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Sample records for early hearing detection

  1. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  2. Towards Integrated Practices in Early Detection of and Intervention for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storbeck, Claudine; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that undetected hearing loss can have a profound effect on a child's holistic development, including communicative, language and cognitive development. It is crucial therefore that deaf and hard of hearing infants are detected as early as possible so that appropriate intervention services and support can be initiated. To…

  3. Hearing of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) suggests underwater pressure detection and rudimentary aerial hearing in early tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-02-01

    In the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle, vertebrate auditory systems have undergone major changes while adapting to aerial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods and their auditory system may therefore be a suitable model of the auditory systems of early tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Therefore, experimental studies on the hearing capabilities of lungfish may shed light on the possible hearing capabilities of early tetrapods and broaden our understanding of hearing across the water-to-land transition. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) lungfish are sensitive to underwater pressure using their lungs as pressure-to-particle motion transducers and (ii) lungfish can detect airborne sound. To do so, we used neurophysiological recordings to estimate the vibration and pressure sensitivity of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) in both water and air. We show that lungfish detect underwater sound pressure via pressure-to-particle motion transduction by air volumes in their lungs. The morphology of lungfish shows no specialized connection between these air volumes and the inner ears, and so our results imply that air breathing may have enabled rudimentary pressure detection as early as the Devonian era. Additionally, we demonstrate that lungfish in spite of their atympanic middle ear can detect airborne sound through detection of sound-induced head vibrations. This strongly suggests that even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing that may have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears in recent tetrapods. PMID:25653420

  4. Rural Family Perspectives and Experiences with Early Infant Hearing Detection and Intervention: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. PMID:26316007

  5. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  6. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement

  7. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  8. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. PMID:26443498

  9. Federal privacy regulations and the provision of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Houston, K Todd; Behl, Diane D; White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene

    2010-08-01

    To be successful, Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs require individually identifiable information about children to be shared among people who are responsible for screening, diagnosis, early intervention, family support, and medical home services. Pediatricians and other stakeholders in the EHDI process often point to federal laws that were passed to ensure privacy and confidentiality in health care and educational programs as major obstacles to achieving efficient and effective EHDI programs. In this article we summarize the provisions of 3 federal laws (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act [FERPA], and Part C privacy regulations of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]) that most directly affect information-sharing in EHDI programs. We suggest strategies for sharing the information needed to operate successful EHDI programs while remaining in compliance with these laws, including obtaining signed parental consent to share information between providers, including an option on the individual family services plan for parents to permit sharing of the plan with pediatricians and other providers, and giving copies of all relevant test results to parents to share with providers as they wish. PMID:20679317

  10. Relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability: Children & Youth Version in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bagatto, Marlene P; Moodie, Sheila T

    2016-08-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs have been guided by principles from the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and an international consensus of best practice principles for family-centered early intervention. Both resources provide a solid foundation from which to design, implement, and sustain a high-quality, family-centered EHDI program. As a result, infants born with permanent hearing loss and their families will have the support they need to develop communication skills. These families also will benefit from programs that align with the framework offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY). Within this framework, health and functioning is defined and measured by describing the consequences of the health condition (i.e., hearing loss) in terms of body function, structures, activity, and participation as well as social aspects of the child. This article describes the relevance of the ICF-CY for EHDI programs and offers a modified approach by including aspects of quality of life and human development across time. PMID:27489403

  11. Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchbank, Alison Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

  12. Decision-Making in Families Engaged in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainscott, Sarah Dawson

    2010-01-01

    Families are faced with numerous decisions shortly after their infants are identified with a hearing loss. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the family decision-making process including how families receive and respond to information and how family priorities and concerns for their child's future relate to the decisions they make. Of…

  13. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  14. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  15. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  16. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  17. [Experience in the early diagnosis and habilitation of children with hearing loss in St. Petersburg].

    PubMed

    Koroleva, I V; Lantsov, A A; Podosinnikova, G A

    2000-01-01

    By estimation of the specialists, the present system of early detection of hearing problems in children provides registration of hypoacusis only in 40% of hypoacusis infants. To improve the situation, it is necessary to update the screening system, to integrate efforts of various specialists, to perfect information support, training of specialists, provide modern hearing aids, organize rehabilitation groups including both normal children and those with hearing and speech problems. PMID:10846483

  18. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  19. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  20. High-frequency audiometry: a means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mehrparvar, Amir H; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed J; Ghoreyshi, Abbas; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Loukzadeh, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence of hearing loss in conventional and high frequencies of audiometry among textile workers divided into two groups: With and without exposure to noise more than 85 dB. The highest hearing threshold was observed at 4000 Hz, 6000 Hz and 16000 Hz in conventional right ear audiometry, conventional left ear audiometry and HFA in each ear, respectively. The hearing threshold was significantly higher at 16000 Hz compared to 4000. Hearing loss was more common in HFA than conventional audiometry. HFA is more sensitive to detect NIHL than conventional audiometry. It can be useful for early diagnosis of hearing sensitivity to noise, and thus preventing hearing loss in lower frequencies especially speech frequencies. PMID:22122956

  1. Early care in children with permanent hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, G; Forli, F; Nicastro, R; Ciabotti, A; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of regional protocols for newborn hearing screening and early audiologic diagnosis represent the first step of the entire diagnostic, rehabilitative and prosthetic programme for children with permanent hearing impairment. The maximum benefit of early diagnosis can indeed be obtained only by prompt rehabilitation aimed at fostering the child's communicative, linguistic and cognitive development. Within the framework of the CMM 2013 project of the Ministry of Health entitled "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the problems concerning the promotion of the global development of children with PHI through an early rehabilitation project based on shared knowledge and scientific evidence. In this project, our specific aim was to define the features and modes of access to a precise and specialised rehabilitation project for the small hearing-impaired child within three months from audiologic diagnosis. Three main recommendations relative to assessment and rehabilitation aspects of early care emerged from the study. PMID:27054391

  2. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  3. Early Prediction of Postmeningitic Hearing Loss in Children Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; Germiller, John A.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Shah, Samir S.; Pollock, Avrum N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether early gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) can reliably detect meningitic labyrinthitis and thereby predict which children are at high risk for hearing loss. Permanent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) remains a common sequela of bacterial meningitis, and early diagnosis of the associated suppurative labyrinthitis can be difficult, especially in critically ill, sedated patients and young children. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary pediatric hospital. Participants Twenty-three survivors of bacterial meningitis (median age, 15 months [range, 3 months–14 years]) who had undergone brain GdMRI during the acute disease and had subsequent ear-specific audiometric data. Main Outcome Measure Blinded to disease and outcome, a neuroradiologist rated the relative enhancement of each cochlea on T1-weighted images using a 4-point scale. Scores were then correlated with the degree of hearing loss on subsequent testing. Results Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 15 of 46 ears (8 of 23 patients). Enhancement on GdMRI was detected in 13 of the 15 ears that later developed SNHL but was absent in all 31 unaffected ears. Thus, GdMRI was 87% sensitive and 100% specific for predicting which ears would develop permanent SNHL. In the subgroup with pneumococcal meningitis (n=15), GdMRI was 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Labyrinthine enhancement was detectable as early as 1 day after diagnosis. Conclusion Gadolinium-enhanced MRI detected meningitic labyrinthitis at early stages and accurately predicted which patients would later develop hearing loss. PMID:21339394

  4. Improving Early Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

  5. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  6. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  7. Developmental hearing loss impairs signal detection in noise: putative central mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Jennifer D.; Voytenko, Sergiy V.; Galazyuk, Alexander V.; Rosen, Merri J.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss have difficulty processing sounds in noisy environments. This is most noticeable for speech perception, but is reflected in a basic auditory processing task: detecting a tonal signal in a noise background, i.e., simultaneous masking. It is unresolved whether the mechanisms underlying simultaneous masking arise from the auditory periphery or from the central auditory system. Poor detection in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is attributed to cochlear hair cell damage. However, hearing loss alters neural processing in the central auditory system. Additionally, both psychophysical and neurophysiological data from normally hearing and impaired listeners suggest that there are additional contributions to simultaneous masking that arise centrally. With SNHL, it is difficult to separate peripheral from central contributions to signal detection deficits. We have thus excluded peripheral contributions by using an animal model of early conductive hearing loss (CHL) that provides auditory deprivation but does not induce cochlear damage. When tested as adults, animals raised with CHL had increased thresholds for detecting tones in simultaneous noise. Furthermore, intracellular in vivo recordings in control animals revealed a cortical correlate of simultaneous masking: local cortical processing reduced tone-evoked responses in the presence of noise. This raises the possibility that altered cortical responses which occur with early CHL can influence even simple signal detection in noise. PMID:25249949

  8. Hearing Children's Voices in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Hannah

    2004-01-01

    In this article Hannah Mortimer explores how even very young children can be consulted and included when planning for their education and needs. This allows early years practitioners to ensure that the children they support have equal opportunities, feel involved and successful in their learning and play, and are given activities and interventions…

  9. Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, T S; Okokhere, P O; Asogun, D; Blackie, F F; Nwegbu, M M; Wahab, K W; Omilabu, S A; Akpede, G O

    2011-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease which affects one-fourth to two million people annually with the fatality rate of about 10,000. It is associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) usually at the convalescent stage. Recently, cases of SNHL at the acute phase have been reported. This study was done to further investigate the incidence and features of SNHL in acute phase of LF. It is a prospective case-control study of LF patients seen with acute SNHL conducted between July 2007 and April 2009 at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Nigeria. The diagnosis of acute LF was based on the clinical features and detection of IgM antibodies and/or positive Lassa virus-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers S36+ and LVS 339 while SNHL was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with PTA and speech discrimination tests. Patients with other acute febrile illnesses were used as control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 11 and Fisher's exact test while level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Out of the 37 confirmed cases of LF, 5 (13.5%) and none (0%) of the control developed early-onset SNHL (p = 0.03). Forty percent of the cases studied had negative IgM. The audiograms showed involvement at all frequency groups with pure tone average 65-85 dB and the speech discrimination 20-40%. The overall case fatality rate was 27.0%, and for early SNHL cases 60.0% (p > 0.05). The incidence of SNHL in LF infection is about 13.5% and could be a reflection of a worse disease process. There is possibility of direct viral invasion aside immunological reaction as a causative mechanism. PMID:20809263

  10. The Parent Teaching Home: An Early Intervention Program for Hearing-Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Freeman

    1974-01-01

    The Bill Wilkerson Hearing and Speech Center Program for hearing-impaired children emphasizes the value of detecting hearing impairment in infancy, followed by immediate intervention in the form of an intensive parent teaching program which stresses the maximization of residual hearing to enhance natural language acquisition. (Author/JA)

  11. Evaluation of the use of a questionnaire to detect hearing loss in Kenyan pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Newton, V E; Macharia, I; Mugwe, P; Ototo, B; Kan, S W

    2001-03-01

    In developing countries, there is a lack of trained personnel and testing equipment to facilitate the early detection of hearing impairment in children. A questionnaire offers a low cost option and the value of this for detecting hearing impairment in pre-school children was determined in several districts in Kenya. The questionnaire was completed by either teachers, parents/carers or community nurses. The children were subsequently tested using pure tone audiometry and visual examination of the ear by ENT Clinical Officers, who were not given prior access to the results of the questionnaire. A total of 757 (88%) questionnaires were completed. Of the 735 children, who could be tested using pure tone audiometry, four were found to have a unilateral hearing impairment and one was detected by the questionnaire. A total of 13 children had a bilateral hearing impairment >40 dB HL. All were detected using the questionnaire. There were eight males and five females with ages ranging from 4.2 to 6.9 years, mean age 5.7 years and median age 5.8 years. Eight had a sensorineural hearing impairment and two a mixed hearing impairment. Three of the children with a sensorineural hearing loss had a family history of hearing impairment. No question detected all children with a hearing impairment and some questions were more discerning than others. There was 100% sensitivity for the questionnaire when a hearing loss of >40 dB was considered, but specificity was lower at 75%. Negative predictive value was 100%, but the positive predictive value was low, 6.75%. It was concluded that a questionnaire of this nature could be usefully applied at Primary Health Care level for detecting hearing impairment at the pre-school stage. There would be need for services available for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation before a screening programme was introduced. PMID:11223455

  12. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  13. Consistency of Hearing Aid Use in Infants with Early-Identified Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; Hoover, Brenda; Peterson, Barbara; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the consistency of hearing aid use by infants. A goal was to identify maternal, child and situational factors that affected consistency of device use. Method Maternal interviews were conducted using a non-validated structured interview (Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire), which included five-point Likert scale items and open-ended questions. Participants were mothers of seven infants with mild to moderately-severe hearing loss, who were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Data were collected at four intervals (10.5–12, 16.5, 22.5 and 28.5 months of age). Results Consistency of amplification use was variable at early ages, but improved with age. By 28.5 months of age, toddlers used amplification regularly in most settings. Selected daily situations (e.g., car, outdoors) were more challenging for maintaining device use than contexts where the child was closely monitored. Only two families established early, consistent full time use across all contexts examined. Qualitative results were used to identify familial, developmental and situational variables that influenced the consistency of infant/toddler device use. Conclusion Families may benefit from audiological counseling that acknowledges the multi-faceted challenges that arise. Audiologists can work in partnership with families to promote consistent device use across a variety of daily situations. PMID:19029531

  14. Infants and children with hearing loss need early language access.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing, who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the loss of a normally hearing child). Clinical research indicates that a deaf child's poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression. Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents' decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child. In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880. While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet, the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly. The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for

  15. Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the

  16. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  17. The otolaryngologist's role in newborn hearing screening and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Bower, Charles M; St John, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Infant hearing loss is common. Screening is performed in more than 98% of US infants. Otolaryngologists play an important role in identification and management of infants and children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Otolaryngologists should routinely assess for hearing screening results and intervene for screens not passed. Long-term follow-up and reassessment of patients with hearing loss is an ongoing component of otolaryngology practice. This article reviews the otolaryngologist's role in the management of infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing from screening to intervention and management. PMID:25213275

  18. Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800 ms) or short (50 ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

  19. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

    2010-01-01

    Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

  20. Nanotechnology for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

    2010-01-01

    Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

  1. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

  2. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

  3. "Foundations for Literacy": An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…

  4. Enhanced Visual Speech Perception in Individuals with Early-Onset Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Edward T., Jr.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: L. E. Bernstein, M. E. Demorest, and P. E. Tucker (2000) demonstrated enhanced speechreading accuracy in participants with early-onset hearing loss compared with hearing participants. Here, the authors test the generalization of Bernstein et al.'s (2000) result by testing 2 new large samples of participants. The authors also investigated…

  5. Effect of Early Intervention on Language Development in Hearing-Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Elahe; Jafari, Zahra; Gholami, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss from birth up to the age of 3 years has a negative effect on speech/language development and results in sensory, cognitive, emotional, and academic defects in adulthood by causing delayed development of communicative-linguistic abilities. The present study was performed in order to assess the effect of early intervention on language development in Persian children aged 6-7 years with severe sensorineural hearing loss. Materials and Methods: Thirty boys and girls aged 6-7 years participated in this study, all of them had severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. All children were using bilateral behind-the-ear hearing aid, and had similar economic/socio-cultural backgrounds. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on the age of identification/intervention of hearing loss (3-6 and 12-15 months of age). The Persian TOLD-P3 test was used to evaluate language development in all subjects. Data collection was accomplished by observation, completion of questionnaires, and speech recording. Results: There was a significant difference in language development in 11 sub-tests and five lingual gains on the Persian TOLD-P3 test between early (3-6 months of age) and late identified/intervened (12-15 months of age) hearing-impaired children (P<0.05). Early identified/intervened hearing-impaired children had a notable preference in all assessed sub-tests and lingual gains. Conclusion: Early identification/intervention of hearing loss before the age of 6 months has a significant positive effect on a child’s language development in terms of picture/relational/oral vocabulary, grammatical comprehension, sentence combining, grammatical completion, phonologic analysis, word differentiation, word production, semantics, and syntax. Moreover, early identification/ intervention of hearing loss develops the hearing-impaired child’s lingual gains in visual vocabulary, grammatical completion, word differentiation, phonologic analysis, and

  6. Effect of fast-acting compression on modulation detection interference for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Lentz, Jennifer J

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effects of hearing loss and fast-acting compression on auditory grouping based on across-frequency modulation, modulation detection interference (MDI) was measured in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss. MDI, the increase in the amplitude-modulation detection threshold of a target presented with an interferer distant in frequency, was measured using a 500-Hz target and a 2140-Hz interferer, both modulated with narrow-band noises of the same bandwidth. The two modulated tones were presented at equal loudness levels to listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss in the absence (Exp. 1) and in the presence (Exp. 2) of fast-acting compression applied to the interferer. Modulation detection thresholds increased with increasing modulation depth of the interferer by similar amounts for the two groups of listeners, suggesting that across-frequency grouping based on amplitude modulation is not altered by hearing impairment. Compression provided an additional increase in thresholds for both groups, indicating that compression algorithms might alter across-frequency grouping cues. Partial support for an idea that compression's effect of sharpening the onsets after each envelope valley is provided by a third experiment which found somewhat greater interference produced by square-wave modulation than sine-wave modulation at larger interferer modulation depths. PMID:20550264

  7. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  8. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technolog | Research on the effectiveness and clinical impact of early detection technologies and practices.

  9. Enhancement of Visual Motion Detection Thresholds in Early Deaf People

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Martha M.; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  10. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  11. Cochlear hearing loss and the detection of sinusoidal versus random amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Grose, John H; Porter, Heather L; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of cochlear hearing loss on detection of random and sinusoidal amplitude modulation. Listeners with hearing loss and normal-hearing listeners (eight per group) generated temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) for envelope fluctuations carried by a 2000-Hz pure tone. TMTFs for the two groups were similar at low modulation rates but diverged at higher rates presumably because of differences in frequency selectivity. For both groups, detection of random modulation was poorer than for sinusoidal modulation at lower rates but the reverse occurred at higher rates. No evidence was found that cochlear hearing loss, per se, affects modulation detection. PMID:27586778

  12. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

  13. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  14. Training Needs of Early Intervention Personnel Working with Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Rosalyn; Niemeyer, Judith A.; Compton, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of newborn hearing screenings, infants with hearing loss are identified earlier than ever before. Each state is responsible for providing trained personnel and delivery of early intervention services to families with newly identified infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing. Consequently, the role of each state's Part C…

  15. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  16. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  17. Early Hearing-Impairment Results in Crossmodal Reorganization of Ferret Core Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, M. Alex; Allman, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous investigations of cortical crossmodal plasticity, most often in congenital or early-deaf subjects, have indicated that secondary auditory cortical areas reorganize to exhibit visual responsiveness while the core auditory regions are largely spared. However, a recent study of adult-deafened ferrets demonstrated that core auditory cortex was reorganized by the somatosensory modality. Because adult animals have matured beyond their critical period of sensory development and plasticity, it was not known if adult-deafening and early-deafening would generate the same crossmodal results. The present study used young, ototoxically-lesioned ferrets (n = 3) that, after maturation (avg. = 173 days old), showed significant hearing deficits (avg. threshold = 72 dB SPL). Recordings from single-units (n = 132) in core auditory cortex showed that 72% were activated by somatosensory stimulation (compared to 1% in hearing controls). In addition, tracer injection into early hearing-impaired core auditory cortex labeled essentially the same auditory cortical and thalamic projection sources as seen for injections in the hearing controls, indicating that the functional reorganization was not the result of new or latent projections to the cortex. These data, along with similar observations from adult-deafened and adult hearing-impaired animals, support the recently proposed brainstem theory for crossmodal plasticity induced by hearing loss. PMID:22888454

  18. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  19. Early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Midthun, David E

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  20. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  1. Evaluating the Structure of Early English Literacy Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.

    PubMed

    Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, word reading, and vocabulary skills in DHH children who have auditory access to speech. One hundred and sixty-seven DHH children (M age = 60.43 months) were assessed with a battery of early literacy measures. Forty-six percent used at least 1 cochlear implant; 54% were fitted with hearing aids. About a fourth of the sample was acquiring both spoken English and sign. Scores on standardized tests of phonological awareness and vocabulary averaged at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the hearing norming sample. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that DHH children's early literacy skills were best characterized by a complex 3-factor model in which phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and vocabulary formed 3 separate, but highly correlated constructs, with letter-sound knowledge and word reading skills relating to both phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge. This supports the hypothesis that early reading of DHH children with functional hearing is qualitatively similar to that of hearing children. PMID:26109317

  2. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a Construction Permit or Combined License... Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604 Notice of hearing on...

  3. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a Construction Permit or Combined License... Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604 Notice of hearing on...

  4. The Experiences and Involvement of Grandparents in Hearing Detection and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNee, Chelsea M.; Jackson, Carla W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of grandparents during hearing detection and intervention. Data were collected and analyzed from survey responses of 50 parents and 35 grandparents of children of varying ages who have hearing loss. Parents described important types of support that grandparents provided including frequent…

  5. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melody; Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Berry, Lauren Unflat; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for…

  6. A Model of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss Provided through Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Stredler-Brown, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families need access to appropriate early intervention services that are delivered by professionals who are well trained and experienced using their chosen communication approach. Unfortunately, a lack of qualified practitioners, especially in remote and rural communities, and limited funding can…

  7. Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  8. Early childhood education: a means to earlier diagnosis of hearing impairment in the multihandicapped.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, L; Tessier, A

    1983-04-01

    Detection of congenital or infantile hearing loss is often delayed in otherwise normal children, but even greater delays occur in the multihandicapped. Neonatal hearing screening and high risk register techniques have not had universal acceptance. A collaborative project between medical school otology and audiology personnel and a school for multihandicapped children under the age of 3 years in the Department of Special Education in another university has significantly reduced detection time and provided speech, language and other remedial therapy while otologic diagnosis and educational functional assessment proceed. The investigators and staff are bilingual. Parents learn to observe and work with their own child at the school and in the home. PMID:6192106

  9. High risk register--an economical tool for early identification of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, J

    1995-01-01

    Deafness needs to be dignified nearly as its adverse effects increase with the degree and age of onset. The high risk register helps to alert the professional to suspect the presence of this hidden handicap. Histories of 281 hearing impaired children and 158 normal children was collected and analysed. Risk items that appeared significant were--rashes with fever during pregnancy, family history of childhood deafness, asphyxia at birth or blue baby, prematurity (less than 32-34 gestational weeks), low birth weight (less than 1200 gm), hyperbilirubinemia, birth defects of ear nose, throat and head, consanguineous marriage (cousin), parental concerns about their child's hearing. These high risk factors could help in identifying hearing impairment early and in envisaging quality habilitation programs. PMID:10829952

  10. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  11. Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners.

    PubMed

    Sandy, K Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, PMID:27156916

  12. Parental Level of Satisfaction Regarding Early Intervention Services for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Barbara Smith

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the level of satisfaction of parents regarding early identification/intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The purpose of this study is to compare the progress of children who are D/HH with their hearing peers on elements used to measure the readiness of students to enter the…

  13. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  14. Early Detection of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating illness, although its autosomal dominant genetic transmission allows a unique opportunity to study apparently healthy individuals before manifest disease. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Vascular Cognitive Impairment), but studying otherwise-healthy appearing individuals who will go on with nearly 99% certainty to manifest the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. The field has witnessed an explosion of research examining possible early indicators of HD during what is now referred to as the “prodrome” of HD. A NIH study in its ninth year (PREDICT-HD) has offered a glimpse into the transition from an apparently healthy state to an obviously diseased state, and can serve as a model for many other genetic diseases, both neurological and non-neurological. PMID:24348095

  15. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  16. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  17. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, which ...

  18. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  19. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  20. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  1. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604...

  2. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for...

  3. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604...

  4. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for...

  5. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604...

  6. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for...

  7. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. PMID:25138156

  8. Early-onset hearing loss reorganizes the visual and auditory network in children without cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Yang, Li-Zhuang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shu-Li; Wang, Ying; Gu, Feng; Yang, Zhiyu; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-02-10

    The present study investigates the effect of early-onset hearing loss on the reorganization of visual and auditory networks in children without cochlear implants. Eleven congenitally deaf children and 12 age-matched hearing children were included in the study. Bilateral transverse temporal cortices and bilateral lateral occipital cortices were defined as auditory and visual seeds, respectively (as verified using an independent component analysis). The four seed-based connectivity maps were computed for each participant. As a result, group analysis showed that the primary auditory cortex was less connected with the motor cortex, whereas the visual cortex showed strengthened connectivity with motor and speech cortices in congenitally deaf children compared with the controls. Moreover, we found that the differences in functional connectivity between deaf and control children were not because of morphometric changes. Our results provide neural evidence for the sensorimotor coupling model of speech development. PMID:26730516

  9. Early definition of type, degree and audiogram shape in childhood hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Conti, G; Gallus, R; Fetoni, A R; Martina, B M; Muzzi, E; Orzan, E; Bastanza, G

    2016-02-01

    In the context of permanent childhood hearing loss, early audiological diagnosis is a prerequisite for activation of an adequate rehabilitation program to prevent or limit the known effects that auditory deprivation determines on language development and cognitive skills in neonates. Audiological diagnosis consists schematically of three phases: identification of subjects at risk, definition of hearing loss and/or children features, verification of appropriateness of diagnosis itself and a rehabilitation programme. Strategies and methods of audiological diagnosis are well defined and include an integration of data coming from objective methods with clinical and behavioural data. Although the substantial effectiveness of procedures and a general consensus on their use and interpretation have been defined, there are several critical issues concerning the achievement of this objective, which will be discussed in this paper. PMID:27054387

  10. HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmoos, H. W.

    1953-01-01

    Abnormal behavior in children may frequently be caused by impairment of hearing. Early detection of the impairment and of the cause are of utmost importance, not only to prevent irreversible changes where that is possible, but to permit early beginning of special training for children who are permanently deaf. Recent studies have shown that deafness of infants may follow rubella in the mother in early pregnancy, or kernicterus caused by Rh incompatibilities. Measures to control these disorders are being investigated. Adequate and careful treatment of diseases of the nose, as well as surgical drainage of infected ears when necessary, are important factors in the prevention of hearing loss in children. PMID:13009516

  11. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  12. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of hearing status by gender; popularity varied as a function of hearing status and educational setting. Deaf boys in mainstream education were less accepted and popular than their hearing classmates and than deaf peers in special education. Deaf girls in mainstream education were also less popular but not less accepted. Communicative skills varied as a function of hearing status, whereas social behavior varied as a function of educational setting. Deaf mainstreamed children showed less developed pragmatic and strategic communicative skills (monitoring, improvisation, initiating/maintaining) than their hearing classmates, but more social adjustment than deaf peers in special education (more prosocial behavior, less antisocial or withdrawn behavior, and more agreeableness). For acceptance, deaf girls in mainstream education compensated the lack of improvisation with higher levels of prosocial behavior, agreeableness, monitoring, and pragmatic skills, and lower levels of antisocial behavior than deaf boys. Monitoring and pragmatic skills negatively affected a deaf mainstream boy's acceptance. In special education, gender differences in prosocial behavior explained deaf boys' lower acceptance. Popularity was explained by pragmatic skills and improvisation as a function of hearing status. Voter population difference and different social behavior norms are considered as an explanation for popularity differences as a function of educational setting. PMID:21840686

  13. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.623 Notice of... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a Construction Permit or Combined...

  14. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.623 Notice of... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a Construction Permit or Combined...

  15. Reorganization of auditory cortex in early-deaf people: functional connectivity and relationship to hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation is a model for understanding brain plasticity. Although it is a well-documented phenomenon, we still know little of the mechanisms underlying it or the factors that constrain and promote it. Using fMRI, we identified visual motion-related activity in 17 early-deaf and 17 hearing adults. We found that, in the deaf, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) was responsive to visual motion. We compared functional connectivity of this reorganized cortex between groups to identify differences in functional networks associated with reorganization. In the deaf more than the hearing, the STG displayed increased functional connectivity with a region in the calcarine fissure. We also explored the role of hearing aid use, a factor that may contribute to variability in cross-modal reorganization. We found that both the cross-modal activity in STG and the functional connectivity between STG and calcarine cortex correlated with duration of hearing aid use, supporting the hypothesis that residual hearing affects cross-modal reorganization. We conclude that early auditory deprivation alters not only the organization of auditory regions but also the interactions between auditory and primary visual cortex and that auditory input, as indexed by hearing aid use, may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early-deaf people. PMID:25000527

  16. Testimony of Gina Adams, Senior Fellow, Urban Institute. Before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the testimony of Gina Adams before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices." This testimony was presented to the House Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives last March 19, 2009. She talks about how…

  17. Detection and Characterization of Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R. W.; Bond, M. G.; Riley, W. A.; Czapla, L.; Mazzola, C. J.; Birdwell, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Early stages of atherosclerosis in human subjects can be detected by lumen diameter and the pressure-strain elastic modulus. Results from non-human primate studies show that the intima thickens increasing the area enclosed by the elastic lamina. During this time the artery dilates so that the lumen area remains essentially constant. Only after the artery reaches its elastic limit does the lumen area decrease. Accurate measurements of arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter at diastole are important to the early detection of atherosclerosis. Axial resolutions of less than 0.1mm are required to detect tissue layers within the arterial wall itself. Two approaches and results of high axial resolution, deconvolution and high axial pulse generation, meeting range resolution requirements are presented.

  18. [Screening programs for early detection of psychosis?].

    PubMed

    Cougnard, Audrey; Verdoux, Hélène

    2006-03-01

    Programs for the early detection of psychosis are currently underway in most developed countries. Their aim is to improve the outcome of subjects with psychotic disorders, but neither their feasibility nor their usefulness was assessed before their implementation. The postulate underlying these programs - that early treatment improves the prognosis of psychosis - has not yet been demonstrated. The absence of effective and adequately specific screening tests implies that a substantial number of the subjects evaluated may be incorrectly diagnosed with and treated for psychoses (false positives). Development of facilities specializing in the assessment and care of subjects with early psychosis often implies a decrease in funding for facilities caring for patients with chronic psychoses. Educational and information campaigns aimed at the general public and health professionals, on the other hand, may help reduce the stigma associated with psychosis and improve access to care for subjects in early stages of psychosis. Risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of programs for the early detection of psychosis must be evaluated before promoting their development. PMID:16550146

  19. "Do You Hear What I Hear?": Deception Detection by the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlman, James M.; Koper, Randall J.

    This study compared deception detection accuracy and confidence levels for 72 blind and 71 sighted participants with only audible cues available. Participants from a community blind center and a small western university judged stimulus tapes, which consisted of deceptive and truthful audio messages. Deceptive messages were induced by implicating…

  20. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation. PMID:24636881

  1. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base. PMID:26982644

  2. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W; Brown, Powel H; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ford, Leslie G; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L; Minasian, Lori M; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J; Schröder, Fritz H; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  3. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Brys, Miroslaw; Glodzik-Sobanska, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging is being increasingly used to complement clinical assessments in the early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and metabolic positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are the most clinically used and promising modalities to detect brain abnormalities in individuals who might be at risk for AD but who have not yet developed symptoms. The knowledge of established risk factors for AD enabled investigators to develop enrichment strategies for longitudinal imaging studies to reduce the sample sizes and study duration. The present review focuses on the results obtained by MRI and FDG-PET studies that examined the preclinical AD stages in several at risk populations: (1) individuals from families with autosomal dominant early-onset AD (FAD), (2) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), particularly in memory, who are at very high risk for declining to AD with an estimated decline rate of 10-30% per year, (3) normal young and middle-age subjects carriers of known susceptibility genes for late-onset AD such as the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) E4 allele, and (4) as age is the main risk factor for AD, normal elderly individuals followed to the onset of MCI and AD. Overall, these studies show that the use of imaging for the early detection of AD is successful even in the earlier stages of disease when clinical symptoms are not fully expressed and the regional brain damage may be limited. PMID:16839732

  4. Early neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Salmon, E

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle modification offers a promising way of preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, nutritional interventions can contribute to decrease the risk of dementia. The efficacy of such interventions should be assessed in individuals thought to be prone to AD. It is therefore necessary to identify markers that may help detecting AD as early as possible. This review will focus on subtle neuropsychological changes that may already exist in the predementia phase, and that could point to individuals at risk of dementia. Episodic memory decline appears consistently as the earliest sign of incipient typical AD. An episodic memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall appears as a useful tool to detect patients at an early stage of AD. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to decline early and to predict progression to AD. Moreover, in line with current diagnosis criteria for prodromal AD, combining neuropsychological scores and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination of future AD patients than neuroimaging or neuropsychological data alone. Altogether, the detection of cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable AD already in the predementia stage points to at risk people who are the best target for therapeutic interventions, such as nutrition or physical exercise counseling or dietary interventions. PMID:25182019

  5. Mortality modeling of early detection programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra J; Zelen, Marvin

    2008-06-01

    Consider a group of subjects who are offered an opportunity to receive a sequence of periodic special examinations for the purpose of diagnosing a chronic disease earlier relative to usual care. The mortality for the early detection group is to be compared with a group receiving usual care. Benefit is reflected in a potential reduction in mortality. This article develops a general probability model that can be used to predict cumulative mortality for each of these groups. The elements of the model assume (i) a four-state progressive disease model in which a subject may be in a disease-free state (or a disease state that cannot be detected), preclinical disease state (capable of being diagnosed by a special exam), clinical state (diagnosis by usual care), and a death state; (ii) age-dependent transitions into the states; (iii) age-dependent examination sensitivity; (iv) age-dependent sojourn time in each state; and (v) the distribution of disease stages on diagnosis conditional on modality of detection. The model may be used to (i) compare mortality rates for different screening schedules; (ii) explore potential benefit of subpopulations; and (iii) compare relative reductions in disease-specific mortality due to advances and dissemination of both treatment and early detection screening programs. PMID:17725809

  6. Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

  7. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Unflat Berry, Lauren; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for children who are deaf and hard of hearing (CDHH). Method Participants included 122 EI professionals who completed an online questionnaire annually and 131 parents who participated in annual telephone interviews. Results Most families received EI in the home. Family participation in this setting was significantly higher than in services provided elsewhere. EI professionals were primarily teachers of CDHH or speech-language pathologists. Caseload composition was correlated moderately to strongly with most provider comfort levels. Level of preparation to support spoken language weakly to moderately correlated with provider comfort with 18 specific skills. Conclusions Results suggest family involvement is highest when EI is home-based, which supports the need for EI in the home whenever possible. Access to hands-on experience with this population, reflected in a high percentage of CDHH on providers' current caseloads, contributed to professional comfort. Specialized preparation made a modest contribution to comfort level. PMID:26440475

  8. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  9. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  10. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  11. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  12. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  13. Technology--and Colorado Early Education Staff--Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler-Woodard, Dee

    2009-01-01

    The youngest deaf and hard of hearing children with disabilities in Colorado can now participate more fully in the world around them thanks to funding from grants solicited through the Early Education Department at the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind. The grants enable the children, from birth to age 3, to overcome their physical…

  14. Relationship between the Linguistic Environments and Early Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children in Deaf-Parented Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanto, Laura; Huttunen, Kerttu; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2013-01-01

    We explored variation in the linguistic environments of hearing children of Deaf parents and how it was associated with their early bilingual language development. For that purpose we followed up the children's "productive vocabulary" (measured with the MCDI; MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory) and "syntactic complexity" (measured with…

  15. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  16. Mothers' Involvement in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: The Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Al-Yagon, Michal; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers' involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers' involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables…

  17. Principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-04-01

    This document is a supplement to the year 2007 position statement of the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and provides comprehensive guidelines for establishing strong early intervention (EI) systems with appropriate expertise to meet the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Optimal outcomes can only be achieved when there is high quality to the universal newborn hearing screening programs, the audiologic diagnostic process of confirmation that a child is D/HH and fitting of amplification, and the provision of appropriate, individualized, targeted, and high-quality EI services. There are 12 best practice guidelines for EI programs that include the provision of timely referral to EI services with providers who have knowledge and skills in early childhood deafness and hearing loss, infusion within the system of partnerships with parents as well as professionals who are D/HH, longitudinal developmental assessments for monitoring the child's development, data management systems that include developmental outcomes, a process to monitor the fidelity of the intervention, and appropriate services for children with additional disabilities, those from non-English speaking families, and those from special populations, including unilateral hearing loss and auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony. PMID:24131505

  18. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  19. Noninvasive strategies for breast cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Trecate, Giovanna; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer. An extensive number of potential breast cancer biomarkers have been discovered by microarray hybridization or sequencing of circulating DNA, noncoding RNA and blood cell RNA; multiplex analysis of immune-related molecules and mass spectrometry-based approaches for high-throughput detection of protein, endogenous peptides, circulating and volatile metabolites. However, their medical relevance and their translation to clinics remain to be exploited. Once they will be fully validated, cancer biomarkers, used in combination with the current and emerging imaging technologies, represent an avenue to a personalized breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27044539

  20. Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

  1. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  2. Hear, Hear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin

    2000-01-01

    Examines the problem of acoustics in school classrooms; the problems it creates for student learning, particularly for students with hearing problems; and the impediments to achieving acceptable acoustical levels for school classrooms. Acoustic guidelines are explored and some remedies for fixing sound problems are highlighted. (GR)

  3. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  4. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  5. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  6. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  7. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Laugen, Nina J; Jacobsen, Karl H; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with hearing aids to that of 180 typically hearing children. Parent ratings of psychosocial functioning and social skills, as well as scores of receptive vocabulary, were obtained. Children with hearing loss evidenced more psychosocial problems than hearing agemates. Female gender and early detection of hearing loss predicted better psychosocial functioning among children with hearing loss, whereas vocabulary and degree of hearing loss did not. Early intervention addressing psychosocial functioning is warranted for children with all degrees of hearing loss, including mild and moderate. Gender differences should be investigated in future research. PMID:26921612

  8. Detection and rate discrimination of amplitude modulation in electrical hearing.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Monita; Oberzut, Cherish

    2011-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to examine temporal envelope processing by cochlear implant (CI) listeners. In experiment 1, the hypothesis that listeners' modulation sensitivity would in part determine their ability to discriminate between temporal modulation rates was examined. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) obtained in an amplitude modulation detection (AMD) task were compared to threshold functions obtained in an amplitude modulation rate discrimination (AMRD) task. Statistically significant nonlinear correlations were observed between the two measures. In experiment 2, results of loudness-balancing showed small increases in the loudness of modulated over unmodulated stimuli beyond a modulation depth of 16%. Results of experiment 3 indicated small but statistically significant effects of level-roving on the overall gain of the TMTF, but no impact of level-roving on the average shape of the TMTF across subjects. This suggested that level-roving simply increased the task difficulty for most listeners, but did not indicate increased use of intensity cues under more challenging conditions. Data obtained with one subject, however, suggested that the most sensitive listeners may derive some benefit from intensity cues in these tasks. Overall, results indicated that intensity cues did not play an important role in temporal envelope processing by the average CI listener. PMID:21895095

  9. Prevention and early detection of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaratnam, K.

    1985-01-01

    The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

  10. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; Mascaux, C; Nackaerts, K

    2012-09-01

    The greatest news of the past year in this field was the first large-scale early detection trial that could prove a 20% reduction in lung cancer-related mortality by screening high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Several expert groups and medical societies have assessed the data and concluded that LDCT screening for lung cancer is, however, not ready for large-scale population-based implementation. Too many open questions remain, such as definition of the at-risk population, timing and intervals of screening, optimal method of acquisition and interpretation of the images, how to handle (false) positive findings, and especially cost-effectiveness in relation to other lung cancer prevention strategies, mainly smoking cessation. Further analyses and several ongoing European trials are eagerly awaited. Much hope also resides in the use of biomarkers, as their use in, e.g., blood or exhaled air may provide more easy-to-use tests to better stratify high-risk populations for screening studies. While exciting research is ongoing in this domain--e.g. with microRNAs--none of the tests has yet reached sufficient validation for clinical use. Early central lung cancers are more difficult to visualise by CT. For these patients, standard bronchoscopy, complemented by autofluoresence endoscopy, has been studied in different screening and follow-up settings. PMID:22987984

  11. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  12. Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

  13. Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

  14. Measures of tactual detection and temporal order resolution in congenitally deaf and normal-hearing adults

    PubMed Central

    Moallem, Theodore M.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.

    2010-01-01

    To guide the development of tactile speech aids, tactual detection and temporal order discrimination by congenitally deaf and normal-hearing adults have been examined. Tactual detection thresholds for sinusoidal vibrations between 2 and 300 Hz were measured at the left thumb and index finger using an adaptive paradigm. Temporal onset- and offset-order discrimination were tested using stimuli of 50 Hz at the thumb and 250 Hz at the index finger, delivered asynchronously and varied independently in amplitude and duration. Mean detection thresholds for the deaf and normal-hearing groups did not differ significantly at any frequency tested. Temporal onset-order discrimination thresholds varied widely, particularly among congenitally deaf individuals, but no statistically significant difference was found between group means. Both experimental groups exhibited a broad range of discrimination thresholds for temporal offset-order, and mean thresholds did not differ significantly. On the whole, tactual offset-order thresholds were substantially higher than onset-order thresholds. Differences in the relative levels of paired stimuli systematically affected sensitivity to both onset- and offset-orders in most subjects. Differences in the relative durations of paired stimuli had little effect on onset-order discrimination, but had a robust effect on offset-order discrimination thresholds, which was consistent across all subjects. PMID:20550268

  15. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  16. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  17. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  18. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  19. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub ..cap alpha../ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage.

  20. Smartphone-based hearing screening in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

    2014-01-01

    It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

  1. Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

    2014-01-01

    It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

  2. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  3. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  4. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 children born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early ... to this, the average age of identification for deaf and hearing impaired children was close to three ...

  5. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  6. [Pros and cons of early cancer detection in breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Callies, R; Oberhoff, C

    2005-04-01

    Mammography is an appropriate method for the detection of early forms of cancer of the breast, and for reducing mortality. Whether this actually succeeds depends upon the quality of the early detection strategies employed. Currently the data on reduction of mortality by mammographic screening remain ambivalent. PMID:15887680

  7. [A model of healthcare for children with hearing disorders].

    PubMed

    Głowacka, Maria Danuta; Swidziński, Piotr; Mojs, Ewa; Frankowska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Hearing disorders have risen today to the status of a civilization disease. Hearing loss during development or the prelingual age is an enormous problem for the child. Undiagnosed in time, hearing loss may lead to serious limitations in intellectual, cognitive, and emotional development of the child, and to difficulties in speaking, writing, reading, and memorising. This paper presents current structural solutions regarding healthcare for children with hearing disorders. The system of early detection of hearing disorders (mainly inborn) is coherent for neonates and small children but lacks a well-coordinated healthcare model for older hearing-impaired children, especially in the context of disclosing acquired hearing defects. A model of healthcare for children with hearing disorders covering every stage of development (age) is presented, aiming at improvements in the system of early detection of inborn and acquired hearing defects. The model provides for systematic monitoring of patients with hearing defects and offers the opportunity of early intervention. Furthermore, the model serves to follow the developmental dynamics of the communication process. PMID:20698186

  8. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  9. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  10. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  11. Latino Legislative Hearing on Pre-K & the Early Grades: NALEO Education Leadership Initiative. A Report of the NALEO Educational Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NALEO Educational Fund, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On September 23, 2008, Latino state legislators from throughout the United States participated in a Legislative Hearing on Pre-K and the Early Grades on Capitol Hill. The nation's leading experts on Latinos and early childhood education presented new research and information on programs and policies that work. Their testimony provided an in-depth…

  12. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Cochleae Contributes to the Early Onset of Hearing Loss in A/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Ge, Ruli; Xie, Gang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Xin; Gao, Lixiang; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Oumei; Huang, Fei; Han, Fengchan

    2015-01-01

    A/J and C57BL/6 J (B6) mice share a mutation in Cdh23 (ahl allele) and are characterized by age-related hearing loss. However, hearing loss occurs much earlier in A/J mice at about four weeks of age. Recent study has revealed that a mutation in citrate synthase (Cs) is one of the main contributors, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that A/J mice displayed more severe degeneration of hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in the cochleae compared with B6 mice. Moreover, messenger RNA accumulation levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the inner ears of A/J mice were significantly higher than those in B6 mice at 2 and 8 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry localized caspase-3 expression mainly to the hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in cochleae. In vitro transfection with Cs short hairpin RNA (shRNA) alone or cotransfection with Cs shRNA and Cdh23 shRNA significantly increased the levels of caspase-3 in an inner ear cell line (HEI-OC1). Finally, a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK could preserve the hearing of A/J mice by lowering about 15 decibels of the sound pressure level for the auditory-evoked brainstem response thresholds. In conclusion, our results suggest that caspase-mediated apoptosis in the cochleae, which may be related to a Cs mutation, contributes to the early onset of hearing loss in A/J mice. PMID:25732708

  13. A Team Approach to Quality Programming for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Priscilla Shannon

    2011-01-01

    In this issue of "Odyssey," Joanne Corwin describes New Mexico's statewide partnership among several agencies for the provision of early intervention services to infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families (Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks, p. 20). A…

  14. Multilingual Children with Hearing Loss: Factors Contributing to Language Use at Home and in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed…

  15. Evaluating the Structure of Early English Literacy Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R.; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological…

  16. Hearing Screening Procedures for Infants and Toddlers, Early Childhood & School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual describes the screening procedures used to identify infants and children in need of further diagnosis and treatment for hearing loss in Minnesota. It is intended for use by Community Health Service agencies, school health programs, Head Start agencies, and voluntary agencies, and should be used as a post-training reference. Newborn…

  17. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  18. Coverage methods for early groundwater contamination detection.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Luís Miguel; da Conceição Cunha, Maria; Ribeiro, Luís

    2013-05-01

    A method based on space-filling coverage designs to optimize groundwater monitoring networks for plume detection and quantification is proposed. Space-filling objective functions are then compared with more classical functions. The method was applied to a hypothetical case-study with 160 candidate locations, resulting in final optimal design monitoring networks with 40 locations. Results show that the method is superior to those based strictly on the probability of contamination detection for quantifying maximum and mean values. In the light of these results fractal properties of space-filling coverage methods and of simulated annealing are also discussed. PMID:23435904

  19. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  20. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. PMID:26994265

  1. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  2. Early detection of CLas infections in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...

  3. Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; O'Donoghue, Geoffrey; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Galindo, Luis; Elackattu, Alphi; Stier, Elizabeth; Grillone, Gregory; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2008-09-29

    We report a fully quantitative spectroscopy imaging instrument for wide area detection of early cancer (dysplasia). This instrument provides quantitative maps of tissue biochemistry and morphology, making it a potentially powerful surveillance tool for objective early cancer detection. We describe the design, construction, calibration, and first clinical application of this new system. We demonstrate its accuracy using physical tissue models. We validate its diagnostic ability on a resected colon adenoma, and demonstrate feasibility of in vivo imaging in the oral cavity. PMID:18825262

  4. Lemierre's syndrome: the importance of early detection.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Dorothy; Linney, Michael John; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Siba Prosad

    Sore throat is a common complaint, generally thought to be viral in origin, for which there may be a reluctance to prescribe antibiotics. This, combined with the emergence of antibiotic resistance, may explain the recent rise in the number of reports of Lemierre's syndrome (LS). LS characterises a postanginal septicaemia that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not recognised and treated early. This article describes the management of a 17-year-old boy diagnosed with LS to illustrate its classical presentation, common pitfalls in diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:24121852

  5. Using the dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: perspectives of a panel of experts.

    PubMed

    Luckner, John L

    2013-01-01

    Early literacy skills serve as the foundation for the development of subsequent reading skills and strategies. Increasingly, educators are administering early literacy assessments to identify young students who are at risk for reading failure and providing them with additional evidence based interventions. The most widely used assessments for reading in preschools and elementary schools for typical hearing students are the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of a panel of experts in the area of reading and individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing regarding the potential appropriateness of using the subtests of the DIBELS with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Results, as well as practical and research implications, are provided. PMID:23858700

  6. Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

    1999-06-01

    Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

  7. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 μCi source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  8. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  9. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  10. [Ethics and clinical practice guidelines: newborn hearing screening and early deaf childcare].

    PubMed

    André-Vert, J; Laurence, M

    2014-08-01

    A national program for newborn hearing screening is gradually spreading throughout France, coming at a specific historical time: French sign language was recognized as a French language only in 2005, after almost a century of this language being banned in French educational institutions. Therefore, social views on deafness vary considerably depending on hearing status--deaf or hearing--and on the language used: spoken language, sign language, or bilingual. To help professionals take these different perspectives into account, the ethical questions raised during the French Authority for Health clinical practice guidelines development on deaf child care were retrospectively analyzed based on the Childress and Beauchamp principles: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This analysis showed that the steps followed during the guideline development were very similar to those devised by J.M. Gomas's model for ethical decision making and were respectful of R. Ogien's minimal ethics principles: equal consideration for everyone, neutrality toward conceptions of what is good for oneself, and interventions limited to cases of obvious harm caused to others. PMID:25001434

  11. EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

  12. First Information Parents Receive after UNHS Detection of Their Baby's Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover…

  13. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection…

  14. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  15. Ultrasonography for early detection of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andolf, E; Svalenius, E; Astedt, B

    1986-12-01

    Ultrasound scan for detection of ovarian enlargements was performed in a target group of out-patients attending the clinic for various reasons in the 40-70 years range. Overall 805 women were examined, in 99% of whom the ovaries and/or their vessels could be identified. Pathological findings were suspected in 83 patients at the first scan, and were confirmed in 50 after a repeat scan, 39 of whom subsequently underwent surgery. Various ovarian lesions were found in 35 women, including five mucinous and serous cystadenomas, one carcinoma, two borderline tumours, and a cancer of the caecum. None of the borderline or malignant ovarian lesions were found by manual pelvic examination. Ultrasound screening appears to be a useful diagnostic aid, though its usefulness might be further improved if other risk factors such as heredity and period of ovulatory activity are taken into consideration. PMID:3542015

  16. Detection Rates of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials at Different Sensation Levels in Infants with Sensory/Neural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Chang, Hsiuwen; Ching, Teresa Y C; Hou, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are used to assess aided benefit in infants with hearing loss; however, there is insufficient information regarding the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. It is also not clear whether CAEP detection rates differ between infants with SNHL and infants with ANSD. This study involved retrospective collection of CAEP, hearing threshold, and hearing aid gain data to investigate the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. The results demonstrate that increases in stimulus audibility result in an increase in detection rate. For the same range of sensation levels, there was no difference in the detection rates between infants with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:27587922

  17. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. PMID:27614953

  18. Using prefrailty to detect early disability

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Benito, Miguel A.; Sevilla-Machuca, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an aging population, new strategies are required to identify individuals at risk of adverse health outcomes. Frailty syndrome is related to negative health events. This increased risk may be used to identify individuals in which interventions can delay the onset of physical and functional complications. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the onset of frailty and the beginning of functional disability. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study with consecutive sampling to analyze 146 patients aged seventy and older who come to the primary care center. The level of frailty was registered according to fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight scale. Disability for Instrumental Activities of Daily Live dependency, comorbidity, and social risk factors was registered too. Results: The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 17.8% and 39%, respectively, and were associated with age, level of disability, and the presence of gastrointestinal disease. Prefrail patients had initial levels of dependency, while those who were not frail were mostly independent. Conclusion: Frailty syndrome is easily detectable. The intermediate stage known as prefrailty is related to the start of the functional disability. The syndrome screening identifies individuals at risk in whom we can potentially intervene to delay the onset of the syndrome and delay functional disability. Control of comorbidity in frail patients must be studied. Screening age could be set in patients between 75 and 81 years old.

  19. Rural Barriers to Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Infant Hearing Loss in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Hardin, Bryan; Rayle, Christopher; Lester, Cathy; Studts, Christina R.; Shinn, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess regional parental barriers in the diagnostic and therapeutic process following abnormal newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Study Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study Setting Tertiary medical center Patients Parents of infants who failed NHS in Kentucky from January 2009 – February 2012 Main Outcome Measure Demographic information, county of origin, and attitudes and perceptions regarding NHS and barriers in the NHS diagnostic process. Results There were 460 participants in the study, which included25.4% of parents were from the Appalachian region. 21% of Appalachian parents found the process on newborn hearing testing difficult. Appalachian parents were more likely to have no more than 12 years of education (OR 1.7, p=0.02) and Medicaid insurance (OR 2.3, p<0.001) compared with non-Appalachian parents. A higher percentage of Appalachian parents were unaware of the NHS results at the time of hospital discharge than non-Appalachians (14% v. 7%, p=0.03). Distance from the diagnostic/therapeutic center represented was a significant barrier for Appalachian parents (OR 2.8, p=0.001). Compared with urban parents, a greater percentage of rural parents had never heard of a cochlear implant (p=0.01). Appalachian parents expressed a strong interest in telemedicine and a desire for closer services. Conclusion Multiple barriers including education, distance, accessibility, socioeconomic factors can affect timely diagnosis and treatment of congenital hearing loss for children residing in rural areas. Educational and telemedicine programs may benefit parents in Appalachia, as well as parents in other rural areas. PMID:25325844

  20. Spinster homolog 2 (spns2) deficiency causes early onset progressive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J; White, Jacqueline K; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P

    2014-10-01

    Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

  1. Whole-Exome Sequencing Efficiently Detects Rare Mutations in Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Duman, Duygu; Foster, Joseph; Sırmacı, Aslı; Gonzalez, Michael; Mahdieh, Nejat; Fotouhi, Nikou; Bonyadi, Mortaza; Cengiz, Filiz Başak; Menendez, Ibis; Ulloa, Rick H.; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.; Züchner, Stephan; Blanton, Susan; Tekin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the pathogenic mutations underlying autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is difficult, since causative mutations in 39 different genes have so far been reported. After excluding mutations in the most common ARNSHL gene, GJB2, via Sanger sequencing, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 30 individuals from 20 unrelated multiplex consanguineous families with ARNSHL. Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon 50 Mb kits and an Illumina Hiseq2000 instrument were used. An average of 93%, 84% and 73% of bases were covered to 1X, 10X and 20X within the ARNSHL-related coding RefSeq exons, respectively. Uncovered regions with WES included those that are not targeted by the exome capture kit and regions with high GC content. Twelve homozygous mutations in known deafness genes, of which eight are novel, were identified in 12 families: MYO15A-p.Q1425X, -p.S1481P, -p.A1551D; LOXHD1-p.R1494X, -p.E955X; GIPC3-p.H170N; ILDR1-p.Q274X; MYO7A-p.G2163S; TECTA-p.Y1737C; TMC1-p.S530X; TMPRSS3-p.F13Lfs*10; TRIOBP-p.R785Sfs*50. Each mutation was within a homozygous run documented via WES. Sanger sequencing confirmed co-segregation of the mutation with deafness in each family. Four rare heterozygous variants, predicted to be pathogenic, in known deafness genes were detected in 12 families where homozygous causative variants were already identified. Six heterozygous variants that had similar characteristics to those abovementioned variants were present in 15 ethnically-matched individuals with normal hearing. Our results show that rare causative mutations in known ARNSHL genes can be reliably identified via WES. The excess of heterozygous variants should be considered during search for causative mutations in ARNSHL genes, especially in small-sized families. PMID:23226338

  2. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  3. Anicteric early bile duct carcinoma detection with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Oshikiri, Taro; Morita, Takayuki; Fujita, Miyoshi; Miyasaka, Yuji; Senmaru, Naoto; Yamada, Hidehisa; Kondo, Satoshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The poor prognosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma makes early detection and diagnosis essential for positive patient outcomes. We describe 2 cases of jaundice-free early extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma detected by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma was discovered incidentally in patient 1 by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography during evaluation of a gallbladder stone. In patient 2, extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma was found during a routine health maintenance exam. Both patients underwent radical surgical intervention. Both patient 1 and 2 have remained in good health for over one year, 3.5 and one year, respectively, and have not exhibited any signs or symptoms of relapse or cancer recurrence. Based on these cases, it appears that magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can play a significant role in the early detection of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and improve disease prognosis. PMID:15816438

  4. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  5. [Detection of hearing loss in dementia patients : pilot study and literature survey].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, S; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2014-11-01

    There is a higher incidence of dementia among people with hearing loss, although the complex interrelation is not yet understood. The potential influence of hearing rehabilitation is also unclear. A previously published retrospective study on this topic throws doubt on the ability of dementia patients to accomplish audiometric tests. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to analyse the feasibility of applying conventional speech and pure tone audiometry in patients with dementia. In contrast to previously published data, we were able to achieve reproducible results in almost all patients. The difficulty associated with audiometric testing in dementia patients does thus not seem to lie in the application of pure tone and speech audiometry. On the basis of evidence indicating the importance of central hearing loss in the elderly, these tests alone do not appear sufficient. It is of greater interest to ascertain whether central hearing loss is relevant in patients suffering from dementia and whether corresponding audiometric tests are feasible. PMID:25270835

  6. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25417331

  7. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  8. Hearing Aids and Hearing Impaired Students in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Charles

    This paper describes functions of the components of hearing aids and provides a detailed procedure to detect hearing aid dysfunctions. The most common type of hearing aids for school children are the behind the ear type. Various hearing aid components change sound into an electrical signal, which is amplified and adjusted by a volume control. The…

  9. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  10. Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging for early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-08-01

    We propose a new multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) method for early breast cancer detection. MAMI is a two-stage robust Capon beamforming (RCB) based image formation algorithm. MAMI exhibits higher resolution, lower sidelobes, and better noise and interference rejection capabilities than the existing approaches. The effectiveness of using MAMI for breast cancer detection is demonstrated via a simulated 3-D breast model and several numerical examples. PMID:16916099

  11. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  12. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Beemer, Brianne T; Greene, Nathaniel T; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  13. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  14. [Prevention, early detection and monitoring of cutaneous melanoma].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Luc

    2016-03-01

    In parallel to the development of new treatments, considerable work remains to be done with regard on the one hand to early detection, and on the other, to the prevention of the main extrinsic risk factor, namely ultraviolet rays. Caregivers have an important educational role to play with patients and their families concerning these different aspects. PMID:26944640

  15. Illumina Spin-off to Develop Early-Detection Test.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    DNA-sequencing giant Illumina has formed a new company, called Grail, to develop liquid biopsies capable of spotting cancer before symptoms arise. The start-up is working on a low-cost "pan-cancer" test that can detect multiple cancer types early, which it hopes to introduce by 2019. PMID:26873346

  16. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » More Information » Prostate Cancer Early Detection » American ... Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News ...

  17. Early detection of occult atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Keach, Joseph Walker; Bradley, Steven M; Turakhia, Mintu P; Maddox, Thomas M

    2015-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common arrhythmia and significantly increases stroke risk. This risk can be mitigated with oral anticoagulation, but AF is often asymptomatic, or occult, preventing timely detection and treatment. Accordingly, occult AF may cause stroke before it is clinically diagnosed. Currently, guidelines for the early detection and treatment of occult AF are limited. This review addresses recent advancements in occult AF detection methods, identification of populations at high risk for occult AF, the treatment of occult AF with oral anticoagulation, as well as ongoing trials that may answer critically important questions regarding occult AF screening. PMID:25935765

  18. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment. PMID:25726819

  19. Views of oral cancer prevention and early detection: Maryland physicians.

    PubMed

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Horowitz, Alice M; Child, Wendy L

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain in-depth information on Maryland physicians' knowledge, opinions and practices about oral cancer examinations. The qualitative descriptive study used one focus group conducted in a conference facility and nine one-on-one interviews at private medical offices. A criterion-purposeful sampling was used for selection of participants. Generally, we found low awareness of, and surprise about, Maryland's high oral cancer mortality rates. Physicians were not surprised that they detect more lesions than dentists, although most physicians did not provide oral cancer examinations on a routine basis. Physicians were interested in attending continuing medical education (CME) courses on oral cancer prevention and early detection but only if worked into other CME programs on cancer. They were very interested in having hands-on training on performing an oral cancer examination. These findings will be used to implement educational interventions for Maryland physicians to help increase early detection of oral cancers. PMID:12076702

  20. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  1. Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23∶1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. Conclusions/Significance Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that proved advanced

  2. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  3. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A; Carbonell, W Shawn; Robson, Matthew D; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Muschel, Ruth J; Sibson, Nicola R

    2012-04-24

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1-targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1-targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3-3 × 10(5) cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (10(7)-10(8) cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  4. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A.; Carbonell, W. Shawn; Robson, Matthew D.; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C.; Choudhury, Robin P.; Muschel, Ruth J.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1–targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1–targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3–3 × 105 cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (107–108 cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  5. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  6. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-03-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early 'lepospondyl' microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  7. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early ‘lepospondyl’ microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  8. Program Monitoring Practices for Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…

  9. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  10. School Safety, Discipline, and IDEA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Waynesboro, Georgia, August 13, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on August 13, 1999, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed school safety, discipline, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the report includes…

  11. Ritalin Use among Youth: Examining the Issues and Concerns. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on May 16, 2000, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed issues and concerns on the use of ritalin among youth with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the…

  12. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  13. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  14. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  15. [Early detection of pancreatic cancer by novel proteomic technique].

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazufumi; Ono, Masaya; Shitashige, Miki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2006-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Japan. Early detection in pancreatic cancer is one of the most feasible strategies to improve outcome. We compared plasma proteome between pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteomic spectra were generated from a total of 245 plasma samples obtained from two institutes. A discriminating proteomic pattern was built from training cohort using machine learning algorithm and was applied two validation cohorts. This set discriminating cancer patients in the first validation cohort with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 91.9%, and was further validated in an independent cohort at a second institution. When combined with CA19-9, 100% tumor of pancreatic cancers, including early stage tumors, were detected. In this report, we describe a possible detection of early pancreatic cancer using novel proteomic technique. PMID:16972690

  16. Analysis of the Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Hearing Loss in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seok Min; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Yong Bok; Hong, Seok Jin; Lee, Byungho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can lead to a number of disabilities, subsequently reducing the quality of life. In general, hearing thresholds of adolescents are better than adults and the elderly. However, occasionally, adolescents acquire hearing loss for a number of reasons. In this study, our goal was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in the Korean population and to investigate the factors related to hearing thresholds in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012. We enrolled a total of 1,658 participants, ages 13 to 18 years. We investigated the prevalence of hearing loss and the factors associated with hearing thresholds at various frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 KHz). Results Weighted prevalence of unilateral and bilateral hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Weighted prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech and high frequencies were 3.1% and 5.0%, respectively, for unilateral hearing loss and 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively, for bilateral. Age group, tympanometric data, and household income were significantly related to unilateral or bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech frequencies. Earphone use in noisy places was associated with bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at high frequencies. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.6% using the general standard threshold associated with hearing loss. However, the prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB for speech and high frequencies was much higher. The results from this study provide an estimate of hearing loss in adolescents and suggest the need for early detection and hearing preservation programs among adolescents. PMID:27513659

  17. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  18. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  19. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F M J; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error's extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  20. Early detection of local buckling in composite bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Ali, Bashir; Ferguson, Frederick; Schulz, Mark J.

    2002-11-01

    Most structural health monitoring analyses to date have focused on the determination of damage in the form of crack growth in metallic materials or delamination or other types of damage growth in composite materials. However, in many applications local instability in the form of buckling can be the precursor to more extensive damage and unstable failure of the structure. If buckling could be detected in the very early stages, there is a possibility of taking preventive measures to stabilize and save the structure. Relatively few investigations have addressed this type of damage initiation in structures. Recently, during the structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades, local buckling was identified as the cause of premature failure. Results from this investigation suggested that stress waves could be used for detecting the early signs of change in the local curvature that precedes buckling type of failure in this structure. These conditions have been replicated in the laboratory and detailed investigation on the ability of low frequency vibrations to detect the buckling displacement has been carried out. The experiment was performed on a composite bar. The results clearly show that low frequency vibrations could be used to detect the onset of buckling in which the local deflection is only of the order of 0.25 inches.

  1. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  2. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M.

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  3. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  4. Functional and structural changes throughout the auditory system following congenital and early-onset deafness: implications for hearing restoration

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Blake E.; Lomber, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of auditory input, particularly during development, causes widespread changes in the structure and function of the auditory system, extending from peripheral structures into auditory cortex. In humans, the consequences of these changes are far-reaching and often include detriments to language acquisition, and associated psychosocial issues. Much of what is currently known about the nature of deafness-related changes to auditory structures comes from studies of congenitally deaf or early-deafened animal models. Fortunately, the mammalian auditory system shows a high degree of preservation among species, allowing for generalization from these models to the human auditory system. This review begins with a comparison of common methods used to obtain deaf animal models, highlighting the specific advantages and anatomical consequences of each. Some consideration is also given to the effectiveness of methods used to measure hearing loss during and following deafening procedures. The structural and functional consequences of congenital and early-onset deafness have been examined across a variety of mammals. This review attempts to summarize these changes, which often involve alteration of hair cells and supporting cells in the cochleae, and anatomical and physiological changes that extend through subcortical structures and into cortex. The nature of these changes is discussed, and the impacts to neural processing are addressed. Finally, long-term changes in cortical structures are discussed, with a focus on the presence or absence of cross-modal plasticity. In addition to being of interest to our understanding of multisensory processing, these changes also have important implications for the use of assistive devices such as cochlear implants. PMID:24324409

  5. Functional and structural changes throughout the auditory system following congenital and early-onset deafness: implications for hearing restoration.

    PubMed

    Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    The absence of auditory input, particularly during development, causes widespread changes in the structure and function of the auditory system, extending from peripheral structures into auditory cortex. In humans, the consequences of these changes are far-reaching and often include detriments to language acquisition, and associated psychosocial issues. Much of what is currently known about the nature of deafness-related changes to auditory structures comes from studies of congenitally deaf or early-deafened animal models. Fortunately, the mammalian auditory system shows a high degree of preservation among species, allowing for generalization from these models to the human auditory system. This review begins with a comparison of common methods used to obtain deaf animal models, highlighting the specific advantages and anatomical consequences of each. Some consideration is also given to the effectiveness of methods used to measure hearing loss during and following deafening procedures. The structural and functional consequences of congenital and early-onset deafness have been examined across a variety of mammals. This review attempts to summarize these changes, which often involve alteration of hair cells and supporting cells in the cochleae, and anatomical and physiological changes that extend through subcortical structures and into cortex. The nature of these changes is discussed, and the impacts to neural processing are addressed. Finally, long-term changes in cortical structures are discussed, with a focus on the presence or absence of cross-modal plasticity. In addition to being of interest to our understanding of multisensory processing, these changes also have important implications for the use of assistive devices such as cochlear implants. PMID:24324409

  6. Melanoma screening: A plan for improving early detection.

    PubMed

    Shellenberger, Richard; Nabhan, Mohammed; Kakaraparthi, Sweta

    2016-05-01

    Malignant melanoma ranks fifth in the number of new cases annually in the United States (US). Despite increasing incidence and lack of recent improvement in mortality, national melanoma screening guidelines are currently not in existence. Our purpose was to review the evidence regarding screening whole-body skin examinations for early detection and a possible mortality benefit for malignant melanoma. Data sources for our review were MEDLINE Complete, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study selection included: epidemiologic data from the US and European cancer surveillance registries, population-based case-control screening trials, computer-simulated Markov model trials, and survey trials. Studies were limited to those published in the English language. Data was extracted using a dual extraction method. Data from studies have shown that the mortality of malignant melanoma is highly predicated on the tumor thickness at the time of diagnosis. Our data review is in support of the implementation of whole-body skin examinations, performed by primary care physicians, for the purpose of early detection of melanoma. A large national population-based, case-control, skin cancer screening trial in Germany has shown a reduction in melanoma-specific mortality. In conclusion, our review of the evidence supports physicians performed whole-body skin examination can lead to the detection of earlier stage melanomas as well as to a reduction in disease-specific mortality. We found a paucity of randomized trials to be a limitation of screening studies for many cancers, including melanoma. To improve screening rates and early detection of malignant melanoma, we propose making skin cancer education part of the curriculum in US primary care residency programs to become the genesis for widespread melanoma screening. Our study had no funding. Key messages Malignant melanoma is the fifth leading cancer in the United States (US). In the

  7. Hearing Loss Detection in Schools and Early Child Care Settings: An Overview of School-Age Hearing Screening Practices.

    PubMed

    Winston-Gerson, Randi; Sabo, Diane L

    2016-09-01

    The school nurse is the key figure in successful school screening programs. A student with unidentified and unmet health care needs is unlikely to perform at their full potential, both academically and socially. The purpose of the article is to serve as a resource, providing guidance, strategies, and a discussion of available equipment to assist with successful screening programs. PMID:27481476

  8. Sirt1 deficiency protects cochlear cells and delays the early onset of age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Linser, Paul; Park, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; White, Karessa; Vann, James M; Ding, Dalian; Prolla, Tomas A; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Hearing gradually declines with age in both animals and humans, and this condition is known as age-related hearing loss (AHL). Here, we investigated the effects of deficiency of Sirt1, a member of the mammalian sirtuin family, on age-related cochlear pathology and associated hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of early-onset AHL. Sirt1 deficiency reduced age-related oxidative damage of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons and delayed the early onset of AHL. In cultured mouse inner ear cell lines, Sirt1 knockdown increased cell viability under oxidative stress conditions, induced nuclear translocation of Foxo3a, and increased acetylation status of Foxo3a. This resulted in increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. In young wild-type mice, both Sirt1 and Foxo3a proteins resided in the cytoplasm of the supporting cells within the organ of Corti of the cochlea. Therefore, our findings suggest that SIRT1 promotes early-onset AHL through suppressing FOXO3a-mediated oxidative stress resistance in the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:27255815

  9. Video comparator system for early detection of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Brian L.

    1992-05-01

    The recognized incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in the United States is now rising faster than any other cancer, increasing by 83% from 1980 to 1987. Recent revelations that depletion of the earth's ozone layer is accelerating at a more rapid rate than previously believed can only exacerbate current projections for the increased incidence of this deadly disease. Because there is no good treatment for metastatic melanoma even small cancers often prove fatal if not detected early. Melanoma allowed to invade the subcutaneous tissue is associated with a five-year survival rate of only 44%. Ironically, few cancers provide a greater opportunity for early discovery and cure. Cutaneous melanoma is not only located where it is readily observed, but typically undergoes a `radial growth' phase prior to metastasis. During this phase the net growth is superficial and circumferential, gradually increasing the area of the lesion and changing its coloration. Screening measures for the early detection of melanoma must concentrate on two primary tasks: (1) detection of lesion changes indicative of the radial growth stage of malignancy and (2) alerting the patient and physician to the existence of a new or changed lesion on the skin. To accomplish these goals we have experimented with the applicability of a microcomputer based video imaging system which stores an image archive of historical reference images for each patient. With the acquisition of new images of the patient, easily registered with the archival images through a technique we have developed we are able to perform a blink comparison of the image pairs. This technique appears to be far more effective than currently used techniques for detecting changed lesions on a comprehensive basis.

  10. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly

  11. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language.

    PubMed

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K; Barker, David H

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  12. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K.; Barker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  13. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease. PMID:21627787

  14. Dynamic linear models using the Kalman filter for early detection and early warning of malaria outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Liu, Y.; DeVos, M.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria early detection and early warning systems are important tools for public health decision makers in regions where malaria transmission is seasonal and varies from year to year with fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. Here we present a new data-driven dynamic linear model based on the Kalman filter with time-varying coefficients that are used to identify malaria outbreaks as they occur (early detection) and predict the location and timing of future outbreaks (early warning). We fit linear models of malaria incidence with trend and Fourier form seasonal components using three years of weekly malaria case data from 30 districts in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. We identified past outbreaks by comparing the modeled prediction envelopes with observed case data. Preliminary results demonstrated the potential for improved accuracy and timeliness over commonly-used methods in which thresholds are based on simpler summary statistics of historical data. Other benefits of the dynamic linear modeling approach include robustness to missing data and the ability to fit models with relatively few years of training data. To predict future outbreaks, we started with the early detection model for each district and added a regression component based on satellite-derived environmental predictor variables including precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and land surface temperature (LST) and spectral indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We included lagged environmental predictors in the regression component of the model, with lags chosen based on cross-correlation of the one-step-ahead forecast errors from the first model. Our results suggest that predictions of future malaria outbreaks can be improved by incorporating lagged environmental predictors.

  15. On early detection of strong infections in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2014-02-01

    Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

  16. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  17. Early detection of local buckling in structural members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bashir; Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke

    2005-05-01

    Most structural health monitoring analyses to date have focused on the determination of damage in the form of crack growth in metallic materials or delamination or other types of damage growth in composite materials. However, in many applications, local instability in the form of buckling can be the precursor to more extensive damage and unstable failure of the structure. If buckling could be detected in the very early stages, there is a possibility of taking preventive measures to stabilize and save the structure. Relatively few investigations have addressed this type of damage initiation in structures. Recently, during the structural health monitoring of a wind turbine blade, local buckling was identified as the cause of premature failure. A stress wave propagation technique was used in this test to detect the precursor to the buckling failure in the form of early changes in the local curvature of the blade. These conditions have also been replicated in the laboratory and results are reported in this paper. A composite column was subjected to axial compression to induce various levels of buckling deformation. Two different techniques were used to detect the precursors to buckling in this column. The first identifier is the change in the vibration shapes and natural frequencies of the column. The second is the change in the characteristics of diagnostic Lamb waves during the buckling deformation. Experiments indicate that very small changes in curvature during the initial stages of buckling are detectable using the structural health monitoring techniques. The experimental vibration characteristics of the column with slight initial curvatures compared qualitatively with finite element results. The finite element analysis is used to identify the frequencies that are most sensitive to buckling deformation, and to select suitable locations for the placement of sensors that can detect even small changes in the local curvature.

  18. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  19. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  20. Early detection of Alzheimer disease: methods, markers, and misgivings.

    PubMed

    Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R

    1997-01-01

    There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening. PMID:9348421

  1. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  2. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scherdel, Pauline; Dunkel, Leo; van Dommelen, Paula; Goulet, Olivier; Salaün, Jean-François; Brauner, Raja; Heude, Barbara; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic review to address two key and interconnected questions underlying growth monitoring: which conditions should be targeted, and how should abnormal growth be defined? We systematically searched for studies reporting algorithms for growth monitoring in children and studies comparing the performance of new WHO growth charts with that of other growth charts. Among 1556 identified citations, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Six target conditions have mainly been studied: Turner syndrome, coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, growth hormone deficiency, renal tubular acidosis, and small for gestational age with no catch-up after 2 or 3 years. Seven algorithms to define abnormal growth have been proposed in the past 20 years, but their level of validation is low, and their overall sensitivities and specificities vary substantially; however, the Grote and Saari clinical decision rules seem the most promising. Two studies reported that WHO growth charts had poorer performance compared with other existing growth charts for early detection of target conditions. Available data suggest a large gap between the widespread implementation of growth monitoring and its level of evidence or the clinical implications of early detection of serious disorders in children. Further investigations are needed to standardise the practice of growth monitoring, with a consensus on a few priority target conditions and with internationally validated clinical decision rules to define abnormal growth, including the selection of appropriate growth charts. PMID:26777129

  3. Exosomes: potential for early detection in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer at earlier stages has motivated research in identifying novel noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection. Exosomes, which contain bioactive molecules (such as proteins, RNAs and lipids), are membrane-structured nanovesicles that are secreted from living cells and are found in human body fluids. As functional mediators, exosomes play key roles in cell-cell communications, regulating diverse biological processes. Here we aim to examine recent findings in the potential diagnostic value of serum exosomes in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26860951

  4. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  5. Detection of Treponema pallidum in early syphilis by DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, K; Noordhoek, G T; Abbruscato, F; Wicher, V

    1992-01-01

    By using experimentally infected rabbits as a model for early syphilis, the applicability of in vitro DNA amplification was explored for detection of Treponema pallidum. It was determined that whole blood in heparin or EDTA (but not serum), lesion exudate, and punch biopsy as well as swabs of lesions are useful specimens for examination by the polymerase chain reaction. Swabs do not require special diluents, and the specimens, whether kept at room temperature or frozen, are well suited for use in the polymerase chain reaction. Images PMID:1537923

  6. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  7. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  8. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  9. Early Detection and Treatment of Hemodialysis Access Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego Beuter, Juan Jose; Hernandez Lezana, Antonio

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a program for the early detection of hemodialysis graft dysfunction and the impact on graft survival of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent implantation to correct venous stenosis.Methods: A program for the early detection of hemodialysis access graft dysfunction was carried out in 110 patients over a period of 80 months. Detection was based on physical examination, flow rate measurements, venous pressure, and analytical determinations performed at dialysis. The stenoses detected were treated by PTA or PTA plus stent deployment. Survival curves compared primary and assisted patency rates for the different graft types.Results: The most important indicators of dysfunction were increased venous pressure and difficulty in cannulation of the graft. Significant stenoses were revealed by 227 (92.2%) of the 246 fistulography procedures performed. PTA results were satisfactory in 100% of the Thomas grafts, 74% of the Brescia-Cimino (BC) grafts, and 53% of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Technical success rates for stent deployment were 92% for BC grafts and 100% for PTFE grafts, while functional success rates were 96% and 97%, respectively. The difference in the primary patency (P1) and assisted patency (AP) values was statistically significant for all three graft types. There was no significant difference in the patency rates for grafts treated by PTA alone or by PTA and stent deployment.Conclusion: A surveillance program helped prevent graft thrombosis, and intervention as required achieved excellent primary and assisted patency rates. Stent deployment salvaged a considerable number of accesses but did not significantly extend access survival time.

  10. Auditory nerve synapses persist in ventral cochlear nucleus long after loss of acoustic input in mice with early-onset progressive hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian; Fiorillo, Benjamin; Ryugo, David K.; Lauer, Amanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual performance in persons with hearing loss, especially those using devices to restore hearing, is not fully predicted by traditional audiometric measurements designed to evaluate the status of peripheral function. The integrity of auditory brainstem synapses may vary with different forms of hearing loss, and differential effects on the auditory nerve-brain interface may have particularly profound consequences for the transfer of sound from ear to brain. Loss of auditory nerve synapses in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) has been reported after acoustic trauma, ablation of the organ of Corti, and administration of ototoxic compounds. The effects of gradually acquired forms deafness on these synapses are less well understood. We investigated VCN gross morphology and auditory nerve synapse integrity in DBA/2J mice with early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing status was confirmed using auditory brainstem response audiometry and acoustic startle responses. We found no change in VCN volume, number of macroneurons, or number of VGLUT1-positive auditory nerve terminals between young adult and older, deaf DBA/2J. Cell-type specific analysis revealed no difference in the number of VGLUT1 puncta contacting bushy and multipolar cell body profiles, but the terminals were smaller in deaf DBA/2J mice. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of numerous healthy, vesicle-filled auditory nerve synapses in older, deaf DBA/2J mice. The present results suggest that synapses can be preserved over a relatively long time-course in gradually acquired deafness. Elucidating the mechanisms supporting survival of central auditory nerve synapses in models of acquired deafness may reveal new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25686750