336737

  9. [The "good doctor". Physicians' morality and the self-conception of medicine since the early modern period].

    PubMed

    Polianski, Igor J

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the historical change in medical ethics since the beginning of the early modern period, drawing on normative sources, mostly of German origin. The theoretical frame of reference is provided by historical moral sociology and the history of the modernisation, as expounded in Niklas Luhmann's system theory. In a first step, evidence for the change in the moral codes of the various social systems (science, economy etc.) of the early modern period is assembled (1) in order to approach the question, taking the medieval medical doctrines of salvation as a starting point (2), whether structurally analogous processes of change can be made out in the medical system. These are identified in the removal of a moral evaluation of disease and in the moral neutralization of doctors' behaviour which is reflected in the spread of medical happiness doctrines (3). Following an interim reflection on moral theory (4), the enforcement of a modern behavioural code in 19th-century medical deontology is outlined, which was based on moral restraint (5) and the specific professional identity of the doctor (6). A summary of the results leads to a concluding outlook on current trends in medical ethics discourse (7). PMID:23213865

  10. Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Groh, Ksenia J; Zennegg, Markus; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Murk, Albertinka J; Eggen, Rik I L; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity resulting from the exposure to sublethal chemical concentrations is an increasing concern in environmental risk assessment. The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish provides a reliable prediction of acute toxicity in adult fish, but it cannot yet be applied to predict the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity. Identification of sublethal FET endpoints that can assist in predicting the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity would be advantageous. The present study characterized the occurrence of delayed toxicity in zebrafish larvae following early exposure to PCB126, previously described to cause delayed effects in the common sole. The first aim was to investigate the occurrence and temporal profiles of delayed toxicity during zebrafish larval development and compare them to those previously described for sole to evaluate the suitability of zebrafish as a model fish species for delayed toxicity assessment. The second aim was to examine the correlation between the sublethal endpoints assessed during embryonal and early larval development and the delayed effects observed during later larval development. After exposure to PCB126 (3-3000ng/L) until 5 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae were reared in clean water until 14 or 28 dpf. Mortality and sublethal morphological and behavioural endpoints were recorded daily, and growth was assessed at 28 dpf. Early life exposure to PCB126 caused delayed mortality (300 ng/L and 3000 ng/L) as well as growth impairment and delayed development (100 ng/L) during the clean water period. Effects on swim bladder inflation and cartilaginous tissues within 5 dpf were the most promising for predicting delayed mortality and sublethal effects, such as decreased standard length, delayed metamorphosis, reduced inflation of swim bladder and column malformations. The EC50 value for swim bladder inflation at 5 dpf (169 ng/L) was similar to the LC50 value at 8 dpf (188 and 202 ng/L in

  11. [Analgesic and opioid-sparing effects of intravenous paracetamol in the early period after aortocoronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Eremenko, A A; Kuslieva, E V

    2008-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the analgesic and opioid-sparing effect of intravenous paracetamol injections in cardiosurgical patients in the early postoperative period. Adequate analgesia within the first 12-18 hours of the early postoperative period is very important for a good prognosis of the further course of pain syndrome and for the reduction of a risk for its progression to its chronic form. In early studies, propacetamol lowered morphine use after orthopedic and gynecological operations. The efficacy of paracetamol used in cardiac surgery has been little studied and the results of the studies are conflicting. The randomized, blind, placebo-controlled study included patients after aortocoronary bypass surgery, of them 22 patients received paracetamol and 23 had placebo. The test drug (perfalgan 100 ml or placebo) was intravenously injected 30 min before extubation and then every 6 hours within succeeding 18 hours. The intensity of the pain syndrome was rated by a 5-score verbal scale every 2 hours. With pain score of 2 or more, promedol was intramuscularly administered in a dose of 10 mg. Inspiratory volume was recorded before extubation and the first administration of a drug just after extubation and then every 2 hours. The baseline indices did not differ in both groups. Throughout the observation, the inspiratory volume was lower in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group; however, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012) in the reduction in the manifestations of the pain syndrome (by 81%) only just after tracheal extubation. During this period, inspiratory volume values were higher in the paracetamol group; however, a statistically significant (39%) difference between the groups in the mean values was obtained only during and 2 hours after extubation. In the perfalgan group, the mean total use of promedol was 36% less than in the placebo-group, which was statistically significant (p = 0.019). The early postoperative use of

  12. Balloon-assisted maturation for arteriovenous fistula maturation failure: an early period experience

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Cheol; Ko, Seung Yeon; Kim, Ji Il; Moon, In Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) is emerging as a salvage management for arteriovenous fistula maturation failure (AVF MF). However, BAM is a relatively new, yet controversial technique for AVF maturation. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of BAM for AVF MF. Methods Between January 2012 and December 2014, 249 AVFs were created. The total MF rate was 24.8%. But, only 110 AVFs were enrolled, including 74 brachiocephalic (BC) AVFs and 36 radiocephalic (RC) AVFs. The follow-up period was 12 months. Among those, there were 42 MFs (22 BC AVFs and 20 RC AVFs) and 68 maturation successes (MS) (52 BC AVFs and 16 RC AVFs). BAM was involved in MF group. We compared the clinical characteristics, AVF flows, and AVF flow ratios of MF and MS groups. Also, we evaluated the etiology, management, and result of MF. Results There was no difference in clinical characteristics between MF and MS groups. In MF group, 39 balloon angioplasties (BAs) for 42 AVF MFs were performed. Number of BA was 1.45 ± 0.57 and duration of BA was 21.30 ± 21.24 weeks. BAM rate was 46.2%. For 1 year after AVF creation, AVF flows of MS group were significantly larger than those of MF group (P < 0.05) but there was no difference in AVF flow ratio between MF and MS groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion BA for AVF MF is a relatively applicable and effective modality. Although a large volume study is necessary, we suggest BAM is an effective salvage management for AVF MF. PMID:27186572

  13. Source mechanism of very-long-period signals accompanying dome growth activity at Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hidayat, D.; Chouet, B.; Voight, B.; Dawson, P.; Ratdomopurbo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Very-long-period (VLP) pulses with period of 6-7s, displaying similar waveforms, were identified in 1998 from broadband seismographs around the summit crater. These pulses accompanied most of multiphase (MP) earthquakes, a type of long-period event locally defined at Merapi Volcano. Source mechanisms for several VLP pulses were examined by applying moment tensor inversion to the waveform data. Solutions were consistent with a crack striking ???70?? and dipping ???50?? SW, 100m under the active dome, suggest pressurized gas transport involving accumulation and sudden release of 10-60 m3 of gas in the crack over a 6s interval.

  14. Radial and nonradial periods and growth rates of an AI Velorum model

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Walraven, Walraven, and Balona recently discovered several new periodicities in addition to the well-known fundamental and first overtone periods of the high-amplitude {delta} Scuti star AI Velorum. Linear nonadiabatic pulsation calculations were performed for an AI Velorum model of mass 1.96 M{sub {circle dot}}, 24.05 L{sub {circle dot}}, and T{sub eff}7566 K for the radial and low-degree nonradial modes to help verify the tentative identifications made by Walraven, et al. Comparison of the calculated periods with the observations suggests some alternatives to the identifications proposed by Walraven, et al.

  15. Source mechanism of very-long-period signals accompanying dome growth activity at Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Chouet, B.; Voight, B.; Dawson, P.; Ratdomopurbo, A.

    2002-12-01

    Very-long-period (VLP) pulses with period of 6-7s, displaying similar waveforms, were identified in 1998 from broadband seismographs around the summit crater. These pulses accompanied most of multiphase (MP) earthquakes, a type of long-period event locally defined at Merapi Volcano. Source mechanisms for several VLP pulses were examined by applying moment tensor inversion to the waveform data. Solutions were consistent with a crack striking ~70° and dipping ~50° SW, 100m under the active dome, suggest pressurized gas transport involving accumulation and sudden release of 10-60 m3 of gas in the crack over a 6s interval.

  16. Smad-Independent Transforming Growth Factor-β Regulation of Early Growth Response-1 and Sustained Expression in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Swati; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew; Ning, Hongyan; Lakos, Gabriella; Mori, Yasuji; Chang, Eric; Nihijima, Chihiro; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Varga, John

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a key role in scleroderma pathogenesis. The transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) mediates the stimulation of collagen transcription elicited by TGF-β and is necessary for the development of pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Here, we report that TGF-β causes a time- and dose-dependent increase in Egr-1 protein and mRNA levels and enhanced transcription of the Egr-1 gene via serum response elements in normal fibroblasts. The ability of TGF-β to stimulate Egr-1 was preserved in Smad3-null mice and in explanted Smad3-null fibroblasts. The response was blocked by a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor but not by an ALK5 kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, MEK1 was phosphorylated by TGF-β, which was sufficient to drive Egr-1 transactivation. Stimulation by TGF-β enhanced the transcriptional activity of Elk-1 via the MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Bleomycin-induced scleroderma in the mouse was accompanied by increased Egr-1 accumulation in lesional fibroblasts. Furthermore, biopsies of lesional skin and lung from patients with scleroderma showed increased Egr-1 levels, which were highest in early diffuse disease. Moreover, both Egr-1 mRNA and protein were elevated in explanted scleroderma skin fibroblasts in vitro. Together, these findings define a Smad-independent TGF-β signal transduction mechanism that underlies the stimulation of Egr-1, demonstrate for the first time sustained Egr-1 up-regulation in fibrotic lesions and suggests that Egr-1 has a role in the induction and progression of fibrosis. PMID:18772333

  17. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  18. Early stages of growth and crystal structure evolution of boron nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Anne; Chubarov, Mikhail; Czigány, Zsolt; Garbrecht, Magnus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-05-01

    A study of the nucleation and crystal structure evolution at the early stages of the growth of sp2-BN thin films on 6H-SiC and α-Al2O3 substrates is presented. The growth is performed at low pressure and high temperature in a hot wall CVD reactor, using ammonia and triethylboron as precursors, and H2 as carrier gas. From high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray thin film diffraction measurements we observe that polytype pure rhombohedral BN (r-BN) is obtained on 6H-SiC substrates. On α-Al2O3 an AlN buffer obtained by nitridation is needed to promote the growth of hexagonal BN (h-BN) to a thickness of around 4 nm followed by a transition to r-BN growth. In addition, when r-BN is obtained, triangular features show up in plan-view scanning electron microscopy which are not seen on thin h-BN layers. The formation of BN after already one minute of growth is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. First look at a major transition period in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    In recent years astronomers have successfully `looked back' towards this period, but the new observations of HE 2347-4342 have now homed in on an important transitionary epoch during the evolution of the young Universe. Searching for clear views towards bright quasars As has been the case for many other important scientific achievements, this observational breakthrough was preceded by a long and tedious period of careful preparatory work. It began in 1989, when Dieter Reimers and his collaborators from the University of Hamburg (Germany) initiated a spectral survey of the entire southern sky with the 1-metre ESO Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The aim was to find bright quasars, a rare class of remote galaxies with unusually bright and energetic centres. They would then be studied in greater detail with other, larger telescopes. For this programme, a large objective prism is placed in front of the telescope, allowing the simultaneous recording on a large photographic plate of spectra of about 40,000 celestial objects in a 5o x 5o sky field. The plates are sent to Hamburg where they are scanned (digitized) in a microphotometer and automatically searched for spectra of quasars. Until now, more than 400 plates have been obtained. One of the main goals of this vast programme is to find bright and distant quasars, in particular those whose light reaches us along relatively unobstructed paths. Or, in other words, those intrinsically bright and remote quasars which are located in directions where the Universe is unusually transparent for ultraviolet light. With a 'clear view' thus ensured, it would subsequently be possible to study such far-away objects and the intergalactic gas out there in unprecedented detail with large telescopes. The greater the distance, the longer has the light been underway, the longer is the 'look-back' time and the earlier is the epoch about which we then obtain new information. Discovery of a unique quasar Altogether, more than 650 bright

  20. Adaptive Use of Information during Growth Can Explain Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Fawcett, Tim W; Higginson, Andrew D; Trimmer, Pete C; Uller, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Development is a continuous process during which individuals gain information about their environment and adjust their phenotype accordingly. In many natural systems, individuals are particularly sensitive to early life experiences, even in the absence of later constraints on plasticity. Recent models have highlighted how the adaptive use of information can explain age-dependent plasticity. These models assume that information gain and phenotypic adjustments either cannot occur simultaneously or are completely independent. This assumption is not valid in the context of growth, where finding food results both in a size increase and learning about food availability. Here, we describe a simple model of growth to provide proof of principle that long-term effects of early life experiences can arise through the coupled dynamics of information acquisition and phenotypic change in the absence of direct constraints on plasticity. The increase in reproductive value from gaining information and sensitivity of behavior to experiences declines across development. Early life experiences have long-term impacts on age of maturity, yet-due to compensatory changes in behavior-our model predicts no substantial effects on reproductive success. We discuss how the evolution of sensitive windows can be explained by experiences having short-term effects on informational and phenotypic states, which generate long-term effects on life-history decisions. PMID:27104994

  1. Establishing the volatile profile of pig carcasses as analogues for human decomposition during the early postmortem period.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P; Nizio, K D; Perrault, K A; Forbes, S L

    2016-02-01

    Following a mass disaster, it is important that victims are rapidly located as the chances of survival decrease greatly after approximately 48 h. Urban search and rescue (USAR) teams may use a range of tools to assist their efforts but detector dogs still remain one of the most effective search tools to locate victims of mass disasters. USAR teams can choose to deploy human scent dogs (trained to locate living victims) or human remains detection (HRD) dogs (trained to locate deceased victims). However, little is known about the variation between live human scent and postmortem human remains scent and the timeframe during which one type of scent transitions to the other. The aim of the current study was to measure the change in the scent profile of human decomposition analogues during the first 72 h postmortem by measuring the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that comprise the odour. Three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. Decomposition odour was sampled frequently up to 75 h postmortem and analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). A total of 105 postmortem VOCs were identified during the early postmortem period. The VOC profile during the early postmortem period was highly dynamic, changing both hourly and daily. A transition period was observed after 43 h postmortem, where the VOC profile appeared to shift from a distinct antemortem odour to a more generalised postmortem odour. These findings are important in informing USAR teams and their use of detector dogs for disaster victim recovery. PMID:27441249

  2. Expression of cyr61, a growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, T P; Yang, G P; Sanders, L; Lau, L F

    1990-01-01

    A set of immediate-early genes that are rapidly activated by serum or purified platelet-derived growth factor in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts has been previously identified. Among these genes, several are related to known or putative transcription factors and growth factors, supporting the notion that some of these genes encode regulatory molecules important to cell growth. We show here that a member of this set of genes, cyr61 (originally identified by its cDNA 3CH61), encodes a 379-amino-acid polypeptide rich in cysteine residues. cyr61 can be induced through protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways. Unlike many immediate-early genes that are transiently expressed, the cyr61 mRNA is accumulated from the G0/G1 transition through mid-G1. This expression pattern is due to persistent transcription, while the mRNA is rapidly turned over during the G0/G1 transition and in mid-G1 at the same rate. In logarithmically growing cells, the cyr61 mRNA level is constant throughout the cell cycle. Cyr61 contains an N-terminal secretory signal sequence; however, it is not detected in the culture medium by immunoprecipitation. Cyr61 is synthesized maximally at 1 to 2 h after serum stimulation and has a short half-life within the cell. Images PMID:2355916

  3. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. . Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  4. Growth retardation at early life and metabolic adaptation among North Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-K; Nam, S-Y; Hoffman, D J

    2015-08-01

    The high prevalence of obesity is a major public health issue and contributes to the 'double burden' of disease in developing countries. Early exposure to poor nutrition may cause metabolic adaptations that, when accompanied by exposure to 'affluent' nutrition, may increase the risk for obesity and other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine differences in energy metabolism and nutritional status between normal-height and growth-retarded North Korean children living in South Korea. A total of 29 children were recruited and underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient (RQ), anthropometrics and dietary intake. There was no difference in REE or any assessment of obesity between the growth-retarded and normal-height children. Children who were classified as growth retarded (HAZ<-1.0) or stunted (HAZ<-2.0) had a significantly higher RQ (β=0.036 or 0.060, respectively, P=0.018 or 0.016), independent of sex, age, fat-free mass, fat mass and food quotient, compared with children with normal height. The results from this study, the first from an Asian population, add to the growing body of literature suggesting that undernutrition early in life results in adaptations in energy metabolism that favor fat deposition, increasing the risk of stunted children becoming overweight or obese later in life. Continued research on this topic is warranted, given the continued rise in the prevalence of the double burden in transitional countries. PMID:25997456

  5. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  6. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  7. Periodic Overload and Transport Spectrum Fatigue Crack Growth Tests of Ti62222STA and Al2024T3 Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    Variable amplitude loading crack growth tests have been conducted to provide data that can be used to evaluate crack growth prediction codes. Tests with periodic overloads or overloads followed by underloads were conducted on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr solution treated and aged (Ti62222STA) material at room temperature and at 350 F. Spectrum fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on two materials (Ti62222STA and aluminum alloy 2024-T3) using two transport lower-wing test spectra at two temperatures (room temperature and 350 F (Ti only)). Test lives (growth from an initial crack half-length of 0.15 in. to failure) were recorded in all tests and the crack length against cycles (or flights) data were recorded in many of the tests. The following observations were made regarding the test results: (1) in tests of the Ti62222STA material, the tests at 350 F had longer lives than those at room temperature, (2) in tests to the MiniTwist spectrum, the Al2024T3 material showed much greater crack growth retardations due to the highest stresses in the spectrum than did the Ti62222STA material, and (3) comparisons of material crack growth performances on an "equal weight" basis were spectrum dependent.

  8. Brg1 Enables Rapid Growth of the Early Embryo by Suppressing Genes That Regulate Apoptosis and Cell Growth Arrest.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet P; Foley, Julie F; Rubino, Mark; Boyle, Michael C; Tandon, Arpit; Shah, Ruchir; Archer, Trevor K

    2016-08-01

    SWI/SNF (switching/sucrose nonfermenting)-dependent chromatin remodeling establishes coordinated gene expression programs during development, yet important functional details remain to be elucidated. We show that the Brg1 (Brahma-related gene 1; Smarca4) ATPase is globally expressed at high levels during postimplantation development and its conditional ablation, beginning at gastrulation, results in increased apoptosis, growth retardation, and, ultimately, embryonic death. Global gene expression analysis revealed that genes upregulated in Rosa26CreERT2; Brg1(flox/flox) embryos (here referred to as Brg1(d/d) embryos to describe embryos with deletion of the Brg1(flox/flox) alleles) negatively regulate cell cycle progression and cell growth. In addition, the p53 (Trp53) protein, which is virtually undetectable in early wild-type embryos, accumulated in the Brg1(d/d) embryos and activated the p53-dependent pathways. Using P19 cells, we show that Brg1 and CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4) coordinate to control target gene expression. Both proteins physically interact and show a substantial overlap of binding sites at chromatin-accessible regions adjacent to genes differentially expressed in the Brg1(d/d) embryos. Specifically, Brg1 deficiency results in reduced levels of the repressive histone H3 lysine K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) histone mark and an increase in the amount of open chromatin at the regulatory region of the p53 and p21 (Cdkn1a) genes. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which Brg1 functions, which is in part via the p53 program, to constrain gene expression and facilitate rapid embryonic growth. PMID:27185875

  9. Early doors (Edo) mutant mouse reveals the importance of period 2 (PER2) PAS domain structure for circadian pacemaking

    PubMed Central

    Militi, Stefania; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Sandate, Colby R.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Parsons, Michael J.; Vibert, Jennifer L.; Joynson, Greg M.; Partch, Carrie L.; Hastings, Michael H.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) defines 24 h of time via a transcriptional/posttranslational feedback loop in which transactivation of Per (period) and Cry (cryptochrome) genes by BMAL1–CLOCK complexes is suppressed by PER–CRY complexes. The molecular/structural basis of how circadian protein complexes function is poorly understood. We describe a novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation, early doors (Edo), in the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain dimerization region of period 2 (PER2) (I324N) that accelerates the circadian clock of Per2Edo/Edo mice by 1.5 h. Structural and biophysical analyses revealed that Edo alters the packing of the highly conserved interdomain linker of the PER2 PAS core such that, although PER2Edo complexes with clock proteins, its vulnerability to degradation mediated by casein kinase 1ε (CSNK1E) is increased. The functional relevance of this mutation is revealed by the ultrashort (<19 h) but robust circadian rhythms in Per2Edo/Edo; Csnk1eTau/Tau mice and the SCN. These periods are unprecedented in mice. Thus, Per2Edo reveals a direct causal link between the molecular structure of the PER2 PAS core and the pace of SCN circadian timekeeping. PMID:26903623

  10. Long-orbital-period Prepolars Containing Early K-type Donor Stars. Bottleneck Accretion Mechanism in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  11. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic. PMID:25723516

  12. Changes in antibiotic susceptability of Escherichia coli isolated from steers exposed to antibiotics during the early feeding period.

    PubMed

    Coe, Paul H; Grooms, Daniel L; Metz, Ken; Holland, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of therapeutic choices on antibiotic resistance of intestinal bacteria may have food safety consequences. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli to antibiotics currently approved for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease were evaluated in 260 feedlot steers. Susceptibilities to antimicrobial compounds were compared among three treatment groups at three times between arrival at the feedlot and harvest to assess changes over the course of the feeding period. No significant change was found in the resistance of E. coli to tilmicosin, florfenicol, and enrofloxacin, which were used to prevent and treat respiratory disease in this study. Despite an absence of exposure to ampicillin and ceftiofur, a significant increase in resistance was observed for these two antimicrobial drugs that declined by the end of the feeding period. In this study, use of approved antimicrobials early in the feeding period for the prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease had little effect on antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolated from cattle near the time of slaughter. PMID:19003784

  13. Plasticity and constraint in response to early-life stressors among late/final Jomon period foragers from Japan: evidence for life history trade-offs from incremental microstructures of enamel.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates two hypotheses that address how Late/Final Jomon period people responded to early-life stress using linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and incremental microstructures of enamel. The first hypothesis predicts that Jomon people who experienced early-life stressors had greater physiological competence in responding to future stress events (predictive adaptive response). The second hypothesis predicts that Jomon people traded-off in future growth and maintenance when early investment in growth and survival was required (plasticity/constraint). High resolution tooth impressions were collected from intact, anterior teeth and studied under an engineer's measuring microscope. LEH were identified based on accentuated perikymata and depressions in the enamel surface profile. Age of formation for each LEH was estimated by summing counts of perikymata and constants associated with crown initiation and cuspal enamel formation times. The relationship between age-at-first-defect formation, number of LEH, periodicity between LEH, and mortality was evaluated using multiple regression and hazards analysis. A significant, positive relationship was found between age-at-death relative to age-at-first-defect formation and a significant, negative relationship was found between number of LEH relative to age-at-first-defect formation. Individuals with earlier forming defects were at a significantly greater risk of forming defects at later stages of development and dying at younger ages. These results suggest that Late/Final Jomon period foragers responded to early-life stressors in a manner consistent with the plasticity/constraint hypothesis of human life history. Late/Final Jomon period individuals were able to survive early-life stressors, but this investment weakened responses to future stress events and exacerbated mortality schedules. PMID:25156299

  14. Early Acceleration of Mathematics Students and its Effect on Growth in Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin

    2002-11-01

    The Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) database was employed to examine the educational practice of early acceleration of students of mathematics on the development of their self-esteem across the entire secondary grade levels. Students were classified into three different academic categories (gifted, honors, and regular). Results indicated that, in terms of the development of their self-esteem, gifted students benefited from early acceleration, honors students neither benefited nor were harmed by early acceleration, and regular students were harmed by early acceleration. Early acceleration in mathematics promoted significant growth in self-esteem among gifted male students and among gifted, honors, and regular minority students. When students were accelerated, schools showed similar average growth in self-esteem among gifted students and regular students and a large effect of general support for mathematics on the average growth in self-esteem among honors students.

  15. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  16. In-plane and growth direction electron cyclotron effective mass in short period InAs/GaSb semiconductor superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Suchalkin, S.; Belenky, G.; Svensson, S. P.; Laikhtman, B.; Smirnov, D.; Tung, L. C.; Bandara, S.

    2011-08-15

    In plane and growth direction electron effective mass in short period InAs/GaSb semiconductor superlattices (SL) was measured using cyclotron resonance at different orientations of magnetic field with respect to SL growth direction. It was demonstrated that the electron spectrum near the bottom of the SL subband has 3D character, with the in-plane effective masses ranging from 0.023 m{sub 0} to 0.028 m{sub 0} and growth direction effective masses of 0.03-0.034 m{sub 0} depending on the SL period and growth conditions. The measured effective masses are close to those calculated in the weak coupling limit of the Kronig-Penney model. In this limit the SL electron effective mass is a weighted average of the electron effective masses of corresponding bulk materials. Correlation between the magnitude of cyclotron mobility, amplitude of negative magnetoresistance, and steepness of the long wavelength side of the photoluminescence spectrum indicate that the crystalline structure disorder is a major factor contributing to the momentum relaxation time of the electrons.

  17. Myocardial ischaemia and angina in the early post-infarction period: a comparison with patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, B; Stevenson, R; Vaishnav, S; Ranjadayalan, K; Timmis, A D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate Holter and treadmill responses in patients with stable angina or recent myocardial infarction in order to compare the mechanisms of ischaemia and its symptomatic expression in these two groups. PATIENTS--75 patients with ischaemic ST segment depression on both a treadmill stress test and ambulatory Holter monitoring. Group A comprised 35 patients with stable angina, and group B comprised 40 patients in the early period after infarction. SETTING--The coronary care unit and cardiology department of a district general hospital. DESIGN--A prospective, between group, comparative study. RESULTS--Treadmill test showed demand driven ischaemia in both groups. Although ST depression occurred at comparable rate-pressure products and workloads, it was associated with angina in 80% of group A compared with only 40% of group B (p < 0.005). During Holter monitoring, ST depression was associated with an attenuated increase in rate in group A and almost no increase in rate in group B (18.2% v 3.7%; p < 0.005), suggesting that reductions in myocardial oxygen delivery were contributing to the ischaemic episodes, particularly in group B. Ischaemic episodes were more commonly silent during Holter monitoring, particularly patients in group B, only two of whom experienced angina in association with ST depression. Spectral and non-spectral measures of heart rate variability were significantly reduced in group B compared with group A. Patients with silent exertional ischaemia in group A had significantly less heart rate variability than patients who experienced angina but this difference was not seen in group B. CONCLUSION--In stable angina, myocardial ischaemia is usually painful and demand driven, whereas in the early period after infarction silent, supply driven ischaemia predominates. The failure of myocardial ischaemia to provoke symptoms in some patients with stable angina may be related to autonomic dysfunction affecting the sensory supply to the heart. In the

  18. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. PMID:25103410

  19. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-01

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time tE ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  20. Serum levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, leptin, and lipids during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Rizzo, M; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and leptin levels as well as of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in mares during the peripartum period. Ten pregnant mares (group A) were monitored from 15 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 15 days after foaling, and 10 nonpregnant nonlactating mares constituted the control (group B). In group A, blood sampling was performed on Days 15 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 before foaling, on the day of foaling, and on Days 7 and 15 after foaling. In group B, blood sampling was performed on the same days as in group A. Serum levels were determined for UCP1, leptin, total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol (Total-Chol), high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied to evaluate the effects of peripartum period and group membership. All studied parameters except phospholipid levels (P > 0.05) showed significant changes in group A over the peripartum period (P < 0.0001). A significant effect of pregnancy was found on all studied parameters (P < 0.001), which showed lower levels in group A than in group B for most of the time points considered. Significant negative correlations were found between UCP1 and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDL values. Positive correlations were found between leptin and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDLs. These changes observed in mares during the peripartum period could represent a response to hormonal and metabolic adaptations occurring during specific physiological conditions such as late pregnancy and early postpartum. These changes should compensate for the energy loss occurring during these particular life phases and ensure a good body condition to protect mares against negative energy balance. PMID:27165993

  1. Differential radial growth patterns between beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on periodically waterlogged soils.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Tobias; Manthey, Michael; Wilmking, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions. To test this, we investigated general growth patterns and climate-growth relationships in four mature stands of beech and oak growing on hydromorphic soils (Stagnosols) in northeast Germany using dendrochronological methods. Our results confirmed the expected tolerance of oak to strong water-level fluctuations. Neither extremely wet conditions during spring nor summer droughts significantly affected its radial growth. Oak growth responded positively to warmer temperatures during previous year October and March of the current year of ring formation. Contrary to our expectations, also beech showed relatively low sensitivity to periods of high soil water saturation. Instead, summer drought turned out to be the main climatic factor influencing ring width of beech even under the specific periodically wet soil conditions of our study. This became evident from general climate-growth correlations over the last century as well as from discontinuous (pointer year) analysis with summer drought being significantly correlated to the occurrence of growth depressions. As ring width of the two species is affected by differing climate parameters, species-specific chronologies show no coherence in high-frequency variations even for trees growing in close proximity. We assume differences in rooting depth as the main reason for the differing growth patterns and climate correlations of

  2. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE DURING A CRITICAL PERIOD OF MAMMARY GLAND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal exposure to 100 mg/kg atrazine (ATR) was previously shown to delay mammary gland (MG) development in the female offspring of Long Evans (LE) rats. To determine if the fetal MG was most sensitive to ATR effects during specific periods of development, timed-pregnant dams ...

  3. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment. PMID:22239926

  4. Shape changes and growth trajectories in the early stages of three species of the genus Diplodus (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Loy, A; Bertelletti, M; Costa, C; Ferlin, L; Cataudella, S

    2001-10-01

    The larvae of three species of the genus Diplodus (Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and D. puntazzo) colonize shallow waters along the Mediterranean coasts and, after a short period spent in the water column, they settle. For all three species this habitat transition is characterized by important shape changes mostly related to swimming capacity and feeding behavior. In this study, geometric morphometrics are used to characterize shape changes during the early juvenile life of specimens collected in a single locality in order to compare growth curves and allometric relationships. Size-related shape changes proved to be similar for all three species and are consistent with the ecological transition. A nonparametric smoothing technique (Loess) was used to fit the scatter of shape on size. The graphical representation (of most size-related shape variability) of this fitting technique shows how major shape changes are rapid for small sizes and slow down successively. The approach allows for the visualization of allometry and the fitting technique might help in defining the allometric growth pattern, thus contributing to the study of the autoecology of the species and in establishing terms for comparison with other ecologically or phylogenetically related species. PMID:11599013

  5. Early Growth Response Gene 1 ("EGR-1") Is Required for New and Reactivated Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Monsey, Melissa S.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    The immediate-early gene early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1, zif-268) has been extensively studied in synaptic plasticity and memory formation in a variety of memory systems. However, a convincing role for EGR-1 in amygdala-dependent memory consolidation processes has yet to emerge. In the present study, we have examined the role of EGR-1 in the…

  6. Early psychopathological signs in bulimia nervosa. A retrospective comparison of the period of puberty in bulimic and control girls.

    PubMed

    Corcos, M; Flament, M F; Giraud, M J; Paterniti, S; Ledoux, S; Atger, F; Jeammet, P

    2000-06-01

    While bulimia nervosa (BN) typically begins in girls during late adolescence, puberty and associated developmental changes have been linked to negative body image and onset of a variety of psychological problems. This study aimed to identify early psychopathological signs, which could have marked the period of puberty in subjects whom later developed BN. In a case control study, we compared 49 girls with BN according to DSM-IV, aged between 18 and 20 years, to 49 girls of the same age, who were free of any past or current psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatrists or clinical psychologists, using a semi-structured clinical interview including retrospective assessment of the emotional and behavioural changes that had occurred in puberty evaluated both groups. Before the onset of a clinical eating disorder, the subjects with BN presented significantly more often than controls weight related concerns, attitudes of withdrawal and social isolation, and negative changes in their body image and self-image, as well as in their relationships with siblings and peers. The results suggest that early psychological distress precedes the onset of an eating disorder in many cases, and that prevention efforts should be directed towards peripubertal psychopathology. PMID:10926061

  7. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  8. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  9. The transcription factor early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) promotes apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Miguel; Luna-Medina, Rosario; Pérez-Rendón, Arturo; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1) is an immediate early gene, which is rapidly activated in quiescent cells by mitogens or in postmitotic neurons after depolarization. EGR-1 has been involved in diverse biological functions such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Here we report that enforced expression of the EGR-1 gene induces apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labelling (TUNEL) analysis, in murine Neuro2A cells. In accordance with this role of EGR-1 in cell death, antisense oligonucleotides increase cell viability in cells cultured in the absence of serum. This apoptotic activity of the EGR-1 appears to be mediated by p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, since an increase in the amount of p73 is observed in clones stably expressing the EGR-1 protein. We also observed an increase in the transcriptional activity of the mdm2 promoter in cells overexpressing EGR-1, which is paralleled by a marked decrease in the levels of p53 protein, therefore excluding a role of this protein in mediating EGR-1-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that EGR-1 is an important factor involved in neuronal apoptosis. PMID:12755686

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Surface-Associated Growth of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Gödeke, Julia; Binnenkade, Lucas; Thormann, Kai M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation starts with single cells attaching to a surface, however, little is known about the initial attachment steps and the adaptation to the surface-associated life style. Here, we describe a hydrodynamic system that allows easy harvest of cells at very early biofilm stages. Using the metal ion-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism, we analyzed the transcriptional changes occurring during surface-associated growth between 15 and 60 minutes after attachment. 230 genes were significantly upregulated and 333 were downregulated by a factor of ≥2. Main functional categories of the corresponding gene products comprise metabolism, uptake and transport, regulation, and hypothetical proteins. Among the genes highly upregulated those implicated in iron uptake are highly overrepresented, strongly indicating that S. oneidensis MR-1 has a high demand for iron during surface attachment and initial biofilm stages. Subsequent microscopic analysis of biofilm formation under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that addition of Fe(II) significantly stimulated biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 while planktonic growth was not affected. Our approach to harvest cells for transcriptional analysis of early biofilm stages is expected to be easily adapted to other bacterial species. PMID:22860070

  11. Growth rate of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Chansik; Choi, Youn Ah; Choi, Dongil; Paik, Yong Han; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Paik, Seung Woon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The goal of this study was to estimate the growth rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify the host factors that significantly affect this rate. Methods Patients with early-stage HCC (n=175) who underwent two or more serial dynamic imaging studies without any anticancer treatment at two tertiary care hospitals in Korea were identified. For each patient, the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) of HCC was calculated by comparing tumor volumes between serial imaging studies. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Results The median TVDT was 85.7 days, with a range of 11 to 851.2 days. Multiple linear regression revealed that the initial tumor diameter (a tumor factor) and the etiology of chronic liver disease (a host factor) were significantly associated with the TVDT. The TVDT was shorter when the initial tumor diameter was smaller, and was shorter in HCC related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection than in HCC related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (median, 76.8 days vs. 137.2 days; P=0.0234). Conclusions The etiology of chronic liver disease is a host factor that may significantly affect the growth rate of early-stage HCC, since HBV-associated HCC grows faster than HCV-associated HCC. PMID:26523271

  12. System and method for implementing periodic early discard in on-chip buffer memories of network elements

    DOEpatents

    Francini, Andrea

    2013-05-14

    An advance is made over the prior art in accordance with the principles of the present invention that is directed to a new approach for a system and method for a buffer management scheme called Periodic Early Discard (PED). The invention builds on the observation that, in presence of TCP traffic, the length of a queue can be stabilized by selection of an appropriate frequency for packet dropping. For any combination of number of TCP connections and distribution of the respective RTT values, there exists an ideal packet drop frequency that prevents the queue from over-flowing or under-flowing. While the value of the ideal packet drop frequency may quickly change over time and is sensitive to the series of TCP connections affected by past packet losses, and most of all is impossible to compute inline, it is possible to approximate it with a margin of error that allows keeping the queue occupancy within a pre-defined range for extended periods of time. The PED scheme aims at tracking the (unknown) ideal packet drop frequency, adjusting the approximated value based on the evolution of the queue occupancy, with corrections of the approximated packet drop frequency that occur at a timescale that is comparable to the aggregate time constant of the set of TCP connections that traverse the queue.

  13. Enhanced algal abundance in northwest Ontario (Canada) lakes during the warmer early-to mid-Holocene period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Moumita; Leavitt, Peter R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates regional changes in primary producers in boreal head-water lakes during the warmer early-to-mid-Holocene (EMH) period, across the present-day boreal forest in northwest Ontario, a region that is adjacent to the prairie-forest ecotone. We quantified changes in algal abundance and composition over the Holocene period using pigments, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll a and diatom assemblages in well-dated sediment cores from three lakes. All three indicators showed a coherent pattern of enhanced primary producers in two of the study lakes (Gall Lake and Lake 239) during the EMH, whereas only diatom assemblages suggested higher levels of nutrients in Meekin Lake. Overall, this study supports a regional pattern of enhanced primary producers during the EMH, likely as a function of lower water-levels and warmer temperatures. Elevated concentrations of cyanobacterial pigments also occurred in two of the three lakes during the EMH, whereas pigments from purple-sulphur bacteria provide evidence of enhanced deep-water anoxia in one lake. These findings suggest that future climatic warming in boreal regions could include regional eutrophication and associated increases in cyanobacteria.

  14. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  15. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-04-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance (P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control (P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  16. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( P<0.05). A significant difference in whole body fat content was observed between T3 and the control group at the end of the experiment ( P<0.05). In conclusion this experiment suggests that feeding schedules involving starvation (1-4 days) and re-feeding cycles are a promising feed management tool for rainbow trout culture.

  17. Behavioral and growth effects induced by low dose methamphetamine administration during the neonatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Moran, Mary S; Vorhees, Charles V

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of methamphetamine exposure during neonatal development in rats has demonstrated that long-term spatial learning deficits are induced. A previous dose-response study showed that administration of 5 mg/kg methamphetamine, four times daily from postnatal days 11 to 20 produced these deficits, although the effects were not as severe as at higher doses of 10 or 15 mg/kg. This study examined concentrations of methamphetamine at or below 5mg/kg given over the same period of time. Five different concentrations of methamphetamine (i.e., 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, or 0) were administered every 2 h four times daily from postnatal days 11 to 20. Body weights, zero maze performance, and Morris water maze learning were examined. A dose-dependent decrease in body weight was observed during the period of methamphetamine administration and these lower weights continued throughout adulthood for the 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg concentrations, although the adult decreases were negligible. No differences were noted in the zero maze. In the Morris water maze during the acquisition period, dose-dependent differences in spatial orientation were seen, however non-dose related deficits were observed for other parameters. During the shifted platform phase ("reversal"), a similar dose-dependent difference in spatial orientation was observed, although no other effects were noted during this phase. Females performed worse than males regardless of treatment or the phase of learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that even lower doses of methamphetamine can alter learning and memory in adulthood, although with less consistent results than with doses higher than 5 mg/kg/dose. These data would caution against even casual use of methamphetamine by women during pregnancy since even low doses could alter the ability of the child to learn. PMID:15380827

  18. Glypican-1 controls brain size through regulation of fibroblast growth factor signaling in early neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Yi-Huei Linda; Musacchio, Michele; Lander, Arthur D

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for multiple families of growth factors that regulate animal cell proliferation, differentiation and patterning. Elimination of heparan sulfate during brain development is known to produce severe structural abnormalities. Here we investigate the developmental role played by one particular HSPG, glypican-1 (Gpc1), which is especially abundant on neuronal cell membranes, and is the major HSPG of the adult rodent brain. Results Mice with a null mutation in Gpc1 were generated and found to be viable and fertile. The major phenotype associated with Gpc1 loss is a highly significant reduction in brain size, with only subtle effects on brain patterning (confined to the anterior cerebellum). The brain size difference emerges very early during neurogenesis (between embryonic days 8.5 and 9.5), and remains roughly constant throughout development and adulthood. By examining markers of different signaling pathways, and the differentiation behaviors of cells in the early embryonic brain, we infer that Gpc1-/- phenotypes most likely result from a transient reduction in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Through the analysis of compound mutants, we provide strong evidence that Fgf17 is the FGF family member through which Gpc1 controls brain size. Conclusion These data add to a growing literature that implicates the glypican family of HSPGs in organ size control. They also argue that, among heparan sulfate-dependent signaling molecules, FGFs are disproportionately sensitive to loss of HSPGs. Finally, because heterozygous Gpc1 mutant mice were found to have brain sizes half-way between homozygous and wild type, the data imply that endogenous HSPG levels quantitatively control growth factor signaling, a finding that is both novel and relevant to the general question of how the activities of co-receptors are exploited during development. PMID:19732411

  19. The stationary-phase morphogene bolA from Escherichia coli is induced by stress during early stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Santos, J M; Freire, P; Vicente, M; Arraiano, C M

    1999-05-01

    The Escherichia coli morphogene bolA causes round morphology when overexpressed. The expression of bolA is mainly regulated by a sigmas-dependent gearbox promoter bolA1p. Such regulation results in increased relative levels of expression at slow growth rates, as seen with those attained at the onset of stationary phase. We demonstrate that bolA1p is also induced during early logarithmic growth in response to several forms of stress, and that this induction can be partially sigmas independent. Sudden carbon starvation results in a 17-fold increase in mRNA levels derived from bolA1p 1 h after stress imposition. Increased osmolarity results in a more than 20-fold increase after the same period. Considerable increases in bolA1p mRNA levels were also detected as a result of heat shock, acidic stress and oxidative stress, which has been shown to inhibit sigmas translation. The orders of magnitude of bolA1p induction in log phase due to sudden starvation, osmotic shock and oxidative stress surpass the levels reached in stationary phase. Under sudden carbon starvation and osmotic shock, the cells changed their morphology, resembling those cells in which bolA is overexpressed in stationary phase. Increased expression and morphological changes due to sudden carbon starvation and osmotic shock still occur when sigmaS is not present in a rpoS- background. The results show that expression of bolA is not confined to stationary phase, but it can also play an important role in general stress response. We propose that bolA1p stress induction overrides the normal regulation imposed by growth rate, which is strictly the result of sigmaS-directed transcription. PMID:10361282

  20. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Eniko; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; MacIver, Nancie J; Hale, Laura P

    2016-01-01

    Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC), using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice). Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams) that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het) dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT) pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and for development

  1. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Eniko; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; MacIver, Nancie J.; Hale, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC), using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 (“T/I” mice). Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 (“T/I-het” dams) that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het) dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT) pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and for

  2. Self-regulating the early growth of black holes through global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiman, Zoltán; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Perna, Rosalba

    2012-09-01

    A decade after their first discovery, the origin of giant supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with masses in excess of 109 Msolar, at redshifts as early as z > 6, remains a puzzle. One possibility is that stellar-mass ``seed'' BHs, left behind by the first stars, accrete gas at close to the Eddington limit during a large fraction (>~ 50%) of the time. While maintaining such a high accretion rate may itself be difficult, here we focus on another, less commonly discussed problem in this scenario: unless BH seed formation and growth are preferentially suppressed in less massive protogalaxies, the mass density in M~106Msolar SMBHs at z ~ 6 already exceeds the locally observed SMBH mass density by several orders of magnitude. We show that the X-rays from the earliest accreting BHs themselves can cause a self-regulation, by partially ionizing and heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). This ``global warming'' suppresses the formation and growth of subsequent generations of BHs in low-mass halos, and can produce excellent agreement with recent estimates of the z = 6 SMBH mass function, without impeding the growth of the largest (M>~109Msolar) holes, which reside in the most massive galaxies that formed first. The proposed gravitational-wave observatory eLISA could detect several tens of major mergers between SMBHs at z > 6.

  3. Early Medicaid Expansion In Connecticut Stemmed The Growth In Hospital Uncompensated Care.

    PubMed

    Nikpay, Sayeh; Buchmueller, Thomas; Levy, Helen

    2015-07-01

    As states continue to debate whether or not to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), a key consideration is the impact of expansion on the financial position of hospitals, including their burden of uncompensated care. Conclusive evidence from coverage expansions that occurred in 2014 is several years away. In the meantime, we analyzed the experience of hospitals in Connecticut, which expanded Medicaid coverage to a large number of childless adults in April 2010 under the ACA. Using hospital-level panel data from Medicare cost reports, we performed difference-in-differences analyses to compare the change in Medicaid volume and uncompensated care in the period 2007-13 in Connecticut to changes in other Northeastern states. We found that early Medicaid expansion in Connecticut was associated with an increase in Medicaid discharges of 7-9 percentage points, relative to a baseline rate of 11 percent, and an increase of 7-8 percentage points in Medicaid revenue as a share of total revenue, relative to a baseline share of 10 percent. Also, in contrast to the national and regional trends of increasing uncompensated care during this period, hospitals in Connecticut experienced no increase in uncompensated care. We conclude that uncompensated care in Connecticut was roughly one-third lower than what it would have been without early Medicaid expansion. The results suggest that ACA Medicaid expansions could reduce hospitals' uncompensated care burden. PMID:26153312

  4. Early Medicaid Expansion in Connecticut Stemmed the Growth in Hospital Uncompensated Care

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Sayeh; Buchmueller, Thomas; Levy, Helen

    2015-01-01

    As states continue to debate whether or not to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), a key consideration is the impact of expansion on the financial position of hospitals, including their burden of uncompensated care. Conclusive evidence from coverage expansions that occurred in 2014 is several years away. In the meantime, we analyzed the experience of hospitals in Connecticut, which expanded Medicaid coverage to a large number of childless adults in April 2010 under the ACA. With hospital-level panel data from Medicare cost reports, we used difference-in-differences analyses to compare the change in Medicaid volume and uncompensated care in the period 2007–13 in Connecticut to changes in other Northeastern states. We found that early Medicaid expansion in Connecticut was associated with an increase in Medicaid discharges of 7 to 9 percentage points, relative to a baseline rate of 11 percent, and 7 to 8 percentage point increase in Medicaid revenue as a share of total revenue, relative to baseline share of 9.5 percent.. Also, in contrast to the national and regional trends of increasing uncompensated care during this period, hospitals in Connecticut experienced no increase in uncompensated care. We conclude that uncompensated care in Connecticut was roughly one-third lower than what it would have been without early Medicaid expansion. The results suggest that ACA Medicaid expansions could reduce hospitals’ uncompensated care burden. PMID:26153312

  5. Changes in Activity and Community Structure of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria over the Growth Period of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Gundula; Frenzel, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The activity and community structure of methanotrophs in compartmented microcosms were investigated over the growth period of rice plants. In situ methane oxidation was important only during the vegetative growth phase of the plants and later became negligible. The in situ activity was not directly correlated with methanotrophic cell counts, which increased even after the decrease in in situ activity, possibly due to the presence of both vegetative cells and resting stages. By dividing the microcosms into two soil and two root compartments it was possible to locate methanotrophic growth and activity, which was greatest in the rhizoplane of the rice plants. Molecular analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with family-specific probes revealed the presence of both families of methanotrophs in soil and root compartments over the whole season. Changes in community structure were detected only for members of the Methylococcaceae and could be associated only with changes in the genus Methylobacter and not with changes in the dominance of different genera in the family Methylococcaceae. For the family Methylocystaceae stable communities in all compartments for the whole season were observed. FISH analysis revealed evidence of in situ dominance of the Methylocystaceae in all compartments. The numbers of Methylococcaceae cells were relatively high only in the rhizoplane, demonstrating the importance of rice roots for growth and maintenance of methanotrophic diversity in the soil. PMID:11375143

  6. Evolution of Residual-Strain Distribution through an Overload-Induced Retardation Period during Fatigue Crack Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Sun, Yinan; An, Ke; Choo, Hahn; Hubbard, Camden R; Liaw, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the crack-growth retardation phenomenon after a single tensile overload by mapping both one-dimensional and two-dimensional residual-strain distributions around the crack tip in a series of compact-tension specimens representing various crack-growth stages through an overload-induced retardation period. The results clearly show a large compressive residual-strain field near the crack tip immediately after the overload. As the fatigue crack propagates through the overload-induced plastic zone, the compressive residual strains are gradually relaxed, and a new compressive residual-strain field is developed around the propagating crack tip, illustrating that the subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone grows out of the large plastic zone caused by the overloading. The relationship between the overload-induced plastic zone and subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone, and its influence on the residual-strain distributions in the perturbed plastic zone are discussed.

  7. [The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period--Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern].

    PubMed

    Nipperdey, Justus

    2015-06-01

    The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period - Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern. This article focuses on the relationship between the names given to historical periods and the attributed substance of that period. It argues that the possibility of a neutralisation in terms of substantive meaning depends on the terminology used to delineate a historical period. Considering the example of 'early modern history' the article sketches the usage of that term in twentieth century historiography. While it is clear that the concept cannot escape the inherent teleology of modernity succeeding pre-modern ages, the analysis shows that historians have used 'early modern' in surprisingly divers ways trying to overcome the semantic meaning of the term itself. PMID:26140628

  8. Early East Antarctic Ice Sheet growth recorded in the landscape of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kathryn C.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Bell, Robin E.; Corr, Hugh; Creyts, Timothy T.; Braaten, David; Jordan, Tom A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Damaske, Detlef

    2013-08-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are regarded as a key nucleation site for the Antarctic Ice Sheet and they retain a unique long-term record of pre-glacial and early glacial landscape evolution. Here, we use a range of morphometric analyses to constrain the nature of early glaciation and subsequent ice sheet evolution in the interior of East Antarctica, using a new digital elevation model of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, derived from an extensive airborne radar survey. We find that an inherited fluvial landscape confirms the existence of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains prior to the onset of glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene climate boundary (ca. 34 Ma). Features characteristic of glaciation, at a range of scales, are evident across the mountains. High elevation alpine valley heads, akin to cirques, identified throughout the mountains, are interpreted as evidence for early phases of glaciation in East Antarctica. The equilibrium line altitudes associated with these features, combined with information from fossil plant assemblages, suggest that they formed at, or prior to, 34 Ma. It cannot be ruled out that they may have been eroded by ephemeral ice between the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene (100-34 Ma). Hanging valleys, overdeepenings, truncated spurs and steep-sided, linear valley networks are indicative of a more widespread alpine glaciation in this region. These features represent ice growth at, or before, 33.7 Ma and provide a minimum estimate for the scale of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet between ca. 34 and 14 Ma, when dynamic fluctuations in ice extent are recorded at the coast of Antarctica. The implications are that the early East Antarctic Ice Sheet grew rapidly and developed a cold-based core that preserved the alpine landscape. The patterns of landscape evolution identified provide the earliest evidence for the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and can be used to test coupled ice-climate evolution models.

  9. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Jeon, Byongtae; Kang, Sungki; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Myonghwa; Jang, Seyoung; Park, Pyojam; Kim, Sangwoo; Moon, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001), and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth. PMID:26194228

  10. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyun; Jeon, Byongtae; Kang, Sungki; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Myonghwa; Jang, Seyoung; Park, Pyojam; Kim, Sangwoo; Moon, Sangho

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001), and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth. PMID:26194228

  11. Theoretical Foundations of the Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development: An Early Childhood Problem-Solving Model. Technical Report #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This report describes the decision-making model that provides the theoretical framework being developed by the Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development (ECRI-MGD) in a 5-year project to generate a set of common child and family indicators that can be used within a comprehensive system of service delivery for young…

  12. Effect of central infusions of neuropeptide Y on GnRH/LH axis in ewes during the early anoestrous period.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Gładysz, Anna; Misztal, Tomasz; Wańkowska, Marta; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Polkowska, Jolanta

    2003-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a putative mediator of many physiological processes in the central nervous system including reproductive functions. In this study we examined the effect of NPY on the GnRH/LH secretory activity in early anoestrous ewes. Crossbreed ewes one week (group 1w, n=7) and six weeks (group 6w, n=7) after the last oestrous cycle were infused with Ringer solution (control) or 50 microg of NPY to the third ventricle for 5 minutes. Blood samples were collected during the days of infusion over six hours at ten minute intervals and then the ewes were slaughtered and their brains fixed in situ. Immunoreactive (ir) GnRH in the median eminence and LH cells in the adenohypophysis were localised by immunohistochemistry technique. Data were generated using computer analysis to determine the optical density for immuno-staining and the proportion of ir LH cells. Plasma LH was determined by radioimmunoassay. It was found that investigated anoestral groups differed only in the optical densities of ir GnRH and ir LH, which were lower in group 6w compared to group 1w (p<0.001). LH concentrations and parameters of pulsatile LH secretion were similar in both anoestral groups. Acute NPY infusions induced in group 1w decreased both in ir GnRH and ir LH optical densities and in area fraction for ir LH cells (p<0.001) whilst it increased in plasma LH concentration (p<0.05) compared to vehicle infused animals. There was no changes in the secretory activity of the GnRH/LH axis following NPY infusion in group 6w. In conclusion, we suggest that NPY may be involved in the central regulation of reproductive function in ewes, however, the sensitivity of the GnRH/LH axis to NPY modulation declines throughout the early anoestrous period. PMID:14666142

  13. Enhanced jun gene expression is an early genomic response to transforming growth factor beta stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pertovaara, L; Sistonen, L; Bos, T J; Vogt, P K; Keski-Oja, J; Alitalo, K

    1989-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a multifunctional polypeptide that regulates proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of many cell types. The pathway of TGF beta signal transduction in cells is unknown. We report here that an early effect of TGF beta is an enhancement of the expression of two genes encoding serum- and phorbol ester tumor promoter-regulated transcription factors: the junB gene and the c-jun proto-oncogene, respectively. This stimulation was observed in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells which were growth inhibited by TGF beta, AKR-2B mouse embryo fibroblasts which were growth stimulated by TGF beta, and K562 human erythroleukemia cells, which were not appreciably affected in their growth by TGF beta. The increase in jun mRNA occurred with picomolar TGF beta concentrations within 1 h of TGF beta stimulation, reached a peak between 1 and 5 h in different cells, and declined gradually to base-line levels. This mRNA response was followed by a large increase in the biosynthesis of the c-jun protein (AP-1), as shown by metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation analysis. However, differential and cell type-specific regulation appeared to determine the timing and magnitude of the response of each jun gene in a given cell. In AKR-2B and NIH 3T3 cells, only junB was induced by TGF beta, evidently in a protein synthesis-independent fashion. The junB response to TGF beta was maintained in c-Ha-ras and neu oncogene-transformed cells. Thus, one of the earliest genomic responses to TGF beta may involve nuclear signal transduction and amplification by the junB and c-jun transcription factors in concert with c-fos, which is also induced. The differential activation of the jun genes may explain some of the pleiotropic effects of TGF beta. Images PMID:2725496

  14. Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

  15. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. Objective: We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. Results: We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early

  16. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  17. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  19. New developments in the treatment of early-onset spinal deformity: role of the Shilla growth guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Sean M; McCarthy, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is a complex condition with multiple facets. The goal of treating any spinal deformity is to improve the condition of the patient with the least intervention necessary. A system that allows for continuation of natural spinal growth while correcting the deformity should be the goal of treating this complex condition. The SHILLA growth guidance system allows for continued growth of the pediatric spine while correcting and guiding the apex and guiding the future growth of the curvature. The system involves selective fusion across the apex of the curvature, and minimally invasive instrumentation is then used above and below the apex to allow for continued growth of the spine. A review of recent literature on the SHILLA growth guidance system shows promising results. Early animal models showed continued growth across unfused levels with minimal facet articular damage. Comparative studies to traditional growing rods showed significantly less total surgeries along with comparable correction and longitudinal growth. The SHILLA growth guidance system is a good option for this complex patient group. Results are comparable with other growing constructs with significantly less operative interventions. The SHILLA system allows for natural growth of the pediatric spine while correcting the scoliotic deformity in a minimally invasive method. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the SHILLA system surgical technique and the associated literature concerning this topic. PMID:27499651

  20. Ca2+ signaling and early embryonic patterning during the blastula and gastrula periods of zebrafish and Xenopus development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that Ca(2+) signaling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern forming events during early vertebrate development [L.F. Jaffe, Organization of early development by calcium patterns, BioEssays 21 (1999) 657-667; M.J. Berridge, P. Lipp, M.D. Bootman, The versatility and universality of calcium signaling, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1 (2000) 11-21; S.E. Webb, A.L. Miller, Calcium signalling during embryonic development, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (2003) 539-551]. With reference to the embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the frog, Xenopus laevis, we review the Ca(2+) signals reported during the Blastula and Gastrula Periods. This developmental window encompasses the major pattern forming events of epiboly, involution, and convergent extension, which result in the establishment of the basic germ layers and body axes [C.B. Kimmel, W.W. Ballard, S.R. Kimmel, B. Ullmann, T.F. Schilling, Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish, Dev. Dyn. 203 (1995) 253-310]. Data will be presented to support the suggestion that propagating waves (both long and short range) of Ca(2+) release, followed by sequestration, may play a crucial role in: (1) Coordinating cell movements during these pattern forming events and (2) Contributing to the establishment of the basic embryonic axes, as well as (3) Helping to define the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen [E. Gilland, A.L. Miller, E. Karplus, R. Baker, S.E. Webb, Imaging of multicellular large-scale rhythmic calcium waves during zebrafish gastrulation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 157-161; J.B. Wallingford, A.J. Ewald, R.M. Harland, S.E. Fraser, Calcium signaling during convergent extension in Xenopus, Curr. Biol. 11 (2001) 652-661]. The various potential targets of these Ca(2+) transients will also be discussed, as well as how they might integrate with other known pattern forming

  1. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249. Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0–3 months and 12–29/32 months with very little association at 3–12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age

  2. Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  3. V346 Centauri: Early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek; Nemravová, Jana; Prša, Andrej; Frémat, Yves; Zejda, Miloslav; Liška, Jiři; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, Kateřina; Mašek, Martin

    2016-06-01

    New physical elements of the early B-type eclipsing binary V346 Cen are derived using the HARPS spectra downloaded from the ESO archive and also numerous photometric observations from various sources. A model of the observed times of primary and secondary minima that fits them best is a combination of the apsidal motion and an abrupt decrease in the orbital period from 6.^d322123 to 6.^d321843 (shortening by 24 s), which occurred somewhere around JD 2 439 000. Assumption of a secularly decreasing orbital period provides a significantly worse fit. Local times of minima and the final solution of the light curve were obtained with the program PHOEBE. Radial velocities of both binary components, free of line blending, were derived via 2D cross-correlation with a program built on the principles of the program TODCOR. The oxygen lines in the secondary spectra are weaker than those in the model spectra of solar chemical composition. Using the component spectra disentangled with the program KOREL, we find that both components rotate considerably faster than would correspond to the synchronization at periastron. The apside rotation known from earlier studies is confirmed and compared to the theoretical value. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 083.D-0040(A), 085.C-0614(A), and 178.D-0361(B).Tables A.2-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A129

  4. Temperature cycling periods affect growth and tuberization in potatoes under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Plants of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Denali, Norland, Haig and Kennebec were grown for 42 days under three temperature cycling periods (thermoperiods) with continuous irradiation in two repeated experiments to help determine if temperature cycling might be varied to optimize tuber development of potatoes in controlled environments. Thermoperiods of 6/6 hours, 12/12 hours and 24/24 hours were established with the same temperature change of 22/14C and same controlled vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa. The thermoperiod of 24/24 hours significantly promoted tuber initiation but slowed tuber enlargement in all four cultivars, compared to the thermoperiods of 6/6 hours and 12/12 hours. Denali' produced the highest tuber and total dry weights under the 6/6 hours thermoperiod. Kennebec' produced the highest tuber dry weight under the 12/12 hours thermoperiod. Thermoperiods had no significant effect on shoot and root dry weights of any cultivars. The major effect of thermoperiods was on initiation and enlargement of tubers.

  5. Early Head Growth: Relation with IQ at 8 Years and Determinants in Term Infants of Low and Appropriate Birthweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lira, Pedro I. C.; Eickmann, Sophie H.; Lima, Marilia C.; Amorim, Rosemary J.; Emond, Alan M.; Ashworth, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relation between head growth at different periods and IQ at 8 years, and to identify factors associated with more rapid head growth. Method: Two parallel cohorts of term low birthweight (LBW) and appropriate birthweight (ABW) infants were enrolled at birth in northeast Brazil. Anthropometric measurements were made at birth,…

  6. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  7. Periodicity in growth, productivity, nutrient content and decomposition ofSphagnum recurvum var.mucronatum in a fen woodland.

    PubMed

    Brock, T C; Bregman, R

    1989-03-01

    Condition in the understory of aBetula-carr appeared to be favourable for the growth ofSphagnum recurvum. The estimates of annual productivity and nutrient accumulations forS. recurvum obtained in this wetland forest are in the high range of those reported for peatmosses. On an annual basis, the organic matter production, vegetative reproduction (forking), and accumulation of N, P and K were very much the same for a relatively dry and for a relatively wet year. Periodicity in growth and length increase of the plants, however, differed remarkably between these years, and fruiting was observed in the dry year only.S. recurvum was characterized by a distinct variation in nutrient concentrations both with time and with distance from the capitulum. Organic weight loss during breakdown ofS. recurvum in the wetland forest was low. Release of N, P and particularly K was larger than that of organic matter in decomposingS. recurvum. Nevertheless, a relatively large proportion of the original N and P stock remained associated with the peatmoss material after a 12 month decay period. Observations with the scanning electron microscope revealed that after a year the cells of deadS. recurvum were hardly damaged and only poorly colonized by microorganisms. The characteristics ofS. recurvum described here indicate its potency in directing succession in peatland forests. PMID:23494344

  8. Pedogenic calcite as evidence for an early Holocene dry period in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall at the site of Union City, California, during early Holocene time appears to have been about half that of today, 470 mm/yr. We base this conclusion on detailed descriptions and particle-size analyses of 12 soil profiles and 1:20 scale logs of the fluvial stratigraphy in two 100-m-long, 5-m-deep excavations dug perpendicular to the axis of an alluvial fan along the Hayward fault. Subsidence and right-lateral movement along the fault allowed an offset stream to produce a nearly continuous alluvial record documented by 35 14C ages on detrital charcoal. Bk (calcitic) horizons in paleosols developed in the fan suggest that a relatively dry climatic period occurred from 10 to 7 ka (calendar-corrected ages). The pedogenic calcite exists primarily as vertically oriented filaments and fine, cavernous nodules formed at ped intersections. Soils and paleosols formed before 10 ka or since 7 ka did not have Bk horizons. Bk horizons that were buried suddenly at 7 ka were overlain by leached zones averaging 41 ?? 3 cm thick - about half the current depth of leaching.

  9. Evolution, stress, and sensitive periods: the influence of unpredictability in early versus late childhood on sex and risky behavior.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Sung, Sooyeon; Collins, W Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to a recent evolutionary life history model of development proposed by Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, and Schlomer (2009), growing up in harsh versus unpredictable environments should have unique effects on life history strategies in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation, we tested how harshness and unpredictability experienced in early childhood (age 0-5) versus in later childhood (age 6-16) uniquely predicted sexual and risky behavior at age 23. Findings showed that the strongest predictor of both sexual and risky behavior was an unpredictable environment between ages 0 and 5. Individuals exposed to more unpredictable, rapidly changing environments during the first 5 years of life displayed a faster life history strategy at age 23 by having more sexual partners, engaging in more aggressive and delinquent behaviors, and being more likely to be associated with criminal activities. In contrast, exposure to either harsh environments or experiencing unpredictability in later childhood (age 6-16) was, for the most part, not significantly related to these outcomes at age 23. Viewed together, these findings show that unpredictable rather than merely harsh childhood environments exert unique effects on risky behavior later in life consistent with a faster life history strategy. The findings also suggest that there is a developmentally sensitive period for assessing environmental unpredictability during the first 5 years of life. PMID:22329381

  10. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP. PMID:25726022

  11. Concentration kinetics of serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after blunt multiple injuries in the early posttraumatic period.

    PubMed

    Brumann, M; Kusmenkov, T; Ney, L; Kanz, K-G; Leidel, B A; Biberthaler, P; Mutschler, W; Bogner, V

    2012-01-01

    Metalloproteinases are secreted in response to a variety of inflammatory mediators and inhibited by tissue inhibitors of matrixmetalloproteinases (TIMPs). Two members of these families, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, were differentially expressed depending on clinical parameters in a previous genomewide mRNA analysis. The aim of this paper was now to evaluate the posttraumatic serum levels and the time course of both proteins depending on distinct clinical parameters. 60 multiple traumatized patients (ISS > 16) were included. Blood samples were drawn on admission and 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after trauma. Serum levels were quantified by ELISA. MMP-9 levels significantly decreased in the early posttraumatic period (P < 0.05) whereas TIMP-1 levels significantly increased in all patients (P < 0.05). MMP-9 and TIMP-1 serum concentration kinetics became manifest in an inversely proportional balance. Furthermore, MMP-9 presented a stronger decrease in patients with severe trauma and non-survivors in contrast to minor traumatized patients (ISS ≤ 33) and survivors, initially after trauma. PMID:22547904

  12. Concentration Kinetics of Serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after Blunt Multiple Injuries in the Early Posttraumatic Period

    PubMed Central

    Brumann, M.; Kusmenkov, T.; Ney, L.; Kanz, K.-G.; Leidel, B. A.; Biberthaler, P.; Mutschler, W.; Bogner, V.

    2012-01-01

    Metalloproteinases are secreted in response to a variety of inflammatory mediators and inhibited by tissue inhibitors of matrixmetalloproteinases (TIMPs). Two members of these families, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, were differentially expressed depending on clinical parameters in a previous genomewide mRNA analysis. The aim of this paper was now to evaluate the posttraumatic serum levels and the time course of both proteins depending on distinct clinical parameters. 60 multiple traumatized patients (ISS > 16) were included. Blood samples were drawn on admission and 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after trauma. Serum levels were quantified by ELISA. MMP-9 levels significantly decreased in the early posttraumatic period (P < 0.05) whereas TIMP-1 levels significantly increased in all patients (P < 0.05). MMP-9 and TIMP-1 serum concentration kinetics became manifest in an inversely proportional balance. Furthermore, MMP-9 presented a stronger decrease in patients with severe trauma and non-survivors in contrast to minor traumatized patients (ISS ≤ 33) and survivors, initially after trauma. PMID:22547904

  13. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  14. Size growth of red-sequence early-type galaxies in clusters in the last 10 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreon, S.; Dong, Hui; Raichoor, A.

    2016-08-01

    We carried out a photometric and structural analysis in the rest-frame V band of a mass-selected (log M/M⊙> 10.7) sample of red-sequence galaxies in 14 galaxy clusters, 6 of which are at z> 1.45, namely JKCS041, IDCS J1426.5+3508, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, SpARCSJ021524-034331, XDCPJ0044.0-2033, and SPT-CLJ2040-4451. To this end, we reduced/analyzed about 300 orbits of multicolor images taken with the Advanced Camera for Survey and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope. We uniformly morphologically classified galaxies from z = 0.023 to z = 1.803, and we homogeneously derived sizes (effective radii) for the entire sample. Furthermore, our size derivation allows, and therefore is not biased by, the presence of the usual variety of morphological structures seen in early-type galaxies, such as bulges, bars, disks, isophote twists, and ellipiticy gradients. By using such a mass-selected sample, composed of 244 red-sequence early-type galaxies, we find that the log of the galaxy size at a fixed stellar mass, log M/M⊙ = 11, has increased with time at a rate of 0.023 ± 0.002 dex per Gyr over the last 10 Gyr, in marked contrast with the threefold increase found in the literature for galaxies in the general field over the same period. This suggests, at face value, that secular processes should be excluded as the primary drivers of size evolution because we observed an environmental dependent size growth. Using spectroscopic ages of Coma early-type galaxies we also find that recently quenched early-type galaxies are a numerically minor population not different enough in size to alter the mean size at a given mass, which implies that the progenitor bias is minor, i.e., that the size evolution measured by selecting galaxies at the redshift of observation is indistinguishable from the one that compares ancestors and descendents. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  15. The influence of the thermal environment and other early life events on growth rate of piglets during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Schild, S-L Aa; Malmkvist, J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life events on average daily weight gain from birth to day 21 (ADG) of suckling pigs kept at different room temperatures (15°C, 20°C and 25°C) from birth to weaning were investigated. Data were collected from litters born by 61 sows in a loose housing system. The ADG for piglets with low birth weight (estimated for birth weights below the 10% percentile) was estimated to be 20 to 30 g higher per day at room temperature 20°C to 25°C compared with 15°C. In contrast, the ADG during the lactation period decreased for larger piglets (estimated for birth weights above the 10% percentile) by 28 g/day at room temperature 25°C compared with 15°C. Thus, high ambient temperatures (20°C to 25°C) are favourable for the growth in smaller piglets during lactation. Neither latency to first suckle nor birth-induced hypoxia, measured as concentration of umbilical cord lactate, affected the growth rate of the piglets. Lowest rectal temperature during the first 24 h after birth had a long-term negative effect on ADG (P<0.05), so that piglets with a lowest rectal temperature of 32.8°C (10% percentile) had an ADG which was on average 19 g lower per day than piglets with a rectal temperature of 37.3°C (90% percentile). Our results showed that hypothermia at birth, low birth weight and high number of suckling piglets lead to reduced ADG during the suckling period. The results suggest that keeping the room temperature at 20°C during lactation to some extent could compensate for the otherwise negative effects of low birth weight on ADG in piglets without decreasing the ADG of high birth weight piglets. However, to avoid hypothermia in the smallest piglets it may be beneficial to increase the room temperature above 20°C during the farrowing period of loose housed sows. PMID:26094618

  16. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  17. [Use of translational medicine in the early diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Song; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Translational medicine is an emerging idea in current medical research area. Typically, for the purpose of bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, it not only emphasizes the urgency and necessity to break the traditional working formats, including single subject centered research team and limited cooperation among different scientific groups, but also highlights a more close and frequent interaction between basic scientist and clinician. In order to reach this goal, the theory and method of systems biology should be employed. This paper mainly focused on a central issue that how to carry out an investigation on early clinical diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by using research concept of translational medicine and method of systems biology. Briefly, a hypothesis of common mechanism of IUGR was first proposed and subsequent validation was performed via integrating--omics (e.g. genomics, proteomics, cytomics, metabonomics/metabolomics) and molecular biology techniques. Metabonomics was further utilized to explore IUGR biomarker and establish preliminary forecasting model by bioinformatics and computational biology, which is available for early diagnosis of IUGR and make a complement to current evaluation criteria. PMID:21465805

  18. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.; O’Connor, Roisin M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/Non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for three years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking. PMID:24841180

  19. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2014-09-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking. PMID:24841180

  20. Clinical implications of insulin-like growth factor 1 system in early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y-F; Shen, M-R; Hsu, K-F; Cheng, Y-M; Chou, C-Y

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the expression and the correlation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system and their prognostic impacts in cervical cancer. Seventy-two patients with early-stage cervical cancer were eligible. We obtained the serum levels of total IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in cancerous tissue by immuno-fluorescent (IF) stains. The 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower (P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively) among patients with high-grade expression of tissue IGF-1R, compared with those with low-grade expression. After adjustment for other factors, preoperative serum total IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 levels failed to predict cancer death and recurrence. High-grade expression of IGF-1R and elevated preoperative squamous cell carcinoma antigen level were independent predictors of both death and recurrence, and combination of both factors could further help identify the subgroup of patients at higher death risk. The IF staining indicates the colocalisation of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in the cancerous tissues, whereas the IGF-1R expression is not correlated with circulating levels of IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. In early-stage cervical cancer, IGF-1 system may have a paracrine or autocrine function and the adverse impacts on prognosis by IGF-1R overexpression are implicated. PMID:18781172

  1. Impact of starter fertilizer on cotton growth, development, lint yield, and fiber quality production for an early planted no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved yield potentials occur when planting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) early, but cool conditions often associated with early planting can hamper early seedling growth. Starter fertilizers could be good source of P for seedling growth under cool conditions due to reduced soil P mineralizatio...

  2. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    PubMed

    Dieho, K; Bannink, A; Geurts, I A L; Schonewille, J T; Gort, G; Dijkstra, J

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate of increase of concentrate allowance were studied. Samples were collected from 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during a pretreatment period, 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (the dry period) and 3 d postpartum (pp), and a treatment period, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp. Cows had free access to either a dry period ration [27% grass silage, 27% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a dry matter (DM) basis] or a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 41% corn silage, and 17% soybean meal on a DM basis, and 0.9 kg of DM/d concentrate). Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of DM/d; RAP; n=6) or gradual (0.25 kg of DM/d; GRAD; n=6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at d 4 pp, aimed at creating a contrast in rumen-fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake. Papillae were collected from the ventral, ventral blind, and dorsal blind rumen sacs and measured digitally. Intake of DM (11.9 kg/d) and FOM (5.7 kg/d) did not change during the pretreatment period, but increased during the treatment period to 24.5 and 15.0 kg/d at 80 d pp, respectively. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for FOM intake, which was 22% greater in RAP at 16 d pp compared with GRAD. Papilla surface area decreased during the pretreatment period by 19% to 28.0mm(2) at 3 d pp, thereafter increasing to 63.0mm(2) at 80 d pp. Concentrate treatment and sampling day interacted for surface area, which was greater in RAP compared with GRAD at 16 (46.0 vs. 33.2mm(2)), 30 (55.4 vs. 41.2mm(2)), and 44 (60.5 vs. 49.7 mm(2)) days pp, showing that papillae can respond to a rapid rate of increase of FOM intake by increasing growth rate

  3. Growth mechanism of photoreduced silver nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate: Time and concentration dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Carville, N.; Denning, Denise; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia

    2013-05-14

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces, which have been chemically patterned using a proton exchange process, has recently been demonstrated. By varying the molar concentration of the AgNO{sub 3} solution and the illumination time, one can determine the initial nucleation sites, control the rate of nucleation and the height of silver nanostructures formed, and study the mechanisms by which these processes occurs. The nanoparticles are found to deposit preferentially in the boundary between ferroelectric and proton exchanged regions, in an area proton exchanged via lateral diffusion under the masking layer used for chemical patterning, consistent with our previous results. Using a short illumination time (3 min), we are able to determine that the initial nucleation of the silver nanostructure, having a width of 0.17 {+-} 0.02 {mu}m and a height of 1.61 {+-} 0.98 nm, occurs near the edge of the reactive ion etched area within this lateral diffusion region. Over longer illumination times (15 min), we find that the silver deposition has spread to a width of 1.29 {+-} 0.06 {mu}m, extending across the entire lateral diffusion region. We report that at a high molar concentration of AgNO{sub 3} (10{sup -2} M), the amount of silver deposition for 5 min UV illumination is greater (2.88 {+-} 0.58 nm) compared to that at low (10{sup -4} M) concentrations (0.78 {+-} 0.35 nm), however, this is not the case for longer time periods. With increasing illumination time (15 min), experiments at 10{sup -4} M had greater overall deposition, 6.90 {+-} 1.52 nm, compared to 4.50 {+-} 0.76 nm at 10{sup -2} M. For longer exposure times (30 min) at 10{sup -2} M, the nanostructure height is 4.72 {+-} 0.59 nm, suggesting a saturation in the nanostructure height. The results are discussed in terms of the electric double layer that forms at the crystal surface. There is an order of magnitude difference between the Debye lengths for 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -4} M

  4. Phytoplankton growth rate and zooplankton grazing in the western part of the Black Sea in the autumn period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stel'Makh, L. V.; Babich, I. I.; Tugrul, S.; Moncheva, S.; Stefanova, K.

    2009-02-01

    The results of the studies within the framework of the international expedition onboard R/V Vladimir Parshin in September-October 2005 are presented. Intensive development of Bacillariophyceae and Dynophyceae was recorded in the coastal waters of Bulgaria, Turkey, and in the Danube River Delta during the period of the investigations. The increase in the algae population was accompanied by rising of the Chlorophyll a concentration up to 2.0-5.5 mg m-3. In the deep water region, it did not exceed 0.54 mg m-3. The phytoplankton growth rate in the surface water layer varied from 0.1 to 1.0 day-1. The phytoplankton growth rate and NO2+NO3 concentration, as well as the silicon concentration, were correlative, as was described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The phytoplankton growth was affected by the integral impact of basic nutrients. The zooplankton grazing varied from 0.10 to 0.69 day-1, and the average values in different regions may vary by 1.5 times. The microalgae size range is one of the major factors of the grazing regulation. The rate of the phytoplankton consumption was decreasing according the increasing of the largest diatom Pseudosolenia calcaravis impact on the total biomass of the nano- and microphytoplankton.

  5. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer and its combination with urea on nitrous oxide emission during rice growth period].

    PubMed

    Ji, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Jing; Li, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hua; Cai, Zu-cong

    2011-08-01

    By the method of static chamber, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) and its combination with urea on the N2O emission during rice growth period. Four treatments, i.e., no fertilization (CK), urea (U), urea and CRF with a ratio of 3:7 (U+C), and CRF (C) were installed, and the N application rate in treatments U, U+C, and C was the same. Compared with treatment U, treatments U+C and C decreased the N2O emission during rice growth season by 40.4% and 59.6%, and decreased the emission at midseason aeration stage by 65.1% and 83.9%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with that in treatment C, the N2O emission in treatment U+C had a slight decrease, and decreased by 53.9% at midseason aeration stage. Applying CRF increased rice yield, and the increment in treatments C and U+C was 7.8% and 9.8%, respectively, as compared to treatment U. Applying CRF delayed the peak time of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration, resulting in the reduction of N2O emission at midseason aeration stage. During rice growth season, no significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature. PMID:22097364

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoform regulation of early forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Darland, Diane C.; Cain, Jacob T.; Berosik, Matthew A.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Odens, Patrick W.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Frisch, Sarah; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Darland, Tristan; D’Amore, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This work was designed to determine the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) isoforms during early neuroepithelial development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the forebrain. An emerging model of interdependence between neural and vascular systems includes VEGF, with its dual roles as a potent angiogenesis factor and neural regulator. Although a number of studies have implicated VEGF in CNS development, little is known about the role that the different VEGF isoforms play in early neurogenesis. We used a mouse model of disrupted VEGF isoform expression that eliminates the predominant brain isoform, VEGF164, and expresses only the diffusible form, VEGF120. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF164 plays a key role in controlling neural precursor populations in developing cortex. We used microarray analysis to compare gene expression differences between wild type and VEGF120 mice at E9.5, the primitive stem cell stage of the neuroepithelium. We quantified changes in PHH3-positive nuclei, neural stem cell markers (Pax6 and nestin) and the Tbr2-positive intermediate progenitors at E11.5 when the neural precursor population is expanding rapidly. Absence of VEGF164 (and VEGF188) leads to reduced proliferation without an apparent effect on the number of Tbr2-positive cells. There is a corresponding reduction in the number of mitotic spindles that are oriented parallel to the ventricular surface relative to those with a vertical or oblique angle. These results support a role for the VEGF isoforms in supporting the neural precursor population of the early neuroepithelium. PMID:21803034

  7. The effects of recessive white and dominant white genotypes on early growth rate.

    PubMed

    Fox, W; Smyth, J R

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the studies reported herein was to determine whether the depressing effects on growth rate of dominant white (I) and recessive white (c/c) are additive or possibly interact with each other. A synthetic stock was used that was segregating for both dominant white and recessive white. Using phenotypic observations of down color and juvenile plumage color; it was possible to identify the genotypes at the I and C+ loci and to utilize a factorial experiment that provided for an evaluation of interaction effects between the loci. Five replications of this design were conducted with the following results: 1) the main effect of dominant white on 6 and 8 week body weight was not statistically significant; 2) recessive white consistently depresses early growth rate and the difference (congruent to 4%) between C+/- vs. c/c was highly significant (P less than .01); 3) there was a significant interaction (P less than .05) between I and c indicating that depressing effects of these loci are not additive. It does not appear to be necessary to eliminate (I) from recessive white broiler stocks, but it would be economically advantageous to remove hypostatic (c) from dominant white lines. PMID:3991420

  8. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    PubMed

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-16

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe. PMID:21677753

  9. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I; Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María T; Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Nathaly; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Shliaha, Pavel V; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Koster, Abraham J; Jensen, Ole N; van Wezel, Gilles P; Manteca, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth, but cross-membrane formation does not depend on FtsZ. Thus, a new level of hyphal organization is presented involving unprecedented high-frequency compartmentalization, which changes the old dogma that Streptomyces vegetative hyphae have scarce compartmentalization. PMID:27514833

  10. Low Dose Nicotine Attenuates Aβ Neurotoxicity through Activation Early Growth Response Gene 1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Qiu, Jinhua; Du, Guicheng; Qiao, Zhiliang; Jin, Guanghui; Gao, Fengguang; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that smoking is negatively correlated with the incidence and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nicotine was reported to be the active factor. However, the detailed mechanisms still remain to be fully elucidated. Early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) plays important roles in several important biological processes such as promoting cell growth, differentiation, anti oxidative stress, and apoptosis, but few in the pathogenesis of AD. In the present study, we show that nicotine can activate the MAPK/ERK/EGR-1 signaling pathway partially through α7 nAChR. In addition, the up-regulation of EGR-1 by nicotine can also increase the phosphorylation of CyclinD1 which contributes to the attenuation of amyloid-β (Aβ25–35) -induced neurotoxicity. Although nicotine and Aβ25–35 can activate EGR-1, the expression of EGR-1 is down-regulated following treatment with nicotine and Aβ25–35. This study demonstrates that low dose nicotine attenuates Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo through activating EGR-1 pathway. PMID:25815723

  11. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    PubMed

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling. PMID:25713457

  12. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I.; Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María T.; Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Nathaly; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Shliaha, Pavel V.; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Koster, Abraham J.; Jensen, Ole N.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Manteca, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth, but cross-membrane formation does not depend on FtsZ. Thus, a new level of hyphal organization is presented involving unprecedented high-frequency compartmentalization, which changes the old dogma that Streptomyces vegetative hyphae have scarce compartmentalization. PMID:27514833

  13. Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn) During Growth Spurt Period in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Muddanna Rao, S.; Gurumadhva Rao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders. PMID:18955230

  14. Mammalian Herbivores Alter the Population Growth and Spatial Establishment of an Early-Establishing Grassland Species.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Danielson, Brent J; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions influence the establishment context of plant species, as herbivores alter the community context in which individual species establish, and the spatial relationship between individuals and their source population as plants invade. This relationship can be described using an establishment kernel, which takes into account movement through seed dispersal, and subsequent establishment of adults. Mammalian herbivores are hypothesized to influence plant population growth and establishment through a combination of consumption of seeds and seedlings, and movement of seeds. While the movement abilities of plants are well known, we have very few empirical mechanistic tests of how biotic factors like mammalian herbivores influence this spread potential. As herbivores of all sizes are abundant on the landscape, we asked the question, how do mammalian herbivores influence the population growth, spatial establishment, and the community establishment context of an early-recruiting native prairie legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata? We planted C. fasciculata in source populations within a four-acre tallgrass prairie restoration in plots with and without herbivores, and monitored its establishment with respect to distance from the source populations. We found that herbivores decreased population growth, and decreased the mean and range establishment distance. Additionally, C. fasciculata established more often without herbivores, and when surrounded by weedy, annual species. Our results provide insight into how the interactions between plants and herbivores can alter the spatial dynamics of developing plant communities, which is vital for colonization and range spread with fragmentation and climate change. Mammalian herbivores have the potential to both slow rates of establishment, but also determine the types of plant communities that surround invading species. Therefore, it is essential to consider the herbivore community when attempting to restore

  15. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth.

    PubMed

    van Eijsden, Manon; Meijers, Claire M C; Jansen, Jessica E; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2015-08-14

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish and Dutch infants aged 0-6 months. Data were obtained from the mothers of 143 Turkish and 143 Dutch healthy, singleton, term infants with birth weights appropriate for gestational age, using structured interviews at 1, 4 and 6 months after birth. Compared with Dutch mothers, mothers of Turkish descent perceived a chubby infant more often as pretty (43 v. 22%), and were more often worried about their infant's growth (13 v. 4%). Turkish mothers were more likely to give full breast-feeding (BF) until at least 6 months (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.0, 4.3) and to start introducing complementary feeding, including rice flour porridge, at the age of 6 months (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1, 4.9). Infants of Turkish descent were fed on average one milk feeding more during the day and, if introduced to complementary foods before 6 months, were more often given uncommon types of foods (e.g., yogurt and cookies) (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 4.3). The differences in perceptions affected differences in feeding practises only to a small extent. Preventive advice offered to Turkish mothers in Child Health Care should include discussing choices of complementary foods and frequency of feeding from an early age onwards. In Dutch mothers, support for the continuation of BF remains an important issue. PMID:26166487

  16. Mammalian Herbivores Alter the Population Growth and Spatial Establishment of an Early-Establishing Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lauren L.; Danielson, Brent J.; Harpole, W. Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions influence the establishment context of plant species, as herbivores alter the community context in which individual species establish, and the spatial relationship between individuals and their source population as plants invade. This relationship can be described using an establishment kernel, which takes into account movement through seed dispersal, and subsequent establishment of adults. Mammalian herbivores are hypothesized to influence plant population growth and establishment through a combination of consumption of seeds and seedlings, and movement of seeds. While the movement abilities of plants are well known, we have very few empirical mechanistic tests of how biotic factors like mammalian herbivores influence this spread potential. As herbivores of all sizes are abundant on the landscape, we asked the question, how do mammalian herbivores influence the population growth, spatial establishment, and the community establishment context of an early-recruiting native prairie legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata? We planted C. fasciculata in source populations within a four-acre tallgrass prairie restoration in plots with and without herbivores, and monitored its establishment with respect to distance from the source populations. We found that herbivores decreased population growth, and decreased the mean and range establishment distance. Additionally, C. fasciculata established more often without herbivores, and when surrounded by weedy, annual species. Our results provide insight into how the interactions between plants and herbivores can alter the spatial dynamics of developing plant communities, which is vital for colonization and range spread with fragmentation and climate change. Mammalian herbivores have the potential to both slow rates of establishment, but also determine the types of plant communities that surround invading species. Therefore, it is essential to consider the herbivore community when attempting to restore

  17. Combined effects of malathion and nitrate on early growth, abnormalities, and mortality of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, S V; Smith, G R

    2011-08-01

    Use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals adversely influence amphibians either directly by killing them or by inducing sublethal, chronic effects. Many studies have investigated the effect of mixtures of pesticides or fertilizers. We studied the combined effects of nitrate and malathion ([(dimethoxy phosphino thioyl] butanediotae) on the early growth, expression of abnormalities, and mortality of Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles in a laboratory experiment. Tadpoles were treated with factorial combinations of 0, 8, and 16 mg NO(3)-N l(-1) and 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg malathion l(-1) for a period of 14 days. Feeding behaviour, total length, mean tadpole mass, frequencies of abnormalities, and survivorship in each treatment were recorded. Malathion showed a significant negative influence on all parameters and strongly influenced the frequencies of morphological anomalies. In contrast, nitrate alone did not produce any significant effects on behavior, total length, tadpole mass, or the frequency of abnormalities during the experiment. Malathion and nitrate had an interactive effect on tadpole length and mass, but did not affect any other parameters. Our results suggest that exposure to malathion, even at relatively low concentrations can have serious negative consequences for Wood Frog tadpoles. In addition, our results also indicate that there was little synergistic interaction between malathion and nitrate exposure under laboratory conditions. PMID:21533775

  18. Observations of Nucleation and Early Stage Growth of Amorphous Silica on Carboxyl-Terminated Model Biosubstrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. F.; Dove, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    surface. While controlling solution chemistry, we can make in situ measurements of nucleation and early stage growth at these interfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Preliminary experiments show that at pH 4 to 7, and supersaturations of 0.76 to 1.45 (σ = ln([H4SiO4]/Ksp)), silica nucleates on carboxyl-terminated areas of the surface, that are less than 30 nm in diameter. The nuclei evolve during early stages of growth to spread over the surface into a sheet like form.

  19. Growth failure starts from early infancy in children with short stature at age 6

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Masahiro; Sato, Naoko; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compared the growth of 183 children with short stature (≤ 2SD) and 73 children of normal height at age six who were visiting the Tanaka Growth Clinic. We classified these short children as suffering from either idiopathic short stature (ISS, n = 119), GH deficiency (GHD, n = 33) or small-for-gestational-age short stature (SGASS, n = 31) on the basis of subsequent test results and other factors. We also conducted a retrospective study of changes in their height, wt and nutritional intake over time. The mean changes in height SD score from birth to 6 yr were –0.24 SD in normal height children with a normal birth length and +2.27 SD in normal height children with a low birth length. In short children, these changes were –1.93 SD for children with ISS, –2.41 SD for those with GHD and +0.58 for those with SGASS. The mean changes from birth to 6 mo were –0.84 SD, −1.03 SD and +0.38 SD in children with ISS, GHD and SGASS, respectively. The mean change in height SD score from birth to age 1 yr was –1.07 SD, –1.44 SD and +0.35 SD, respectively. The decrease in height SD score from birth to 6 mo accounted for 43.5% of the decrease in height SD score from birth to 6 yr in children with ISS and it accounted for 42.6% of the decrease in children with GHD. Only 19% of short children bottle-fed well, and 53% fed poorly, as opposed to 56% and 16% of normal height children who fed well and poorly, respectively. Post weaning, only 22% of short children ate well, and 56% fed poorly, as opposed to 53% and 17% of normal height children who fed well and poorly, respectively. These findings demonstrated that growth failure started from early infancy in ISS and GHD children. It was suggested that poor nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood was a partial cause of short stature at age 6. PMID:25678754

  20. A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort to Investigate the Effects of Early Life Giardiasis on Growth and All Cause Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Ma, Jennie Z.; Nazib, Forida; Platts-Mills, James A.; Bartelt, Luther A.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Growth stunting in children under 2 years of age in low-income countries is common. Giardia is a ubiquitous pathogen in this age group but studies investigating Giardia's effect on both growth and diarrhea have produced conflicting results. Methods. We conducted a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with monthly Giardia and continuous diarrheal surveillance. Results. 629 children were enrolled within the first 72 hours of life, and 445 completed 2 years of the study. 12% of children were stunted at birth with 57% stunted by 2 years. 7% of children had a Giardia positive surveillance stool in the first 6 months of life, whereas 74% had a positive stool by 2 years. The median time to first Giardia positive surveillance stool was 17 months. Presence of Giardia in a monthly surveillance stool within the first 6 months of life decreased length-for-age Z score at 2 years by 0.4 (95% confidence interval, −.80 to −.001; P value .05) whereas total number of Giardia positive months over the 2-year period of observation did not. Neither variable was associated with weight-for-age Z score at 2 years. In our model to examine predictors of diarrhea only exclusive breastfeeding was significantly associated with decreased diarrhea (P value <.001). Concomitant giardiasis was neither a risk factor nor protective. Conclusions. Early life Giardia was a risk factor for stunting at age 2 but not poor weight gain. Presence of Giardia neither increased nor decreased odds of acute all cause diarrhea. PMID:27313261

  1. 76 FR 8739 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Growth Fund, LLC; Twitter, Inc.; KPCB Digital Growth Fund, LLC. 20110418 G Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc.; Edgar Jackson, Trustee, William Jackson Family Trust; Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. 20110433 G Aviation Industry Corporation of China; Teledyne Technologies Incorporated; Aviation...

  2. Early Oligocene geomagnetic field behavior from ODP Site 1128: Complex records of short-period polarity events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Garza, R. S.; Fuller, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    At Site 1128, in the Great Australian Bight, Leg 182 of the Ocean Drilling Program recovered a thick (~350 m) section of Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene marine calcareous clays. Shipboard measurements established a magnetostratigraphy that can unambiguously be correlated to chrons C13n to C10n of the global polarity time scale (GPTS), and a less complete record of chrons C17n to C15r (due to poor core recovery). Correlation to the GPTS is further supported by available biostratigraphic data. For the Lower Oligocene sequence, average sedimentation rate is estimated at ~4 cm/kyr. The sediments recovered thus allow to test for the completeness and reliability of the geomagnetic field polarity during the Early Oligocene. The original shipboard long-core measurements suggested the presence of additional short polarity events or geomagnetic field excursions during chrons C13n, C12r, C11r, and C11n. In order to examine the reliability of the record and the nature of possible short-polarity events, we obtained discrete samples from the entire sequence at ~1 m intervals, with a closer sample spacing in critical intervals (~10 cm). The natural remanence of these sediments is normally simple. After removing a small soft overprint, the magnetization decays towards the origin with distributed coercivities and distributed unblocking temperatures. Demagnetization behavior and other rock magnetic data indicate that the remanence resides primarily in a cubic phase such as magnetite or maghemite, with a small contribution from hematite. Discrete samples from chron C12r did not reproduce the long-core record for two of the supposed events, single samples suggest the presence of short events or cryptochrons near the base of both C13n and C12r, and multiple samples suggest the existence of short-period normal polarity events during C11r and near the top of C12r. The records of these events are, however, complex. Demagnetization results indicate that the magnetization consists of an

  3. Metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive responses of beef heifers submitted to different growth strategies during the lactation and rearing periods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J A; Sanz, A; Tamanini, C; Casasús, I

    2015-08-01

    The effects of different feeding strategies (0.7 kg/d target ADG [LO] and 1.0 kg/d target ADG [HI] during the lactation period (LACT; 0-6 mo) and the rearing period (REAR; 6-15 mo; HI-HI, HI-LO, LO-HI, and LO-LO treatments) on the growth and reproductive parameters of beef heifers bred by fixed-time AI at 15 mo were analyzed. Animal weights were recorded weekly (from birth to 18 mo), and size measures were recorded at 6 and 15 mo. Heifers were bled to determine the onset of puberty and the metabolic and endocrine (IGF-I and leptin) status. During lactation, calves in the high lactation treatment (LactHI) had greater weight ( < 0.001), weight gain ( < 0.001), and body size ( < 0.001) than calves in the low lactation treatment (LactLO). The greater energy balance of LactHI heifers at weaning was reflected in greater concentrations of plasma glucose ( < 0.001), urea ( < 0.001), and IGF-I ( < 0.001); plasma levels of NEFA were lower ( < 0.001). During REAR, LactLO heifers had a greater growth rate than did LactHI heifers ( < 0.001), partially overcoming the lower gains during lactation. The differences in size measurements registered at weaning were also compensated, with the exception of LO-LO heifers. The IGF-I profile was highly correlated with animal performance traits and metabolic profiles, providing a useful indicator of growth, nutritional, and metabolic status at key points in development. By contrast, the function of leptin as an indicator of growth and reproductive development of heifers was less clear. All treatments had similar weights at puberty onset (55.9% mature BW), although LactLO ( < 0.01) and the low rearing treatment (RearLO; < 0.001) heifers were older than the others. The animals with greater glucose and IGF-I levels at weaning and greater cholesterol concentrations during REAR reached puberty earlier. The fertility rate (86%) was similar among treatments. The heifers in the high rearing treatment (RearHI) required more AI services to become

  4. Enhanced jun gene expression is an early genomic response to transforming growth factor. beta. stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pertovaara, L.; Sistonen, L.; Keski-Oja, J.; Alitalo, K. ); Bos, T.J.; Vogt, P.K. . Dept. of Microbiology)

    1989-03-01

    Transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF{beta}) is a multifunctional polypeptide4 that regulates proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of many cell types. The pathway of TGF{beta} signal transduction in cells is unknown. The authors report here that an early effect of TGF{beta} is an enhancement of the expression of two genes encoding serum- and phorbol ester tumor promoter-regulated transcription factors: the junB gene and the c-jun proto-oncogene, respectively. This stimulation was observed in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells which were growth inhibited by TGF{beta}, AKR-2B mouse embryo fibroblasts which were growth stimulated by TGF{beta}, and K562 human erythroleukemia cells, which were not appreciably affected in their growth by TFG{beta}. The increase in jun mRNA occurred with picomolar TGF{beta} concentrations within 1 h of TGF{beta} stimulation, reached a peak between 1 and 5 h in different cells, and declined gradually to base-fine levels. This mRNA response was followed by a large increase in the biosynthesis of the c-jun protein (AP-1), as shown by metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation analysis. However, differential and cell type-specific regulation appeared to determine the timing and magnitude of the response of each jun gene in a given cell. In AKR-2B and NIH 3T3 cells, only junB was induced by TGF{beta}, evidently in a protein synthesis-independent fashion. The junB response to TGF{beta} was maintained in c-Ha-ras and neu oncogene-transformed cells. Thus, one of the earliest genomic responses to TGF{beta} may involve nuclear signal transduction and amplification by the junB and c-jun transcription factors in concert with c-fos, which is also induced. The differential activation of the jun genes may explain some of the pleiotropic effects of TGF{beta}.

  5. Period 2 is essential to maintain early endothelial progenitor cell function in vitro and angiogenesis after myocardial infarction in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Bai, Wen-Wu; Wang, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Ting; Xing, Yi-Fan; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhao, Yu-Xia

    2014-05-01

    Cellular therapeutic neovascularization has been successfully performed in clinical trials for patients with ischaemia diseases. Despite the vast knowledge of cardiovascular disease and circadian biology, the role of the circadian clock in regulating angiogenesis in myocardial infarction (MI) remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of Period 2 (Per2) in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function. Flow cytometry revealed lower circulating EPC proportion in per2(-/-) than in wild-type (WT) mice. PER2 was abundantly expressed in early EPCs in mice. In vitro, EPCs from per2(-/-) mice showed impaired proliferation, migration, tube formation and adhesion. Western blot analysis demonstrated inhibited PI3k/Akt/FoxO signalling and reduced C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) protein level in EPCs of per2(-/-) mice. The impaired proliferation was blocked by activated PI3K/Akt/FoxO signalling. Direct interaction of CXCR4 and PER2 was detected in WT EPCs. To further study the effect of per2 on in vivo EPC survival and angiogenesis, we injected saline or DiI-labelled WT or per2(-/-) EPC intramyocardially into mice with induced MI. Per2(-/-) reduced the retention of transplanted EPCs in the myocardium, which was associated with significantly reduced DiI expression in the myocardium of MI mice. Decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium of per2(-/-) EPC-treated mice coincided with decreased LV function and increased infarct size in the myocardium. Per2 may be a key factor in maintaining EPC function in vitro and in therapeutic angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:24621388

  6. Differential expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta isoforms in dog endometrium during different periods of the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Jackowska, M; Woźna, M; Antosik, P; Piotrowska, H; Jaśkowski, J M

    2011-01-01

    Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) play an important physiological role in the processes of proliferation and differentiation of several different cell types. However, the expression profiles of these factors in domestic bitches endometrium are still poorly recognized. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze the differential expression of these factors in various stages of the estrus cycle. Endometrial tissue from proestrus (n = 17), estrus (n = 10), day 10 diestrus (n = 15), day 35 diestrus (n = 18) and anestrus (n = 25) was collected soon after ovariohysterectomy. Total RNA was isolated from the endometrium by means of Chomczyński and Sacchi method, treated by DNase I, and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Quantitative analysis of EGF, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, and TGFbeta3 cDNA was performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EGF expression in canine endometrium was increased in the estrus stage as compared to proestrus (P < 0.05), day 10 diestrus (P < 0.05), day 35 diestrus (P < 0.01) and anestrus (P < 0.001). We also found the differences in EGF expression between day 10 and day 35 of estrus as well as between day 35 of estrus with anestrus (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The TGFf1 transcript contents were also higher in estrus as compared to other stages (P < 0.01). The TGFbeta2 and TGFbeta3 in the estrus stage was increased compared to proestrus, day 10 diestrus, day 35 diestrus and anestrus (P < 0.05). We proved that expression of EGF and TGFbeta transcript isoforms is related to the phase of estrus in bitches and therefore may be regulated by specific hormone concentrations during these periods. Our results confirm the hypothesis that these growth factors play a role in the regulation of biochemical changes in the endometrial tissues during the estrus cycle. PMID:21721411

  7. Correlation of C0 and C2 levels with lipid profiles in adolescent renal transplant recipients in the early and late posttransplant periods.

    PubMed

    Soylu, A; Kavukçu, S; Türkmen, M A; Kasap, B; Soylu, A; Bora, S; Gülay, H

    2006-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a frequent complication after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine therapy is an important cause of hyperlipidemia. It is still controversial whether C0 or C2 is the most effective way to monitor blood cyclosporine concentrations to guide dosages. We sought to evaluate the relationship of C0 or C2 to serum lipid levels in the early and late posttransplant periods among adolescent renal transplant recipients. The posttransplantation charts of 26 adolescent renal transplant recipients were evaluated retrospectively. Serum C0 and C2 levels and serum lipid (triglyceride and total cholesterol) levels were analyzed both in the early (first 6 months) and the late (thereafter) posttransplant periods. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were defined as levels above the 95th percentile adjusted for age and gender. To evaluate the influence of C0 and C2 levels on serum lipids, we excluded one patient with familial hyperlipidemia. In addition, serum lipid levels of the remaining 25 patients were excluded in acute rejection periods and when the serum creatinine levels were above 2.5 mg/dL, representing chronic allograft nephropathy. Concurrently recorded serum C0 and C2 levels were present for only 21 patients. Overall, we evaluated the records of 245 visits for these 21 patients. The incidence of hyperlipidemia decreased in the late posttransplant period, being significant for hypercholesterolemia. C2 had strong negative correlation with serum lipids; it was significant for total cholesterol in the early posttransplant period (r=-0.542, P=.005), but weaker in the late posttransplant and whole posttransplant periods. Thus correlation of C2 with serum lipids showed differences during posttransplant follow-up. C0, on the other hand, was positively correlated with total cholesterol levels in all periods, being significant for the whole posttransplant period (r=0.293, P=.000) and for the late posttransplant period (r=0.196, P=.025). Although not

  8. Transgenerational Effects of Early Life Starvation on Growth, Reproduction, and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Meghan A; Jordan, James M; Sandrof, Moses A; Hibshman, Jonathan D; Lennox, Ashley L; Baugh, L Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Starvation during early development can have lasting effects that influence organismal fitness and disease risk. We characterized the long-term phenotypic consequences of starvation during early larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine potential fitness effects and develop it as a model for mechanistic studies. We varied the amount of time that larvae were developmentally arrested by starvation after hatching ("L1 arrest"). Worms recovering from extended starvation grew slowly, taking longer to become reproductive, and were smaller as adults. Fecundity was also reduced, with the smallest individuals most severely affected. Feeding behavior was impaired, possibly contributing to deficits in growth and reproduction. Previously starved larvae were more sensitive to subsequent starvation, suggesting decreased fitness even in poor conditions. We discovered that smaller larvae are more resistant to heat, but this correlation does not require passage through L1 arrest. The progeny of starved animals were also adversely affected: Embryo quality was diminished, incidence of males was increased, progeny were smaller, and their brood size was reduced. However, the progeny and grandprogeny of starved larvae were more resistant to starvation. In addition, the progeny, grandprogeny, and great-grandprogeny were more resistant to heat, suggesting epigenetic inheritance of acquired resistance to starvation and heat. Notably, such resistance was inherited exclusively from individuals most severely affected by starvation in the first generation, suggesting an evolutionary bet-hedging strategy. In summary, our results demonstrate that starvation affects a variety of life-history traits in the exposed animals and their descendants, some presumably reflecting fitness costs but others potentially adaptive. PMID:26187123

  9. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P < 0.01). Calves with two copies of the inactive allele were more likely (P < 0.01) to die before weaning. Postweaning growth traits were evaluated in the surviving animals (n = 1,370), including birth, weaning, and live weight at slaughter, and postweaning ADG. Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses

  10. A preliminary assessment of oxygen isotope fractionation and growth increment periodicity in the estuarine clam Rangia cuneata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, C. Fred T.; Rich, Kelley Whatley

    2008-10-01

    Rangia cuneata is an upper estuarine clam common in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Limited data exist regarding oxygen isotope fractionation and microstructural increment periodicity in this species. As these clams were recently identified as an invasive species in other regions, such data may be useful for environmental management purposes. Additionally, the shell of this clam is common in archeological middens, and thus may serve as a paleoenvironmental proxy. In order to assess these aspects of the species' natural history, samples were collected from the upper Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA. A stable oxygen isotope profile was generated from one of these valves, and compared to growth increments seen in thin section. Time-series water temperature data from near the collection site were used to construct idealized models of oxygen isotope variation, assuming equilibrium fractionation, constant shell growth, and stable water δ18O values. Comparison of the modeled and measured data suggest the shell was precipitated in, or near oxygen isotope equilibrium with ambient water, and that the microstructural increments in the shell were precipitated in response to tidal cycles.

  11. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, M R; Jacobsen, S E; Akhtar, S S; Muscolo, A

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  12. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    PubMed

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing. PMID

  13. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, M. R.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Akhtar, S. S.; Muscolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  14. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  15. Effects of extended growth periods on subcellular distribution, chemical forms, and the translocation of cadmium in Impatiens walleriana.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Cai, Ming-Cyuan

    2016-01-01

    Impatiens walleriana plants accumulate sufficiently high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) for this species to be considered a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. Rooted cuttings were grown hydroponically for 25 and 50 days in solutions spiked with various Cd concentrations. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in different organs were analyzed, and its upward translocation was also assessed. The plants accumulated large amounts of Cd; the Cd concentration in the roots and shoots reached 120-1900 and 60-1600 mg/kg, respectively. Regardless of the growth period, the Cd accumulated in the roots was primarily compartmentalized in the soluble fraction or ethanol and deionized water extractable chemical forms with high migration abilities. Translocation to the shoots was followed by an association of Cd mainly in the cell wall or with pectate and protein. The roots' Cd showed a high migration capacity for predicting the shoots' Cd concentrations. Different exposure periods significantly affected the subcellular distribution of Cd in the stems, and thus the upward translocation. PMID:26247535

  16. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Theresa; Cattelona, Georg’ann

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1) breastfeeding initiation, (2) early post-partum breastfeeding, (3) breastfeeding plan, (4) post-partum breastfeeding support and (5) breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported ques­tionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67) of mothers received helped from their husband or part­ner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79) of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-par­tum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations. PMID:25649998

  17. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  18. Kindergarten Predictors of Mathematical Growth in the Primary Grades: An Investigation Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa; Reid, Erin E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal predictive relationships between young children's classroom behaviors and their growth in mathematics skills during the primary grades. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, the authors tested a longitudinal model featuring positive (interpersonal skills and approaches to learning) and…

  19. Tracing Student Responsiveness to Intervention with Early Literacy Skills Indicators: Do They Reflect Growth toward Text Reading Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Hilt-Panahon, Alexandra; Shapiro, Edward S.; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated four widely-used early literacy skills indicators in reflecting growth toward first-grade text reading skills. Examining the progress of 101 students across kindergarten and first grade, Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) were more accurate than Initial Sounds Fluency and Phoneme Segmentation…

  20. The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Skyllingstad, E.D.; Wijesekera, H.W.; Gregg, M.C.

    1995-03-01

    A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.

  1. [The depressive disorders during the early rehabilitation period following preceding ischemic stroke: the possibilities for the application of the enhanced external counterpulsation method].

    PubMed

    Razumov, A N; Eneeva, M A; Kostenko, E V; Bobyreva, S N

    2016-01-01

    The authors present arguments in favour of the necessity to reveal and treat the co-morbid conditions with special reference to depressive disorders in the patients during the early rehabilitation period following preceding ischemic stroke. They demonstrate the importance of the application of non-medicamentous therapy in combination with the standard medicamental treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the data obtained during evaluation of the effectiveness of combined therapy with the use of the enhanced external counterpulsation method in the early post-stroke period. It is concluded that the early diagnostics and timely correction of anxio-depressive conditions promotes the efficiency of rehabilitative measures and improves the quality of life of the patients with such disorders. PMID:27030561

  2. Sonographic monitoring of early follicle growth induced by melatonin implants in camels and the subsequent fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dholpuria, S.; Vyas, S.; Purohit, G.N.; Pathak, K.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of melatonin implants on follicle growth in dromedary camels two months ahead of their natural breeding season (December to March). Female camels (n = 6) were treated with melatonin implants at the dose rate of 1 implant per 28 kg body weight sc. Control camels (n = 6) were administered an SC placebo implant of 8 ml vitamin A. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed at weekly interval upto 7 weeks. Camels were mated with virile stud when a follicle (≥10 mm) was visible on either of the ovaries. Blood was collected on day 7, 9, 15, 20, 25 and 30 for assay of plasma progesterone and sonography performed at the same time. Small follicles (2-3 mm) appeared around the periphery of ovaries in 83.3% of camels by day 7 and in 100% camels by day 14. By the end of 7th week an ovulatory size follicle (≥1.0 cm) could be observed in 83.3% of treated camels, and these camels were mated with virile studs. In control group, small follicles appeared at the periphery of ovaries only in 66.6% camels but did not progress in growth except in one camel (16.6%) however, ovulating size (≥10 mm) follicle was not observed in any camel by the end of 7th week. All treated camels ovulated and one treated camel became pregnant while early embryonic death occurred in one camel. Non–pregnant camels of both groups were mated during the breeding season. All camels of treatment group and 33.33% camels of control group became pregnant by the end of breeding season (April 2010). It was concluded that melatonin implants can augment the follicle growth in lactating camels ahead of the breeding season and pregnancy can occur on mating. Fertility of treated camels during the breeding season is improved. PMID:23396356

  3. Functional activation of the egr-1 (early growth response-1) gene by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Nose, K; Ohba, M

    1996-06-01

    The redox-based regulation of gene expression is one of the fundamental mechanisms of cellular functions, and hydrogen peroxide seems to act as an intracellular second messenger of signal transduction of cytokines. Hydrogen peroxide at non-toxic doses induced the accumulation of mRNA for the early growth response-1 (egr-1) gene in mouse osteoblastic cells. The Egr-1 protein is a transcription factor that binds the GCGGGGGCG sequence and contains a zinc-finger structure that is essential for DNA binding. Egr-1 protein is sensitive to oxidative stress and loses specific DNA-binding activity when exposed to high levels of oxidative stress. Incubating cells with hydrogen peroxide at about 50 microM, however, increased the accumulation of Egr-1 protein, and the Egr-1 product seemed to be functional, judging by its binding activity to the GCGGGGGCG sequence and its ability to activate the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene under the control of the human thymidine kinase enhancer containing the Egr-1 binding sequence. It was reported that the activity of Egr-1 protein as a transcription factor was negatively regulated by active oxygens. However, with appropriate concentrations of active oxygen, its capacity to bind a specific DNA sequence and to enhance the transcriptional activity of target genes is thought to be elevated. PMID:8687376

  4. Increased induction in FeCo-based nanocomposite materials with reduced early transition metal growth inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. J.; Leary, A.; Kernion, S. J.; Wise, A.; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E.; Keylin, Vladimir; Huth, Joe

    2010-05-01

    We report on new high-saturation induction, high-temperature nanocomposite alloys with reduced glass formers. The amounts of the magnetic transition metals and early transition metal growth inhibitors were systematically varied to determine trade-offs between higher inductions and fine microstructures with consequently lower magnetic losses. Alloys of nominal composition (Fe65Co35)79.5+xNb4-xB13Si2Cu1.5 (x=0-4) were cast into a 28 mm wide, 20 μm thick ribbon from which toroidal cores were wound. Inductions and magnetic losses were measured after nanocrystallization and stress relief. We report technical magnetic properties: permeability, maximum induction, remanence ratio, coercive field, and high frequency magnetic losses as a function of composition and annealing temperature for these alloys. Of note is the development of maximum inductions in excess of 1.76 T in cores made of alloys with the x=4 composition and maximum inductions in excess of 1.67 T in alloys with the x=3 composition, which also exhibit power losses smaller than 10 W/kg at 0.2 T induction levels in 20 kHz fields. We discuss optimization of induction with chemistry and correlate the microstructures with losses.

  5. Reduction of early-time perturbation growth in ablatively driven laser targets using tailored density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Nathan; Velikovich, Alexander L.; Gardner, John H.

    1999-08-01

    The effects of tailoring the density profile in a laser target in order to decrease imprinting of mass perturbations due to the long-wavelength modes are investigated analytically and numerically. Inverting the acceleration of the ablation front during the shock transit time could reduce the early-time mass perturbation amplitudes developed in the target after the shock transit. This principle was first suggested for mitigating the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability of imploding Z-pinches [Velikovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 853 (1996); Phys. Plasmas 5, 3377 (1998)]. As the shock wave slows down propagating into higher density layers, the effective gravity near the ablation front has the same direction as the density gradient. This makes the mass perturbations near it oscillate at a higher frequency and at a lower amplitude than they normally would due to the "rocket effect" caused by mass ablation [Sanz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2700 (1994); Piriz et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1117 (1997)]. So, tailoring density profiles instead of using flat densities is demonstrated to reduce the "seed" mass perturbation amplitude at the onset of the exponential RT growth.

  6. Regulation of low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) by early growth response (Egr) transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Daugherty, Rebecca L.; Tourtellotte, Warren G.

    2007-01-01

    The low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR is a multifunctional receptor with important roles in neurotrophin signaling, axon outgrowth, and oligodendroglia and neuron survival. It is transcriptionally regulated with spatial and temporal precision during nervous system development, injury and regeneration. Very little is known about how p75NTR expression is dynamically regulated but it is likely to influence how p75NTR signals in particular cellular contexts. Here, we identify the early growth response (Egr) transcriptional regulators, Egr1 and Egr3, as direct modulators of p75NTR gene expression. Egr1 and Egr3 bind and transactivate the p75NTR promoter in vitro and in vivo, using distinct response elements on the p75NTR promoter. Consistent with these results, p75NTR expression is greatly diminished in muscle spindle stretch receptors and in peripheral nerve Schwann cells in Egr gene deficient mice. Taken together, the results elucidate a novel mechanism whereby Egr proteins can directly modulate p75NTR expression and signaling in vivo. PMID:17916431

  7. Impaired extinction of learned contextual fear memory in early growth response 1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungrie; Hong, Soontaek; Mo, Jiwon; Lee, Dongmin; Choi, Eunju; Choi, June-seek; Sun, Woong; Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Inductive expression of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) in neurons is associated with many forms of neuronal activity. However, only a few Egr-1 target genes are known in the brain. The results of this study demonstrate that Egr-1 knockout (KO) mice display impaired contextual extinction learning and normal fear acquisition relative to wild-type (WT) control animals. Genome-wide microarray experiments revealed 368 differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of Egr-1 WT exposed to different phases of a fear conditioning paradigm compared to gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of KO mice. Some of genes, such as serotonin receptor 2C (Htr2c), neuropeptide B (Npb), neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), NPY receptor Y1 (Npy1r), fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7), and neuropeptide Y (Npy) are known to regulate processing of fearful memories, and promoter analyses demonstrated that several of these genes contained Egr-1 binding sites. This study provides a useful list of potential Egr-1 target genes which may be regulated during fear memory processing. PMID:24552706

  8. MASSIVE NEUTRINOS PROMOTE THE SIZE GROWTH OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyunmi; Lee, Jounghun E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-05-10

    The effect of massive neutrinos on the evolution of early-type galaxies in size and stellar mass is explored by tracing the merging history of galaxy progenitors with the help of robust semi-analytic prescriptions. We show that as the presence of massive neutrinos plays a role in enhancing the mean merger rate per halo as well as the merger-driven increment in halo mass, the high-z progenitors of a massive descendant galactic halo evolve more rapidly in mass-normalized size for a {Lambda}MDM ({Lambda} cold dark matter + massive neutrinos) model than for the {Lambda}CDM ({Lambda} cold dark matter) case. We provide a physical reason for why the halo mass growth rate and the merger rate are higher in a {Lambda}MDM cosmology and conclude that if the presence and the role of massive neutrinos are properly taken into account, then it may explain the anomalous compactness of the high-z massive ETGs compared with local giant ellipticals with similar stellar masses.

  9. Simulation of the early startup period of high-temperature heat pipes from the frozen state by a rarefied vapor self-diffusion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y.; Faghri, A.

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe startup process is described physically and is divided into five periods for convenience of analysis. The literature survey revealed that none of the previous attempts to simulate the heat pipe startup process numerically were successful, since the rarefied vapor flow in the heat pipe was not considered. Therefore, a rarefied vapor self-diffusion model is proposed, and the early startup periods, in which the rarefied vapor flow is dominant within the heat pipe, are first simulated numerically. The numerical results show that large vapor density gradients existed along the heat pipe length, and the vapor flow reaches supersonic velocities when the density is extremely low. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data of the early startup period with good agreement.

  10. Growth in early childhood in a cohort of children born to HIV-1-infected women from Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bobat, R; Coovadia, H; Moodley, D; Coutsoudis, A; Gouws, E

    2001-09-01

    This study describes growth in a cohort of black South African children born to HIV-1-infected women in Durban. Children born to HIV-1-seropositive women were followed up from birth to early childhood. At birth and at each visit, growth parameters were measured. Mean Z-scores were calculated for weight-for-length, weight-for-age and length-for-age and, if they were low, the children were regarded as wasted, malnourished or stunted, respectively. At the end of the study, there were 48 infected and 93 uninfected children. There were no significant differences between the two groups at birth. Thereafter, the infected group was found to have early and sustained low mean Z-scores for length-for-age and weight-for-age but not for weight-for-length. The means reached significance at ages 3, 6 and 12 months for length and at 3, 6 and 9 months for weight. Infected children who died early had more severe stunting, wasting and malnutrition than infected children who survived. Infected children born to HIV-positive women have early and sustained stunting and are malnourished but not wasted. Children with rapidly progressive disease have both stunting and wasting and are more severely affected. Early nutritional intervention might help prevent early progression or death in HIV-infected children, particularly in developing countries without access to anti-retroviral therapy in state hospitals. PMID:11579858

  11. Epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis enhances growth performance of early-weaned pigs fed diets devoid of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Li, Z; Li, M; Ji, S; Liu, W; Huai, Y; de Lange, C F M; Li, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that was engineered to express epidermal growth factor (EGF-LL) to early-weaned pigs fed diets with typical levels of blood plasma (5%) or diets without blood plasma [blood plasma was substituted with soybean (Glycine max) meal and fish meal, based on amino acid supply] was examined. A total of 108 weaned piglets (19-26 d of age; mean initial BW 6.58 kg; 9 pigs per pen) were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program without growth promoters. Three pens were assigned to each of 4 treatments: i) blood plasma-containing diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BP-Con), ii) blood plasma-containing diet with fermented EGF-LL (BP-EGF), iii) blood plasma-free diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BPF-Con), and iv) blood plasma-free diet with fermented EGF-LL (BPF-EGF). The amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined in the fermentation product and pigs were allotted 60 μg EGF/kg BW/d for 3 wk postweaning. There were no differences in overall growth performance between BP-Con and BP-EGF pigs and no differences in overall growth performance between LoCon and BPF-EGF pigs. Pigs fed BPF-EGF showed increased daily BW gain (410 vs. 260 g/d; P < 0.01) and gain:feed (0.67 vs. 0.58; P < 0.05) compared to BPF-Con pigs in wk 3 postweaning; this was comparable to values for the BP-Con group (400 g/d and 0.64). These results indicate that supplementation with EGF-LL can be effective in enhancing the performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low complexity diet and reduces the need for feeding high-quality animal proteins and antibiotics. PMID:23365266

  12. 76 FR 27320 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    .... 20110712 G CB Richard Ellis Group, Inc.; ING Groep N.V.; CB Richard Ellis Group, Inc. 20110720 G Dr..., L.P. 04/19/2011 20110735 G Chicago Growth Partners II, L.P.; Richard Stamper; Chicago Growth....; Schottenstein RVI, LLC. 20110758 G Terry Taylor; Estate of R.C. Alexander; Terry Taylor. 20110760 G TCV VII,...

  13. Metabolic Programming: Effects of Early Nutrition on Growth, Metabolism and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Grathwohl, Dominik; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    High protein requirements of premature infants during the first weeks of postnatal life are a well-established fact. Those infants gain fat-free mass and protein rapidly during the first weeks of postnatal growth and require a much higher protein/energy ratio than term infants. Recommended protein intakes are 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day. For term infants, on the other hand, FAO and WHO have recently lowered recommended protein intakes to better reflect our current knowledge about the protein concentration in breast milk during the first 12 months of lactation. Longitudinal randomized clinical trials now confirm that term infants who are fed infant and follow-up formulas with protein concentrations >2.25 g/100 kcal (high protein formulas) during the first year of life grow faster than indicated by the WHO growth standards. Rapid weight gain during infancy is a predictor of childhood and adult obesity. Infants fed high protein quality formulas with protein concentrations of 1.6-2.2 g/100 kcal from 3 to 4 months onwards experience weight gain that is very close to that of breastfed infants. Biomarkers (insulin or IGF-1) of infants receiving low protein formulas differ from those of infants receiving high protein formulas. Six-year-old children who received low protein formulas in the first year of life had a lower risk of childhood obesity (BMI >95th percentile of WHO standards) compared with children who received high protein formulas as infants. BMI at 5 years of age is similar in children who were breastfed or received low protein formulas as infants. It is most important that the new low protein formulas are safe and adequate for all healthy term infants. Based on new protein technologies, the levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids in low protein formulas are now close to those in breast milk. Safety has been confirmed by following anthropometric parameters to 5-6 years of age and comparing these parameters with the WHO growth standards. Body composition

  14. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-01-01

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments. PMID:22079320

  15. Differential muscular myosin heavy chain expression of the pectoral and pelvic girdles during early growth in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chick.

    PubMed

    Erbrech, Aude; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Guérin, Nathalie; Groscolas, René; Gilbert, Caroline; Martrette, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning may fluctuate seasonally, and offspring therefore face a challenge to ensure the necessary maturation of their tissues when energy is limited. To address this trade-off we investigated muscle maturation in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles of king penguin chicks. This species has an exceptionally long rearing period (1 year), which is prolonged when parental food provisioning is drastically reduced during the sub-Antarctic winter. Approximately 1 month post hatching, chicks acquire a functional pedestrian locomotion, which uses pelvic muscles, whereas swimming, which uses the pectoral muscles, only occurs 1 year later. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the MyHC content of the leg muscles reaches a mature state before those of the pectoral muscles. We found that leg muscle MyHC composition changed with the progressive acquisition of pedestrian locomotion, whereas pectoral muscle fibres reached their mature MyHC profile as early as hatching. Contrary to our predictions, the acquisition of the adult profile in pectoral muscles could be related to an early maturation of the contractile muscular proteins, presumably associated with early thermoregulatory capacities of chicks, necessary for survival in their cold environment. This differential maturation appears to reconcile both the locomotor and environmental constraints of king penguin chicks during growth. PMID:21562169

  16. Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acid retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Sajadian, Soraya; Jenkins, Kurt A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Wagner, Janice D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues, and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared to unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical western diets that differed only in cis- or trans-isomers of C18:1 and then aimed to determine whether maternal transfer of TFAs through pregnancy and lactation alters growth, body composition and glucose metabolism. Mice were unexposed, exposed during pregnancy, during lactation, or throughout pregnancy and lactation to TFA. Body weight and composition (by computed tomography), and glucose metabolism we assessed at weaning and adulthood. TFA exposure through breast milk caused significant early growth retardation (p<0.001) and higher fasting glucose (p=0.01) but insulin sensitivity was not different. Elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice consuming TFA-enriched milk (p=0.02) may contribute to later catch-up growth, leanness and preserved peripheral insulin sensitivity observed in these mice. Mice exposed to TFA in utero underwent rapid early neonatal growth with TFA-free breast milk and had significantly impaired insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) and greater abdominal fat (p=0.01). We conclude that very early catch-up growth resulted in impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in this model of diet-related fetal and neonatal programming. TFA surprisingly retarded growth and adiposity while still adversely affecting glucose metabolism. PMID:20650350

  17. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity. PMID:26370795

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): the importance of dietary supply and physiological response during the entire growth period.

    PubMed

    Murray, David S; Hager, Hannes; Tocher, Douglas R; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this 14-month feeding study was to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on tissue fatty acid composition, DHA retention, and DHA content per biomass accrual in muscle tissues of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). A control feed, formulated with a relatively high DHA inclusion level (F1), was compared with feeds containing gradually reduced amounts of DHA (Feeds F2, F3, and F4). Arctic charr were randomly distributed among 12 tanks and fed one of the feeds in triplicate. The DHA content within muscle tissues of fish fed diets F1 and F2 was generally higher compared to fish fed diets F3 and F4. However, there was an interaction between dietary DHA treatment and season, which resulted in fish muscle tissues having similar DHA contents irrespective of dietary supply during specific sampling periods. Although diets F3 and F4 contained ~4-fold less DHA compared to diets F1 and F2, the retention of DHA in dorsal and ventral muscle tissue was up to 5-fold higher relative to the diet content in fish fed diets F3 and F4. However, the difference among treatments was dependent on the month sampled. In addition, younger fish retained DHA more efficiently compared to older fish. DHA (μg DHA/g/day) accrual in muscle tissue was independent of somatic growth, and there was no difference among treatments. The results suggested that dietary DHA may be essential throughout the life cycle of Arctic charr and that the DHA content of muscle tissues was influenced by diet and metabolic/physiological factors, such as specific DHA retention during the entire growth cycle . Finally, this long-term feeding study in Arctic charr indicated a non-linear function in DHA retention in dorsal and ventral muscle tissues throughout the life cycle, which varied in its relationship to dietary DHA. PMID:25461677

  19. Clinical presentation, risk factors and treatment outcomes of first allograft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty in early and late postoperative period

    PubMed Central

    Perera, C; Jhanji, V; Lamoureux, E; Pollock, G; Favilla, I; Vajpayee, R B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Corneal graft rejection is the most common reason for the failure of an allograft corneal transplant. We undertook this study to identify and compare risk factors and treatment outcomes for early and late corneal graft rejections after optical penetrating keratoplasty. Methods A retrospective case file analysis of 880 primary penetrating keratoplasties was performed at a tertiary ophthalmic care centre. Patients were divided into early rejectors (rejection episode within 6 months postoperatively) and late rejectors (rejection episode after 6 months postoperatively). Main parameters evaluated were demographics, preoperative diagnosis and clinical signs, donor tissue details, surgical technique, details of rejection episode, treatment, and outcome information. Results A total of 156 patients with rejection episodes were identified. Of these, 42 (26.9%) patients experienced early rejection episodes and 114 (73.1%) patients experienced late rejection episodes. Preoperative donor and recipient characteristics, surgical technique, and clinical presentation of graft rejection were found to be similar between both groups after a Bonferroni correction was applied (P>0.005). Treatment outcomes of graft rejections were not significantly different (P=0.46) between early and late rejectors, with 83% of patients responding to rejection treatment (80% early rejectors; 85% late rejectors). Conclusion Patients with early and late graft rejection have similar characteristics and both groups respond to treatment equally. PMID:22344190

  20. Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

  1. Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…

  2. Ammonia volatilization from urea-application influenced germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

    2012-01-01

    Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding. PMID:22454611

  3. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

    2012-01-01

    Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding. PMID:22454611

  4. Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, Camila; Kain, Juliana; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are now a worldwide epidemic. Diet and physical activity throughout life are among its main determinants. In countries undergoing the early stages of the nutrition transition weight gain from birth to 2 years of life is related to lean mass gain, while ponderal gain after age 2 years is related to adiposity and later diabetes and CVD risk. Evidence from developing countries undergoing the more advanced stages of the nutrition transition is limited. The early growth patterns of a cohort of Chilean children born in 2002 with normal birth weight who at 4 years had a high prevalence of obesity and CVD risk factors have been assessed. Results indicate that BMI gain in early life, particularly from 6 months to 24 months, is positively associated with adiposity and CVD risk status at 4 years. These results together with existing evidence suggest that actions to prevent obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases in developing countries should start early in life, possibly after 6 months of age. This approach should consider assessing the effect of mode of feeding and the amount and type of energy fed, as well as the resulting growth patterns. The challenge for researchers addressing the nutrition transition is to define the optimal nutrition in early life, considering not only the short- and long-term health consequences but also taking into account the stage of the nutritional transition for the given population of interest. The latter will probably require redefining optimal postnatal growth based on the context of maternal size and fetal growth. PMID:19400973

  5. Genetic parameters for litter size, piglet growth and sow's early growth and body composition in the Chinese-European line Tai Zumu.

    PubMed

    Banville, M; Riquet, J; Bahon, D; Sourdioux, M; Canario, L

    2015-08-01

    Genetics of piglet growth in association with sow's early growth and body composition were estimated in the Tai Zumu line. Piglet and sow's litter growth traits were calculated from individual weights collected at birth and at 3 weeks of age. Sow's litter traits included the number of piglets born alive (NBA), the mean piglet weight (MW) and the standard deviation of weights within the litter (SDW). Sow's early growth was measured by the age at 100 kg (A100), and body composition included backfat thickness (BF100). A main objective of this study was to estimate separately the direct genetic effect (d) and the maternal genetic effect (m) on piglet weight and daily weight gain during lactation. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood methodology based on animal models. The heritability estimates were 0.19 for NBA, 0.15 and 0.26 for SDW and MW at 3 weeks and 0.42 and 0.70 for A100 and BF100. The NBA was almost independent from SDW. Conversely, the A100 and BF100 were correlated unfavourably with SDW (rg <-0.24, SE<0.12). A stronger selection for litter size should have little effect on litter homogeneity in weights. Selection for lean growth rate tends to favour heterogeneity in weights. The direct effect on piglet weight at birth and daily weight gain accounted for 12% (h(²) (d) = 0.02) and 50% (h(²) (d) = 0.11) of the genetic variance, respectively. The association between d and m for piglet weight was not different from zero at birth (rg = 0.19, SE = 0.27), but a strong antagonism between d and m for daily weight gain from birth to 3 weeks was found (rg = -0.41, SE = 0.17). Substantial direct and maternal genetic effects influenced piglet growth until weaning in opposite way. PMID:25424416

  6. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  7. Microbial Communities: Tracing Growth Processes from Antarctic Lakes to Early Earth to Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Life in the Universe is dominated by microbes: they are numerically the most abundant cells in our bodies and in Earth's biosphere, and they are the only life that might be present elsewhere in our solar system. Life beyond our solar system could include macroscopic organisms, but everything we understand about the origin of life suggests it must start with microbes. Thus, understanding microbial ecosystems, in the absence of macroscopic organisms, is critical to understanding early life on Earth and life elsewhere in the Universe - if it exists. But what are the general principles of microbial ecology in the absence of predation? What happens when each cell is a chemical factory that can swap among metabolic processes in response to environmental and emergent cues? Geobiologists and astrobiologists are addressing these questions in diverse ways using both Earth's modern biosphere and its fossil record. Modern microbial communities in shallow, ice-covered lakes, Antarctica (Fig.), provide a model for high productivity microbial ecosystems with no to low predation. In these lakes, photosynthetic communities create macroscopic pinnacles and domes, sometime lithified into stromatolites. They provide an ecological, geochemical and morphological model for Precambrian microbial communities in low sedimentation, low current environments. Insights from these communities include new growth processes for ancient mats, especially some that grew prior to the oxidation of Earth's atmosphere. The diversity of biosignatures created in these communities also provides context for models of life under ice elsewhere in our solar system such as paleolakes on Mars and on icy moons. Results from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team document formerly habitable fluvial and lacustrine environments. Lacustrine environments, in particular, are favorable for preserving biosignatures, and continued investigations by MSL will provide a deeper understanding of the duration of habitable

  8. Early growth response protein 1 acts as an activator of SOX18 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Isidora; Kovacevic-Grujicic, Natasa

    2010-01-01

    Sex-determining region Y box 18 (Sox18/SOX18) gene is an important regulator of vascular development playing a role in endothelial cell specification or differentiation, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to perform comprehensive functional characterization of the human SOX18 promoter, including determination of transcription start point (tsp) and identification of control elements involved in the regulation of SOX18 gene expression, with an emphasis on angiogenesis-related transcription factors. Analyses were performed in HeLa cells, representing a tumor cell line, and in EA.hy926 cells used as an endothelial model system. We have determined unique tsp of SOX18 gene, located 172 nucleotides upstream from ATG codon. Further, we have shown that SOX18 promoter region, -726 to -89 bp relative to tsp, contains positive cis-regulatory element(s) that stimulates SOX18 promoter activity, while region -89 to + 166 represents the minimal promoter. Within this region we have recognized the presence of essential element(s), positioned from -89 to +29, which harbors cluster of three putative early growth response 1 (EGR1) binding sites. By in vitro binding assays and functional analyses we have shown that these three putative binding sites are functionally relevant and sufficient for EGR1-induced SOX18 transcription. Mutations of these binding sites significantly impaired activity of the SOX18 promoter, particularly in EA.hy926 cells, indicating the importance of these regulatory elements for SOX18 promoter activity in endothelial setting. By data presented in this study, we have established SOX18 as a novel target gene regulated by EGR1 transcription factor, thus providing the first functional link between two transcription factors previously shown to be involved in the control of angiogenesis. PMID:20054233

  9. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment Suppresses Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Fujimoto, Masashi; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Nakano, Fumi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2016-09-01

    The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of anti-VEGF therapy on EBI after SAH. C57BL/6 male mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling, and vehicle or two dosages (0.2 and 1 μg) of anti-VEGF antibody were randomly administrated by an intracerebroventricular injection. Neuroscore, brain water content, immunoglobulin G staining, and Western blotting were performed to evaluate EBI at 24-48 h. To confirm the role of VEGF, anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 (a major receptor of VEGF) antibody was intracerebroventricularly administered and the effects on EBI were evaluated at 24 h. A higher dose, but not a lower dose, of anti-VEGF antibody significantly ameliorated post-SAH neurological impairments and brain edema at 24-48 h post-SAH. Post-SAH blood-brain barrier disruption was also inhibited by anti-VEGF antibody. The protective effects of anti-VEGF antibody were associated with the inhibition of post-SAH induction of VEGF, VEGFR-2, phosphorylated VEGFR-2, interleukin-1β and a matricellular protein tenascin-C (TNC). Anti-VEGFR-2 antibody also suppressed post-SAH neurological impairments and brain edema associated with VEGFR-2 inactivation and TNC downregulation. These findings demonstrated that VEGF causes post-SAH EBI via VEGFR-2 and TNC and that anti-VEGF therapy is effective for post-SAH EBI. PMID:26289408

  10. Impact of Neonatal Growth on IQ and Behavior at Early School Age

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John W.; Yang, Seungmi; Dahhou, Mourad; Kramer, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to examine associations of neonatal weight gain (NWG) and head circumference gain (HCG) with IQ scores and behavior at early school age. METHODS: We used data from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, involving Belarusian infants born full term and weighing ≥2500 g. NWG and HCG were measured as the percentage gain in weight and head circumference over the first 4 weeks relative to birth size. IQ and behavior were measured at 6.5 years of age by using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), respectively, with SDQ collected from parents and teachers. The associations between the exposures (NWG, HCG) and children’s IQ and SDQ were examined by using mixed models to account for clustering of measurements, and adjustment for potentially confounding perinatal and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: Mean NWG was 26% (SD 10%) of birth weight. In fully adjusted models, infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of NWG had 1.5-point (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8 to 2.2) higher IQ scores (n = 13 840). A weak negative (protective) association between NWG and SDQ total difficulties scores was observed for the teacher-reported (β = −0.39, 95% CI −0.71 to −0.08, n = 12 016), but not the parent-reported (β = −0.12, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.15, n = 13 815), SDQ. Similar associations were observed with HCG and IQ and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Faster gains in weight or head circumference in the 4 weeks after birth may contribute to children’s IQ, but reverse causality (brain function affects neonatal growth) cannot be excluded. PMID:23776123

  11. Population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK−PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. Methods A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations−time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n = 97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK−PD modelling. The PK−PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK−PD model using post hoc Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. Results A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l h−1 70 kg−1; Vc/F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp/F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l h−1; Ka, 2.5 (1.45, 4.93) h−1. Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK−PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0, 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol h−1 mg−1 protein and EC50, 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg l−1. Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0) compared

  12. In Vivo Mn-Enhanced MRI for Early Tumor Detection and Growth Rate Analysis in a Mouse Medulloblastoma Model12

    PubMed Central

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Praveen Raju, G.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J.; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U.; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 μm in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 μm in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm3. Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

  13. Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; Härdtle, Werner; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Schmidt, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas; Seidler, Gunnar; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    While functional diversity (FD) has been shown to be positively related to a number of ecosystem functions including biomass production, it may have a much less pronounced effect than that of environmental factors or species-specific properties. Leaf and wood traits can be considered particularly relevant to tree growth, as they reflect a trade-off between resources invested into growth and persistence. Our study focussed on the degree to which early forest growth was driven by FD, the environment (11 variables characterizing abiotic habitat conditions), and community-weighted mean (CWM) values of species traits in the context of a large-scale tree diversity experiment (BEF-China). Growth rates of trees with respect to crown diameter were aggregated across 231 plots (hosting between one and 23 tree species) and related to environmental variables, FD, and CWM, the latter two of which were based on 41 plant functional traits. The effects of each of the three predictor groups were analyzed separately by mixed model optimization and jointly by variance partitioning. Numerous single traits predicted plot-level tree growth, both in the models based on CWMs and FD, but none of the environmental variables was able to predict tree growth. In the best models, environment and FD explained only 4 and 31% of variation in crown growth rates, respectively, while CWM trait values explained 42%. In total, the best models accounted for 51% of crown growth. The marginal role of the selected environmental variables was unexpected, given the high topographic heterogeneity and large size of the experiment, as was the significant impact of FD, demonstrating that positive diversity effects already occur during the early stages in tree plantations. PMID:26380685

  14. Differential patterns of cortical reorganization following constraint-induced movement therapy during early and late period after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sawaki, Lumy; Butler, Andrew J.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wassenaar, Peter A.; Mohammad, Yousef; Blanton, Sarah; Sathian, K.; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.; Wolf, Steven L.; Good, David C.; Wittenberg, George F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) leads to improvement in upper extremity movement and cortical reorganization after stroke. Direct comparison of the differential degree of cortical reorganization according to chronicity in stroke subjects receiving CIMT has not been performed and was the purpose of this study. We hypothesized that a higher degree of cortical reorganization would occur in the early (less than 9 months post-stroke) compared to the late group (more than 12 months post-stroke). METHODS 17 early and 9 late subjects were enrolled. Each subject was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and received CIMT for 2 weeks. RESULTS The early group showed greater improvement in WMFT compared with the late group. TMS motor maps showed persistent enlargement in both groups. The map shifted posteriorly in the late stroke group. CONCLUSION CIMT appears to lead to greater improvement in motor function in early phase after stroke. Greater cortical reorganization associated with shift in map position occurred in late group. SIGNIFICANCE The contrast between larger functional gains in the early group vs larger map expansion in the late group may indicate that cortical reorganization depends upon different neural substrates in the late stroke group. PMID:25227542

  15. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population1-2

    PubMed Central

    Berngard, S Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 mo in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. Study Design and Subjects One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 mo. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Results Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 (1.01) to -2.20 (1.05) and -2.26 (1.01) at 3 and 6 mo respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 mo were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 mo was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education*maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 mo. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. Conclusion The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. PMID:24083893

  16. Beef heifer growth and reproductive performance following two levels of pasture allowance during the fall grazing period.

    PubMed

    Bailey, B L; Griggs, T C; Rayburn, E B; Krause, K M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare heifer growth and reproductive performance following 2 levels of stockpiled fall forage allowance of orchardgrass (30.5%) and tall fescue (14.1%). Spring-born heifers (n = 203 and BW = 246 ± 28.9 kg) of primarily Angus background were allocated to 2 grazing treatments during the fall period (November 12 to December 17 in yr 1, November 7 to January 4 in yr 2, and November 7 to January 14 in yr 3) each replicated 3 times per year for 3 yr. Treatments consisted of daily pasture DM allowance of 3.5% of BW (LO) or daily pasture DM allowance of 7.0% of BW (HI) under strip-grazing management. Throughout the winter feeding period, mixed grass-legume haylage and soybean hulls were fed. Heifers were grazed as 1 group under continuous stocking after the winter period. Heifers in the LO group gained less than heifers in the HI group during the fall grazing period (0.12 vs. 0.40 kg/d; P < 0.0001). For each 1 10 g increase in NDF/kg fall pasture (DM basis), fall ADG decreased 0.14 kg (P = 0.01). During winter feeding, ADG was 0.30 and 0.39 kg/d for LO vs. HI heifers, respectively (P = 0.0008). During the spring grazing period (April 16 to May 24 in yr 1, April 22 to May 26 in yr 2, and April 5 to May 16 in yr 3), LO heifers had numerically greater ADG than HI heifers (1.38 vs. 1.30 kg/d; P = 0.64). Hip height (122.7 vs. 121.4 cm; P = 0.0055), BCS (5.8 vs. 5.6; P = 0.0057), and BW (356 vs. 335 kg; P < 0.0001) at the end of spring grazing was greater for HI than LO heifers. Heifers in the LO group compensated with greater summer ADG than heifers in the HI group (0.74 vs. 0.66 kg/d; P = 0.03). Total ADG from treatment initiation (November) through pregnancy diagnosis (August) was greater for HI than LO heifers (0.61 vs. 0.55 kg/d; P < 0.001) as was BW at pregnancy diagnosis (415 vs. 402 kg; P = 0.0055). Percentage of heifers reaching puberty by the time of AI was 34% for both groups (P = 0.93). Percentage of heifers becoming pregnant to

  17. The Perinatal Period: Early Intervention for Mental Health. Clinical Approaches to Early Intervention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalenko, Nick; Barnett, Bryanne; Fowler, Cathrine; Matthey, Stephen

    The perinatal period offers a unique opportunity for enhancing the mental health of women and their families. Women come into frequent contact with health professionals during this time and the enhancement of their emotional well being can promote their own, their infant's, and their partner's health. The aim of this book is to assist health…

  18. [The effectiveness of auricular micro-needle acupuncture in the early postoperative period under conditions of day surgical unit].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, V V; Dymnikov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of auricular microneedle analgesia--setting the microneedles in the area of the auricle floor for the period of up to 5 days which could reduce the pain syndrome. PMID:11209231

  19. 76 FR 33758 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Corporation. 20110843 G Oak Hill Capital Partners III, L.P.; Intermedia.net , Inc.; Oak Hill Capital Partners... Trade Commission and the Assistant Attorney General advance notice and to wait designated periods...

  20. 75 FR 47810 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Investors IV, L.P. G NetQuote Holdings, Inc. 02-JUL-10 20100793 G Aalberts Industries N.V. G Conbraco... Trade Commission and the Assistant Attorney General advance notice and to wait designated periods...

  1. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932

  2. Effects of flooding regime and seedling treatment on early survival and growth of nuttall oak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Draugelis-Dale, R.O.; Williams, H.M.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of flooding on survival and growth of three different types of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckl.) seedlings were observed at the end of third and fifth growing seasons at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, U.S.A. Three types of seedlings were planted in January 1995 in a split-plot design, with four replications at each of two elevations on floodprone, former cropland in Sharkey clay soil. The lower of the two planting elevations was inundated for 21 days during the first growing season, whereas the higher elevation did not flood during the 5-year period of this study. The three types of 1-0 seedlings were bareroot seedlings, seedlings grown in containers (3.8 ?? 21a??cm plastic seedling cones), and container-grown seedlings inoculated with vegetative mycelia of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker. Survival of all the three seedling types was greatest at the lower, intermittently flooded elevation, indicating that drought and related effects on plant competition were more limiting to seedling survival than flooding. At the lower elevation, survival of mycorrhizal-inoculated container seedlings was greater than that of noninoculated container seedlings. Survival among bareroot seedlings and inoculated container seedlings was not significantly different at either elevation. At the higher, nonflooded elevation, however, bareroot seedling survival was greater than the survival of container seedlings without inoculation. Differences were significant among the inoculated and the noninoculated container seedlings, with higher survival of inoculated seedlings at both elevations, though differences were only significant in year 3. At the end of the fifth year, height of bareroot seedlings was significantly greater than the heights of both types of container-grown seedlings at both planting elevations. Because seedlings grown in the plastic seedlings cones did not survive better than the bareroot seedlings at either planting elevation, the bareroot stock

  3. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development. PMID:25965021

  4. Temporal profile of nerve growth factor expression in the partial central nervous system of the Yangtze alligator Alligator sinensis (Reptilia,Crocodylia) during early postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanrong; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Renping; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2013-05-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in structures of the partial central nervous system of the Yangtze alligator, Alligator sinensis (Reptilia, Crocodylia) was examined during early postnatal growth using immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. In animals 0-2 years of age NGF-positive cells in the cerebral cortex increased gradually in number and size, and were predominantly distributed in the molecular layer. NGF-positive cells in the midbrain showed similar increases but with predominant distribution in the ependymal layer. NGF-positive cells increased in the cerebellum between 0 and 1 years of age, with increased NGF expression being seen during the first 2 years of life mostly in the ependymal layer. NGF-positive cells were mainly found in the gray matter of the spinal cord with decreasing cell numbers, NGF expression levels being seen from 0 to 2 years and small processes without synaptic connection from 1 to 2 years. These results suggest that NGF is involved in the early postnatal growth of several structures of Yangtze alligator partial central nervous system, suggesting a possible role of NGF in the Yangtze alligator partial central nervous system. PMID:23504856

  5. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health Across Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448

  6. Diet and Human Mobility from the Lapita to the Early Historic Period on Uripiv Island, Northeast Malakula, Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Bedford, Stuart; Richards, Michael; Hawkins, Stuart; Gray, Andrew; Jaouen, Klervia; Valentin, Frederique; Buckley, Hallie

    2014-01-01

    Vanuatu was first settled ca. 3000 years ago by populations associated with the Lapita culture. Models of diet, subsistence practices, and human interaction for the Lapita and subsequent occupation periods have been developed mainly using the available archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. We test these models using stable (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and radiogenic (strontium) isotopes to assess the diet and childhood residency of past communities that lived on the small (<1 km2) island of Uripiv, located off the northeast coast of Malakula, Vanuatu. The burials are from the initial Lapita occupation of the island (ca. 2800–2600 BP), the subsequent later Lapita (LL, ca. 2600–2500 BP) and post-Lapita (PL, ca. 2500–2000 BP) occupations, in addition to a late prehistoric/historic (LPH, ca. 300–150 BP) occupation period. The human stable isotope results indicate a progressively more terrestrial diet over time, which supports the archaeological model of an intensification of horticultural and arboricultural systems as local resources were depleted, populations grew, and cultural situations changed. Pig diets were similar and included marine foods during the Lapita and PL periods but were highly terrestrial during the LPH period. This dietary pattern indicates that there was little variation in animal husbandry methods during the first 800 years of prehistory; however, there was a subsequent change as animal diets became more controlled in the LPH period. After comparison with the local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baseline, all of the Lapita and LPH individuals appeared to be ‘local’, but three of the PL individuals were identified as “non-local.” We suggest that these “non-locals” moved to the island after infancy or childhood from one of the larger islands, supporting the model of a high level of regional interaction during the post-Lapita period. PMID:25140807

  7. Diet and human mobility from the lapita to the early historic period on Uripiv island, Northeast Malakula, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Bedford, Stuart; Richards, Michael; Hawkins, Stuart; Gray, Andrew; Jaouen, Klervia; Valentin, Frederique; Buckley, Hallie

    2014-01-01

    Vanuatu was first settled ca. 3000 years ago by populations associated with the Lapita culture. Models of diet, subsistence practices, and human interaction for the Lapita and subsequent occupation periods have been developed mainly using the available archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. We test these models using stable (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and radiogenic (strontium) isotopes to assess the diet and childhood residency of past communities that lived on the small (<1 km2) island of Uripiv, located off the northeast coast of Malakula, Vanuatu. The burials are from the initial Lapita occupation of the island (ca. 2800-2600 BP), the subsequent later Lapita (LL, ca. 2600-2500 BP) and post-Lapita (PL, ca. 2500-2000 BP) occupations, in addition to a late prehistoric/historic (LPH, ca. 300-150 BP) occupation period. The human stable isotope results indicate a progressively more terrestrial diet over time, which supports the archaeological model of an intensification of horticultural and arboricultural systems as local resources were depleted, populations grew, and cultural situations changed. Pig diets were similar and included marine foods during the Lapita and PL periods but were highly terrestrial during the LPH period. This dietary pattern indicates that there was little variation in animal husbandry methods during the first 800 years of prehistory; however, there was a subsequent change as animal diets became more controlled in the LPH period. After comparison with the local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baseline, all of the Lapita and LPH individuals appeared to be 'local', but three of the PL individuals were identified as "non-local." We suggest that these "non-locals" moved to the island after infancy or childhood from one of the larger islands, supporting the model of a high level of regional interaction during the post-Lapita period. PMID:25140807

  8. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h) leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control), constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling), and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination). In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing leaves and roots of the same

  9. Growth Trajectories of Early Aggression, Overactivity, and Inattention: Relations to Second-Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Wagmiller, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations…

  10. Early effects of altered gravity environments on plant cell growth and cell proliferation: Characterization of morphofunctional nucleolar types in an Arabidopsis cell culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Ana Isabel; Herranz, Raul; Manzano, Aránzazu; Van Loon, Jack; Medina, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased,. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  11. Genistein Exposure During the Early Postnatal Period Favors the Development of Obesity in Female, But Not Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Helferich, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Genistein (Gen), the primary isoflavone in soy, has been shown to adversely affect various endocrine-mediated endpoints in rodents and humans. Soy formula intake by human infants has been associated with early age at menarche and decreased female-typical behavior in girls. Adipose deposition and expansion are also hormonally regulated and Gen has been shown to alter these processes. However, little is known about the impact of early-life soy intake on metabolic homeostasis in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of early-life Gen exposure on adulthood body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging) and the molecular signals mediating adipose expansion. From postnatal day (PND) 1 to 22, rat pups were daily orally dosed with 50mg/kg Gen to mimic blood Gen levels in human infants fed soy formula. Female but not male Gen-exposed rats had increased fat/lean mass ratio, fat mass, adipocyte size and number, and decreased muscle fiber perimeter. PND22 Gen-exposed females, but not males, had increased expression of adipogenic factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (Cebpα), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (Cebpβ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). Furthermore, Wingless-related MMTV integration site 10b (Wnt10b), a critical regulator of adipogenic cell fate determination, was hypermethylated and had decreased expression in adipose of PND22 Gen-exposed females. These data suggest that developmental Gen exposure in rats has gender-specific effects on adiposity that closely parallel the effects of a postweaning high-fat diet and underscore the importance of considering timing of exposure and gender when establishing safety recommendations for early-life dietary Gen intake. PMID:24361872

  12. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, isolated from female gametophyte tissue of loblolly pine, inhibits growth of early-stage somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Sullards, M Cameron; Oldham, Charlie D; Gelbaum, Les; Lucrezi, Jacob; Pullman, Gerald S; May, Sheldon W

    2012-01-01

    • Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)), abundant in animals and plants, is well known for its anticancer activity. However, many aspects of InsP(6) function in plants remain undefined. We now report the first evidence that InsP(6) can inhibit cellular proliferation in plants under growth conditions where phosphorus is not limited. • A highly anionic molecule inhibitory to early-stage somatic embryo growth of loblolly pine (LP) was purified chromatographically from late-stage LP female gametophytes (FGs), and then characterized structurally using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. • Exact mass and mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS-MS) fragmentation identified the bioactive molecule as an inositol hexakisphosphate. It was then identified as the myo-isomer (i.e. InsP(6)) on the basis of (1)H-, (31)P- and (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and (1)H-(13)C HSQC. Topical application of InsP(6) to early-stage somatic embryos indeed inhibits embryonic growth. • Recently evidence has begun to emerge that InsP(6) may also play a regulatory role in plant cells. We anticipate that our findings will help to stimulate additional investigations aimed at elucidating the roles of inositol phosphates in cellular growth and development in plants. PMID:22023391

  13. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce>soybean>watermelon>corn>okra≈millet>sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  14. Factors controlling growth and morphology of early Miocene stromatolites from Montaigu-le-Blin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Barilaro, Federica; McKenzie, Judith A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    A large variety of stromatolite morphotypes are present in the early Miocene sedimentary sequence that outcrops in the region of Montaigu-le-Blin, France. Thanks to its good degree of preservation, this formation is an ideal place to evaluate the key factors controlling the occurrence and morphology of the stromatolites, as well as to study the diagenetic processes that transform a soft, slimy lithifying microbialite into a solid, laminated sedimentary rock. Facies analysis suggests that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites formed in shallow waters, in a restricted, laterally heterogeneous basin. Various evidence suggests a biological origin for the stromatolites, whose formation cannot be explained through abiotic background precipitation driven by evaporation, temperature changes, or migration of metamorphic fluids. Microscopic observations revealed that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites are mainly comprised of authigenic calcite that precipitated directly from the basin waters (no evidence for trapping and binding) in close association with algae, microbial cells, and exopolymeric substances. Well-preserved microfossils of photosynthetic organisms are widespread within the thin sections. The calcite constituting the stromatolites is characterized by positive δ13C values (1.7 to 4.4 o), suggesting that microbial mediation of calcite was mainly related to the metabolic activity of photosynthetic organisms or anoxygenic phototrophs, and not to metabolisms in which organic material is degraded (e.g. sulfate reduction). The laminated habit of the stromatolites results from alternating layers of porous, digit-like sparite and more compacted organic-rich micrite. No correlation was identified, through isotopic analysis, between these two types of laminae and external environmental factors (i.e. temperature, salinity, eutrophication state). Rather, we hypothesize that periodic fluctuations in the dominant microbial/algal species within the mat influenced the morphology

  15. The effect of early musical training on adult motor performance: evidence for a sensitive period in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Penhune, Virginia; Watanabe, Donald; Savion-Lemieux, Tal

    2005-12-01

    This experiment demonstrates that musicians who began training before age seven perform better on a rhythmic tapping task than musicians who began after the age of seven, when the two groups are matched for years of experience. These results support the idea that there may be a sensitive period in childhood for motor training, similar to that observed for language learning. PMID:16597774

  16. Trade and Plumb-Cake in Lilliput: The Origins of Juvenile Consumerism and Early English Children's Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Janis

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history of consumerism among children by examining its emergence in the 18th century as evidenced in the earliest English children's periodicals: "The Lilliputian Magazine" published by John Newbery in 1751 and "The Juvenile Magazine" published by John Marshall in 1788. (SR)

  17. 75 FR 82026 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    .... 20110309 G Dayton-Cox Trust A. G Jesse Biter. G HomeNet Automotive, LLC. G HomeNet, Inc. 20110371 G Addison... Trade Commission and the Assistant Attorney General advance notice and to wait designated periods before... Partners II, L.P. G Excellere Capital Management LLC. G Advanced Pain Management Holdings, Inc. ]...

  18. 78 FR 21604 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...; GTCR Fund X/B LP. 20130659 G Total System Services, Inc.; NetSpend Holdings, Inc.; Total System... Trade Commission and the Assistant Attorney General advance notice and to wait designated periods before...; Wolverine Pipe Line Company; Exxon Mobil Corporation. 20130619 G General Electric Company;...

  19. Are there sensitive time periods for dementia caregivers? The occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms in the early stages of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, K. A.; Gaugler, J. E.; Devanand, D. P.; Scarmeas, N.; Zhu, C. W.; Stern, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background The behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia (BPSD) can be burdensome to informal/family caregivers, negatively affecting mental health and expediting the institutionalization of patients. Because the dementia patient–caregiver relationship extends over long periods of time, it is useful to examine how BPSD impact caregiver depressive symptoms at varied stages of illness. The goal of this study was to assess the association of BPSD that occur during early stage dementia with subsequent caregiver depressive symptoms. Methods Patients were followed from the early stages of dementia every six months for up to 12 years or until death (n = 160). Caregiver symptoms were assessed on average 4.5 years following patient’s early dementia behaviors. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) extension of the logistic regression model was used to determine the association between informal caregiver depressive symptoms and BPSD symptoms that occurred at the earliest stages dementia, including those persistent during the first year of dementia diagnosis. Results BPSD were common in early dementia. None of the individual symptoms observed during the first year of early stage dementia significantly impacted subsequent caregiver depressive symptoms. Only patient agitation/aggression was associated with subsequent caregiver depressive symptoms (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.04–2.97) after controlling for concurrent BPSD, although not in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Persistent agitation/aggression early in dementia diagnosis may be associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in caregivers. Future longitudinal analyses of the dementia caregiving relationship should continue to examine the negative impact of persistent agitation/aggression in the diagnosis of early stage dementia on caregivers. PMID:23725657

  20. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study

    PubMed Central

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja

    2016-01-01

    Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed

  1. Early Life-History Consequences of Growth-Hormone Transgenesis in Rainbow Trout Reared in Stream Ecosystem Mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Vandersteen, Wendy E.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    There is persistent commercial interest in the use of growth modified fishes for shortening production cycles and increasing overall food production, but there is concern over the potential impact that transgenic fishes might have if ever released into nature. To explore the ecological consequences of transgenic fish, we performed two experiments in which the early growth and survival of growth-hormone transgenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed in naturalized stream mesocosms that either contained predators or were predator-free. We paid special attention to the survival bottleneck that occurs during the early life-history of salmonids, and conducted experiments at two age classes (first-feeding fry and 60 days post-first-feeding) that lie on either side of the bottleneck. In the late summer, the first-feeding transgenic trout could not match the growth potential of their wild-type siblings when reared in a hydrodynamically complex and oligotrophic environment, irrespective of predation pressure. Furthermore, overall survival of transgenic fry was lower than in wild-type (transgenic = 30% without predators, 8% with predators; wild-type = 81% without predators, 31% with predators). In the experiment with 60-day old fry, we explored the effects of the transgene in different genetic backgrounds (wild versus domesticated). We found no difference in overwinter survival but significantly higher growth by transgenic trout, irrespective of genetic background. We conclude that the high mortality of GH-transgenic trout during first-feeding reflects an inability to sustain the basic metabolic requirements necessary for life in complex, stream environments. However, when older, GH-transgenic fish display a competitive advantage over wild-type fry, and show greater growth and equal survival as wild-type. These results demonstrate how developmental age and time of year can influence the response of genotypes to environmental conditions. We therefore urge

  2. Body Size in Early Life and Adult Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Pollak, Michael N.; Baer, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Body size in early life has been associated with breast cancer risk. This may be partly mediated through the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. The authors assessed whether birth weight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10 years, and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at age 18 years were associated with plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in 6,520 women aged 32–70 years at blood draw from the Nurses’ Health Study (1990–2006) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1997–2005). Birth weight, body fatness in childhood, and BMI at age 18 years were inversely associated with adult IGF-1 levels. For example, IGF-1 levels were 11.9% lower in women who reported being heaviest at age 10 years than in those who were leanest at age 10 (P-trend < 0.0001). Further, women who reported their birth weight as ≥10 pounds (≥4.5 kg) (vs. <5.5 pounds (<2.5 kg)) had 7.9% lower IGF-1 levels (P-trend = 0.002). Women whose BMI at age 18 years was ≥30 (vs. <20) had 14.1% lower IGF-1 levels (P-trend < 0.0001). Similar inverse associations were observed for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. These observations did not vary by adult BMI or menopausal status at blood draw. These findings suggest that altered IGF-1 levels in adulthood may be a mechanism through which early-life body size influences subsequent breast cancer risk. PMID:21828371

  3. Relating geodynamic setting to periods of crustal growth and reworking as illustrated by the Phanerozoic granitoids of the Eastern Cordillera of South Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, M.; Schaltegger, U.; Spikings, R.; Ulianov, A.; Gerdes, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2012-04-01

    The granitoids that form the backbone of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru between 12 and 14°S, are the ideal material for a case study to relate geodynamic setting to crustal growth over the period of a Wilson cycle. Extension related plutons were emplaced in the back-arc region of the Western Gondwana margin during the Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic and Early Jurassic. With the onset of the Andean cycle in the Middle Jurassic the South American margin was under compression, the plutonic record of this period is in the study area restricted to the Eocene and Miocene. The Ordovician to Triassic back-arc related plutons share many geochemical characteristics that point to dominant crustal reworking as the main process during their formation. These are 1) their mainly felsic and peraluminous nature; 2) the similarity of whole rock REE and trace element compositions compared to those of average continental crust; 3) the presence of negative Nb-Ta anomalies only in the more evolved samples which indicates that these excursions have been obtained by crustal melting rather than from a slab fluid and 4) the presence of significant amounts of xenocrystic cores in zircon. According to the literature the last major episode of juvenile crust formation was during the Grenvillian age Sunsas event (1.2 - 0.9 Ga) related to the collision of Laurentia and south-western Amazonia during the assembly of Rodinia. Hf-isotopes on zircons from the Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic plutons confirm their origin as mainly crustal melts generated by reworking of Sunsas-age crust. Under these geodynamic conditions it is mainly the crust that melts due to an elevated geothermal gradient as the result of crustal thinning. However, data from Jurassic nepheline bearing syenite and Eocene hornblende diorite and monzonite have epsilon Hfi values well above those of Sunsas crust, indicating an important mantle component in the melts. The Jurassic geodynamic setting is interpreted

  4. Growth and Predictors of Parental Knowledge of Youth Behavior during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Criss, Michael M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines latent growth models of parental knowledge of boys' behavior from ages 10 to 15, and whether earlier child or family characteristics are related to intercept and growth in parental knowledge. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study on the precursors of antisocial behavior, 288 boys completed interviews at ages 10, 11,…

  5. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  6. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. Results ‘Scifresh’ (slow softening) and ‘Royal Gala’ (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. ‘Scifresh’ apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with ‘Royal Gala’ during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in ‘Scifresh’ were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of ‘Scifresh’ showed larger, more angular shaped cells than ‘Royal Gala’, with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe ‘Scifresh’ resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in ‘Royal Gala’. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in ‘Scifresh’. Conclusions Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening

  7. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Agnes; Servin, Bertrand; Mulsant, Philippe; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments. Results We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER) was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe)(WEE2) which play critical roles in follicular development but other

  8. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of brain growth in early childhood using deformation-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Aljabar, P; Bhatia, K K; Murgasova, M; Hajnal, J V; Boardman, J P; Srinivasan, L; Rutherford, M A; Dyet, L E; Edwards, A D; Rueckert, D

    2008-01-01

    We present methods for the quantitative analysis of brain growth based on the registration of longitudinal MR image data with the use of Jacobian determinant maps to characterise neuroanatomical changes. The individual anatomies, growth maps and tissue classes are also spatially normalised in an 'average space' and aggregated to provide atlases for the population at each timepoint. The average space representation is obtained using the average intersubject transformation within each timepoint. In an exemplar study, this approach is used to assess brain development in 25 infants between 1 and 2 years, and we show consistency in growth estimates between registration and segmentation approaches. PMID:17919930

  10. Children's vocabulary growth in English and Spanish across early development and associations with school readiness skills.

    PubMed

    Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Song, Lulu; Luo, Rufan; Kuchirko, Yana; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Raufman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In line with evidence that variation in children's vocabulary size facilitates learning, we asked whether growth in Mexican and Dominican children's expressive vocabularies in English and/or Spanish would predict later cognitive skills. Children and mothers were video-recorded sharing wordless books at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, and children were assessed on language, literacy, and math skills at 5 years. Growth in children's English and Spanish vocabularies, based on transcriptions of booksharing interactions, predicted specific cognitive skills and was associated with changes to mothers' language use across time. Mothers' years in the United States predicted children's English vocabulary growth. PMID:24571927

  11. Effect of estradiol-17β during in vitro growth culture on the growth, maturation, cumulus expansion and development of porcine oocytes from early antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Naoko; Cayo-Colca, Ilse Silvia; Miyano, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Growing porcine oocytes from early antral follicles can acquire meiotic and developmental competence under suitable culture conditions, but at lower rates compared to full-grown oocytes. We postulated that estradiol-17β (E2 ) supported the acquisition of meiotic and developmental competence as well as cumulus-expansion ability during growth culture. Growing oocytes from early antral follicles (1.2 to 1.5 mm in diameter) were grown in vitro for 5 days in a medium containing 0, 10(-7) , 10(-6) , 10(-5) or 10(-4)  mol/L E2 ; after in vitro maturation, 35, 58, 47, 74 and 49% of oocytes matured to metaphase II, 25, 79, 77, 90 and 97% acquired cumulus-expansion ability, and 23, 54, 63, 89 and 64% were fully surrounded by cumulus cells, respectively. Following maturation, electro-stimulation was applied to the oocytes grown with 10(-5)  mol/L E2 . After 6 days of culture, in vitro-grown oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to that for full-grown oocytes (31% and 40%, respectively). Therefore, we suggest that the use of E2 during growth culture improves the meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes, cumulus-expansion ability, and cumulus cell attachment to the oocytes. PMID:25410821

  12. The Earth's magnetic field in Italy during the Neolithic period: New data from the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Ferrara, Enzo; Camps, Pierre; Conati Barbaro, Cecilia; Spatafora, Simone; Carvallo, Claire; Poidras, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    We present new, full geomagnetic field vector results from three Neolithic ovens discovered at the archaeological site of Portonovo (Marche, Italy). The discovered structures are a rare example of very well preserved underground ovens from the Early Neolithic period. Standard thermal demagnetization procedures were used to isolate the direction of the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization acquired by the baked clay during the ovens' last firing. The corresponding archaeointensities were determined by the multi-specimen procedure (MSP-DSC) and show a clear intensity low during the Neolithic period. Both directional and intensity results are of high quality, offering the first contribution of full geomagnetic field vector data for this period in Italy. The new data are compared with other contemporaneous data from Europe and with global geomagnetic field models. Independent archaeomagnetic dating of the three ovens was also performed by means of the SCHA.DIF.14k model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with available radiocarbon dates and confirm that all ovens belong to the Neolithic. These new data importantly enrich our knowledge of the geomagnetic field during the Neolithic period that is poorly documented by data, not only in Italy but also in the whole of Europe and show that archaeomagnetic dating can provide precise results even for prehistoric periods.

  13. Warm Pool Temperatures and the Zonal Gradient in the Tropical Pacific during the Early Pliocene Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, A. C.; Fedorov, A. V.; Ford, H. L.; Lawrence, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The absolute temperature of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) and the zonal tropical Pacific temperature gradient provide fundamental information regarding the causes of Pliocene warmth and regarding earth system sensitivity when atmospheric CO2 was similar to today (~350-400 ppm). Temperature estimates, derived from foraminiferal Mg/Ca, Uk'37 and TEX86, differ in detail from each other, but overall indicate that, within error, WPWP temperatures were similar to today while the zonal gradient was reduced relative to today. WPWP TEX86 data (Zhang et al., 2014; O'Brien et al., 2014) indicate a long-term cooling from early Pliocene average values similar to today, to approximately 2C cooler during the Late Pleistocene (although calibration errors of ±2.5C exceed the amplitude of the trend). Notably, Late Pleistocene orbital-scale data indicate a strong coupling between WPWP temperature and CO2, which was as much as ~30% lower than pre-industrial values; however, during the early Pliocene, WPWP temperatures were not warmer even though CO2 was as much as ~30% higher that pre-industrial values. Hence, WPWP temperature sensitivity to CO2 forcing was non-linear over myr-long time scales. Orbital scale sensitivity cannot be evaluated in the early Pliocene until more CO2 and temperature records are generated. By compiling data from the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) it is possible to resolve changes in the spatial pattern of temperature, with the largest anomalies in the heart of the cold tongue. In all, the cold tongue was warmer than today resulting in a reduced (but existent) zonal gradient of about 1-2C, referred to as a 'permanent El Niño-like' or 'El Padre' mean state. Although many temperature proxy records agree with each other, some do not. These apparent disagreements can be explained by considering the depth ecology of organisms that produce the fossil shells and molecules that are analyzed, whole-ocean changes in chemistry, and post-depositional processes.

  14. Early Predictors of Growth in Diversity of Key Consonants Used in Communication in Initially Preverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda; Gardner, Elizabeth; Newsom, Cassandra R; Keceli-Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) is a value-added predictor of expressive language growth in initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying the predictors of DKCC growth in young children with ASD might inform treatment of this under-studied aspect of prelinguistic development. Eighty-seven initially preverbal preschoolers with ASD and their parents were observed at five measurement periods. In this longitudinal correlational investigation, we found that child intentional communication acts and parent linguistic responses to child leads predicted DKCC growth, after controlling for two other predictors and two background variables. As predicted, receptive vocabulary mediated the association between the value-added predictors and endpoint DKCC. PMID:26603885

  15. Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor β1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor by Silicone Gel Sheeting in Early-Stage Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Methods Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. Results In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-β1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). Conclusions The levels of TGF-β1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention. PMID:25606485

  16. Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symb