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1

Hearing Loss: Detect It Early.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregivers need to be alert to signs that a child is not hearing well so that children with hearing problems will receive prompt treatment. Explains the hearing process, what causes hearing loss, how to identify hearing loss at various stages of a child's development, and what caregivers can do if they suspect that a child has a hearing problem.…

Texas Child Care, 1994

1994-01-01

2

Hearing screening for newborns: the midwife's role in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention.  

PubMed

Universal newborn hearing screening is becoming the standard of care in the United States. However, there has been some controversy around this pediatric preventive health care practice. In 2001, the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), the leading independent panel of experts on prevention and primary care in the United States, reviewed the scientific literature and found inconclusive evidence to recommend for or against universal newborn hearing screening. As a result of this lack of recommendation, some pediatric providers were not screening the hearing of all newborn infants. The USPSTF released an update in July 2008 concluding there is scientific evidence to recommend newborn hearing screening for all infants. Universal newborn hearing screening is the first step in the national Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program. EHDI includes not only universal newborn hearing screening but also diagnostic evaluation for any infant failing the initial hearing screen and intervention services for any infant diagnosed with hearing loss. During the prenatal and postnatal periods, obstetric care providers can play a vital role in the EHDI process through education, screening, referral, and assistance with follow-up. Through these services, clinicians can work with parents and pediatric care providers to help newborns and infants develop communication and language skills that will last a lifetime. PMID:19114235

Biernath, Krista; Holstrum, W June; Eichwald, John

2009-01-01

3

Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

Corwin, Joanne

2011-01-01

4

Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement current voluntary initiatives through systematic scaling-up of public awareness and requisite manpower development towards sustainable service capacities at all levels of healthcare delivery. PMID:17266763

Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

2007-01-01

5

The evolution of early hearing detection and intervention programs in the United States.  

PubMed

Identifying and treating children with congenital hearing loss during the first few months of life is a relatively new concept. To assist states in the development of statewide Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs, the federal government provides grants and/or cooperative agreements to almost all states and has established "National Goals, Program Objectives and Performance Measures" to guide the development and implementation of those systems. This article reviews the history of newborn hearing screening programs in the United States, summarizes the content of legislation and regulations passed by states related to universal newborn hearing screening, and describes how well each National Goal has been addressed. Although substantial progress has been made in the percentage of infants screened for hearing loss before hospital discharge, significant improvement is needed with respect to the availability of pediatric audiologists, implementation of effective tracking and data management systems, program evaluation and quality assurance, availability of appropriate early intervention programs, and linkages with medical home providers. PMID:20207267

White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene; Eichwald, John; Munoz, Karen

2010-04-01

6

[Compliance with current standards for the early detection of neonatal hearing loss].  

PubMed

Objective Assessing compliance with the section "Assessment of hearing" stipulated in the Technical Standard to Detect Alteration in children aged less than 10 years-old in Bogota. Methods This was a cross-sectional study which involved reviewing the medical records of all children born between July 1st and December 31st 2010 in two healthcare institutions in Bogota. Records were selected in which any of the following risk factors appeared: neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia involving phototherapy, neonatal exposure to ototoxic substances and/or <1.500 gr low birth weight. It was also ascertained whether children had been referred to an auditory evoked potential test as the prescribed screening test for neonatal hearing, as stipulated in mandatory Colombian technical standards for detecting abnormal growth and developmental in children aged less than ten years-old. Results Neither of the two institutions was making the aforementioned referral test. Discussion The results indicated significant difficulties in adherence to the protocol for the early detection of hearing loss regarding pertinent/current neonatal Colombian regulations. PMID:25521960

Rojas-Godoy, Andrea L; Gómez-Gómez, Olga; Rivas-Muñoz, Fabio A

2014-06-01

7

Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

Marchbank, Alison Margaret

2011-01-01

8

Qualitative analysis of parents' experience with early detection of hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine key themes from parents' comments on paths to diagnosis and intervention for their children with hearing loss, following introduction of at-risk neonatal hearing screening and modification of distraction test screening for infants not at-risk. Methods: Parents of children born in 1993 in Victoria, Australia, who were eligible for screening via the Victorian Infant Hearing Screening Program and who were subsequently diagnosed with a permanent congenital hearing loss and fitted with hearing aids prior to the year 2000 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire shortly after aid fitting. Two researchers independently analysed parent comments using the constant comparative method. Results: Parents of 82 children (61%) replied to the questionnaire. Themes analysis revealed a generally positive response to neonatal ABR screening, with a mixed response to the distraction test; powerful emotions experienced by parents at diagnosis including denial and shock; frustration arising from delays in diagnosis, and communication difficulties with providers. Special difficulties testing children with other medical and developmental problems, confusion about tympanostomy tube insertion, and difficulty with wearing hearing aids were also reported. Some children had experienced problems in the school setting. Experience of post-diagnostic services was generally positive. Conclusions: Parents need greater support both during the testing of screen failures and at the time of diagnosis. Providers need more training in how to communicate findings to parents, particularly at times when parents are experiencing strong emotions. Parents need more strategies to enable hearing aid wearing in very young children. Some children with additional medical, developmental, and behavioural problems need specialised approaches to testing. PMID:15033847

Russ, S; Kuo, A; Poulakis, Z; Barker, M; Rickards, F; Saunders, K; Jarman, F; Wake, M; Oberklaid, F

2004-01-01

9

Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

2011-01-01

10

Hearing aid malfunction detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

1977-01-01

11

Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

2007-11-01

12

Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.  

PubMed

The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

Narayanswamy, S

1992-01-01

13

Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

2006-01-01

14

Early Detection  

Cancer.gov

This group identifies and ascertains the effectiveness of both the operating characteristics and the impacts on mortality, and immediate and downstream risks of molecular and imaging cancer detection technologies and practices. It systematically assesses

15

Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

2011-01-01

16

Loudness perception affected by early age hearing loss.  

PubMed

Tinnitus and hyperacusis, commonly seen in adults, are also reported in children. Although clinical studies found children with tinnitus and hyperacusis often suffered from recurrent otitis media, there is no direct study on how temporary hearing loss in the early age affects the sound loudness perception. In this study, sound loudness changes in rats affected by perforation of the tympanic membranes (TM) have been studied using an operant conditioning based behavioral task. We detected significant increases of sound loudness and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rats with bilateral TM damage at postnatal 16 days. As increase to sound sensitivity is commonly seen in hyperacusis and tinnitus patients, these results suggest that early age hearing loss is a high risk factor to induce tinnitus and hyperacusis in children. In the TM damaged rats, we also detected a reduced expression of GABA receptor ? and ?6 subunits in the inferior colliculus (IC) compared to the controls. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 7-14 days), an anti-seizure drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA, not only blocked AGS, but also significantly attenuated the loudness response. Administration of vigabatrin following the early age TM damage could even prevent rats from developing AGS. These results suggest that TM damage at an early age may cause a permanent reduction of GABA tonic inhibition which is critical towards the maintenance of normal loudness processing of the IC. Increasing GABA concentration during the critical period may alleviate the impairment in the brain induced by early age hearing loss. PMID:24747532

Sun, Wei; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Chao; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Kumaraguru, Anand; Li, Ji

2014-07-01

17

Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

2007-01-01

18

Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

19

Breast Cancer: Early Detection  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

20

Early Language Outcomes of Early-Identified Infants With Permanent Hearing Loss at 12 to 16 Months of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this study were to determine the early language outcomes of children with mild to profound hearing loss, compared with hearing control children, at 12 to 16 months of age and to examine the effects of \\

Betty Vohr; Julie Jodoin-Krauzyk; Richard Tucker; Mary Jane Johnson; Deborah Topol; Marianne Ahlgren

2010-01-01

21

Hearing Children's Voices in the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Hannah Mortimer explores how even very young children can be consulted and included when planning for their education and needs. This allows early years practitioners to ensure that the children they support have equal opportunities, feel involved and successful in their learning and play, and are given activities and interventions…

Mortimer, Hannah

2004-01-01

22

Early Literacy in Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparison between Two Educational Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the early literacy skills of kindergartners with hearing loss who were enrolled in individual inclusion or group inclusion programs as well as those of children with typical hearing. We also examined the relationship between early literacy skills and background variables such as degree of hearing loss, type of sensory…

Most, Tova; Aram, Dorit; Andorn, Tamar

2006-01-01

23

Improving Early Seizure Detection  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

2011-01-01

24

Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access  

PubMed Central

Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for improved research studies in these areas. PMID:20866021

Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

2010-01-01

25

Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

2010-01-01

26

The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

2011-01-01

27

Enhanced Visual Speech Perception in Individuals with Early-Onset Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: L. E. Bernstein, M. E. Demorest, and P. E. Tucker (2000) demonstrated enhanced speechreading accuracy in participants with early-onset hearing loss compared with hearing participants. Here, the authors test the generalization of Bernstein et al.'s (2000) result by testing 2 new large samples of participants. The authors also investigated…

Auer, Edward T., Jr.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

2007-01-01

28

The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

29

"Foundations for Literacy": An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…

Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

2014-01-01

30

Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution  

E-print Network

Outline Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution Conclusions and Future Extraction from PET Images #12;Outline Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution Conclusions and Future Work Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution Regularized Least

Renaut, Rosemary

31

Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

2013-01-01

32

Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Adults with Early Stage Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2’) following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

2014-01-01

33

Newborn Hearing Screening and Early Diagnostic in the NICU  

PubMed Central

The aim was to describe the outcome of neonatal hearing screening (NHS) and audiological diagnosis in neonates in the NICU. The sample was divided into Group I: neonates who underwent NHS in one step and Group II: neonates who underwent a test and retest NHS. NHS procedure was automated auditory brainstem response. NHS was performed in 82.1% of surviving neonates. For GI, referral rate was 18.6% and false-positive was 62.2% (normal hearing in the diagnostic stage). In GII, with retest, referral rate dropped to 4.1% and false-positive to 12.5%. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in 13.2% of infants and conductive in 26.4% of cases. There was one case of auditory neuropathy spectrum (1.9%). Dropout rate in whole process was 21.7% for GI and 24.03% for GII. We concluded that it was not possible to perform universal NHS in the studied sample or, in many cases, to apply it within the first month of life. Retest reduced failure and false-positive rate and did not increase evasion, indicating that it is a recommendable step in NHS programs in the NICU. The incidence of hearing loss was 2.9%, considering sensorineural hearing loss (0.91%), conductive (1.83%) and auditory neuropathy spectrum (0.19%). PMID:24999481

Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca; Hein, Thaís Antonelli Diniz; de Souza, Gabriele Libano; do Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos; Casali, Raquel Leme

2014-01-01

34

Hearing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans are able to hear through their ears. Sounds are made and travel through the air as vibration waves. These waves reach the human ear and go through a series of routes before the brain interprets them as sounds.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

35

Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

2011-01-01

36

Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

2010-01-01

37

Recommendations of the NIDCD Working Group on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment on Acceptable Protocols for Use in State-Wide Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the consensus statement of a 2-day conference which addressed issues concerned with the early identification of hearing impairment. The conference resulted in the following consensus conclusions: (1) all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit should be screened for hearing loss prior to discharge; (2) universal…

National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

38

Hearing  

E-print Network

the potential benefits of information technology. Many of the technical advances that led to today's computers the technology forward for a range of commercial applications that benefit society broadly. The technicalHearing :: 7/31/2008 :: Oversight of the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

39

NCI Sponsored Early Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Over an eight-year period (1992-1999), the funding for molecular cancer research has risen from 330 million in 1992 to 820 million in 1999. During this period, the number of funded grants in molecular disease (contracts not included) rose to 2957 in 1999 from 1622 in 1992. The grants addressing the area of early detection also grew in number and funded amount; 206 ($36 million) in 1992 to 455 ($94 million) in 2000.

40

A Model of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss Provided through Telepractice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families need access to appropriate early intervention services that are delivered by professionals who are well trained and experienced using their chosen communication approach. Unfortunately, a lack of qualified practitioners, especially in remote and rural communities, and limited funding can…

Houston, K. Todd; Stredler-Brown, Arlene

2012-01-01

41

Early Intervention with Young Hearing-Impaired Children. Occasional Paper Number Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five papers focus on issues of early intervention with young hearing impaired children. The papers were presented at a seminar in 1981 in Queensland, Australia. A. Hayes begins with "The Emergence of Interest in Social Interaction in Infancy," in which he considers the role of metaphors in influencing intervention research. D. Power and G. Elias…

Power, D. J., Ed.; And Others

42

Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

2014-01-01

43

Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection

Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

2004-01-01

44

Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

2012-01-01

45

Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-01-01

46

Early Age Conductive Hearing Loss Causes Audiogenic Seizure and Hyperacusis Behavior  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical reports found a high incidence of recurrent otitis media in children suffering hyperacusis, a marked intolerance to an otherwise ordinary environmental sound. However, it is unclear whether the conductive hearing loss caused by otitis media in early age will affect sound tolerance later in life. Thus, we have tested the effects of tympanic membrane (TM) damage at an early age on sound perception development in rats. Two weeks after the TM perforation, more than 80% of the rats showed audiogenic seizure (AGS) when exposed to loud sound (120 dB SPL white noise, < 1 minute). The susceptibility of AGS lasted at least sixteen weeks after the TM damage, even the hearing loss recovered. The TM damaged rats also showed significantly enhanced acoustic startle responses compared to the rats without TM damage. These results suggest that early age conductive hearing loss may cause an impaired sound tolerance during development. In addition, the AGS can be suppressed by the treatment of vigabatrin, acute injections (250 mg/kg) or oral intakes (60 mg/kg/day for 7 days), an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA. c-Fos staining showed a strong staining in the inferior colliculus (IC) in the TM damaged rats, not in the control rats, after exposed to loud sound, indicating a hyper-excitability in the IC during AGS. These results indicate that early age conductive hearing loss can impair sound tolerance by reducing GABA inhibition in the IC, which may be related to hyperacusis seen in children with otitis media. PMID:21872651

Sun, Wei; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Jayaram, Aditi; Kumaraguru, Anand; Fu, Qiang; Li, Ji; Allman, Brian

2011-01-01

47

Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

48

Nanotechnology in Early Detection of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Nanotechnology in Early Detection of Cancer August 30-31, 2001 Meeting Summary Nanotechnology is defined as the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter at the scale of 1 to 100 nanometers, and exploitation

49

Diverse spectrum of rare deafness genes underlies early-childhood hearing loss in Japanese patients: a cross-sectional, multi-center next-generation sequencing study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic tests for hereditary hearing loss inform clinical management of patients and can provide the first step in the development of therapeutics. However, comprehensive genetic tests for deafness genes by Sanger sequencing is extremely expensive and time-consuming. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is advantageous for genetic diagnosis of heterogeneous diseases that involve numerous causative genes. Methods Genomic DNA samples from 58 subjects with hearing loss from 15 unrelated Japanese families were subjected to NGS to identify the genetic causes of hearing loss. Subjects did not have pathogenic GJB2 mutations (the gene most often associated with inherited hearing loss), mitochondrial m.1555A>G or 3243A>G mutations, enlarged vestibular aqueduct, or auditory neuropathy. Clinical features of subjects were obtained from medical records. Genomic DNA was subjected to a custom-designed SureSelect Target Enrichment System to capture coding exons and proximal flanking intronic sequences of 84 genes responsible for nonsyndromic or syndromic hearing loss, and DNA was sequenced by Illumina GAIIx (paired-end read). The sequences were mapped and quality-checked using the programs BWA, Novoalign, Picard, and GATK, and analyzed by Avadis NGS. Results Candidate genes were identified in 7 of the 15 families. These genes were ACTG1, DFNA5, POU4F3, SLC26A5, SIX1, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH2A, suggesting that a variety of genes underlie early-childhood hearing loss in Japanese patients. Mutations in Usher syndrome-related genes were detected in three families, including one double heterozygous mutation of CDH23 and PCDH15. Conclusion Targeted NGS analysis revealed a diverse spectrum of rare deafness genes in Japanese subjects and underscores implications for efficient genetic testing. PMID:24164807

2013-01-01

50

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research  

Cancer.gov

Publications and Presentations Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research Table of Contents Overview Introduction CBRG Mission Trends in Early Detection Research Early Detection Research Worldwide NCI Sponsored

51

Application of proteomics to cancer early detection  

PubMed Central

Strategies to achieve personalized medicine and improve public health encompass assessment of an individual’s risk for disease, early detection, and molecular classification of disease resulting in an informed choice of the most appropriate treatment instituted at an early stage of disease development. An unmet need in this field for which proteomics is well suited to make a major contribution is the development of blood based tests for early cancer detection. This is illustrated in proteomic studies of epithelial cancer that encompass analysis of specimens collected both at the time of diagnosis and specimens collected before onset of symptoms that are particularly suited for the identification of early detection markers. This overarching effort benefits from the availability of plasmas from subject cohorts and of engineered mouse models that are sampled at early stages of tumor development. Integration of findings from plasma with tumor tissue and cancer cell proteomic and genomic data allows elucidation of signatures in plasma for altered signaling pathways. The discovery and further development of early detection markers takes advantage of the availability of in-depth quantitative proteomics methods and bioinformatics resources for data mining. PMID:22157286

Hanash, Sam; Taguchi, Ayumu

2015-01-01

52

Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education  

PubMed Central

Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children’s communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children’s communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers’ level of education and the male caregivers’ use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers’ use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

2013-01-01

53

Acceleration of Age-Related Hearing Loss by Early Noise Exposure: Evidence of a Misspent Youth  

PubMed Central

Age-related and noise-induced hearing losses in humans are multifactorial, with contributions from, and potential interactions among, numerous variables that can shape final outcome. A recent retrospective clinical study suggests an age-noise interaction that exacerbates age-related hearing loss in previously noise-damaged ears (Gates et al., 2000). Here, we address the issue in an animal model by comparing noise-induced and age-related hearing loss (NIHL; AHL) in groups of CBA/CaJ mice exposed identically (8-16 kHz noise band at 100 dB sound pressure level for 2 h) but at different ages (4-124 weeks) and held with unexposed cohorts for different postexposure times (2-96 weeks). When evaluated 2 weeks after exposure, maximum threshold shifts in young-exposed animals (4-8 weeks) were 40-50 dB; older-exposed animals (? 16 weeks) showed essentially no shift at the same postexposure time. However, when held for long postexposure times, animals with previous exposure demonstrated AHL and histopathology fundamentally unlike unexposed, aging animals or old-exposed animals held for 2 weeks only. Specifically, they showed substantial, ongoing deterioration of cochlear neural responses, without additional change in preneural responses, and corresponding histologic evidence of primary neural degeneration throughout the cochlea. This was true particularly for young-exposed animals; however, delayed neuropathy was observed in all noise-exposed animals held 96 weeks after exposure, even those that showed no NIHL 2 weeks after exposure. Data suggest that pathologic but sublethal changes initiated by early noise exposure render the inner ears significantly more vulnerable to aging. PMID:16481444

Kujawa, Sharon G.; Liberman, M. Charles

2007-01-01

54

Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

2014-01-01

55

Principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing.  

PubMed

This document is a supplement to the year 2007 position statement of the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and provides comprehensive guidelines for establishing strong early intervention (EI) systems with appropriate expertise to meet the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Optimal outcomes can only be achieved when there is high quality to the universal newborn hearing screening programs, the audiologic diagnostic process of confirmation that a child is D/HH and fitting of amplification, and the provision of appropriate, individualized, targeted, and high-quality EI services. There are 12 best practice guidelines for EI programs that include the provision of timely referral to EI services with providers who have knowledge and skills in early childhood deafness and hearing loss, infusion within the system of partnerships with parents as well as professionals who are D/HH, longitudinal developmental assessments for monitoring the child's development, data management systems that include developmental outcomes, a process to monitor the fidelity of the intervention, and appropriate services for children with additional disabilities, those from non-English speaking families, and those from special populations, including unilateral hearing loss and auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony. PMID:24131505

Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2014-04-01

56

Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

2012-01-01

57

On the detection of early cochlear damage by otoacoustic emission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence suggest that otoacoustic emission parameters may be used to reveal early cochlear damage, even before it can be diagnosed by standard audiometric techniques. In this work, the statistical distributions of a set of otoacoustic emission parameters chosen as candidates for the early detection of cochlear damage (global and band reproducibility, response level, signal-to-noise ratio, spectral latency, and long-lasting otoacoustic emission presence) were analyzed in a population of 138 ears. These ears have been divided, according to a standard audiometric test, in three classes: (1) ears of nonexposed bilaterally normal subjects, (2) normal ears of subjects with unilateral noise-induced high-frequency hearing loss, and (3) their hearing impaired ears. For all analyzed parameters, a statistically significant difference was found between classes 1 and 2. This difference largely exceeds the difference observed between classes 2 and 3. This fact suggests that the noise exposure, which was responsible for the unilateral hearing loss, also caused subclinical damage in the contralateral, audiometrically normal, ear. This is a clear indication that otoacoustic emission techniques may be able to early detect subclinical damages.

Lucertini, M.; Moleti, A.; Sisto, R.

2002-02-01

58

Cancer risk and early detection assessment.  

PubMed

Nurses and physicians form an ideal corps for implementing cancer prevention and early detection efforts: providing health education, promoting health enrichment, defining high-risk groups and identifying patients who belong to them, and providing screening to ensure early diagnosis and prompt treatment. A personal medical history, a history of exposures in life-style, and a family history form the foundation for cancer risk assessment. The physical examination that follows takes into account the incidence and indications of cancer at various sites and the patient's risk profile. Health professionals can incorporate screening techniques into everyday practice by gathering information in the medical history, incorporating cancer detection in the physical examination, following up with more frequent screenings or referrals for those needing them, and becoming cancer detection advocates among patients and professional peers. PMID:8210787

White, L N; Spitz, M R

1993-08-01

59

Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.  

PubMed

Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation. PMID:24636881

Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

2014-07-01

60

The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

1981-07-01

61

Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5?-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W; Brown, Powel H; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ford, Leslie G; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L; Minasian, Lori M; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J; Schröder, Fritz H; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

2014-10-01

62

Smartphone-based hearing screening in noisy environments.  

PubMed

It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

2014-01-01

63

Automated Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, (‘Challenge2009’) against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Fundus photographic sets, consisting of two fundus images from each eye, were evaluated from 16,670 patient visits of 16,670 people with diabetes who had not previously been diagnosed with DR. Methods The fundus photographic set from each visit was analyzed by a single retinal expert; 793 of the 16,770 sets were classified as containing more than minimal DR (threshold for referral). The outcomes of the two algorithmic detectors were applied separately to the dataset and compared by standard statistical measures. Main Outcome Measures The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of DR detection. Results Agreement was high, and exams containing more than minimal DR were detected with an AUC of 0.839 by the ‘Eyecheck’ algorithm and an AUC of 0.821 for ‘Challenge2009’, a statistically non-significant difference (z-score 1.91). If either of the algorithms detected DR in combination, AUC for detection was 0.86, the same as the theoretically expected maximum. At 90% sensitivity, the specificity of the ‘EyeCheck’ algorithm was 47.7% and the ‘Challenge2009’ algorithm, 43.6%. Conclusions DR detection algorithms appear to be maturing, and further improvements in detection performance cannot be differentiated from best clinical practices, because the performance of competitive algorithm development has now reached the human intra-reader variability limit. Additional validation studies on larger, well-defined, but more diverse populations of patients with diabetes are urgently needed, anticipating cost-effective early detection of DR in millions of people with diabetes to triage those patients who need further care at a time when they have early rather than advanced DR. PMID:20399502

Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Russell, Stephen R.; Folk, James C.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Quellec, Gwénolé

2010-01-01

64

Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.  

PubMed

Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2014-11-01

65

Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language  

PubMed Central

This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

2013-01-01

66

Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

2014-01-01

67

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

68

Children's Hearing Health  

MedlinePLUS

... the parent or child cannot detect. Loss of hearing in one ear may also be determined in this way. Such ... Earaches and Otitis Media Link: Ear Infection and Hearing Loss Link: Swimmer's Ear Link: Infant Hearing Loss Link: Noise-Induced Hearing ...

69

Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis  

DOEpatents

Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

Willard, K.E.

1982-08-10

70

Detection of frequency modulation by hearing-impaired listeners: Effects of carrier frequency, modulation rate, and added amplitude modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that the detection of frequency modulation (FM) of sinusoidal carriers can be mediated by two mechanisms: a place mechanism based on FM-induced amplitude modulation (AM) in the excitation pattern, and a temporal mechanism based on phase-locking in the auditory nerve. The temporal mechanism appears to be ``sluggish'' and does not play a role for FM rates above about 10 Hz. It also does not play a role for high carrier frequencies (above about 5 kHz). This experiment examined FM detection in three young subjects with normal hearing and four elderly subjects with cochlear hearing loss. Carrier frequencies were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz and modulation rates were 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz. FM detection thresholds were measured both in the absence of AM, and with AM of a fixed depth (m=0.33) added in both intervals of a forced-choice trial. The added AM was intended to disrupt cues based on FM-induced AM in the excitation pattern. Generally, the hearing-impaired subjects performed markedly more poorly than the normal-hearing subjects. For the normal-hearing subjects, the disruptive effect of the AM tended to increase with increasing modulation rate, for carrier frequencies below 6 kHz, as found previously by Moore and Sek [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2320-2331 (1996)]. For the hearing-impaired subjects, the disruptive effective of the AM was generally larger than for the normal-hearing subjects, and the magnitude of the disruption did not consistently increase with increasing modulation rate. The results suggest that cochlear hearing impairment adversely affects both temporal and excitation pattern mechanisms of FM detection.

Moore, Brian C. J.; Skrodzka, Ewa

2002-01-01

71

Thermography for early detection of cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is increasing fast nowadays through all over the world. Early diagnosis of cancer is a desirable subject as it can significantly improve the patient's chances of survival. In most cases the cancer is diagnosis using MRI, CT, PET. But, there are several disadvantages associated with high cost, low sensitivity and specificity, and health risks from radioactive. For that reason, significant efforts are being invested to improve the current imaging system. Thermography can offer some advantages. Chief among these are the contact free and low cost for detect cancer. But thermography has some disadvantages associated with low sensitivity for small tumors. In this research develops non contact, safe, high sensitivity, and low cost infrared imaging technique. Experiments were performed using lock in thermography with a small amount of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) and radiofrequency generator. As a result, highly sensitive infrared thermography can a small amount of MNP be detected by the technique.

Kim, Jaeyoung; Choi, Haeyoung; Ryu, SeonYoung; Kook, MyungHo; Chang, KiSoo; Kim, GeonHee

2012-02-01

72

Life Detection on the Early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

Runnegar, B.

2004-01-01

73

The future role of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the future potential of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss. Design: An expert led discussion of current and future developments in genetic technology and the knowledge base of genetic hearing loss to determine the viability of genetic screening and the implications for screening policy. Results and Discussion: Despite increasing pressure to adopt genetic technologies, a major barrier for genetic screening in hearing loss is the uncertain clinical significance of the identified mutations and their interactions. Only when a reliable estimate of the future risk of hearing loss can be made at a reasonable cost, will genetic screening become viable. Given the speed of technological advancement this may be within the next 10 years. Decision-makers should start to consider how genetic screening could augment current screening programmes as well as the associated data processing and storage requirements. Conclusion: In the interim, we suggest that decision makers consider the benefits of (1) genetically testing all newborns and children with hearing loss, to determine aetiology and to increase knowledge of the genetic causes of hearing loss, and (2) consider screening pregnant women for the m.1555A> G mutation to reduce the risk of aminoglycoside antibiotic-associated hearing loss. PMID:23131088

2013-01-01

74

Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

2011-01-01

75

Prevention and early detection of cancer  

SciTech Connect

The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

Shanmugaratnam, K.

1985-01-01

76

Optoacoustic supercontrast for early cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal mechanism is fundamental for the generation of ultrasonic waves in a course of absorption of laser radiation. Its efficiency is relatively low, but increases significantly with temperature (thermal non-linearity). If the phase transition of the irradiated medium occur, the efficiency may exceed its linear regime value several orders of magnitude. The idea of optoacoustic supercontrast for early cancer detection is based on this fact. We performed feasibility studies and describe requirements to and properties of the optoacoustic supercontrast agent based on nanoscopid particles. The results of the preliminary experiments with the metal and carbon nanoparticles as optoacoustic generation up to three orders of magnitude under irradiation conditions of laser optoacoustic imaging in the depth of human tissue.

Karabutov, Alexander A.; Savateeva, Elena V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

2001-06-01

77

A Team Approach to Quality Programming for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue of "Odyssey," Joanne Corwin describes New Mexico's statewide partnership among several agencies for the provision of early intervention services to infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families (Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks, p. 20). A…

Gutierrez, Priscilla Shannon

2011-01-01

78

Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

2010-05-01

79

Making the Most of Early Communication: Strategies for Supporting Communication with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Vision and Hearing Loss. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 37-minute videotape recording demonstrates selected interventions to assist infants and toddlers with multiple disabilities, including vision and hearing loss, in developing early communication and other skills. Emphasizing the critical importance of early intervention, the video is designed to help service providers and families create…

Chen, Deborah; Schachter, Pamela Haag

80

Learning to Learn: An Analysis of Early Learning Behaviours Demonstrated by Young Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Children with High/Low Mathematics Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a multiple case-study design, this study compares the early learning behaviours of young deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) children with high/low mathematics ability (as defined by test score on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3). Children's simultaneous use of multiple learning behaviours was also examined as were contributing adult…

Pagliaro, Claudia M.; Kritzer, Karen L.

2010-01-01

81

Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection  

PubMed Central

Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

2009-01-01

82

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: NCI Sponsored Early Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Over an eight-year period (1992-1999), the funding for molecular cancer research has risen from 330 million in 1992 to 820 million in 1999. During this period, the number of funded grants in molecular disease (contracts not included) rose to 2957 in 1999 from 1622 in 1992. The grants addressing the area of early detection also grew in number and funded amount; 206 ($36 million) in 1992 to 455 ($94 million) in 2000.

83

Universal neonatal hearing screening: The Siena (Italy) experience on 19,700 newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHearing loss (HL) is likely to be the most common congenital abnormality in humans, with a reported prevalence of 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. Early detection and intervention is critical to prevent the adverse consequences of a delayed diagnosis on speech, language and cognitive development. As 33–50% of all congenital HLs cannot be detected in a selective hearing

Bruno De Capua; Daniele Costantini; Carla Martufi; Giuseppe Latini; Mattia Gentile; Claudio De Felice

2007-01-01

84

Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: AUA Guideline  

PubMed Central

Purpose The guideline purpose is to provide the urologist with a framework for the early detection of prostate cancer in asymptomatic average risk men. Materials and Methods A systematic review was conducted and summarized evidence derived from over 300 studies that addressed the predefined outcomes of interest (prostate cancer incidence/mortality, quality of life, diagnostic accuracy and harms of testing). In addition to the quality of evidence, the panel considered values and preferences expressed in a clinical setting (patient-physician dyad) rather than having a public health perspective. Guideline statements were organized by age group in years (age <40; 40 to 54; 55 to 69; >70). Results With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, there was minimal evidence to assess the outcomes of interest for other tests. The quality of evidence for the benefits of screening was moderate, and evidence for harm was high for men age 55 to 69 years. For men outside this age range, evidence was lacking for benefit, but the harms of screening, including over diagnosis and over treatment, remained. Modeled data suggested that a screening interval of two years or more may be preferred to reduce the harms of screening. Conclusions The Panel recommended shared decision-making for men age 55 to 69 years considering PSA-based screening, a target age group for whom benefits may outweigh harms. Outside this age range, PSA-based screening as a routine could not be recommended based on the available evidence. The entire guideline is available at www.AUAnet.org/education/guidelines/prostate-cancer-detection.cfm PMID:23659877

Carter, H. Ballentine; Albertsen, Peter C.; Barry, Michael J.; Etzioni, Ruth; Freedland, Stephen J.; Greene, Kirsten Lynn; Holmberg, Lars; Kantoff, Philip; Konety, Badrinath R.; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Penson, David F.; Zietman, Anthony L.

2014-01-01

85

Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub ..cap alpha../ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage.

Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

1984-01-01

86

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks MOHAMED HEFEEDA Simon Fraser University, Canada Forest fires cost millions of dollars in damages and claim many human lives for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires. We do

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

87

Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

88

Amyloid Imaging in Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyloid imaging has provided evidence for early detection of amyloid (A?) load in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several amyloid tracers have been developed for studies with positron emission tomography (PET). Early detection of at-risk subjects will be important in the future for a successful treatment of AD. The high A? load in the brain measured by PET in patients with

Agneta Nordberg

2010-01-01

89

Does early detection of otitis media with effusion prevent delayed language development?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To consider whether earlier detection of otitis media with effusion (OME) in asymptomatic children in the first 4 years of life prevents delayed language development.?METHODS—MEDLINE and other databases were searched and relevant references from articles reviewed. Critical appraisal and consensus development were in accordance with the methods of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.?RESULTS—No randomised controlled trials assessing the overall screening for OME and early intervention to prevent delay in acquiring language were identified, although one trial evaluated treatment in a screened population and found no benefit. The "analytic pathway" approach was therefore used, where evidence is evaluated for individual steps in a screening process. The evidence supporting the use of tools for early detection such as tympanometry, microtympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy in the first 4years of life is unclear. Some treatments (mucolytics, antibiotics, steroids) resulted in the short term resolution of effusions as measured by tympanometry. Ventilation tubes resolved effusions and improved hearing. Ventilation tubes in children with hearing loss associated with OME benefited children in the short term, but after 18 months there was no difference in comparison with those assigned to watchful waiting. Most prospective cohort studies that evaluated the association between OME and language development lacked adequate measurement of exposure or outcome, or suffered from attrition bias. Findings with regard to the association were inconsistent.?CONCLUSIONS—There is insufficient evidence to support attempts at early detection of OME in the first 4 years of life in the asymptomatic child to prevent delayed language development.?? PMID:11466181

Butler, C; MacMillan, H

2001-01-01

90

Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission  

E-print Network

Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Alan D. Zdunek and David Prine BIRL Industrial Research, Evanston, IL 60201 Paper No. 547 presented at CORROSION95, the NACE International Annual Conference

91

Immediate early gene response to hearing song correlates with receptive behavior and depends on dialect in a female songbird.  

PubMed

Stimulus-induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK (egr-1) in the songbird's auditory forebrain presumably depends on the behavioral significance of the stimulus. Few studies, however, have quantified both the ZENK and behavioral responses to a stimulus in the same individuals. We played conspecific male song of either hatch (local) or foreign dialect to female white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) and quantified both the auditory ZENK response and their behavioral response, which is known to depend on dialect. Birds hearing hatch dialect showed greater ZENK induction in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale and the dorsal portion of the caudomedial neostriatum than birds hearing foreign dialect, supporting previous work showing a relationship between ZENK and salience of the stimulus. In the dorsal portion of the caudomedial neostriatum, ZENK induction was correlated with the amount of non-vocal courtship behavior; however, in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale, ZENK induction was more highly correlated with the females' own vocal behavior and thus may have been partly self-induced. Some females sang and showed a male-like pattern of ZENK induction in their song systems. This study provides the first evidence that the ZENK response in a sensory area to a social stimulus is proportional to the animal's preference for the stimulus. PMID:12879354

Maney, D L; MacDougall-Shackleton, E A; MacDougall-Shackleton, S A; Ball, G F; Hahn, T P

2003-09-01

92

Spinster homolog 2 (spns2) deficiency causes early onset progressive hearing loss.  

PubMed

Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J; White, Jacqueline K; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P

2014-10-01

93

Early lung cancer - detection, treatment outcome  

SciTech Connect

The advantages in early diagnosis of lung cancer are discussed. Diagnosis by sputum cytology, localization of the lesion by fluorescence bronchoscopy, and treatment by photoradiation therapy are described. 17 references. (ACR)

Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

1984-01-01

94

First Information Parents Receive after UNHS Detection of Their Baby's Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover…

Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

2012-01-01

95

Physical principles of hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

Martin, Pascal

2015-10-01

96

Innovative design for early detection of invasive species  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

97

Early seizure detection in rats based on vagus nerve activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous, scheduled vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. On-demand VNS, started\\u000a prior to or at the onset of a seizure may improve the effect of the treatment, however, this requires seizures to be predicted\\u000a or detected early. This study investigates the possibility of early seizure detection based on the cervical vagus electroneurogram\\u000a (VENG). Fourteen

Kristian R. Harreby; Cristian Sevcencu; Johannes J. Struijk

2011-01-01

98

Hearing and Hearing Loss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the ear works, and how you can prevent hearing loss! Turn em Down iPod's Popular Earbuds: Hip Or Harmful? How the ear works Common Indoor and Outdoor Noise Levels Article with Decibel Chart for Common Sounds How the ear works How the ear works with images and graphics What is noise-induced hearing loss? ======================== Hearing Loss Simulation Hearing Loss Demo # 1 So, how do you know if LOUD is TOO LOUD? How Loud is Too Loud? Noise Induced Hearing Loss ...

Mr. Engelman

2009-05-27

99

Early detection of neurological manifestations in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Achondroplasia (ACh) is the most frequent bone dysplasia. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant. The incident of\\u000a neurological complications ranges between 20% and 47%; frequently the symptoms are subtle but are due to such serious conditions\\u000a as cervicomedullary compressive snydromes, syringomyelia or hydrocephalus; thus, the early identification of this disorder\\u000a is very important. We made a prospective study

M. Ruiz-Garcia; A. Tovar-Baudin; V. Del Castillo-Ruiz; H. P. Rodriguez; M. A. Collado; T. M. A. Mora; F. Rueda-Franco; A. Gonzalez-Astiazaran

1997-01-01

100

Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23?1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. Conclusions/Significance Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that proved advanced sensory perception to be of notable adaptive significance. PMID:17849018

Müller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A.

2007-01-01

101

Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders.  

PubMed

Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early 'lepospondyl' microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

2015-03-01

102

Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

1993-01-01

103

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research Table of Contents Overview Introduction CBRG Mission Trends in Early Detection Research Early Detection Research Worldwide

104

A locus on distal Chromosome 11 (ahl8) and its interaction with Cdh23ahl underlie the early onset, age-related hearing loss of DBA/2J mice  

PubMed Central

The DBA/2J inbred strain of mice is used extensively in hearing research, yet little is known about the genetic basis for its early onset, progressive hearing loss. To map underlying genetic factors we analyzed recombinant inbred strains and linkage backcrosses. Analysis of 213 mice from 31 BXD recombinant inbred strains detected linkage of auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds with a locus on distal Chromosome 11, which we designate ahl8. Analysis of 225 N2 mice from a backcross of (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J) F1 hybrids to DBA/2J mice confirmed this linkage (LOD>50) and refined the ahl8 candidate gene interval. Analysis of 214 mice from a backcross of (B6.CAST-Cdh23Ahl+ × DBA/2J) F1 hybrids to DBA/2J mice demonstrated a genetic interaction of Cdh23 with ahl8. We conclude that ahl8 is a major contributor to the hearing loss of DBA/2J and that its effects are dependent on the predisposing Cdh23ahl genotype of this strain. PMID:18662770

Johnson, Kenneth R.; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Gagnon, Leona H.; Yu, Heping; Zheng, Qing Yin

2010-01-01

105

The monitoring and early detection of internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet and cause severe damage to our society. Facing this great security threat, we need to build an early detection system that can detect the presence of a worm in the Internet as quickly as possible in order to

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley; Lixin Gao

2005-01-01

106

Bilateral asymmetry identification for the early detection of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer overall and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Mammography is, at present, the only viable method for detecting most of tumors early enough for effective treatment. The secret of setting up the accurate diagnosis is to detect and understand the most subtle signs of breast lesions. Analysis of asymmetry between

A. Mencattini; M. Salmeri; P. Casti

2011-01-01

107

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER  

E-print Network

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER Marius George LINGURARU, Oxford OX2 7BZ, United Kingdom mglin@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract: The prevalence of breast cancer must provide effective clinical methods to detect cancer and improve life expectancy. Considerable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of breast cancer in the modern world has motivated the development of new tools to assist radiologists in their quest to detect malignancy as early as possible. Following the successful introduction of the screening programmes, science must provide effective clinical methods to detect cancer and improve life expectancy. Considerable research has been undertaken to this end, but the

Marius George LINGURARU; Michael BRADY

109

School Safety, Discipline, and IDEA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Waynesboro, Georgia, August 13, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on August 13, 1999, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed school safety, discipline, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the report includes…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

110

Screening and Early Detection Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Choose one of the following cancer types to view the clinical trials actively enrolling participants in studies to detect or screen for that type of cancer. All studies are supported by NCI, but not all originate from the Division of Cancer Prevention. Not every cancer type will have active trials at all times. For cancer types not listed here, visit NCI's Clinical Trials information webpage.

111

Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 ?Ci source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

2012-06-01

112

Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology  

PubMed Central

Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

2010-01-01

113

Early detection of peroneal neuropathy by ultrasound  

PubMed Central

A 12 year old boy presented with ankle sprain. The physical examination revealed mild weakness of ankle dorsiflexion. An ultrasound was done for the soft tissues of the ankle. In addition to relative atrophy of the peroneus longus muscle, a compressive common peroneal nerve (CPN) lesion with a synovial cyst at the level of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) was accidently found. Since there were features of CPN compression by the synovial cyst, total excision of the cyst was performed. After the operation, muscle strength improved and the neurological deficit subsided. Therefore, the early diagnosis of PTFJ synovial cyst with nerve injury was crucial in order to achieve a better result. The obscure nature of clinical presentations can delay the diagnosis, which may potentially lead to a poor prognosis after treatment in such cases. This report highlights the fact that ankle sprain do need a thorough clinical work up in some cases. PMID:24600072

Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

2014-01-01

114

Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

1991-01-01

115

Prognostic value of automatically detected early repolarization.  

PubMed

Early repolarization associated with sudden cardiac death is based on the presence of >1-mm J-point elevations in inferior and/or lateral leads with horizontal and/or downsloping ST segments. Automated electrocardiographic readings of early repolarization (AER) obtained in clinical practice, in contrast, are defined by ST-segment elevation in addition to J-point elevation. Nonetheless, such automated readings may cause alarm. We therefore assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of AER in 211,920 patients aged 18 to 75 years. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center serving a racially diverse urban population with a large proportion of Hispanics (43%). The first recorded electrocardiogram of each individual from 2000 to 2012 was included. Patients with ventricular paced rhythm or acute coronary syndrome at the time of acquisition were excluded from the analysis. All automated electrocardiographic interpretations were reviewed for accuracy by a board-certified cardiologist. The primary end point was death during a median follow-up of 8.0 ± 2.6 years. AER was present in 3,450 subjects (1.6%). The prevalence varied significantly with race (African-Americans 2.2%, Hispanics 1.5%, and non-Hispanic whites 0.9%, p <0.01) and gender (male 2.4% vs female 0.6%, p <0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for age, smoking status, heart rate, QTc, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant difference in mortality regardless of race or gender (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.07). This was true even if J waves were present. In conclusion, AER was not associated with an increased risk of death, regardless of race or gender, and should not trigger additional diagnostic testing. PMID:25306428

Aagaard, Philip; Shulman, Eric; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John D; Gross, Jay N; Kargoli, Faraj; Kim, Soo G; Palma, Eugen C; Ferrick, Kevin J; Krumerman, Andrew

2014-11-01

116

The cost-effectiveness of tracking newborns with bilateral hearing impairment in Bavaria: a decision-analytic model  

PubMed Central

Background Although several countries, including Germany, have established newborn hearing screening programmes for early detection and treatment of newborns with hearing impairments, nationwide tracking systems for follow-up of newborns with positive test results until diagnosis of hearing impairment have often not been implemented. However, a recent study on universal newborn hearing screening in Bavaria showed that, in a high proportion of newborns, early diagnosis was only possible with the use of a tracking system. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the cost-effectiveness of tracking newborns with bilateral hearing impairment in Bavaria. Methods Data from a Bavarian pilot project on newborn hearing screening and Bavarian newborn hearing screening facilities were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the inclusion of a tracking system within a newborn hearing screening programme. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. The time horizon of the model was limited to the newborn hearing screening programme. Costs of the initial hearing screening test and subsequent tests were included, as well as costs of diagnosis and costs of tracking. The outcome measure of the economic analysis was the cost per case of bilateral hearing impairment detected. In order to reflect uncertainty, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of tracking vs. no tracking was €1,697 per additional case of bilateral hearing impairment detected. Conclusions Compared with no tracking, tracking resulted in more cases of bilateral hearing impairment detected as well as higher costs. If society is willing to pay at least €1,697 per additional case of bilateral hearing impairment detected, tracking can be recommended. PMID:23170955

2012-01-01

117

From Screening to Early Identification and Intervention: Discovering Predictors to Successful Outcomes for Children With Significant Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the research findings from a longitu- dinal study of the language, speech, and social-emotional de- velopment of children who are deaf and hard of hearing, all of whom have hearing parents. This series of studies, from 1994 to the present, investigated predictors of successful develop- mental outcomes. The article provides information about how the findings of these

Christine Yoshinaga-Itano

2003-01-01

118

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... a kind of permanent hearing loss called sensorineural hearing loss . The inner ear is made up of a snail-shaped chamber ... ear or in the ear. Most people with hearing loss in both ears (called bilateral hearing loss) wear two hearing aids. ...

119

Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2014-01-01

120

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Detection, Intervention, Education, and Psychopharmacological Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological manage- ment of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, \\

Susan E Bryson; Sally J Rogers; Eric Fombonne

2003-01-01

121

Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka  

E-print Network

1 Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka Department of Computer of Internet economy. Arising as a leading threat, worms repetitively caused enormous damage to the Internet community during the past years. A new security service that monitors the ongoing worm activities

Chen, Shigang

122

Early Detection of BGP Instabilities Resulting from Internet Worm Attacks  

E-print Network

Early Detection of BGP Instabilities Resulting from Internet Worm Attacks S. Deshpande ECSE Abstract-- The increasing incidences of worm attacks in the Internet and the resulting instabilities strategies in order to minimize the damage caused by the worm. Our technique is based on online statistical

Sikdar, Biplab

123

EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

124

Hearing loss is an early consequence of Npc1 gene deletion in the mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease, type C.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a rare lysosomal lipidosis that is most often the result of biallelic mutations in NPC1, and is characterized by a fatal neurological degeneration. The pathophysiology is complex, and the natural history of the disease is poorly understood. Recent findings from patients with NPC1 and hearing loss suggest that multiple steps along the auditory pathway are affected. The current study was undertaken to determine the auditory phenotype in the Npc1 (nih) mutant mouse model, to extend analyses to histologic evaluation of the inner ear, and to compare our findings to those reported from human patients. Auditory testing revealed a progressive high-frequency hearing loss in Npc1 (-/-) mice that is present as early as postnatal day 20 (P20), well before the onset of overt neurological symptoms, with evidence of abnormalities involving the cochlea, auditory nerve, and brainstem auditory centers. Distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude and auditory brainstem response latency data provided evidence for a disruption in maturational development of the auditory system in Npc1 (-/-) mice. Anatomical study demonstrated accumulation of lysosomes in neurons, hair cells, and supporting cells of the inner ear in P30 Npc1 (-/-) mice, as well as increased numbers of inclusion bodies, myelin figures, and swollen nerve endings in older (P50-P70) mutant animals. These findings add unique perspective to the pathophysiology of NPC disease and suggest that hearing loss is an early and sensitive marker of disease progression. PMID:24839095

King, Kelly A; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Pawlowski, Karen S; Taylor, Anna M; Griffith, Andrew J; Houser, Ari; Kurima, Kiyoto; Wassif, Christopher A; Wright, Charles G; Porter, Forbes D; Repa, Joyce J; Brewer, Carmen C

2014-08-01

125

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

126

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Devices Can Help? Hearing aids. Hearing aids are electronic, battery-run devices that make sounds louder. There ... to turn up the volume. Cochlear implants. These electronic devices are for people with severe hearing loss. ...

127

[Screening studies with the BOEL test for the early diagnosis of hearing loss in infants. Experiences with 4,622 cases].  

PubMed

Hearing screening with reactometry in the newborn is now being considered too expensive and fails to detect quite a number of deaf children. Conversely, experiences at the age of 8 months with BOEL-Test (a distraction test, which yields further information on visual and neurological deficiencies) have shown that it becomes possible to detect the majority of hearing defects. As this age level is quite adequate for diagnosis even of defects arising in the first year (progressive genetic deafness, deafness due to infections etc.) and considering that rehabilitation can start only after this term, the authors suggest to reserve neonatal screening only for risk cases and to retest all children with the BOEL-Test. PMID:4021676

Fior, R; Tamburini, P

1985-05-01

128

77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

2012-11-05

129

Gene expression associated with the onset of hearing detected by differential display in rat organ of Corti  

PubMed Central

The exquisite performance of the mammalian hearing organ results from a finely orchestrated array of cell types, and their highly specialized functions are determined by their gene expression profile. In rodents, this profile is established mainly during the first 2 weeks of postnatal maturation. In this paper, we used the differential display technique on the rat organ of Corti to uncover transcripts upregulated in expression between postnatal stages P0 and P14. A total of 176 different genes were identified, the mRNA amount of which increased during early postnatal development. The transcripts code for proteins serving a broad spectrum of cellular functions including intracellular signaling, control of growth/differentiation, regulation of protein synthesis/degradation/modification, metabolism and synaptic function. In addition, the set of upregulated transcripts contained several proteins of yet unknown function, as well as hypothetical proteins and so far unknown mRNA sequences. Thus, this study unravels the broad and specific transcription program that operates the maturation of the mammalian hearing organ. Further, as 49 of the genes found here map to at least one unspecified deafness locus, our study provides candidate genes for these and novel deafness loci. PMID:20648058

Reisinger, Ellen; Meintrup, David; Oliver, Dominik; Fakler, Bernd

2010-01-01

130

A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

Ivanov, K. N.

2005-11-27

131

Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of individual chapters. It may also be approached in a linear fashion, as a sequence of steps leading to a comprehensive approach to early-detection. Our primary audience comprises resource professionals within the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program’s networks of parks, but we think that the knowledge and experience captured in this document is more broadly applicable to include other natural areas professionals. We have chosen to emphasize the technical side of invasive species early-detection because this is the arena in which most professionals need more guidance. This approach includes but is not limited to complex techniques that may seem to be just beyond the budgetary and (or) time-bound grasps of some resource professionals. Nonetheless, we have provided low-cost options.

Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

2014-01-01

132

Viral infections detected by serology and PCR of perilymphatic fluid in children with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss.  

PubMed

The etiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children may be viral. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the role of viral infectious agents in children with idiopathic SNHL. Of 119 children with SNHL aged 3-168 months undergoing cochlear implant surgery at a hospital in Tehran, no cause could be established in 18 cases (15.1%). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) active infections (detected by DNA-PCR, confirmed by serology) were found in the perilymphatic fluid of 16.7% (3/18) cases of idiopathic SNHL. Serology was performed on blood samples from 11 of these cases: specific antibodies against CMV, Toxoplasma spp., HSV and rubella were determined in all cases; acute T. gondii infection was detected in 7 cases and rubella IgG was found in only 1 case. Neonatal screening for CMV, HSV and T gondii may be helpful in the Islamic Republi of Iran. PMID:22276496

Noorbakhsh, S; Farhadi, M; Daneshi, A; Mohamadi, S; Tabatabaei, A

2011-11-01

133

EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

134

New technology for early detection of health threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Governmental agencies charged with protecting the health of the population and agriculture have several main strategic objectives including the detection of harmful agents, the identification of vulnerable biological targets, the prediction of health outcomes and the development of countermeasures. New technologies are urgently needed in several critical areas of bio-chemical defense: economical and minimally invasive biosensors for field use in humans and other species important for agriculture and infrastructure, universal analytical platforms for broad-based, early warnings of threats and technologies guiding the development of countermeasures. A new technology called Stress Response Profiling (SRP) was recently developed by the Gaia Medical Institute. SRP provides a universal analytical platform for monitoring health status based on measurements of physiological stress. The platform is implemented through handheld devices that can be used for noninvasive detection of early-stage health problems. This paper summarizes SRP features, advantages and potential benefits for critical areas of homeland defense.

Southern, Šárka O.; Lilienthal, Gerald W.

2008-04-01

135

Future Directions for the Early Detection of Recurrent Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

2014-01-01

136

Thermal Infrared Imaging in Early Breast Cancer Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging in breast cancer study started as early as 1961. However, it has not been\\u000a widely recognized due to the premature use of the technology, the superficial understanding of the infrared (IR) images, and\\u000a its poorly controlled introduction into breast cancer detection in the 1970s. Recent advances in image-processing ability\\u000a and pathophysiological-based understanding of

Hairong Qi; Nicholas A. Diakides

2009-01-01

137

Early detection items and responsible gambling features for online gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection is an effective building block for the prevention of problem gambling. This study aims to identify communication-based indicators for gambling-related problems in the setting of online gambling. In the framework of a semi-structured interview, customer service employees of three online gambling operators were surveyed, to identify indicators in customer correspondence could be used as a predictor for gambling-related

Joerg Haefeli; Suzanne Lischer; Juerg Schwarz

2011-01-01

138

Hearing Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

2012-01-01

139

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... provide a more natural signal to the brain. Hearing in both ears also will help you understand speech and locate ... hearing aids away from heat and moisture. Clean hearing aids as instructed. Earwax and ear drainage can damage a hearing aid. Avoid using ...

140

Detection and differentiation of sensorineural hearing loss in mice using auditory steady-state responses and transient auditory brainstem responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) comprises hearing disorders with diverse pathologies of the inner ear and the auditory nerve. To date, an unambiguous phenotypical characterization of the specific pathologies in an affected individual remains impossible. Here, we evaluated the use of scalp-recorded auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and transient auditory brainstem responses (ABR) for differentiating the disease mechanisms underlying sensorineural hearing loss

D. Pauli-Magnus; G. Hoch; N. Strenzke; S. Anderson; T. J. Jentsch; T. Moser

2007-01-01

141

PAX3 gene deletion detected by microarray analysis in a girl with hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Deletions of the PAX3 gene have been rarely reported in the literature. Mutations of this gene are a common cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and 3. We report a 16?year old female presenting hearing loss and normal intellectual development, without major features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1, and without family history of the syndrome. Her phenotype, however, overlaps with features of craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. Microarray analysis showed ~862?kb de novo deletion at 2q36.1 including PAX3. The above findings suggest that the rearrangement found in our patient appeared de novo and with high probability is a cause of her phenotype. PMID:24839464

2014-01-01

142

Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

143

Early Childhood Interventions: Public-Private Partnerships. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings transcripts recount testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives concerning early childhood development programs. Testimony addressed the questions of how public and private investments in early childhood programs contribute to successful outcomes for infants and mothers, and how these successes can be measured and replicated…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Human Resources.

144

Early detection of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease may cause left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its early detection in asymptomatic patients would allow to stratify the risk and to optimize medical treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate if transmitral Doppler flow can detect early abnormalities of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients during the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease, in which the electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray and 2-D echocardiogram (2D-echo) are normal. Methods a group of 54 patients with Chagas' disease was studied and compared to a control group of 27 subjects of similar age. All were assessed with an ECG, chest X-ray, 2-D echo, and transmitral Doppler flow. Results both groups had similar values in the 2D-echo. In patients with Chagas' disease, the transmitral Doppler showed a higher peak A velocity (control group: 0.44 m/sec, Chagas group: 0.55 m/sec, p = 0.001), a lower E/A ratio (control group: 1.45, Chagas group: 1.22, p < 0.05), and a lengthening of the deceleration time of early diastolic filling (control: 138.7 ± 26.8 msec, Chagas group: 167.9 ± 34.6 msec, p = 001), thus revealing an early disorder of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients with Chagas' disease. Conclusion in patients with Chagas' disease who are in the indeterminate phase, transmitral Doppler flow allowed to identify early abnormalities of the left ventricular diastolic function, which provide useful clinical information for prognostic stratification and treatment. PMID:16573837

Cianciulli, Tomás F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; Papantoniou, Alonso; Morita, Luis A; Prado, Nilda G; Dorelle, Adriana N; Riarte, Adelina R; Prezioso, Horacio A

2006-01-01

145

An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras  

PubMed Central

The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained. PMID:22778607

Millan-Garcia, Leonardo; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Nakano, Mariko; Toscano-Medina, Karina; Perez-Meana, Hector; Rojas-Cardenas, Luis

2012-01-01

146

Hearing Mothers and Their Deaf Children: The Relationship between Early, Ongoing Mode Match and Subsequent Mental Health Functioning in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the few studies that have been conducted, researchers have typically found that deaf adolescents have more mental health difficulties than their hearing peers and that, within the deaf groups, those who use spoken language have better mental health functioning than those who use sign language. This study investigated the hypotheses that mental…

Wallis, Delia; Musselman, Carol; MacKay, Sherri

2004-01-01

147

Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

Khochikar, Makarand V.

2011-01-01

148

Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

Navarro, Jaume

2006-03-01

149

New cancer biomarkers deriving from NCI early detection research.  

PubMed

Cancer is not a single disease but an accumulation of several events, genetic and epigenetic, arising in a single cell over a long time interval. A high priority in the cancer field is to identify these events. This can be achieved by characterizing cancer-associated genes and their protein products. Identifying the molecular alterations that distinguish any particular cancer cell from a normal cell will ultimately help to define the nature and predict the pathologic behavior of that cancer cell. It will also indicate the responsiveness to treatment of that particular tumor. Understanding the profile of molecular changes in any particular cancer will be extremely useful as it will become possible to correlate the resulting phenotype of that cancer with molecular events. Achieving these goals and knowledge will provide an opportunity for discovering new biomarkers for early cancer detection and developing prevention approaches. This will also help us identify new targets for therapeutic development. Advancement in technology includes methods and tools that enable research including, but not limited to, instrumentation, techniques, devices, and analysis tools (e.g., computer software). Resources such as databases, reagents, and tissue repositories are different than technologies. The identification and definition of the molecular profiles of cancer will require the development and dissemination of high-throughput molecular analysis technologies, as well as elucidation of all of the molecular species embedded in the genome of cancer and normal cells. The main challenge in cancer control and prevention is to detect the cancer early. This could then enable effective interventions and therapies contributing to reduction in mortality and morbidity. At a specific time, biomarkers serve as molecular signposts of the physiologic state of a cell. These signposts are the result of genes, their products (proteins) and other organic chemicals made by the cell. Biomarkers could prove to be vital for the identification of early cancer and subjects at risk of developing cancer as a normal cell progresses through the complex process of transformation to a cancerous state. This chapter discusses ongoing research in genetic and proteomic approaches to identify molecular signatures such as protein profiles, microsatellite instability, hypermethylation, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Other topics covered here include the use of genomics and proteomics as high-throughput technology platforms to facilitate biomarker-aided detection of early cancer. Other areas covered include issues surrounding the analysis, validation, and predictive value of biomarkers using such technologies. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques, such as buccal cell isolates serving as viable sources of biomarkers, complementary to traditional sources such as serum or plasma, are also presented. The review also brings attention to the efforts of the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), in bringing together scientific expertise from leading national and international institutions, to identify and validate biomarkers for the detection of precancerous and cancerous cells in determining risk for developing cancer. The network's serious determined efforts in linking discovery to process development, resulting in early detection tests and clinical assessment, are also discussed. PMID:12903844

Verma, Mukesh; Srivastava, Sudhir

2003-01-01

150

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Detection Technology  

Cancer.gov

Our ability to detect, diagnose and treat cancer will most likely be based on the molecular changes that distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterpart. Having reliable detection technologies to identify tumors early is therefore crucial before they become invasive. Development of technologies to quantitate molecular changes at all levels of gene expression, and to integrate the information is needed to identify molecular alterations that are selectively expressed in pre-invasive lesions, and correlated with tumor aggression.

151

Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s normal operation. This technique eliminates the probing problem of a gain/phase margin method by connecting the power input to a spectral analyzer. Therefore, it is able to evaluate stability for all kinds of hybrid DC/DC converters with or without remote sense pins, and is suitable for real-time and in-circuit testing. This frequency-domain technique is more sensitive to detect oscillation at early stage than the time-domain method using an oscilloscope.

Wang, Bright L.

2011-01-01

152

[Scoring system for early detection of critical illness can fail].  

PubMed

A 57-year old male underwent elective aortic valve replacement. The immediate post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with the lowest possible score on a newly implemented scale for early detection of critical illness. The following day he was readmitted with dyspnoea. The critical illness score was still low despite ultrasonic demonstration of a large pericardial effusion requiring drainage. We are concerned that the widely adopted critical illness scale is not sufficiently sensitive for cardiac surgery patients and advocate the use of point-of-care ultrasound. PMID:23428261

Kamstrup Christiansen, Lærke; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Sloth, Erik

2013-02-18

153

Early Detection and Treatment of Hemodialysis Access Dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a program for the early detection of hemodialysis graft dysfunction and the impact on graft survival of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent implantation to correct venous stenosis.Methods: A program for the early detection of hemodialysis access graft dysfunction was carried out in 110 patients over a period of 80 months. Detection was based on physical examination, flow rate measurements, venous pressure, and analytical determinations performed at dialysis. The stenoses detected were treated by PTA or PTA plus stent deployment. Survival curves compared primary and assisted patency rates for the different graft types.Results: The most important indicators of dysfunction were increased venous pressure and difficulty in cannulation of the graft. Significant stenoses were revealed by 227 (92.2%) of the 246 fistulography procedures performed. PTA results were satisfactory in 100% of the Thomas grafts, 74% of the Brescia-Cimino (BC) grafts, and 53% of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Technical success rates for stent deployment were 92% for BC grafts and 100% for PTFE grafts, while functional success rates were 96% and 97%, respectively. The difference in the primary patency (P1) and assisted patency (AP) values was statistically significant for all three graft types. There was no significant difference in the patency rates for grafts treated by PTA alone or by PTA and stent deployment.Conclusion: A surveillance program helped prevent graft thrombosis, and intervention as required achieved excellent primary and assisted patency rates. Stent deployment salvaged a considerable number of accesses but did not significantly extend access survival time.

Gallego Beuter, Juan Jose; Hernandez Lezana, Antonio [Department of Radiology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrero Calvo, Jose [Department of Nephrology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno Carriles, Rosa [Department of Vascular Surgery, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2000-01-15

154

Future Directions for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence. PMID:24790655

Walker, Avery S.; Johnson, Eric K.; Maykel, Justin A.; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J.; Steele, Scott R.

2014-01-01

155

Sputum analysis: non-invasive early lung cancer detection.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths over the world, characterized by a very high mortality rate. Molecular technique development tries to focus on early detection of cancers by studying molecular alterations that characterize cancer cells. Worldwide lung cancer research has focused on an ever-increasing number of molecular elements of carcinogenesis at genetic, epigenetic and protein levels. The non-invasiveness is the characteristic that all clinical trials on cancer detection should have. Abnormal chest imaging and/or non-specific symptoms are initial signals of lung cancer that appear in an advanced stage of disease. This fact represents the cause of the low 5-year survival rate: over 90% of patients dying within 5 years of diagnosis. Since smokers have higher quantity of sputum containing exfoliated cells from the bronchial tree, and the sputum represents the most easily accessible biological fluid and its collection is non-invasive, analysis of this sample represents a good area of research in early lung cancer diagnosis. Continued cigarette smoking is the cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with an estimated attributable risk factor exceeding 80% in smoking affected individuals. Lung cancer is found in 40-70% of patients with COPD, particularly in severe disease, and it is a common cause of death in these patients. A large prospective trial of almost half a million non-smokers showed as lung cancer is also common in patients with COPD who have never smoked. This review describes issues related to early lung cancer screening using non-invasive methods. PMID:23086732

D'Urso, Vittorio; Doneddu, Valentina; Marchesi, Irene; Collodoro, Angelo; Pirina, Pietro; Giordano, Antonio; Bagella, Luigi

2013-05-01

156

The effectiveness of a phonics-based early intervention for deaf and hard of hearing preschool children and its possible impact on reading skills in elementary school: a case study.  

PubMed

The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and group phonics-based instruction supplemented by Visual Phonics in a language-enriched preschool classroom. Standardized assessments were conducted before, during, and after the intervention. Along with some additional assessments, the same assessments were conducted in early elementary school. The results showed that all participants demonstrated at least some use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills when they were explicitly trained, and that these skills were sustained in early elementary school. Furthermore, all participants exhibited overall reading levels at or above age level when measured in early elementary school. PMID:23967767

Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S; Oetting, Tara L

2013-01-01

157

Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.  

PubMed

Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range <20->80 ?m in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were <10 cells ml(-1) for both "large" and "small" model grazers, Euplotes vannus (80 × 45 ?m) and an unidentified holotrichous ciliate (~18 × 8 ?m) respectively. Furthermore, the system can distinguish the presence of ciliates in N. oculata cultures with biotechnologically relevant cell densities; i.e. >1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). PMID:22464416

Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

2012-06-01

158

The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

2011-01-01

159

Field Hearing on Technology in Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Petaluma, California, August 30, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met, pursuant to call, on August 30, 1999 in the Petaluma Community Center, Petaluma, California, with Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presiding. This document represents the field hearing on how educational…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

160

A Fresh Start for New Orleans' Children: Improving Education after Katrina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Education System of New Orleans (July 14, 2006, New Orleans, LA). Senate Hearing 109-626  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this hearing was to examine the education system of New Orleans. Statements were presented by: Honorable Lamar Alexander, Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Honorable Mary L. Landrieu, U.S. Senator from Louisiana; Honorable Richard Burr, U.S. Senator from North Carolina; Linda Johnson, President,…

US Senate, 2007

2007-01-01

161

[Visual analysis for an early detection of diabetic neuropathy].  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. It comes along with significant nerve dysfunction, which is not reversible. Hence, it is essential to detect nerve fibre abnormalities as early as possible. In this paper, we investigate markers describing degradation of corneal nerves. We apply statistical computations and visual analysis to identify those variables of two clinical studies that separate DN patients from a control group. In this way, the diagnosis of DN patients is supported. The visual analysis is based on different representations visualizing both the statistical results and the gathered multi-variate data. The user can interactively manipulate the views, or select data that will be shown by further displays. In this way, the understanding of the data and its classification is supported. Ambiguous categorisations can be identified and grouped into a so-called "fuzzy group". For this group, further investigations are needed to decide about diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25519502

Röhlig, M; Luboschik, M; Kundt, G; Stachs, O; Peschel, S; Zhivov, A; Guthoff, R F; Winter, K; Schumann, H

2014-12-01

162

Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

2007-03-01

163

DNA methylation biomarker candidates for early detection of colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Promoter CpG island hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of all human cancers. Many researchers have been looking for potential epigenetic therapeutic targets in cancer using gene expression profiling with DNA microarray approaches. Our recent genome-wide platform of CpG island hypermethylation and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines revealed that FBN2 and TCERG1L gene silencing is associated with DNA hypermethylation of a CpG island in the promoter region. In this study, promoter DNA hypermethylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L in CRC occurs as an early and cancer-specific event in colorectal cancer. Both genes showed high frequency of methylation in colon cancer cell lines (>80% for both of genes), adenomas (77% for FBN2, 90% for TCERG1L, n=39), and carcinomas (86% for FBN2, 99% for TCERG1L, n=124). Bisulfite sequencing confirmed cancer-specific methylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L of promoters in colon cancer cell line and cancers but not in normal colon. Methylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L is accompanied by downregulation in cell lines and in primary tumors as described in the Oncomine™ website. Together, our results suggest that gene silencing of FBN2 and TCERG1L is associated with promoter DNA hypermethylation in CRC tumors and may be excellent biomarkers for the early detection of CRC. PMID:22238052

Dhir, Mashaal; Guzzetta, Angela A.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwang Mo; Suzuki, Hiromu; Toyota, Minoru

2013-01-01

164

Barriers for early detection of cancer amongst Indian rural women  

PubMed Central

Context: Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. Healthcare providers in developing countries regularly see women with advanced, incurable cancers. Health of a rural Indian women and her access to health facility is compromised due to sociocultural, economical, and environmental factors. Aims: To know the problems associated with early detection of cancers in rural women. Settings and Design: Rural area and cross-sectional. Subjects and Methods: Study subject: Women of 35 years and above. Exclusion criteria: Not willing to participate. Sample size: All eligible women of selected villages. Sampling Technique: Random selection of villages. Study duration: 2 months. Study tools: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, ?2 test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate analysis. Results: Awareness about symptoms, possibility of early detection, available tests, possibility of cure of disease was low. Main barrier for screening was cognitive, that is, ‘don’t know’ answer by 83.99% women for cancer cervix, 84.93%, for cancer breast, and 67.26% for oral cancer. Awareness score was significantly associated with age (?2 = 17.77, P = 0.001), education (?2 = 34.62, P = 0.000), and income (?2 = 16.72, P = 0.002); while attitude score with age (?2 = 16.27, P = 0.012) and education (?2 = 25.16, P = 0.003). Practice score was significantly associated with age (?2 = 11.28, P = 0.023), education (?2 = 32.27, P = 0.003), and occupation (?2 = 10.69, P = 0.03). Awareness, attitude, and practice score of women having history of cancer in family or relative was significantly high than women without history. Conclusions: Cognitive barrier was the important barrier which has to be taken care of. PMID:24818108

Tripathi, Neha; Kadam, Yugantara R.; Dhobale, Randhir V.; Gore, Alka D.

2014-01-01

165

Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (McAllen, Texas, July 7, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional hearing on the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act, held in McAllen Texas, focuses on issues to consider in the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. After opening statements by Chairman Michael Castle and Representative Ruben Hinojosa, both of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

166

Examining the National Environmental Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (June 27, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: William F. Goodling, Committee on Education and Workforce; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; John Kasper, Acting Deputy Associate Administrator Office of Communications, Education, and Media…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

167

Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

168

Examining the Bilingual Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Washington, DC, June 24, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional hearing on the Bilingual Education Act examines current law and changes necessary to ensure that it provides limited English speaking students with the best possible educational opportunities. After opening statements by Chairman Michael Castle and Representative Carlos Romero-Barcelo, both of the Subcommittee on Early

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

169

Head Start Reauthorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearing transcripts present testimony concerning the reauthorization of the Head Start Act given on June 9, 1998, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families. The testimony focused on the efficacy of specific programs and activities funded by the Head Start Act, successes and failures, and future needs and directions the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

170

The Role of Technology in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 8, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, Washington, DC met in Washington, DC on March 8, 2000 to hear testimony on the role of technology in America's schools. Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presided. Contents include the opening statements of Chairman Michael Castle and of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

171

Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

Wang, Bright L.

2011-01-01

172

Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method  

PubMed Central

Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37? for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

2014-01-01

173

"It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

2010-01-01

174

Genetics of hearing loss: focus on DFNA2.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to assess the current literature on deafness nonsyndromic autosomal dominant 2 (DFNA2) hearing loss and the mutations linked to this disorder. Hearing impairment, particularly nonsyndromic hearing loss, affects multiple families across the world. After the identification of the DFNA2 locus on chromosome 1p34, multiple pathogenic mutations in two genes (GJB3 and KCNQ4) have been reported. The overwhelming majority of pathogenic mutations linked to this form of nonsyndromic hearing loss have been identified in the KCNQ4 gene encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel. It is believed that KCNQ4 channels are present in outer hair cells and possibly inner hair cells and the central auditory pathway. This form of hearing loss is both phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous and there are still DFNA2 pedigrees that have not been associated with changes in either GJB3 or KCNQ4, suggesting that a possible third gene exists at this locus. Further studies of the DFNA2 locus will lead to a better understanding of progressive hearing loss and provide a better means of early detection and treatment. PMID:23776385

Dominguez, Laura M; Dodson, Kelley M

2012-01-01

175

Genetics of hearing loss: focus on DFNA2  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to assess the current literature on deafness nonsyndromic autosomal dominant 2 (DFNA2) hearing loss and the mutations linked to this disorder. Hearing impairment, particularly nonsyndromic hearing loss, affects multiple families across the world. After the identification of the DFNA2 locus on chromosome 1p34, multiple pathogenic mutations in two genes (GJB3 and KCNQ4) have been reported. The overwhelming majority of pathogenic mutations linked to this form of nonsyndromic hearing loss have been identified in the KCNQ4 gene encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel. It is believed that KCNQ4 channels are present in outer hair cells and possibly inner hair cells and the central auditory pathway. This form of hearing loss is both phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous and there are still DFNA2 pedigrees that have not been associated with changes in either GJB3 or KCNQ4, suggesting that a possible third gene exists at this locus. Further studies of the DFNA2 locus will lead to a better understanding of progressive hearing loss and provide a better means of early detection and treatment. PMID:23776385

Dominguez, Laura M; Dodson, Kelley M

2012-01-01

176

Hearing Assistive Technology  

MedlinePLUS

... for the Public › Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

177

New opportunities for screening and early detection of bladder cancer.  

PubMed

In the United States, over 51,000 new cases of urinary bladder tumors are diagnosed annually. Approximately 75-85% of all newly diagnosed cases are superficial transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs). Incidence is highest (80% of the cases) in the 50-79 year age group. Recent studies have reported that 21-25% of risk for bladder cancer among United States white males is due to occupational exposure. The DuPont Chambers Works in Deepwater, New Jersey, was a major producer of two chemicals now known to be human bladder carcinogens (beta-naphthylamine and benzidine) as well as two suspected human bladder carcinogens [ortho-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene- bis,2-chloroaniline (MOCA)]. Between 1954 and 1982, DuPont screened 1723 exposed employees annually at the Chambers Works using the Papanicolaou test for urinary cytology and microscopic urinalysis. A review of the prior screening program found that employees who developed bladder cancer during this time period were approximately twice as likely to have had hematuria than those comparably exposed who did not develop bladder cancer. Building on this finding, a three-year screening study evaluated a home self-test for microscopic hematuria to aid early detection of treatable urologic conditions among exposed workers at this chemical plant. Every six months, subjects tested their urine at home for 14 consecutive days, for the presence of blood. A high degree of adherence to our protocol (over 92% completed and returned the self-testing record) as well as high compliance with repeat screening (85% returned for screening in subsequent quarters) demonstrated good acceptance and performance of the recommended schedule of self-testing. Through the first 7 periods of screening, two new cases and one recurrence of TCC of the bladder were detected. PMID:1305676

Mason, T J; Walsh, W P; Lee, K; Vogler, W

1992-01-01

178

Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: early detection resource allocation.  

PubMed

A key determinant of breast cancer outcome in any population is the degree to which cancers are detected at early stages of disease. Populations in which cancers are detected at earlier stages have lower breast cancer mortality rates. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) held its third Global Summit in Budapest, Hungary in October 2007, bringing together internationally recognized experts to address the implementation of breast healthcare guidelines for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). A multidisciplinary panel of experts specifically addressed the implementation of BHGI guidelines for the early detection of disease as they related to resource allocation for public education and awareness, cancer detection methods, and evaluation goals. Public education and awareness are the key first steps, because early detection programs cannot be successful if the public is unaware of the value of early detection. The effectiveness and efficiency of screening modalities, including screening mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination, were reviewed in the context of resource availability and population-based need by the panel. Social and cultural barriers should be considered when early detection programs are being established, and the evaluation of early detection programs should include the use of well developed, methodologically sound process metrics to determine the effectiveness of program implementation. The approach and scope of any screening program will determine the success of any early detection program as measured by cancer stage at diagnosis and will drive the breadth of resource allocation needed for program implementation. PMID:18837017

Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Anderson, Benjamin O; Miller, Anthony B; Thomas, David B; Ang, Eng-Suan; Caffarella, Rosemary S; Corbex, Marilys; Kreps, Gary L; McTiernan, Anne

2008-10-15

179

A Rapid Method for Simultaneous Screening of Multi-Gene Mutations Associated with Hearing Loss in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses. PMID:23469187

Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

2013-01-01

180

Development and evaluation of a portable audiometer for high-frequency screening of hearing loss from ototoxicity in homes/clinics.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment often requires patients to be exposed to drugs that can damage hearing. Drugs such as cisplatin can cause permanent damage to hearing if not detected early. Damage typically occurs first in the more basal regions of the cochlea which are specific for high-frequency (HF) hearing and progresses to more apical regions that are relevant to speech understanding. Monitoring of HF hearing loss can be an effective means for early detection of ototoxicity caused by chemotherapy. Once ototoxicity is detected, the oncology medical team could adjust the drug dosage or switch to medications that are less ototoxic. Telehealth technology may improve access to ototoxicity monitoring. Patients could monitor their own hearing using a device that alerts healthcare professionals in the event of a change in hearing. A portable audiometer is currently not available that is 1) capable of automatic or manual (by an audiologist) operation; 2) designed with precision pure-tone functionality up to 20 kHz; and 3) able to remotely transfer health status information to a healthcare professional. This paper describes the design of a technology, the ototoxicity identification (OtoID), that includes a portable audiometer with HF test functionality that meets ANSI/ASA S3.6-2010 standards and is capable of reliably detecting a person's drug-related hearing changes relative to a baseline period (i.e., before ototoxic drugs) using an automated test. The system includes a wireless cellular modem capable of notifying a remote healthcare professional in the event that a significant change in hearing has occurred in the patient. The system was evaluated on test subjects within a sound-proof booth, a noisy hospital ward, and within their homes. Results indicate that the OtoID system can be used by patients to effectively monitor hearing changes remotely within their home or in a hospital ward, ultimately enabling early detection of ototoxicity and potentially avoiding hearing loss. PMID:22801480

Jacobs, Peter G; Silaski, Grayson; Wilmington, Debra; Gordon, Samuel; Helt, Wendy; McMillan, Garnett; Fausti, Stephen A; Dille, Marilyn

2012-11-01

181

Mobile Technologies in the Early Detection of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The identification of biological and pathophysiological processes implicated in different forms of dementia is itself dependent on reliable descriptions of cognitive performance and capacities. However, traditional instruments are often unable to detect subtle declines in cognitive functions due to natural variation at the time of testing. Mobile technologies permit the repeated assessment of cognitive functions and may thereby provide more reliable descriptions of early cognitive difficulties that are inaccessible to clinic or hospital-based instruments. This assessment strategy is also able to characterize in real-time the dynamic associations between cognitive performance and specific daily life behaviors or activities. In a cohort of elderly rural residents, 60 individuals were administered neuropsychological and neuroimaging exams as well as a one-week period of electronic ambulatory monitoring of behavior, semantic memory performance, and daily life experiences. Whereas imaging markers were unrelated to traditional neuropsychological test scores, they were significantly associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory performance. Moreover, certain daily life activities such as reading or completing crossword puzzles were associated with increases in semantic memory performance over the subsequent hours of the same day. The revolution in mobile technologies provides unprecedented opportunities to overcome the barriers of time and context that characterize traditional hospital and clinical-based assessments. The combination of both novel and traditional methods should provide the best opportunity for identifying the earliest risk factors and biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. PMID:25536290

Allard, Michèle; Husky, Mathilde; Catheline, Gwénaëlle; Pelletier, Amandine; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

2014-01-01

182

A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

2003-01-01

183

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the detection of early stage neoplastic pathologies  

E-print Network

Identification of changes associated with early stage disease remains a critical objective of clinical detection and treatment. Effective screening and detection is important for improving outcome because advanced disease, ...

Hsiung, Pei-Lin, 1975-

2005-01-01

184

75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

2010-02-18

185

76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

2011-05-26

186

Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1.7 (HF-CVC) times less than that for the BB-triplet test. The effect on the HF-triplet test of varying presentation method (professional or cheap headphones and loudspeakers) was small for the NH group and somewhat larger, but nonsignificant for the hearing-impaired group. Test repetition produced a moderate, significant learning effect for the first and second retests, but was small and nonsignificant for further retesting. The learning effect was about two times larger for the HF-CVC test than for the HF-triplet test. The sensitivity of both new tests for high-frequency hearing loss was similar, with an 87% true-positive and 7% false-positive ratio for detecting an average high-frequency hearing loss of 20 dB or more. Conclusions: The new HF-triplet and HF-CVC tests provide a sensitive and accurate method for detecting high-frequency hearing loss. The tests may signal developing hearing impairment at an early stage. The HF-triplet is preferred over the HF-CVC test because of its smaller learning effect, smaller error rate, greater simplicity, and lower cultural dependency. PMID:25127323

MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

2014-01-01

187

Hearings & Testimonies  

Cancer.gov

Occasionally, NCI subject matter experts are asked to testify before Congress on a wide range of topics. From this page you will be able to link to previous NCI-specific appropriations hearings or previous hearings that focused on a particular cancer

188

Detecting Early Worm Propagation through Packet Matching Xuan Chen and John Heidemann  

E-print Network

Detecting Early Worm Propagation through Packet Matching Xuan Chen and John Heidemann ISI-TR-2004 detect and quar- antine Internet worm propagation. DEWP detects worm probing traffic by matching of worm packet contents or profiles of normal traf- fic conditions; it can automatically detect and sup

Heidemann, John

189

Early detection of periventricular leukomalacia by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the principal form of brain injury in the premature infant, is characterized by overt focal necrotic lesions in periventricular white matter and less prominent, more diffuse cerebral white matter injury. The early detection of the latter, diffuse component of PVL is not consistently possible with conventional brain imaging techniques. We demonstrate the early detection of the diffuse

Terrie Inder; Petra S. Huppi; Gary P. Zientara; Stephan E. Maier; Ferenc A. Jolesz; Don di Salvo; Richard Robertson; Patrick D. Barnes; Joseph J. Volpe

1999-01-01

190

Early detection of postoperative delirium and confusion in a surgical ward using the NEECHAM confusion scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early detection and prevention of postoperative delirium and confusion has become an important issue in surgical ward management. With the aim of determining an objective technique for early detection of delirium, 64 patients admitted to a surgical ward before surgery were examined using the NEECHAM confusion scale. On the 2nd postoperative day they were tested again and divided into

Toshiko Matsushita; Eisuke Matsushima; Michio Maruyama

2004-01-01

191

Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells for early detection of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Early detection of breast cancer is key to successful treatment and patient survival. We have previously reported the potential use of gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells for early detection of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to refine these findings using a larger sample size and a commercially available microarray platform. METHODS: Blood samples

Jørgen Aarøe; Torbjørn Lindahl; Vanessa Dumeaux; Solve Sæbø; Derek Tobin; Nina Hagen; Per Skaane; Anders Lönneborg; Praveen Sharma; Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale

2010-01-01

192

Computed tomography in the early detection of asbestosis.  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT; both conventional (CCT) and high resolution (HRCT)) scans of the thorax were evaluated to detect early asbestosis in 61 subjects exposed to asbestos dust in Québec for an average of 22(3) years and in five controls. The study was limited to consecutive cases with chest radiographs of the International Labour Organisation categories 0 or 1 determined independently. All subjects had a standard high kilovoltage posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph, a set of 10-15 1 cm collimation CCT scans and a set of three to five 2 mm collimation HRCT scans in the upper, middle, and lower lung fields. Five experienced readers independently read each chest radiograph and sets of CT scans. On the basis of three to five readers agreeing for small opacities of the lung parenchyma, 12/46 (26%) negative chest radiographs were positive on CT scans, but 6/18 (33%) positive chest radiographs were negative on CT scan. On the basis of four to five readers agreeing on a chest radiograph, 36/66 (54%) subjects were normal (group A), 17/66 (26%) were indeterminate (group B), and 13/66 (20%) were abnormal (group C). By the combined readings of CCT and HRCT, 4/31 (13%) asbestos exposed subjects of group A were abnormal (p < 0.001), 6/17 (35%) of group B were abnormal, and in group C, 1/13 (8%) was normal, 2/13 were indeterminate, and 10/13 (77%) were abnormal. Separate readings of CCT and HRCT on distinct films in 14 subjects showed that all cases of asbestosis were abnormal on both CCT and HRCT. Inter-reader analyses by kappa statistics showed significantly better agreement for the readings of CT than the chest radiographs (p < 0.001), and for the reading of CCT than HRCT (p < 0.01). Thus CT scans of the thorax identifies significantly more irregular opacities consistent with the diagnosis of asbestosis than the chest radiograph (20 cases on CT scans v 13 on chest radiographs when four to five readers agreed, 13% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal chest radiographs or 21% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal or near normal chest radiographs. It decreased the number of indeterminate cases significantly from 17 on chest radiographs to 13 on CT scans. All cases of asbestosis detected only on CT scans were similarly seen on CCT and HRCT and did not have significant changes in lung function. The CT scans significantly reduced the inter-reader variability, despite the absence of ILO type reference films for these scans. Images PMID:8398855

Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Filion, R; Colman, N; Bertrand, P

1993-01-01

193

Chronic renal allograft injury: early detection, accurate diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Chronic renal allograft injury (CRAI) is a multifactorial clinical/pathological entity characterised by a progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate, generally associated with proteinuria and arterial hypertension. Classical views tried to distinguish between immunological (sensitization, low HLA compatibility, acute rejection episodes) and non-immunological factors (donor age, delayed graft function, calcineurin inhibitors [CNI] toxicity, arterial hypertension, infections) contributing to its development. Defining it as a generic idiopathic entity has precluded more comprehensive attempts for therapeutic options. Consequently, it is necessary to reinforce the diagnostic work-up to add etiopathogenetic diagnosis in any case of graft dysfunction, specially transplant vasculopathy and transplant glomerulopathy, reserving the term interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) when a case of CRAI is unspecific and no clear contributing factors or a specific etiology is possible in diagnosis. Earlier detection and intervention of CRAI remain as key challenges for transplant physicians. Changes in SCr levels and proteinuria often occur late in disease progression and may not accurately represent the underlying renal damage. Deterioration of renal function over time, determined through slope analysis, is a more accurate indicator of CRAI, and earlier identification of renal deterioration may prompt earlier changes in immunosuppressive therapies. The crucial point is probably to distinguish between nonimmunological or toxic CRAI and immunological-derived CRAI cases. Conversion to nonnephrotoxic immunosuppressants, such as mTOR inhibitors, holds promise in reducing the impact of toxic CRAI by both avoiding and reducing the impact of CNIs and reducing smooth muscle cell proliferation in the kidney. CRAI due to chronic antibody mediated rejection is an important entity, better and better defined that carries a bad prognosis and is associated with graft loss. The best prevention is adequate immunosuppression and tight patient monitoring, from the clinical, analytical and histological standpoint. While clinical trial evidence is needed for early detection and intervention in patients with CRAI, this review represents the current knowledge upon which clinicians can base their strategies. New prospective, ideally well-controlled trials are needed to establish the usefulness of different potentially therapeutic regimens. These evidences should demonstrate the benefits before extended uncontrolled use of drugs such as rituximab, bortezomib or eculizumab, which are expensive and frequently iatrogenic. PMID:22902496

Pascual, Julio; Pérez-Sáez, Maria J; Mir, Marisa; Crespo, Marta

2012-10-01

194

Immersive simulation of hearing loss and auditory prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of hearing loss is useful for demonstrating the communication challenges facing hearing-impaired people. However, current simulations, most of which are only recordings, do not actually elevate thresholds; i.e., they do not simulate hearing loss, per se. The hearing loss simulator described in this talk is immersive; the user's detection thresh- olds for ambient sounds are shifted by a prescribed

Patrick M. Zurek; Joseph G. Desloge

2001-01-01

195

Early fire detection method in video for vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

New generation vessels are equipped with fire detecting sensors; however, fire may not immediately be detected if it is far away from the sensors. The fire process therefore cannot be recorded. A video-based fire alarm system is developed to overcome the drawbacks of traditional fire detection equipment. This paper presents a video-based flame and smoke detection method for vessels. For

Shuenn-jyi Wang; Dah-lih Jeng; Meng-tsai Tsai

2009-01-01

196

Hearing in Birds and Reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The comparative hearing of birds and reptiles should always be considered together. It is clear from the vertebrate fossil\\u000a record that birds and reptiles split over 200 million years ago from the diapsid reptiles of the early Triassic period (Fedducia 1980; Carroll 1987). Because of this common ancestry, there is considerable similarity between the hearing organs of modern day birds

Robert J. Dooling; Bernard Lohr; Micheal L. Dent

197

Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation

Y. Ireaneus Anna Rejani; S. Thamarai Selvi

2009-01-01

198

Early Warning Fire Detection System Using a Probabilistic Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navy program, Damage Control-Automation for Reduced Manning is focused on enhancing automation of ship functions and damage control systems. A key element to this objective is the improvement of current fire detection systems. As in many applications, it is desired to increase detection sensitivity and,more importantly increase the reliability of the detection system through improved nuisance alarm immunity. Improved

Susan L. Rose-Pehrsson; Sean J. Hart; Frederick W. Williams; Mark H. Hammond; Daniel T. Gottuk; Mark T. Wright; Jennifer T. Wong

2003-01-01

199

Hearing Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ... exposure to high noise levels (such as loud music) over time can cause permanent damage to the ...

200

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... relieving the depression often associated with hearing loss. Sound and the Ear We define sound in two ways: Frequency (pitch), which is measured ... in decibels. The lowest intensity at which a sound must be generated to be heard is called ...

201

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

202

Early Education and Care: What Is the Federal Government's Role? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 20, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-116  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this hearing was to examine the federal role in improving the effectiveness and coordination of sixty-nine Federal programs that are designed to help parents help their young children with child care and early education. Opening statements were delivered by Subcommittee Chairman Senator Lamar Alexander, Tennessee; Ranking Member…

US Senate, 2005

2005-01-01

203

Worm Detection, Early Warning and Response Based on Local Victim Information  

E-print Network

Worm Detection, Early Warning and Response Based on Local Victim Information Guofei Gu, Monirul 30332 {guofei, msharif, xinzhou, dagon, wenke}@cc.gatech.edu, riley@ece.gatech.edu Abstract Worm detection systems have traditionally focused on global strategies. In the absence of a global worm detection

Lee, Wenke

204

Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be

Satoshi Kasai; Feng Li; Junji Shiraishi; Qiang Li; Kunio Doi

2006-01-01

205

Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed\\u000asystem focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as\\u000asuspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is\\u000ahow to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method\\u000afollows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation

Y. Ireaneus Anna Rejani; S. Thamarai Selvi

2009-01-01

206

76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC is to provide...

2011-09-09

207

77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory...

2012-10-04

208

Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG  

PubMed Central

Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

2010-01-01

209

Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

210

Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

211

Detection and differentiation of sensorineural hearing loss in mice using auditory steady-state responses and transient auditory brainstem responses.  

PubMed

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) comprises hearing disorders with diverse pathologies of the inner ear and the auditory nerve. To date, an unambiguous phenotypical characterization of the specific pathologies in an affected individual remains impossible. Here, we evaluated the use of scalp-recorded auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) and transient auditory brainstem responses (ABR) for differentiating the disease mechanisms underlying sensorineural hearing loss in well-characterized mouse models. We first characterized the ASSR evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones in wild-type mice. ASSR were robustly elicited within three ranges of modulation frequencies below 200 Hz, from 200 to 600 Hz and beyond 600 Hz in most recordings. Using phase information we estimated the apparent ASSR latency to be about 3 ms, suggesting generation in the auditory brainstem. Auditory thresholds obtained by automated and visual analysis of ASSR recordings were comparable to those found with tone-burst evoked ABR in the same mice. We then recorded ASSR and ABR from mouse mutants bearing defects of either outer hair cell amplification (KCNQ4-knockout) or inner hair cell synaptic transmission (Bassoon-mutant). Both mutants showed an increase of ASSR and ABR thresholds of approximately 40 dB versus wild-type when investigated at 8 weeks of age. Mice with defective amplification displayed a steep rise of ASSR and ABR amplitudes with increasing sound intensity, presumably reflecting a strong recruitment of synchronously activated neural elements beyond threshold. In contrast, the amplitudes of ASSR and ABR responses of mice with impaired synaptic transmission grew very little with sound intensity. In summary, ASSR allow for a rapid, objective and frequency-specific hearing assessment and together with ABR and otoacoustic emissions can contribute to the differential diagnosis of SNHL. PMID:17869440

Pauli-Magnus, D; Hoch, G; Strenzke, N; Anderson, S; Jentsch, T J; Moser, T

2007-11-01

212

75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice...

2010-09-21

213

77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

2012-11-29

214

A Novel Imaging Approach for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Based on Endogenous Zinc Sensing  

E-print Network

The early detection of prostate cancer is a life-saving event in patients harboring potentially aggressive disease. With the development of malignancy, there is a dramatic reduction in the zinc content of prostate tissue ...

Ghosh, Subrata K.

215

Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

216

December 3-4, 2001: Epigenetics in Cancer Prevention: Early Detection and Risk Assessment Workshop  

Cancer.gov

The goal of the Workshop is to evaluate the state of science and determine the future research needs to stimulate research on implications of epigenetics in early detection, risk assessment and prevention of cancer.

217

SHAPE STATISTICS FOR CELL DIVISION DETECTION IN TIME-LAPSE VIDEOS OF EARLY MOUSE EMBRYO  

E-print Network

SHAPE STATISTICS FOR CELL DIVISION DETECTION IN TIME-LAPSE VIDEOS OF EARLY MOUSE EMBRYO M. Cicconet to the problem of estimat- ing the times of cell-division cycles in time-lapse movies of early mouse embryos. Our, mouse embryo 1. INTRODUCTION Several papers have been published in recent years on the topic of time

Werman, Michael

218

Early Detection Research Network Completes Initial Funding; Seeks New Screening Tests for Common Cancers  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded $18 million in first-year funding for the Early Detection Research Network, which brings together dozens of institutions to search for and evaluate new ways of testing for early cancer and for cancer risk.

219

Use of Magnetization Transfer Contrast MRI to Detect Early Molecular Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

has proven difficult. The biggest focus has been on imaging amyloid plaques, which hold promise of this study was to determine if mag- netization transfer contrast (MTC) imaging could be used to detect early macromolecular accumulation in a mouse model of early Alzheimer's disease. Methods: We obtained MTC images at 9

Reber, Paul J.

220

Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI  

SciTech Connect

We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

2008-01-01

221

Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

1981-01-01

222

Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique  

E-print Network

This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation of the tumor area. (c) The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d) The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include,...

Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

2009-01-01

223

Blood Test Aims to Detect Parkinson's in Early Stages  

MedlinePLUS

... February 3, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Laboratory Tests Parkinson's Disease TUESDAY, Feb. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have ... test that they say could help neurologists detect Parkinson's disease and track the illness as it progresses. "If ...

224

Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Current state-of-the-art diagnostic measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are invasive (cerebrospinal fluid analysis), expensive (neuroimaging) and time-consuming (neuropsychological assessment) and thus have limited accessibility as frontline screening and diagnostic tools for AD. Thus, there is an increasing need for additional noninvasive and/or cost-effective tools, allowing identification of subjects in the preclinical or early clinical stages of AD who could be suitable for further cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnostics. Implementation of such tests may facilitate early and potentially more effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for AD. Before applying them in clinical practice, these tools should be examined in ongoing large clinical trials. This review will summarize and highlight the most promising screening tools including neuropsychometric, clinical, blood, and neurophysiological tests. PMID:25443858

Laske, Christoph; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Frost, Shaun M; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Garrard, Peter; Buscema, Massimo; Dauwels, Justin; Soekadar, Surjo R; Mueller, Stephan; Linnemann, Christoph; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Martins, Ralph N; O'Bryant, Sid E

2014-11-15

225

[Application of support vector machine in the detection of early cancer].  

PubMed

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is an efficient novel method originated from the statistical learning theory. It is powerful in machine learning to solve problems with finite samples. Due to the deficiency of cancer cells, character of patient and noise in the raw data, it is very difficult to diagnose early cancer accurately. In this paper, SVM is employed in detecting early cancer and the results are encouraged compared with conventional methods. The accuracy of Non-linear SVM classifier is especially high in all kinds of classifiers, which indicates the potential application of SVM in early cancer detection. PMID:16294750

Gao, Zhiyong; Gong, Jianya; Qin, Qianqing; Lin, Jiarui

2005-10-01

226

Projected Cost-Effectiveness of Statewide Universal Newborn Hearing Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Early identification of hear- ing impairment may improve language outcomes and subsequent school and occupational performance of the deaf. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), cur- rently mandated by 32 states, can reduce the median age of identification of hearing impairment from 12 to 18 months to 6 months or less. However, because false- negative tests must be minimized, the

Ron Keren; Mark Helfand; Charles Homer; Heather McPhillips; Tracy A. Lieu

2010-01-01

227

Sex-linked inheritance of hearing and song in the  

E-print Network

& Dooling 1987). This high-frequency hearing loss is apparent in chicks as early as 20 days post- hatching the effect of the Z chromosome on hearing sensitivities and male song fre- quency in a backcross pedigreeSex-linked inheritance of hearing and song in the Belgian Waterslager canary Timothy F. Wright1

Wright, Timothy F.

228

Amplification Considerations for Children With Minimal or Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss and Unilateral Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

2008-01-01

229

Early Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Detected by Proton MR Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although (1)H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the (1)H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem (1)H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on the posterior cingulate gyrus using antibodies to synaptic vesicles, hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), neurofibrillary tangle conformational-epitope (cNFT), amyloid-?, astrocytes, and microglia. The slides were digitally analyzed using Aperio software, which allows neuropathologic quantification in the posterior cingulate gray matter. MRS and pathology associations were adjusted for time from scan to death. Significant associations across AD and control subjects were found between reduced synaptic immunoreactivity and both NAA/Cr and NAA/mI in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Higher pTau burden was associated with lower NAA/Cr and NAA/mI. Higher amyloid-? burden was associated with elevated mI/Cr and lower NAA/mI ratios, but not with NAA/Cr. (1)H-MRS metabolite levels reveal early neurodegenerative changes associated with AD pathology. Our findings support the hypothesis that a decrease in NAA/Cr is associated with loss of synapses and early pTau pathology, but not with amyloid-? or later accumulation of cNFT pathology in the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, elevation of mI/Cr is associated with the occurrence of amyloid-? plaques in AD. PMID:25471565

Murray, Melissa E; Przybelski, Scott A; Lesnick, Timothy G; Liesinger, Amanda M; Spychalla, Anthony; Zhang, Bing; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Parisi, Joseph E; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Dickson, Dennis W; Kantarci, Kejal

2014-12-01

230

78 FR 22546 - Hearing Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FINANCIAL STABILITY OVERSIGHT COUNCIL Hearing Procedures AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...Council (Council) has adopted amendments to its hearing procedures (Council Hearing Procedures) for hearings conducted by the...

2013-04-16

231

Non-Invasive Mobility Monitoring for Early Detection of Dementia  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION DETECTING MOBILITY CHANGES MULTIPLE RESIDENTS RESEARCH QUESTIONS Weka Picture · Can we calculate the datamining software, Weka: · A Naïve Bayes Tree was used to learn the expected mobility ranges (low, med, and the standard deviations of mobility. · After training the results in Weka, the system was able to predict

Collins, Gary S.

232

Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an

Santiago J. Barro Torres; Carlos J. Escudero Cascon

2009-01-01

233

Early detection network design and search strategy issues  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

234

Selective and early threat detection in large networked systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of modern networked information systems, as well as all the defense-in-depth best practices, require distributed intrusion detection architectures relying on the cooperation of multiple components. Similar solutions cause a multiplication of alerts, thus increasing the time needed for alert management and hiding the few critical alerts as needles in a hay stack. We propose an innovative distributed architecture

Michele Colajanni; Mirco Marchetti; Michele Messori; Reggio Emilia Modena

2010-01-01

235

Early Detection of Ecosystem Regime Shifts: A Multiple Method Evaluation for Management Application  

PubMed Central

Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change. PMID:22808007

Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P.; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A.; Möllmann, Christian

2012-01-01

236

Early detection of myocardial dysfunction and heart failure.  

PubMed

The impact of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure is continuing to escalate in the developed world. Treatment of this heterogeneous condition has focused on the symptomatic stage, often after irreversible remodeling and functional impairment have occurred. Early identification of cardiac dysfunction would allow implementation of early intervention strategies to delay the progression or to prevent the onset of heart failure altogether. Although screening methods for asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction have yet to be optimized, a staged approach for patients with predisposing risk factors using serological biomarkers followed by noninvasive imaging techniques may be useful. Existing biomarkers for cardiac dysfunction include B-type natriuretic peptide, troponins, and C-reactive protein. Novel markers such as protein ST2, galectin-3, and various prohormones are emerging and may provide prognostic information that is incremental to conventional clinical evaluation. Monitoring myocardial mechanics and molecular processes through three-dimensional speckle tracking and hybrid imaging modalities, such as PET-CT, may provide insight into disease manifestation before overt structural and physiological abnormalities. PMID:20458341

de Couto, Geoffrey; Ouzounian, Maral; Liu, Peter P

2010-06-01

237

June 14-16 2004: NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop Meeting Dates June 14-16 2004 Meeting Site One Bethesda Metro Center Bethesda, Maryland 20814 This workshop addressed the biology and the methods of pre-clinical cancer detection.

238

The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

2013-01-01

239

Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

240

Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network  

EPA Science Inventory

The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

241

Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

2003-01-01

242

Current Approaches and Challenges in Early Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

2014-01-01

243

Microwaves and Infrared Thermography – Applications in Early Breast Cancer Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper presents a comparative study concerning the utilization of the thermographic method for the tumor structures detection,\\u000a in infrared and the microwaves radiometry. This noninvasively technique makes use the human body emission in accordance to\\u000a Planck radiation law. The human body respects the same laws regarding electromagnetic emission as the environmental bodies,\\u000a and can be considered as a grey

O. Baltag; A. Banarescu; D. Costandache; M. Rau; S. Ojica

244

Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

1975-01-01

245

Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection of Gynecologic Cancers  

PubMed Central

Ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers are three of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive organs. CA 125, historically the most reliable serum marker for ovarian cancer, is elevated in 50% of early-stage ovarian tumors. For endometrial cancers, there are no established serum markers. SCC, which is the best studied serum marker for squamous cell carcinomas, has been unreliable; SCC is elevated in cervical squamous cell carcinomas ranging from 28–85% of the time. Recent proteomics-based analyses show great promise for the discovery of new and more useful biomarkers. In this review, we will discuss the currently utilized serum tumor markers for gynecologic cancers and the novel biomarkers that are now under investigation. PMID:24281117

Ueda, Yutaka; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Toshihiro; Miyatake, Takashi; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Kimura, Tadashi

2010-01-01

246

Early Detection of and Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

There are approximately one million new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) per year worldwide, with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. The long natural history of colorectal neoplasia affords the opportunity to use preventive measures to improve survival in this disease. Currently screening for adenomatous polyps and early-stage cancers is the best methodology for improving survival. The increasing knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and its natural history is allowing the development of new tools to identify patients who will benefit most from colon cancer screening and the defining of appropriate surveillance intervals. The guidelines for screening for colorectal neoplasia have recently been substantially revised by several organizations based on developing technologies and a growing body of data on the efficacy of CRC screening. PMID:20431727

2009-01-01

247

Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

2006-10-01

248

Mitochondrial DNA as a potential tool for early cancer detection  

PubMed Central

The recent surge in mitochondrial research has been driven by the identification of mitochondria-associated diseases and the role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Both of these aspects have identified mitochondrial analysis as a vital component of medical research. Moreover, mitochondria have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis because of their vital role in energy production, nuclear-cytoplasmic signal integration and control of metabolic pathways. Interestingly, at some point during neoplastic transformation, there is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which damage the mitochondrial genome. This accelerates the somatic mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA. It has been proposed that these mutations may serve as an early indication of potential cancer development and may represent a means for tracking tumour progression. The purpose of this review is to explore the potential utility that these mutations may afford for the identification and monitoring of neoplasia and malignant transformation where appropriate body fluids or non-invasive tissue access is available for mitochondrial DNA recovery. Specifically, prostate, breast, colorectal, skin and lung cancers are discussed. PMID:16460650

2006-01-01

249

Influences of Working Memory and Audibility on Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with hearing loss demonstrate delays in language development relative to their peers with normal hearing. Early intervention has a profound impact on language outcomes in children with hearing loss. Data examining the relationship between degree of hearing loss and language outcomes are variable. Two approaches are used in the…

Stiles, Derek Jason

2010-01-01

250

Multimodality data fusion aids early detection of breast cancer using conventional technology and advanced digital infrared imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion of data from the various screening modalities will lead to a cost effective breast cancer detection system that is certain to improve the early part of early breast cancer detection methods. We explore the integration of data from mammography, ultrasound, clinical evaluation, and CAD, with noninvasive digital infrared imaging data from the BreastScan IR system, to improve early

Francis Arena; Thomas DiCicco; Azad Anand

2004-01-01

251

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: CBRG Mission  

Cancer.gov

The mission of the CBRG is to engage basic and clinical scientists as well as epidemiologists and statisticians in a search for and validation of promising early cancer biomarkers. To do so, the CBRG supports and facilitates a broad spectrum of national and international research activities in molecular biology and genetics, particularly for the discovery of biomarkers for risk prediction and early detection of cancer.

252

Role of Diffusion-Weighted MRI in the Detection of Early Active Sacroiliitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study proposed to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to detect active inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints of patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (also spelled spondylarthritis). Su BJECTS AND METHODS. Forty-two patients with chronic low back pain under- went clinical and MRI evaluation for axial spondyloarthritis or early ankylosing spondylitis. STIR, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, fat-saturated T2-weighted, and

Zulkif Bozgeyik; Salih Ozgocmen; Ercan Kocakoc

2008-01-01

253

Early detection of pulmonary vascular disease in pulmonary arterial hypertension: time to move forward.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be a rapidly progressive disorder and is associated with high rate of mortality, despite medical intervention. With the availability of effective therapy, early disease detection is an important strategic objective to improve treatment outcomes. Resting echocardiography is currently the recommended screening modality for high-risk population groups. However, it is clear that derangements in resting haemodynamics (and symptoms) are late sequelae of the pathobiological processes that begin in the distal pulmonary arteries. Exercise stress may unmask early pulmonary vascular dysfunction but the definition, clinical significance, and natural history of 'exercise PAH' remain undefined. We will review the currently available and potential future strategies aimed at early disease detection, and propose that ultimately the way forward is to detect disease at a stage prior to the rise in resting pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:21616950

Lau, Edmund M T; Manes, Alessandra; Celermajer, David S; Galiè, Nazzareno

2011-10-01

254

Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... by Adults with Hearing Loss Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss Percent of Persons with Hearing Loss[*] Who Have Ever Used Hearing Aids [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ...

255

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

2014-01-01

256

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: risk factors, screening, and early detection.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

2014-08-28

257

Getting Your Hearing Tested  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... there is background noise. Difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds, such as the voices of women or children. ... re going to hear a series of beeping sounds. Some of them you'll hear easily, but ...

258

Hearing Disorders and Deafness  

MedlinePLUS

... you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some possibilities are Heredity Diseases such as ear ... noise Aging There are two main types of hearing loss. One happens when your inner ear or auditory ...

259

Hearing Loss in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Mother of twins who both have hearing loss. Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Hearing loss can affect ... History of Hearing Screening EHDI in Latin America Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

260

Impact of OSHA Final Rule—Recording Hearing Loss: An Analysis of an Industrial Audiometric Dataset  

PubMed Central

The 2003 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Final Rule changed the definition of recordable work-related hearing loss. We performed a study of the Alcoa Inc. audiometric database to evaluate the impact of this new rule. The 2003 rule increased the rate of potentially recordable hearing loss events from 0.2% to 1.6% per year. A total of 68.6% of potentially recordable cases had American Academy of Audiology/American Medical Association (AAO/AMA) hearing impairment at the time of recordability. On average, recordable loss occurred after onset of impairment, whereas the non-age-corrected 10-dB standard threshold shift (STS) usually preceded impairment. The OSHA Final Rule will significantly increase recordable cases of occupational hearing loss. The new case definition is usually accompanied by AAO/AMA hearing impairment. Other, more sensitive metrics should therefore be used for early detection and prevention of hearing loss. PMID:14665813

Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Slade, Martin; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Sircar, Kanta; Cullen, Mark

2013-01-01

261

Screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer in high risk population  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is a serious growing health issue in developed countries. For patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the five year survival rate is below 5%. One major important reason leads to the poor survival rate is lack of early detection of pancreatic cancer. Over 80% of the patients are diagnosed in advanced disease stages. Screening for pancreatic cancer is a desirable option for high risk individuals to allow early detection and treatment of curable pancreatic neoplasms at a pre-invasive stage. This article highlights the need, endpoint, population, method, diagnostic yield, and the problems of current screening programs. PMID:24605033

Chang, Ming-Chu; Wong, Jau-Min; Chang, Yu-Ting

2014-01-01

262

Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries. PMID:24281081

Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

2010-01-01

263

Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Early Detection of Implant Failure.  

PubMed

Preimplant planning with complex imaging techniques has long been a recommended practice for assessing the quality and quantity of alveolar bone before dental implant placement. When maxillofacial imaging is necessary, static film or digital images lack the depth and dimension offered by computed tomography. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers the dentist not only a radiographic volumetric view of alveolar bone but also a 3-dimensional reconstruction. This article reviews the use of CBCT for assessing implant placement and early detection of failure, and compares the performance of CBCT with that of other imaging modalities in the early detection of implant failure. PMID:25434558

Yepes, Juan F; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad

2015-01-01

264

Audiological Evaluation for Exaggerated Hearing Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are clinical techniques and procedures useful in evaluations for exaggerated hearing levels. Discussed are considerations of the audiologist, his equipment, and erroneous findings; patient cooperation, anticipated hearing handicaps, detection of exaggeration, and order of test presentation; voluntary aid conduction audiometry,…

Engelberg, Marvin W.

265

Training in early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer: an observational study in china.  

PubMed

Few studies have analyzed the training of endoscopists in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). This study assessed whether specific training of endoscopists improves the detection rate of EGC.The rates of detection of EGC by endoscopists at the Digestive Endoscopy Center of the Affiliated Nanfang Hospital of China Southern Medical University between January 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Because some endoscopists received training in the diagnosis of EGC, beginning in September 2013, the study was divided into 3 time periods: January to September 2013 (period 1), September 2013 to January 2014 (period 2), and January to May 2014 (period 3). The rates of EGC detection during these 3 periods were analyzed.From January 2013 to May 2014, a total of 25,314 gastroscopy examinations were performed at our center, with 48 of these examinations (0.2%) detecting EGCs, accounting for 12.1% (48/396) of the total number of gastric cancers detected. The EGC detection rates by trained endoscopists during periods 1, 2, and 3 were 0.3%, 0.6%, and 1.5%, respectively, accounting for 22.0%, 39.0%, and 60.0%, respectively, of the gastric cancers detected during these time periods. In comparison, the EGC detection rates by untrained endoscopists during periods 1, 2, and 3 were 0.05%, 0.08%, and 0.10%, respectively, accounting for 3.1%, 6.0%, and 5.7%, respectively, of the gastric cancers detected during these times. After training, the detection rate by some trained endoscopists markedly increased from 0.2% during period 1 to 2.3% during period 3. Further, the use of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) (odds ratio?=?3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.4-4.1, P?detection rate of EGC. M-NBI contributed to the diagnosis of EGC. PMID:25590840

Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Chu-di; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xiao-Wei; Ren, Yu-Tang; Huang, Si-Lin; Cui, Xiao-Bing; An, Sheng-Li; Xiao, Bing; Bai, Yang; Liu, Si-de; Jiang, Bo; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Gong, Wei

2015-01-01

266

Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ??? (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were calculated for assessment the differences between the spectral data of healthy and injured (stressed) plants of two cultivars. The averaged reflectance spectra for all groups were analyzed in the most informative for green plants spectral ranges: green, red, red edge, and near infrared. Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the maximums of the emitted radiation and at the forefronts and rear slopes. On the 7th day no visual changes in the leaves occurred but a decrease of spectral reflectance was established in the green and red ranges for all cases of two cultivars. On the 14th day an increase of the number of statistically significant differences between spectral reflectance of healthy and treated plants was observed. A shift of the red edge position to the blue region was observed for the case of treatment only with CMV. The growth regulator MEIA is with the best preventing action on the leaves. The correlation of the results from spectral analyses and the DAS-ELISA findings for presence of CMV demonstrates the efficiency and sensitivity of these remote sensing techniques for reliable diagnosis of viral infection and injuries of the plants.

Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

267

A frameshift mutation in GRXCR2 causes recessively inherited hearing loss  

PubMed Central

More than 360 million humans are affected with some degree of hearing loss, either early or later in life. A genetic cause for the disorder is present in a majority of the cases. We mapped a locus (DFNB101) for hearing loss in humans to chromosome 5q in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Exome sequencing revealed an insertion mutation in GRXCR2 as the cause of moderate to severe and likely progressive hearing loss in the affected individuals of the family. The frameshift mutation is predicted to affect a conserved, cysteine-rich region of GRXCR2, and to result in an abnormal extension of the C-terminus. Functional studies by cell transfections demonstrated that the mutant protein is unstable and mislocalized relative to wild type GRXCR2, consistent with a loss of function mutation. Targeted disruption of Grxcr2 is concurrently reported to cause hearing loss in mice. The structural abnormalities in this animal model suggest a role for GRXCR2 in the development of stereocilia bundles, specialized structures on the apical surface of sensory cells in the cochlea that are critical for sound detection. Our results indicate that GRXCR2 should be considered in differential genetic diagnosis for individuals with early onset, moderate to severe and progressive hearing loss. PMID:24619944

Imtiaz, Ayesha; Kohrman, David C.; Naz, Sadaf

2014-01-01

268

Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender. Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=?2/90, P<0/05) and “grammatical completion” (t=?3/39, P<0/05) subtests, with no significant difference in the “grammatical understanding” subtest (t=1/67, P>0/05). Moreover, there was no significant difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in terms of syntactic skills development. Conclusion: With early diagnosis and timely rehabilitating intervention, children with hearing loss can perform in a similar way to children of their age with normal hearing in some syntactical areas. Furthermore, the gender factor in the present study had no effect on the development of syntactical skills of children with hearing loss. PMID:24744994

PahlavanNezhad, Mohammad Reza; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid

2014-01-01

269

Early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed which allows early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) in DNA extracts from cacao plantlets agroinoculated with the Togolese isolate Agou 1. The primers used were derived from badnavirus conserved sequences and nucleic acid was extracted with the Plant DNeasy extraction kit (Qiagen). CSSV genome was detectable between 6 and 20 days after inoculation. The first leaf symptoms appeared after 4 weeks and the first shoot swelling symptoms after 8 weeks. PMID:11311339

Muller, E; Jacquot, E; Yot, P

2001-04-01

270

TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

Cannon, Kipp [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cariou, Romain [Departement de physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan (France); Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-36, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA (United States); Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Frei, Melissa [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hanna, Chad [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Kara, Erin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Keppel, Drew [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationphysik, Hannover (Germany); Liao, Laura, E-mail: leo.singer@ligo.org [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2012-04-01

271

Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. Results In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). Conclusions We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under Curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the biomarkers are associated with Signaling, Hemostasis, Hormones, and Immune System, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for biomarker discovery in early detection of other cancers. In the future, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is planned for validation of the ability of these potential biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. PMID:23369435

2013-01-01

272

Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

2013-07-01

273

Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

2013-01-01

274

Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia  

PubMed Central

The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

2014-01-01

275

Detection and characterization of oncogene mutations in preneoplastic and early neoplastic lesions.  

PubMed

While it has been nearly 30 years since its discovery, the ras family of genes has not yet lost its impact on basic and clinical oncology. These genes remain central to the field of molecular oncology as tools for investigating carcinogenesis and oncogenic signaling, as powerful biomarkers for the identification of those who have or are at high risk of developing cancer, and as oncogene targets for the design and development of new chemotherapeutic drugs. Mutational activation of the K-RAS proto-oncogene is an early event in the development and progression of the colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancers that are the major causes of cancer death in the world. The presence of point mutational "hot spots" at sites necessary for the activation of this proto-oncogene has led to the development of a number of highly sensitive PCR-based methods that are feasible for the early detection of K-RAS oncogene mutations in the clinical setting. In light of these facts, mutation at the K-RAS oncogene has the potential to serve as a useful biomarker in the early diagnosis and risk assessment of cancers with oncogenic ras signaling. This chapter describes a highly sensitive method for detecting mutant K-RAS, enriched PCR, and its application to early detection of alterations in this oncogene in preneoplastic and early neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum. PMID:24623243

Minamoto, Toshinari

2014-01-01

276

Satellite-detected early summer coccolithophore blooms and their interannual variability in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interannual variability of the prevalent early summer coccolithophore blooms within surface waters of the Black Sea was studied by means of satellite-based bio-optical observations. Two coccolith detection algorithms, tested for the Black Sea conditions, were found to provide comparable spatial coccolith patterns consistent with the corresponding true color images. Reliability of the algorithms is also supported by several sets of

Tulay Cokacar; Temel Oguz; Nilgun Kubilay

2004-01-01

277

Evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography Parameters in Detecting Early and Moderate Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To evaluate the relationship between optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and con- focal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retinal to- mography; HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Ger- many) in early and moderate glaucoma and to compare several OCT-based automated classifiers with those inbuilt in HRT for detection of glaucomatous

Prashant Naithani; Ramanjit Sihota; Parul Sony; Tanuj Dada; Viney Gupta; Dimple Kondal; Ravindra M. Pandey

2007-01-01

278

Fluorescence guided optical coherence tomography for early detection of epithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Standard clinical diagnosis of oral cancer rely almost exclusively on the visual examination of tissue followed by pathological determinations of tissue biopsies collected from suspected lesions in the oral cavity and upper digestive-tract. The search for more accurate and less invasive method for rapid screening of epithelial tissue and early detection of malignant tissue transformation has

M. Motamedi; R. Johnigan; B. Bell; J. Pasricha; K. Calhoun

2000-01-01

279

Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

280

Community-based analysis of netflow for early detection of security incidents  

E-print Network

information across a community of organizations (e.g., banking industry, energy generation and distribution information across a community of organizations (e.g., banking industry, energy generation and distributionCommunity-based analysis of netflow for early detection of security incidents Stefan Weigert Matti

Fisher, Kathleen

281

Early drought stress detection in cereals: simplex volume maximisation for hyperspectral image analysis  

E-print Network

Early drought stress detection in cereals: simplex volume maximisation for hyperspectral image. The method was tested for drought stress, applied to potted barley plants in a controlled rain-out shelter research in the understanding of plant adaptation under drought to improve management practices

Kersting, Kristian

282

Analysis of movement patterns aids the early detection of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement patterns are characteristic for a person. The changes in his\\/her movement patterns indicate changes in his\\/her state. Several diseases result in well distinguishable deviation from normal movement patterns. The deviation starts with subtle changes; our aim is to detect these changes and thus aid the early diagnosis of neurological diseases. We have been using a passive marker based

Akos Jobbagy; H. Furnee; PCter Harcos; M. Tarczy; I. Krekule; L. Komjathi

1997-01-01

283

A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo Development  

E-print Network

A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo to find individual cell candidates within the em- bryo. These cell candidates are combined into embryo hy applications such as predicting blas- tocyst and can be used for assessing embryos in in vitro fertilization

Gould, Stephen

284

Early Detection and Outpatient Management of Alcoholism: A Curriculum for Medical Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course in the early detection and outpatient management of alcoholism for medical residents is discussed. Unlike other courses on alcoholism that have emphasized changes in physicians' attitudes, this course was designed to promote changes in residents' practice behavior and to foster the development of necessary clinical skills. (MLW)

Barnes, Henrietta N.; And Others

1984-01-01

285

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue  

E-print Network

A Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue RITA of California We consider the characterization of muscle fatigue through noninvasive sensing mechanism fatigue have been reported in the literature, the large variation in these signals across different

Davidson, Ian

286

Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

287

Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

288

A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Biomarkers  

E-print Network

A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Atlas software system that allows a researcher to correlate lung cancer patients with similar for lung cancer researchers to browse lung cancer specimens collected at sites participating

Mattmann, Chris

289

Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal  

E-print Network

such as drought, herbicide application, and volatile hydrocarbon and heavy metal pollution cause changes Zealand, Blenheim, P.O. Box 331, New Zealand Abstract. Oil pollution is a major source of environmental of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize

Blackburn, Alan

290

Early Detection of Parkinson's Disease: The Challenges and Potential of New Biomarkers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webinar will explain the need for biomarkers for detecting early PD and how these biomarkers can be used in drug development and clinical trials, provide an overview of promising new biological and neuroimaging markers, and discuss the challenges and bottlenecks in the development of new biomarkers for PD and the role of the ParkinsonâÂÂs Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI).

n/a n/a (AAAS;)

2011-04-27

291

Proteomic patterns as biomarkers for the early detection of schistosomiasis japonica in a rabbit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify proteomic patterns in sera for the early detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections in a rabbit model. Proteomic patterns were to be established by profiling serum proteins using magnetic bead (MB) separation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

Yuzheng Huang; Guojing Yang; Dominic Kurian; Ming Xu; Yang Dai; Yonghua Zhou; Yongliang Xu; Jie Wang; Ying Zhang; Qi Gao

2011-01-01

292

Motivating Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Behaviors using Psychologically Tailored Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tailoring health messages to make them salient to recipients is a strategy to motivate cancer prevention and early detection behaviors. Various tactics can be used to tailor health materials; our approach involves tailoring messages to individual differences in the psychological processes by which people understand health information. To summarize our tailoring approach, we review findings from six field experiments (four

Amy E. Latimer; Nicole A. Katulak; Linda Mowad; Peter Salovey

2005-01-01

293

Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe’s Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes’ statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

Joseph B. Kadane

2009-01-01

294

Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes  

E-print Network

This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe's Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes' statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

Kadane, Joseph B

2010-01-01

295

March 20 - 22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop - Poster Session  

Cancer.gov

4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA Poster Session Tuesday, March 22, 2006 3:30 – 5:30 p.m. Poster Highlights 5:30 – 6:30 p.m. Chairs Dean Brenner, M.D., University of Michigan David Sidransky,

296

A ground system for early forest fire detection based on infrared signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a ground remote automatic system for forest surveillance based on infrared signal processing applied to early fire detection. Advanced techniques, which are based on infrared signal processing, are used in order to process the captured images. With the aim of determining the presence or absence of fire, the system performs the fusion of different detectors that exploit

I. Bosch; S. Gómez; L. Vergara

2011-01-01

297

Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

298

SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease , Michèle Allard5 , D. Louis Collins2 and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroi- maging Initiative* 1 Laboratoire it is in that moment when treatment is possible. The potential use of structural MRI as imaging biomarker for Alzheimer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

A medical game changer New device shows early promise for detecting heart disease  

E-print Network

Fall 2012 A medical game changer New device shows early promise for detecting heart disease It as a functional test for people at high risk of developing heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United for enhancing auscultation (listening to heart sounds). Her husband, Robert Guion, was a convenient, good

Minnesota, University of

300

A Model of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a group of severe developmental disorders that are characterized by 3 core sets of developmental abnormalities: impairment of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior. The disorder is far more common than previously thought. There is no cure for autism but it is apparent that early detection followed

Suniti Cbakraharti; Christine Haubus; Sally Dugmore; Gill Orgill; Frank Devine

301

Early detection of malignant skin can-cers, in particular melanoma, is crucial as  

E-print Network

in clinical diagnosis of skin cancer have provoked interest in develop- ment of automated computer­based skin computer-aided diagnosis system for skin cancers. This can provide clinicians with an objective secondMOTIVATION · Early detection of malignant skin can- cers, in particular melanoma, is crucial

Drew, Mark S.

302

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods  

E-print Network

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods William to learn the best decision rules to distinguish normal brain aging from the earliest stages of dementia using subsamples of 198 normal and 244 cognitively impaired or very mildly demented (Clinical Dementia

Pazzani, Michael J.

303

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods  

E-print Network

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods William decision rules to distinguish normal brain aging from the earliest stages of dementia using subsamples of 198 normal and 244 cognitively impaired or very mildly demented (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale=0

Pazzani, Michael J.

304

Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification Tatjana Ilyina,1  

E-print Network

Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification Tatjana Ilyina,1 Richard E 20 November 2008; published 19 February 2009. [1] Ocean acidification is likely to impact structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean

Zeebe, Richard E.

305

Evaluating the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early smoking-induced respiratory changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early detection of the effects of smoking is of the utmost importance in the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is easy to perform since it requires only tidal breathing and offers a detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The FOT was recently suggested as an attractive alternative

Alvaro CD Faria; Agnaldo J Lopes; José M Jansen; Pedro L Melo

2009-01-01

306

The remediation of hearing deterioration in children with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.  

PubMed

Based on imaging findings, large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) in early childhood is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Children with LVAS are at a high risk of suffering sudden deteriorations in hearing. This study was to review treatment of sudden hearing deterioration in children with LVAS who underwent corticosteroid therapy. We conducted a retrospective study of patients presenting to an academic tertiary medical center. Sixteen children of LVAS were evaluated. Corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone 1-2 mg/(kg day) or equal titer's dexamethasone) was administered as soon as sudden hearing loss developed. The pure tone audiometric result improved more than 10dB at two or more consecutive frequencies and was regarded as a significant response to corticosteroid therapy. Sixteen cases comprising 12 boys and 4 girls were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The mean age at which LVAS was diagnosed was 2.3 years. Mean follow-up for the 16 cases from the first clinic visit to November 2003 was 4.2 years. The initial audiograms varied from down-sloping, valve or rising patterns. In addition, bilateral enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct was found to all children and the mean diameter of right and left ears were 7.23 and 6.83 mm, respectively. Seven children had totally experienced 13 episodes of sudden hearing deterioration. After receiving corticosteroid therapy in time, 11 of 13 episodes had indicated significant responses to treatment, a response rate of 85%. Early detection of LVAS and the timing of treatment are crucial for preventing the residual hearing from deteriorating. As soon as the hearing deterioration of a child with LVAS is recognized, aggressive intervention such as corticosteroid therapy should be performed in no time. PMID:15917164

Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Szu-Lan; Kao, Chun-Chu; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

2005-06-01

307

Early Detection of Human Focal Seizures Based on Cortical Multiunit Activity  

PubMed Central

Approximately 50 million people in the world suffer from epileptic seizures. Reliable early seizure detection could bring significantly beneficial therapeutic alternatives. In recent decades, most approaches have relied on scalp EEG and intracranial EEG signals, but practical early detection for closed-loop seizure control remains challenging. In this study, we present preliminary analyses of an early detection approach based on intracortical neuronal multiunit activity (MUA) recorded from a 96-microelectrode array (MEA). The approach consists of (1) MUA detection from broadband field potentials recorded at 30 kHz by the MEA; (2) MUA feature extraction; (3) cost-sensitive support vector machine classification of ictal and interictal samples; and (4) Kalman-filtering postprocessing. MUA was here defined as the number of threshold crossing (spike counts) applied to the 300 Hz – 6 kHz bandpass filtered local field potentials in 0.1 sec time windows. MUA features explored in this study included the mean, variance, and Fano-factor, computed across the MEA channels. In addition, we used the leading eigenvalues of MUA spatial and temporal correlation matrices computed in 1-sec moving time windows. We assessed the seizure detection approach on out-of-sample data from one-participant recordings with six seizure events and 4.73-hour interictal data. The proposed MUA-based detection approach yielded a 100% sensitivity (6/6) and no false positives, and a latency of 4.17 ± 2.27 sec (mean ± SD) with respect to ECoG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate intracortical MUA may be a useful signal for early detection of human epileptic seizures. PMID:25571313

Park, Yun S.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cash, Sydney S.; Truccolo, Wilson

2014-01-01

308

Early detection of human focal seizures based on cortical multiunit activity.  

PubMed

Approximately 50 million people in the world suffer from epileptic seizures. Reliable early seizure detection could bring significantly beneficial therapeutic alternatives. In recent decades, most approaches have relied on scalp EEG and intracranial EEG signals, but practical early detection for closed-loop seizure control remains challenging. In this study, we present preliminary analyses of an early detection approach based on intracortical neuronal multiunit activity (MUA) recorded from a 96-microelectrode array (MEA). The approach consists of (1) MUA detection from broadband field potentials recorded at 30 kHz by the MEA; (2) MUA feature extraction; (3) cost-sensitive support vector machine classification of ictal and interictal samples; and (4) Kalman-filtering postprocessing. MUA was here defined as the number of threshold crossing (spike counts) applied to the 300 Hz-6 kHz bandpass filtered local field potentials in 0.1 sec time windows. MUA features explored in this study included the mean, variance, and Fano-factor, computed across the MEA channels. In addition, we used the leading eigenvalues of MUA spatial and temporal correlation matrices computed in 1-sec moving time windows. We assessed the seizure detection approach on out-of-sample data from one-participant recordings with six seizure events and 4.73-hour interictal data. The proposed MUA-based detection approach yielded a 100% sensitivity (6/6) and no false positives, and a latency of 4.17 ± 2.27 sec (mean ± SD) with respect to ECoG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate intracortical MUA may be a useful signal for early detection of human epileptic seizures. PMID:25571313

Park, Yun S; Hochberg, Leigh R; Eskandar, Emad N; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

2014-08-01

309

Detection and Localization of Pre-Cancerous Lesions and Early Lung Cancer Using Tissue Autofluorescence.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, two different yet related hypotheses were tested by experimental means as follows: (i) pre-cancerous and non-invasive (early) lung cancer can be detected and localized using the fluorescence properties of tumour localizing drugs at non-photosensitizing doses to skin tissue; (ii) significant differences exist in laser-induced autofluorescence between normal, pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues such that these differences alone can be exploited to detect and delineate early lung cancer without using exogenous drug(s). Exogenous fluorescent tumour markers such as hematoporphyrin derivatives (e.g. Photofrin) have been used to enhance to detection of occult lung lesions. Photofrin is preferentially retained in tumor tissues compared to the surrounding normal tissues; it fluoresces at 630 nm and 690 nm when excited at -405 nm. Based on this principle several imaging and non-imaging devices have been developed. However, wider clinical applications were limited due to the skin photosensitivity property of Photofrin. We have postulated that this could be solved by employing a much lower dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg) which was believed to be less photosensitizing to human patients. This postulate was experimentally tested by ratio fluorometry and early lung cancers were detected with no false negative results and no apparent skin photosensitivity. An important finding in this study was that the mechanism for detection of early cancer was mainly due to the differences in the green autofluorescence between normal and malignant tissues, rather than fluorescence of tumour localizing drug. This discovery led to the second postulate of this thesis that tissue autofluorescence alone can be exploited for the detection of early lung cancer. The results indicated that algorithm(s) could be developed to clearly delineate early lesions from the normal tissues. Several algorithms were then tested using a non-imaging ratio fluorometer device and a prototype imaging fluorescence system to detect early lung cancer and dysplasia during standard bronchoscopy, therefore confirming the initial hypotheses even in a clinical setting. The major source of the autofluorescence in the normal bronchial tissue was determined to come from the sub-epithelial layers. The mechanism for the decrease in the autofluorescence in pre-malignant and malignant tissues was explored but not yet completely elucidated. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Hung, Jaclyn Yip-Chan

310

An analysis of media coverage on the prevention and early detection of CKD in Australia.  

PubMed

News media raise public awareness about health and can influence public policy agenda. Recently, nephrologists have sought to make prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) a health care priority. We assessed the extent and manner in which Australian television news and newspapers cover CKD prevention or early detection. Electronic news databases for print media and television programs were searched (May 2005 to March 2007) for items referring to CKD prevention or early detection. We analyzed all relevant items for spokespeople, main news frame, focus of responsibility, proposed solutions, and trigger/reason for publication. Of 2,439 newspaper articles and 10,430 television broadcasts retrieved, only 214 articles (8.77%) and 7 broadcasts (0.06%) were eligible. Kidney transplantation dominated CKD-related news. Lay person or high-profile advocates were virtually absent. Risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality conferred by CKD were not emphasized by news reports; instead, CKD received peripheral mention as a secondary consequence of diabetes or obesity. Few reports cited the economic consequences of CKD. The media focused on lifestyle causes and solutions, whereas nonlifestyle causes and screening and prevention strategies were rarely mentioned. Kidney health professionals need to actively engage with the media in efforts to amplify desired messages on CKD prevention or early detection. Medical journals, research institutions, universities, hospitals, and advocacy groups should issue press releases that highlight newsworthy aspects of this topic. Extending news media coverage can help exert an influence on health policies and agenda setting and increase public awareness to improve prevention and early detection of CKD. PMID:18468753

Tong, Allison; Chapman, Simon; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan C

2008-07-01

311

On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil  

PubMed Central

During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

2013-01-01

312

On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.  

PubMed

During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

2013-01-01

313

Sudden hearing loss after dental treatment.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man presented with impaired balance, tinnitus, sensation of blockage, and hearing loss in his left ear, which developed after dental treatment for dental pain 4 days previously. Treatment of the carious left upper second molar tooth had included pulp extirpation, canal expansion, and tooth filling under local anesthesia with articaine and epinephrine. Impaired balance decreased spontaneously within 3 days of dental treatment, but tinnitus and hearing loss persisted. Pure tone audiogram showed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear, with a downslope from 40 to 100 dB, and an abnormal speech discrimination score (50%). Treatment included intravenous prednisolone, intratympanic dexamethasone, and oral betahistine and trimetazidine. The patient had improved hearing and resolution of tinnitus. Sudden hearing loss is rare after dental treatment, and awareness of this complication may prompt early referral for treatment and may improve recovery and prognosis. PMID:23642550

Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail

2013-08-01

314

Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

315

Interferometric detection of early markers for epithelial ovarian cancer and prognostic markers for acute lymphocytic leukemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing fluorescence-free interferometric biosensors for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and prognosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). We can detect potential early markers for EOC (CA125, human epididymus protein 4, osteopontin) spiked into serum as well as elevated CA125 in EOC patient serum. For ALL prognosis we are focusing on three intracellular protein markers (p73, p57/Kip2, and p15/Ink4b), the down-regulation of any two being indicative of a more aggressive cancer. We have detected p15 and p57 spiked into buffer and are preparing to test positive and negative control lysates from bone marrow biopsies.

O'Neil, P.; Zhao, M.; Wang, X.; Nolte, D. D.

2010-02-01

316

Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

2014-01-01

317

Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens.  

PubMed

Current knowledge does not allow the prediction of when low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes infecting poultry will mutate to their highly pathogenic phenotype (HPAIV). This mutation may already take place in the first infected flock; hence early detection of LPAIV outbreaks will reduce the likelihood of pathogenicity mutations and large epidemics. The objective of this study was the development of a model for the design and evaluation of serological-surveillance programmes, with a particular focus on early detection of LPAIV infections in layer chicken flocks. Early detection is defined as the detection of an infected flock before it infects on average more than one other flock (between-flock reproduction ratio Rf<1), hence a LPAI introduction will be detected when only one or a few other flocks are infected. We used a mathematical model that investigates the required sample size and sampling frequency for early detection by taking into account the LPAIV within- and between-flock infection dynamics as well as the diagnostic performance of the serological test used. Since layer flocks are the target of the surveillance, we also explored whether the use of eggs, is a good alternative to sera, as sample commodity. The model was used to refine the current Dutch serological-surveillance programme. LPAIV transmission-risk maps were constructed and used to target a risk-based surveillance strategy. In conclusion, we present a model that can be used to explore different sampling strategies, which combined with a cost-benefit analysis would enhance surveillance programmes for low pathogenic avian influenza. PMID:25217408

Gonzales, J L; Boender, G J; Elbers, A R W; Stegeman, J A; de Koeijer, A A

2014-11-01

318

Help with Hearing  

MedlinePLUS

... or hearing problems actually exist. How Young Children’s Hearing and Ears are Evaluated The first two tests on this ... middle ear is temporarily keeping a child from hearing sounds clearly. Ear infections in particular can cause a conductive hearing ...

319

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing loss. Only a small portion of adult hearing problems, like ear infections and middle ear diseases, are medically or ... for your condition. For example, if you have hearing loss in both ears, two hearing aids may be recommended because two ...

320

Hearing Matters Olderadultswhowearhearingaidsoftenreportthatspeechistoo  

E-print Network

to normal latencies at higher intensities. The effects of hearing loss on auditory processing of a speech Department of Hearing & Speech Sciences, where she is studying the effects of hearing loss and aging on neural processing in older adults. Bigger is Not Better: Effects of Hearing Loss on Central Processing

Kraus, Nina

321

Nonsyndromic Hereditary Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of hereditary hearing loss is extraordinarily complex. More than 400 genetic syndromes are associated with hearing loss and more than 140 genetic loci associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss have been mapped, with more than 60 genes identified to date. Hereditary hearing loss can be inherited as an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked or mitochondrial (maternally inherited) condition. The

Raye L. Alford

2011-01-01

322

Early detection of bacterial growth in blood culture by impedance monitoring with a Bactometer model 32.  

PubMed Central

A Bactometer model 32 was evaluated for use in early detection of bacterial growth. Experiments with simulated cultures showed that 2 ml of broth introduced into the Bactometer module wells could detect 10(2) and 10(6) CFU/ml in 6 h and 2 h respectively. Both Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Fastidious Anaerobic broths supported good growth. Detection of nine of 10 organisms inoculated at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml in BHI were detected within 8.5 h. A culture of Bacteroides fragilis failed to grow under these conditions. Of 189 blood cultures, tested by incubation of 2 ml of BHI, 18 were positive by both conventional and Bactometer methods. False-positive or false-negative specimens were not observed using the Bactometer. Use of the Bactometer enables growth detection at least 12 h earlier than culture methods. PMID:6345594

Buckland, A; Kessock-Philip, S; Bascomb, S

1983-01-01

323

Computer-assisted detection (CAD) methodology for early detection of response to pharmaceutical therapy in tuberculosis patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chest x-ray radiological features of tuberculosis patients are well documented, and the radiological features that change in response to successful pharmaceutical therapy can be followed with longitudinal studies over time. The patients can also be classified as either responsive or resistant to pharmaceutical therapy based on clinical improvement. We have retrospectively collected time series chest x-ray images of 200 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis receiving the standard pharmaceutical treatment. Computer algorithms can be created to utilize image texture features to assess the temporal changes in the chest x-rays of the tuberculosis patients. This methodology provides a framework for a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system that may provide physicians with the ability to detect poor treatment response earlier in pharmaceutical therapy. Early detection allows physicians to respond with more timely treatment alternatives and improved outcomes. Such a system has the potential to increase treatment efficacy for millions of patients each year.

Lieberman, Robert; Kwong, Heston; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

2009-02-01

324

Pacific herring hearing does not include ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that some clupeid fishes, including shad and menhaden, can detect ultrasound (sound with frequencies higher than 20?kHz) and actively avoid it. However, other clupeids, including sardines and anchovies, do not detect ultrasound. The hearing abilities of herring are of particular interest because of their commercial importance, our reliance on acoustics to monitor their populations and behavioural evidence of responses to high-frequency sound by some clupeid species. We measured the hearing sensitivity of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) using the auditory brainstem response and found that they were unable to detect ultrasonic signals at received levels up to 185?dB re 1??Pa. Herring had hearing thresholds at lower frequencies (100–5000?Hz) that were typical of other non-ultrasound?detecting clupeids. This lower?frequency hearing sensitivity could explain the results of several earlier studies showing responses to broadband sounds. PMID:17148154

Mann, David A; Popper, Arthur N; Wilson, Ben

2005-01-01

325

CA-125 change over time shows promise as screening tool for early detection of ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Evaluating its change over time, CA-125, the protein long-recognized for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, now shows promise as a screening tool for early-stage disease, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The updated findings are published in Cancer; preliminary data were first presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. If a larger study shows survival benefit, the simple blood test could offer a much-needed screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages – even in the most aggressive forms – in post-menopausal women at average risk for the disease.

326

Mathematical Model Identifies Blood Biomarker-Based Early Cancer Detection Strategies and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Most clinical blood biomarkers lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity to reliably detect cancer at an early stage, when it is best treatable. It is not yet clear how early a clinical blood assay can be used to detect cancer, or how biomarker-based strategies can be improved to enable earlier detection of smaller tumors. To address these issues, we developed a mathematical model describing dynamic plasma biomarker kinetics in relation to the growth of a tumor, beginning with a single cancer cell. To exemplify a realistic scenario in which biomarker is shed by both cancerous and non-cancerous cells, we primed the model on ovarian tumor growth and CA125 shedding data, for which tumor growth parameters and shedding rates are readily available in published literature. We found that a tumor could grow unnoticed for over 10.1 years and reach a volume of (20.44 mm)3 before becoming detectable by current clinical blood assays. Model parameters were perturbed over log-orders of magnitude to quantify ideal shedding rates and identify other blood-based strategies required for early sub-millimeter tumor detectability. Detection times we estimated are consistent with recently published tumor progression timelines based on clinical genomic sequencing data for several cancers. In this study, we rigorously showed that shedding rates of current clinical blood biomarkers are likely 104-fold too low to enable detection of a developing tumor within the first decade of tumor growth. The model presented here can be extended to virtually any solid cancer and associated biomarkers. PMID:22089452

Hori, Sharon S.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

2012-01-01

327

Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

2001-10-01

328

Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC. Methods We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Results Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD. Conclusions Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples. PMID:24308314

2013-01-01

329

Directional hearing: from biophysical binaural cues to directional hearing outdoors.  

PubMed

When insects communicate by sound, or use acoustic cues to escape predators or detect prey or hosts they have to localize the sound in most cases, to perform adaptive behavioral responses. In the case of particle velocity receivers such as the antennae of mosquitoes, directionality is no problem because such receivers are inherently directional. Insects equipped with bilateral pairs of tympanate ears could principally make use of binaural cues for sound localization, like all other animals with two ears. However, their small size is a major problem to create sufficiently large binaural cues, with respect to both interaural time differences (ITDs, because interaural distances are so small), but also with respect to interaural intensity differences (IIDs), since the ratio of body size to the wavelength of sound is rather unfavorable for diffractive effects. In my review, I will only shortly cover these biophysical aspects of directional hearing. Instead, I will focus on aspects of directional hearing which received relatively little attention previously, the evolution of a pressure difference receiver, 3D-hearing, directional hearing outdoors, and directional hearing for auditory scene analysis. PMID:25231204

Römer, Heiner

2015-01-01

330

Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures. PMID:17278819

Kasai, Satoshi; Li, Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

2006-12-01

331

Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2006-12-15

332

Factors Influencing Follow-up to Newborn Hearing Screening for Infants who are Hard-of-Hearing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To document the epidemiological characteristics of a group of hard-of-hearing children, to identify individual predictor variables for timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screen, and to identify barriers to follow-up encountered by families. Method An accelerated longitudinal design was used to investigate outcomes for children who are hard-of-hearing in a large multicenter study. The current study involves a subgroup of 193 of children with hearing loss who did not pass the newborn hearing screen. Available records were used to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark. Results Of several predictor variables, only higher levels of maternal education were significantly associated with earlier confirmation of hearing loss and fitting of hearing aids. Severity of hearing loss was not. No variables were significantly associated with age of entry into early intervention. Each recommended benchmark was met by a majority of children, but only one-third met all of the benchmarks within the recommended time frame. Conclusions Results suggest that underserved communities need extra support in navigating steps that follow failed newborn hearing screening. PMID:22585937

Holte, Lenore; Walker, Elizabeth; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Roush, Patricia; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ou, Hua

2012-01-01

333

Screening for Hearing Loss in Children  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss in infants has severe, lifelong consequences. The critical period for speech and language development is from birth to age two, so every effort must be made to diagnose hearing problems early. Several simple screening and testing procedures can be carried out in a normal office visit. The use of a ‘high risk registry’ is advocated for newborns. Parents are usually the first to suspect a problem. Believe the parents... get the child tested. PMID:21289801

Gibson, Glenn C.

1981-01-01

334

BIOGRAPHY: DR. ELAINE SAUNDERS, B.Sc Hons, Grad Dip Mgt, MSc, CEO and Executive Director of Dynamic Hearing  

E-print Network

-authored a University textbook on the effect of hearing loss on children's language. For fun, she shared her early of Dynamic Hearing Elaine Saunders is CEO of Dynamic Hearing Pty Ltd, a technology company that supplies leading edge DSP software to hearing aid and other communication companies around the world. Prior

Heiser, Gernot

335

Flame and smoke detection method for early real-time detection of a tunnel fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an image-processing technique for automatic real-time flame and smoke detection in a tunnel environment. To avoid the large-scale damage caused by fire occurring in different environments, there are many studies about discovering and minimizing an incident as fast as possible. However, we need an original algorithm specialized for a tunnel fire, because this environment is quite different

Dongil Han; Byoungmoo Lee

2009-01-01

336

Modulation Detection Interference for Asynchronous Presentation of Masker and Target in Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The sensitivity to sinusoidal amplitude modulations (SAMs) is reduced when other modulated maskers are presented simultaneously at a distant frequency (also referred to as "modulation detection interference" [MDI]). This article describes the results of onset differences between masker and target as a parameter. Method: Carrier…

Koopman, Jan; Houtgast, Tammo; Dreschler, Wouter A.

2008-01-01

337

Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: Diagnostics and genetics  

PubMed Central

This overview study provides information on important phoniatric and audiological aspects of early childhood hearing and language development with the aim of presenting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The article first addresses the universal newborn hearing screening that has been implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The process of newborn hearing screening from the maternity ward to confirmation diagnostics is presented in accordance with a decision by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). The second topic is pediatric audiology diagnostics. Following confirmation of a permanent early childhood hearing disorder, the search for the cause plays an important role. Hereditary hearing disorders and intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, probably the most common cause of an acquired hearing disorder, are discussed and compared with the most common temporary hearing disorder, otitis media with effusion, which in some cases is severe enough to be relevant for hearing and language development and therefore requires treatment. The third topic covered in this article is speech and language development in the first 3 years of life, which is known today to be crucial for later language development and learning to read and write. There is a short overview and introduction to modern terminology, followed by the abnormalities and diagnostics of early speech and language development. Only some aspects of early hearing and language development are addressed here. Important areas such as the indication for a cochlear implant in the first year of life or because of unilateral deafness are not included due to their complexity. PMID:25587365

Lang-Roth, Ruth

2014-01-01

338

Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

2013-07-01

339

Early Detection of Severe Apnoea through Voice Analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is part of an on-going collaborative effort between the medical and the signal processing communities to promote research on applying voice analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition techniques (ASR) for the automatic diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Early detection of severe apnoea cases is important so that patients can receive early treatment. Effective ASR-based diagnosis could dramatically cut medical testing time. Working with a carefully designed speech database of healthy and apnoea subjects, we present and discuss the possibilities of using generative Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), generally used in ASR systems, to model distinctive apnoea voice characteristics (i.e. abnormal nasalization). Finally, we present experimental findings regarding the discriminative power of speaker recognition techniques applied to severe apnoea detection. We have achieved an 81.25 % correct classification rate, which is very promising and underpins the interest in this line of inquiry.

Fernández, Ruben; Blanco, Jose Luis; Díaz, David; Hernández, Luis A.; López, Eduardo; Alcázar, José

340

Early video smoke detection system to improve fire protection in rolling stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a video system, operating in the visible spectrum range, for early smoke detection in passenger trains. The main idea is integrating standard smoke sensors with the results of a smoke detection processing, which exploits video surveillance cameras already available on-board the train. To this aim a novel video processing flow is proposed exploiting temporal, spatial and chromatic characteristics of the reference scenario. The proposed algorithm has been successfully verified with several video set and its implementation complexity fully characterized.

Saponara, Sergio; Pilato, Luca; Fanucci, Luca

2014-05-01

341

Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using histograms in a dissimilarity-based classification framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classification methods have been proposed to detect early-stage Alzheimer's disease using Magnetic Resonance images. In particular, dissimilarity-based classification has been applied using a deformation-based distance measure. However, such approach is not only computationally expensive but it also considers large-scale alterations in the brain only. In this work, we propose the use of image histogram distance measures, determined both globally and locally, to detect very mild to mild Alzheimer's disease. Using an ensemble of local patches over the entire brain, we obtain an accuracy of 84% (sensitivity 80% and specificity 88%).

Luchtenberg, Anne; Simões, Rita; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Slump, Cornelis H.

2014-03-01

342

Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

2012-09-01

343

Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

2010-01-01

344

Three-Dimensional Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in the Early Diagnosis and Detection of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents doctoral thesis of three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis in the early diagnosis and detection\\u000a of breast cancer. The purpose is to prove that digital breast tomosynthesis has the potential to provide clinically important\\u000a information, which cannot be obtained with conventional breast imaging methods. Three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis\\u000a seeks to (1) determine whether a mammographic finding is the result

Mari Varjonen; Planmed Oy

2006-01-01

345

Fiber Optic Micro-endoscopy for Detection of Bacteria in Early Stages of Infection  

E-print Network

few years following the time of infection via inhalation into the lungs, making it difficult for the disease to be detected early on in the infection [1-2]. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis is rod shaped... they are not activated, they are not able to kill the bacteria. Figure 1: Scanning electron micrograph image of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Centers for Disease Control) [2]. One to three weeks post-infection, MTB multiplies without restriction inside...

Mufti, Nooman Sadat

2012-02-14

346

A feasibility study of the optoacoustic imaging of microcalcification for early breast cancer detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the feasibility of visualization of microcalcification using optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging (PAI) technique is investigated. The non-ionizing radiation and speckle-free characteristic makes the PAI a potential diagnostic tool for early breast cancer detection. To verify this idea, a custom-made laser illumination probe integrated with commercial ultrasound imaging system was established. The artificial phantom imbedded with granulated calcium hydroxyapatite

Te-I Chiu; Tsai-Chu Hsiao; Shi-Bing Luo; WanTing Tien; Yao-You Cheng; Meng-Lin Li

2011-01-01

347

Human influence on Arctic sea ice detectable from early 1990s onwards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human influence has previously been identified in the observed loss of Arctic sea ice, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested with a formal optimal detection approach. By comparing observed and multi-model simulated changes in Arctic sea ice extent during 1953–2006 using an optimal fingerprinting method, we find that the anthropogenic signal first emerged in the early 1990s, indicating

Seung-Ki Min; Xuebin Zhang; Francis W. Zwiers; Tom Agnew

2008-01-01

348

March 20-22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) is a consortium of scientists committed to the task of translating cancer biomarker in to clinical application and for creating the needed infrastructure for validating biomarkers for clinical application. Their main objective is to detect cancers at an early stage when therapeutic options work best. They are constantly looking for ways to improve existing, identify novel biomarkers and develop methods to detect pre-malignant lesions in clinical scenarios.

349

Noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment. PMID:23257577

Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

2012-01-01

350

The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility) in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test), to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI) were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test) and motor functions (10-meter walking test). All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT]), and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI) of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. PMID:24426778

Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles

2014-01-01

351

Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness DefaultPage Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Neuropathy Auditory Processing Disorder Do You Need a Hearing Test? Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts (EVA) Hearing ...

352

Hearing Aids and Cell Phones  

MedlinePLUS

... Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Links Hearing Aids and Cell Phones What is that buzzing noise ... in my cell phone? People who wear hearing aids or have implanted hearing devices may experience some ...

353

Loss-of-Function Mutations of ILDR1 Cause Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment DFNB42  

PubMed Central

By using homozygosity mapping in a consanguineous Pakistani family, we detected linkage of nonsyndromic hearing loss to a 7.6 Mb region on chromosome 3q13.31-q21.1 within the previously reported DFNB42 locus. Subsequent candidate gene sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1135G>T [p.Glu379X]) in ILDR1 as the cause of hearing impairment. By analyzing additional consanguineous families with homozygosity at this locus, we detected ILDR1 mutations in the affected individuals of 10 more families from Pakistan and Iran. The identified ILDR1 variants include missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations as well as a start codon mutation in the family that originally defined the DFNB42 locus. ILDR1 encodes the evolutionarily conserved immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1, a putative transmembrane receptor of unknown function. In situ hybridization detected expression of Ildr1, the murine ortholog, early in development in the vestibule and in hair cells and supporting cells of the cochlea. Expression in hair cell- and supporting cell-containing neurosensory organs is conserved in the zebrafish, in which the ildr1 ortholog is prominently expressed in the developing ear and neuromasts of the lateral line. These data identify loss-of-function mutations of ILDR1, a gene with a conserved expression pattern pointing to a conserved function in hearing in vertebrates, as underlying nonsyndromic prelingual sensorineural hearing impairment. PMID:21255762

Borck, Guntram; Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Kakar, Naseebullah; von Ameln, Simon; Grillet, Nicolas; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Ansar, Muhammad; Basit, Sulman; Javed, Qamar; Morell, Robert J.; Nasreen, Nabilah; Shearer, A. Eliot; Ahmad, Adeel; Kahrizi, Kimia; Shaikh, Rehan S.; Ali, Rana A.; Khan, Shaheen N.; Goebel, Ingrid; Meyer, Nicole C.; Kimberling, William J.; Webster, Jennifer A.; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Schiller, Martin R.; Bahlo, Melanie; Najmabadi, Hossein; Gillespie, Peter G.; Nürnberg, Peter; Wollnik, Bernd; Riazuddin, Saima; Smith, Richard J.H.; Ahmad, Wasim; Müller, Ulrich; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Friedman, Thomas B.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Leal, Suzanne M.; Ahmad, Jamil; Kubisch, Christian

2011-01-01

354

Pancreatic cancer early detection: Expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters.

Urayama, Shiro

2015-01-01

355

Phospholamban, a predicted candidate for early cardiac problem detection using signal processing techniques.  

PubMed

Heart failure has been identified as a serious international problem, in particular for aging groups, posing both an increasing number of patients on waiting lists in countries susceptible with Medicare systems and increasing financial burdens. It may be imperative to develop a marker that can identify such problems at an early stage. It is believed that certain proteins have crucial roles in early detection of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer in United Arab Emirates. This might be accomplished by recognition of unusual features in protein candidates. Phospholamban (PLB) is a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein which regulates the calcium pump of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). During muscle contraction, PLB inhibits the Ca++ pump. During muscle relaxation, it can be phosphorylated, removing the inhibition and allowing Ca++ to be pumped back into SR. With the calcium pump disrupted, the heart muscle is probably weakened, resulting in congestive heart failure. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is considered as a better predictor of heart attack in elderly people. It could serve as an early warning sign since its level increases early in the inflammatory process. Also, it has been established that myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) plays a vital role in the development of cardiovascular problems like atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty inflammation. In this paper, the resonance recognition method (RRM) has been employed to determine the characteristic frequencies of the above-mentioned proteins. It has been found that phospholamban and IL-6 share the same characteristic frequency, 0.3320 plusmn 0.0002 suggesting their common probable contribution to heart failure. Myocyte enhancer factor 2A does not share the same characteristic frequency. Hence, phospholamban is suggested as a highly probable early marker for cardiac problem detection. PMID:17282792

Hejase de Trad, C

2005-01-01

356

A sensitive period for the impact of hearing loss on auditory perception.  

PubMed

Manipulations of the sensory environment typically induce greater changes to the developing nervous system than they do in adulthood. The relevance of these neural changes can be evaluated by examining the age-dependent effects of sensory experience on quantitative measures of perception. Here, we measured frequency modulation (FM) detection thresholds in adult gerbils and investigated whether diminished auditory experience during development or in adulthood influenced perceptual performance. Bilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) of ?30 dB was induced either at postnatal day 10 or after sexual maturation. All animals were then trained as adults to detect a 5 Hz FM embedded in a continuous 4 kHz tone. FM detection thresholds were defined as the minimum deviation from the carrier frequency that the animal could reliably detect. Normal-hearing animals displayed FM thresholds of 25 Hz. Inducing CHL, either in juvenile or adult animals, led to a deficit in FM detection. However, this deficit was greater for juvenile onset hearing loss (89 Hz) relative to adult onset hearing loss (64 Hz). The effects could not be attributed to sensation level, nor were they correlated with proxies for attention. The thresholds displayed by CHL animals were correlated with shallower psychometric function slopes, suggesting that hearing loss was associated with greater variance of the decision variable, consistent with increased internal noise. The results show that decreased auditory experience has a greater impact on perceptual skills when initiated at an early age and raises the possibility that altered development of CNS synapses may play a causative role. PMID:24501366

Buran, Bradley N; Sarro, Emma C; Manno, Francis A M; Kang, Ramanjot; Caras, Melissa L; Sanes, Dan H

2014-02-01

357

Toward early cancer detection using superparamagnetic relaxometry in a SQUID-based ULF-MRI system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To detect cancer at a very early state it is essential to detect a very small quantity of cancerous cells. One very sensitive method relies on targeting the cancer cells using antibody labeled single-core magnetic nanoparticles and detecting the relaxation of the magnetization using instruments based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). However, the localization suffers from inverse-problem issues similar to those found in magnetoencephalography. On the other hand, the same magnetic nanoparticles can also work as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Through the combination of superparamagnetic relaxometry and ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF MRI), in one and the same instrument, the accuracy of the magnetic moment localization can be enhanced and anatomical information can also be obtained. Results on superparamagnetic relaxometry and the dipole localization accuracy in our seven-channel low-Tc SQUID-gradiometer array are reported.

Magnelind, P. E.; Kim, Y. J.; Matlashov, A. N.; Newman, S. G.; Volegov, P. L.; Espy, M. A.

2014-04-01

358

Similarity Ratio Analysis for Early Stage Fault Detection with Optical Emission Spectrometer in Plasma Etching Process  

PubMed Central

A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes. PMID:24755865

Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

2014-01-01

359

Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task. PMID:22073093

Gerstner, Andreas O. H.

2010-01-01

360

Non-Invasive Detection of Early Retinal Neuronal Degeneration by Ultrahigh Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionises the diagnosis of retinal disease based on the detection of microscopic rather than subcellular changes in retinal anatomy. However, currently the technique is limited to the detection of microscopic rather than subcellular changes in retinal anatomy. However, coherence based imaging is extremely sensitive to both changes in optical contrast and cellular events at the micrometer scale, and can generate subtle changes in the spectral content of the OCT image. Here we test the hypothesis that OCT image speckle (image texture) contains information regarding otherwise unresolvable features such as organelle changes arising in the early stages of neuronal degeneration. Using ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT imaging at 800 nm (spectral width 140 nm) we developed a robust method of OCT image analyses, based on spatial wavelet and texture-based parameterisation of the image speckle pattern. For the first time we show that this approach allows the non-invasive detection and quantification of early apoptotic changes in neurons within 30 min of neuronal trauma sufficient to result in apoptosis. We show a positive correlation between immunofluorescent labelling of mitochondria (a potential source of changes in cellular optical contrast) with changes in the texture of the OCT images of cultured neurons. Moreover, similar changes in optical contrast were also seen in the retinal ganglion cell- inner plexiform layer in retinal explants following optic nerve transection. The optical clarity of the explants was maintained throughout in the absence of histologically detectable change. Our data suggest that UHR OCT can be used for the non-invasive quantitative assessment of neuronal health, with a particular application to the assessment of early retinal disease. PMID:24776961

Tudor, Debbie; Kaji?, Vedran; Rey, Sara; Erchova, Irina; Považay, Boris; Hofer, Bernd; Powell, Kate A.; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Morgan, James E.

2014-01-01

361

National program of colorectal carcinoma early detection in Brod-Posavina County (east Croatia).  

PubMed

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major public health problem as the third leading malignant tumor in men and fourth in women in Croatia. Prognosis and treatment greatly depend on tumor stage at the time of detection. Therefore, the National Program of Colorectal Carcinoma Early Detection has been performed since 2007. The aim is to present the response rate, colonoscopy findings and number of newly detected CRC cases in Brod-Posavina County. During five years of the National Program performance, 28 CRC cases were detected in Brod-Posavina County, with the 3.3% rate of carcinoma detection. The majority of CRC cases were found in the 50-64 age group. The response rate in the County was low (20.4%), corresponding to the national rate but far from the recommended one. Such a result could be attributed to the low level of awareness in the population at large, complex testing technique for general population, fear from disease detection and from colonoscopy as a diagnostic procedure. Note should be made of the underestimated role of family physicians; their involvement in the National Program should certainly result in better response rate in our County as well as at the national level. PMID:24611338

Jurisi?, Irena; Paradzik, Maja Tomi?; Juri?, Dragana; Kolovrat, Ana; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2013-12-01

362

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

363

Hearing Aid Device  

MedlinePLUS

... view of the ear with an In-the-ear hearing aid placed in the ear canal. The final ... from the air to the amplifier of the hearing aid in the ear. The sound wave stimulates the malleus, incus, and ...

364

Genes and Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

365

Occupational hearing loss  

MedlinePLUS

Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Occupational hearing loss is ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., the maximum job ...

366

Early Detection of Cerebral Glucose Uptake Changes in the 5XFAD Mouse  

PubMed Central

Brain glucose hypometabolism has been observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and is detected with 18F radiolabelled glucose, using positron emission tomography. A pathological hallmark of AD is deposition of brain ?-amyloid plaques that may influence cerebral glucose metabolism. The five times familial AD (5XFAD) mouse is a model of brain amyloidosis exhibiting AD-like phenotypes. This study examines brain ?-amyloid plaque deposition and 18FDG uptake, to search for an early biomarker distinguishing 5XFAD from wild-type mice. Thus, brain 18FDG uptake and plaque deposition was studied in these mice at age 2, 5 and 13 months. The 5XFAD mice demonstrated significantly reduced brain 18FDG uptake at 13 months relative to wild-type controls but not in younger mice, despite substantial ?-amyloid plaque deposition. However, by comparing the ratio of uptake values for glucose in different regions in the same brain, 5XFAD mice could be distinguished from controls at age 2 months. This method of measuring altered glucose metabolism may represent an early biomarker for the progression of amyloid deposition in the brain. We conclude that brain 18FDG uptake can be a sensitive biomarker for early detection of abnormal metabolism in the 5XFAD mouse when alternative relative uptake values are utilized. PMID:24801216

I.R, Macdonald; D.R, DeBay; G.A, Reid; T.P, O’Leary; C.T, Jollymore; G, Mawko; S, Burrell; E, Martin; C.V, Bowen; R.E, Brown; S, Darvesh

2014-01-01

367

Early detection of cerebral glucose uptake changes in the 5XFAD mouse.  

PubMed

Brain glucose hypometabolism has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and is detected with (18)F radiolabelled glucose, using positron emission tomography. A pathological hallmark of AD is deposition of brain ?- amyloid plaques that may influence cerebral glucose metabolism. The five times familial AD (5XFAD) mouse is a model of brain amyloidosis exhibiting AD-like phenotypes. This study examines brain ?-amyloid plaque deposition and (18)FDG uptake, to search for an early biomarker distinguishing 5XFAD from wild-type mice. Thus, brain (18)FDG uptake and plaque deposition was studied in these mice at age 2, 5 and 13 months. The 5XFAD mice demonstrated significantly reduced brain (18)FDG uptake at 13 months relative to wild-type controls but not in younger mice, despite substantial ?- amyloid plaque deposition. However, by comparing the ratio of uptake values for glucose in different regions in the same brain, 5XFAD mice could be distinguished from controls at age 2 months. This method of measuring altered glucose metabolism may represent an early biomarker for the progression of amyloid deposition in the brain. We conclude that brain (18)FDG uptake can be a sensitive biomarker for early detection of abnormal metabolism in the 5XFAD mouse when alternative relative uptake values are utilized. PMID:24801216

Macdonald, I R; DeBay, D R; Reid, G A; O'Leary, T P; Jollymore, C T; Mawko, G; Burrell, S; Martin, E; Bowen, C V; Brown, R E; Darvesh, S

2014-01-01

368

Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of osteoarthritis are therefore important for developing effective therapies. Here, we show that indentation-type atomic force microscopy can monitor age-related morphological and biomechanical changes in the hips of normal and osteoarthritic mice. Early damage in the cartilage of osteoarthritic patients undergoing hip or knee replacements could similarly be detected using this method. Changes due to aging and osteoarthritis are clearly depicted at the nanometre scale well before morphological changes can be observed using current diagnostic methods. Indentation-type atomic force microscopy may potentially be developed into a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool to diagnose the early onset of osteoarthritis in situ.

Stolz, Martin; Gottardi, Riccardo; Raiteri, Roberto; Miot, Sylvie; Martin, Ivan; Imer, Raphaël; Staufer, Urs; Raducanu, Aurelia; Düggelin, Marcel; Baschong, Werner; Daniels, A. U.; Friederich, Niklaus F.; Aszodi, Attila; Aebi, Ueli

2009-03-01

369

Hearing Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the influence of conversations in the shaping of a person's life. He shares how some of the voices he heard early in his life, specifically those of his mother and his local pastor, had a profound impact on his life. These were conversations that taught him the value of doing the best that he could and of the…

Blount, Reginald

2007-01-01

370

Hearing and bat defence in geometrid winter moths.  

PubMed Central

Audiograms and behavioural responses to ultrasound reveal that male geometrid winter moths (Agriopis and Erannis spp.; Ennominae, and Alsophila aescularia; Oenochrominae), which have large wings and a slow flight, have good, broadly tuned ultrasonic hearing with best frequencies at 25-40 kHz, coinciding with the frequencies used by most sympatric aerial-hawking bats. Ultrasonic pulses (27 kHz 110 dB at 1 m) delivered at distances of 1-12 m evoked consistent reactions of free flying, male A. marginaria in the lab as well as in the field; those at < 5 m resulted in the moth spiralling or diving towards the ground, those at 5-12 m resulted in one or several changes in the flight path, but did not end on the ground. The differential reaction probably reflects whether the moth is likely to have been detected by the bat or not. The micropterous (and flightless), and hence cryptic, females have strongly reduced tympanic organs and are virtually deaf. Sexual dimorphism in hearing and behavioural reactions to ultrasound reflect differential natural selection on males and females by bats. Natural selection on the hearing of the males thus seems to occur although they fly in late autumn and early spring, when bat activity is much reduced. PMID:9061963

Rydell, J; Skals, N; Surlykke, A; Svensson, M

1997-01-01

371

Hearing Aids for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... How do hearing aids work? All behind-the-ear hearing aids have a microphone, amplifiers and processors, a ... aid. There are several ways to secure the hearing aids to your child’s ears. Some ideas include two-sided toupee tape, Huggie ...

372

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... benefit for some patients. Will I need a hearing aid for each ear? Usually, if you have hearing loss in both ... quiet and in noise, and for improvement in hearing tones. Real ear measurements may also be done, which determine how ...

373

OI Issues: Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... consumer magazine that focuses on hearing loss and hearing issues. Miracle Ear Children’s Foundation P.O. Box 59261 Minneapolis, MN ... 234-5422 http://www.miracle-ear.com/ Miracle Ear Children’s Foundation provides free hearing aids for qualifying children in low-income families. ...

374

Deafness and Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

375

Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

2009-05-01

376

Detecting early-warning signals for sudden deterioration of complex diseases by dynamical network biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that during the progression of complex diseases, the deteriorations are not necessarily smooth but are abrupt, and may cause a critical transition from one state to another at a tipping point. Here, we develop a model-free method to detect early-warning signals of such critical transitions, even with only a small number of samples. Specifically, we theoretically derive an index based on a dynamical network biomarker (DNB) that serves as a general early-warning signal indicating an imminent bifurcation or sudden deterioration before the critical transition occurs. Based on theoretical analyses, we show that predicting a sudden transition from small samples is achievable provided that there are a large number of measurements for each sample, e.g., high-throughput data. We employ microarray data of three diseases to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The relevance of DNBs with the diseases was also validated by related experimental data and functional analysis. PMID:22461973

Chen, Luonan; Liu, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Li, Meiyi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2012-01-01

377

Potential biomarkers for early detection of acute graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the main complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of aGVHD is largely made based on clinical parameters and invasive biopsies. For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to find reliable biomarkers to enable early and accurate diagnosis of aGVHD. Although a number of potential aGVHD biomarkers have been published, as yet, no validated diagnostic test is available. Proteomics encompasses a broad range of rapidly developing technologies, which have shown tremendous promise for early detection of aGVHD. In this article, we review the current state of aGVHD biomarker discovery, provide a summary of the key proteins of interest and the most common analytical procedures for the clinic, as well as outlining the significant challenges faced in their use. PMID:22927351

Lochmanová, Gabriela; Jedli?ková, Lenka; Pot?šil, David; Tomancová, Alexandra; Verner, Jan; Pospíšilová, Sárka; Doubek, Michael; Mayer, Ji?í; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k

2012-08-01

378

Toward an Anemia Early Detection Device Based on 50-?L Whole Blood Sample.  

PubMed

A first approach to a portable and compact device for point-of-care (PoC) early instantaneous detection of anemia is described. This device works directly with whole blood samples relying on hematocrit analysis by means of impedance analysis. This device consists of a custom electronic instrumentation, postprocessing software and plug-and-play disposable sensor. The designed electronics are connected to a remote computer, which allows control of the instrumentation and results displaying with a user friendly software panel. The disposable sensor is based on a low-cost label-free three gold electrode commercial sensor for 50-?L volume samples. Forty-eight whole blood samples, randomly collected from hospitalized patients in Hospital Clínic, were used to validate the device capability for anemia detection. Whole blood samples were distributed in two groups: 10 samples for system calibration, and 38 samples for system validation. To calibrate the device, a complete EIS experiment has been performed to get a full impedance spectrum analysis, defining an accurate frequency working range for hematocrit detection. Afterward, we developed a protocol for instant impedance detection to determine the system detection accuracy, sensitivity, and coefficient of variation. As a result, impedance variations between different samples have been detected with less than 2% accuracy error for both impedance magnitude and phase. A hematocrit detection algorithm, relying on impedance analysis, has been developed based on the previous studies. The response, effectiveness, and robustness of the portable PoC device to detect anemia have been proved with an accuracy error of 1.75% and a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. PMID:25347870

Punter-Villagrasa, Jaime; Cid, Joan; Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi; Rodriguez-Villarreal, Ivon; Miribel-Catala, Pere Ll

2015-02-01

379

Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

2007-07-01

380

National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).  

PubMed

Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25507364

Juriši?, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitre?i?, Drago; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2014-09-01

381

National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).  

PubMed

Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25420380

Juriši?, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitre?i?, Drago; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2014-09-01

382

Pediatric hearing loss: common causes, diagnosis and therapeutic approach.  

PubMed

Pediatric hearing loss limits the child ability to develop effective auditory and speech capabilities. Early rehabilitation of hearing loss results in higher levels of linguistic, academic and social skills. To achieve the best outcomes, proper and timely diagnosis is essential. The etiology of hearing loss can be classified according to its nature as sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), conductive hearing loss (CHL) or mixed hearing loss (MHL). Congenital hearing loss could be genetic or non genetic (acquired), syndromic or non-syndromic. Hearing loss can be classified according to the severity into mild (26-40 dB HL), moderate (41-70 dB HL), severe (71-90dB HL) and profound (more than 90 dB HL). Management of hearing loss is mainly influenced by the nature, the bilaterality, the severity and the age at diagnosis. Severe to profound bilateral SNHL can be managed by cochlear implantation (unilateral or bilateral), if picked up at early age while mild to moderate bilateral SNHL are easier to manage with conventional hearing aids. CHL has less impact on the speech development of the child. It is usually managed by correcting the underlying etiology such as otitis media with effusion or even surgically in cases of external ear atresia or ossicular malformations. Unilateral SNHL have fortunately no impact on the language development of the child and can be passed undiagnosed until preschool-aged children. The implementation of national newborn hearing screening programs has improved the management of affected children by rehabilitating them at early stages to allow for normal speech development. In this review article, we aim to highlight the most common causes of pediatric hearing loss, their character and presentation and to review the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of a deaf child. PMID:25312238

Alzahrani, M; Tabet, P; Saliba, I

2015-03-01

383

March 15, 2004: NCI's Early Detection Research Network: Clinical Epidemiology and Validation Centers Pre-submission Meeting; Rockville, MD  

Cancer.gov

Meeting Date March 15, 2004 Meeting Site Neuroscience Conference Center Room A1/A2 6001 Executive Blvd Rockville, MD 20852 Meeting Materials The Early Detection Research Network presented by Dr. Srivastava (ppt, 416kb) Clinical Epidemiology and Validation

384

Difficulties in Early Ice Detection with the Small Ice Detector-2 HIAPER (SID-2H) in Maritime Cumuli  

E-print Network

The Small Ice Detector, version 2 (SID-2), High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER; SID-2H) was used to detect small ice particles in the early stages of ice formation in the high ...

Lasher-Trapp, Sonia

385

Hybrid light transport model based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for early gastric cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it remains difficult to cure because it has been in late-stage once that is found. Early gastric cancer detection becomes an effective approach to decrease the gastric cancer mortality. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been applied to detect early liver cancer and prostate cancer metastasis. However, the gastric cancer commonly originates from the gastric mucosa and grows outwards. The bioluminescent light will pass through a non-scattering region constructed by gastric pouch when it transports in tissues. Thus, the current BLT reconstruction algorithms based on the approximation model of radiative transfer equation are not optimal to handle this problem. To address the gastric cancer specific problem, this paper presents a novel reconstruction algorithm that uses a hybrid light transport model to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues. The radiosity theory integrated with the diffusion equation to form the hybrid light transport model is utilized to describe light propagation in the non-scattering region. After the finite element discretization, the hybrid light transport model is converted into a minimization problem which fuses an l1 norm based regularization term to reveal the sparsity of bioluminescent source distribution. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm is first demonstrated with a digital mouse based simulation with the reconstruction error less than 1mm. An in situ gastric cancer-bearing nude mouse based experiment is then conducted. The primary result reveals the ability of the novel BLT reconstruction algorithm in early gastric cancer detection.

Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Defu; Chen, Duofang; Zhu, Shouping; Tian, Jie

2012-03-01

386

Retinal vascular biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The earliest detectable change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the buildup of amyloid plaque in the brain. Early detection of AD, prior to irreversible neurological damage, is important for the efficacy of current interventions as well as for the development of new treatments. Although PiB-PET imaging and CSF amyloid are the gold standards for early AD diagnosis, there are practical limitations for population screening. AD-related pathology occurs primarily in the brain, but some of the hallmarks of the disease have also been shown to occur in other tissues, including the retina, which is more accessible for imaging. Retinal vascular changes and degeneration have previously been reported in AD using optical coherence tomography and laser Doppler techniques. This report presents results from analysis of retinal photographs from AD and healthy control participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing. This is the first study to investigate retinal blood vessel changes with respect to amyloid plaque burden in the brain. We demonstrate relationships between retinal vascular parameters, neocortical brain amyloid plaque burden and AD. A number of RVPs were found to be different in AD. Two of these RVPs, venular branching asymmetry factor and arteriolar length-to-diameter ratio, were also higher in healthy individuals with high plaque burden (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02 respectively, after false discovery rate adjustment). Retinal photographic analysis shows potential as an adjunct for early detection of AD or monitoring of AD-progression or response to treatments. PMID:23443359

Frost, S; Kanagasingam, Y; Sohrabi, H; Vignarajan, J; Bourgeat, P; Salvado, O; Villemagne, V; Rowe, C C; Macaulay, S Lance; Szoeke, C; Ellis, K A; Ames, D; Masters, C L; Rainey-Smith, S; Martins, R N; AIBL Research Group

2013-01-01

387

Assessing Speech Intelligibility in Children with Hearing Loss: Toward Revitalizing a Valuable Clinical Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Newborn hearing screening, early intervention programs, and advancements in cochlear implant and hearing aid technology have greatly increased opportunities for children with hearing loss to become intelligible talkers. Optimizing speech intelligibility requires that progress be monitored closely. Although direct assessment of…

Ertmer, David J.

2011-01-01

388

Analogous and Distinctive Patterns of Prelinguistic Communication in Toddlers with and without Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the prelinguistic communicative abilities of toddlers with hearing loss and without hearing loss during the 2nd year of life and shortly before the emergence of productive single-word lexicons. Method: The participants were 28 toddlers with hearing loss who participated in an early intervention program…

Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Dromi, Esther

2007-01-01

389

CVPR 2009 Submission #****. CONFIDENTIAL REVIEW COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Automated Feature Extraction for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in  

E-print Network

COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Automated Feature Extraction for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy images can as- sist in early diagnosis and screening of a common dis- ease:Diabetic Retinopathy. A robust Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common retinal compli- cation associated with diabetes. It is a major cause

Mittal, Anurag

390

Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies in the Perth Abyssal Plain  

E-print Network

region of preserved seafloor that directly records the history of Early Cretaceous seafloor spreading between India and Australia. However, despite the clear importance of the seafloor spreading historyEarly India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies

Granot, Roi

391

DESI-Detection of early-season invasives (software-installation manual and user's guide version 1.0)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a software system for detecting early-season invasive plant species, such as cheatgrass. The report includes instructions for installing the software and serves as a user's guide in processing Landsat satellite remote sensing data to map the distributions of cheatgrass and other early-season invasive plants. The software was developed for application to the semi-arid regions of southern Utah; however, the detection parameters can be altered by the user for application to other areas.

Kokaly, Raymond F.

2011-01-01

392

Heritage of army audiology and the road ahead: the Army Hearing Program.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss has been documented as early as the 16th century, when a French surgeon, Ambroise Paré, wrote of the treatment of injuries sustained by firearms and described acoustic trauma in great detail. Even so, the protection of hearing would not be addressed for three more centuries, when the jet engine was invented and resulted in a long overdue whirlwind of policy development addressing the prevention of hearing loss. We present a synopsis of hearing loss prevention in the US Army and describe the current Army Hearing Program, which aims to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in soldiers and to ensure their maximum combat effectiveness. PMID:18923117

McIlwain, D Scott; Gates, Kathy; Ciliax, Donald

2008-12-01

393

Heritage of Army Audiology and the Road Ahead: The Army Hearing Program  

PubMed Central

Noise-induced hearing loss has been documented as early as the 16th century, when a French surgeon, Ambroise Paré, wrote of the treatment of injuries sustained by firearms and described acoustic trauma in great detail. Even so, the protection of hearing would not be addressed for three more centuries, when the jet engine was invented and resulted in a long overdue whirlwind of policy development addressing the prevention of hearing loss. We present a synopsis of hearing loss prevention in the US Army and describe the current Army Hearing Program, which aims to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in soldiers and to ensure their maximum combat effectiveness. PMID:18923117

Gates, Kathy; Ciliax, Donald

2008-01-01

394

Standard threshold shift criteria. An investigation of the most reliable indicator of noise-induced hearing loss  

SciTech Connect

Definition of a standard threshold shift (STS) and its use as an early indicator to identify those employees with deteriorating hearing are necessary aspects of hearing conservation programs in industry. STS criteria were evaluated using techniques borrowed from decision theory and signal detection theory to separate audiometric threshold shifts into true-positive and false-positive shifts. The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration definition of a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2, 3 or 4 kHz in either ear and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery recommendation of a ''10 dB or greater change for the worse for either the 0.5, 1, 2 kHz pure tone average or the 3, 4, 6 kHz pure tone average, in either ear were supported. Revision of baselines after an STS occurs is recommended.

Lane, C.L.; Dobie, R.A.; Crawford, D.R.; Morgan, M.S.

1985-01-01

395

Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins  

DOEpatents

Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

Willard, Karen E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01

396

NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

Schmidt, Gregory; Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

397

A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine  

PubMed Central

Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance. PMID:22303139

Ramasubramanian, Melur K.; Tiruthani, Karthik

2009-01-01

398

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator.  

PubMed

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety. PMID:25308055

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

399

Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice.

Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Cristina Montesi, Maria; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

2007-02-01

400

Towards early ice detection on wind turbine blades using acoustic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study focuses on the early detection of ice using controlled acoustic waves propagating in the wind turbine blades. An experimental set-up with a cold climate chamber, a composite test object used in turbine blades and equipment for glaze and rime ice production has been developed. Controlled acoustic waves are generated by magnetostrictive Terfenol-D based actuator. The propagation of three orthogonally polarized acoustic waves was studied by means of 6 accelerometers positioned, 3 each, in 2 holders on the 8 m long composite test object. The results show that for the considered composite test object the formation of ice, the ice mass, icing areas and the temperature have a significant influence on controlled acoustic waves propagation w.r.t. Fourier transform, amplitude attenuation and RMS values as indicators concluding that the proposed acoustic wave technique is a promising approach for ice detection.

Berbyuk, Viktor; Peterson, Bo; Möller, Jan

2014-03-01

401

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind–solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-10-01

402

Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women. Mammography is used for early detection, but it cannot detect all instances of cancer. New magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

1 Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women. Mammography is used for early detection by Stanford University and used at Presbyterian Hospital have detected breast cancer where mammography has possible to render MR data in 3D at interactive rates. This paper presents the design of breast cancer

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

403

Hearing loss in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

2001-01-01

404

Early snowmelt events: detection, distribution, and significance in a major sub-arctic watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High latitude drainage basins are experiencing higher average temperatures, earlier snowmelt onset in spring, and an increase in rain on snow (ROS) events in winter, trends that climate models project into the future. Snowmelt-dominated basins are most sensitive to winter temperature increases that influence the frequency of ROS events and the timing and duration of snowmelt, resulting in changes to spring runoff. Of specific interest in this study are early melt events that occur in late winter preceding melt onset in the spring. The study focuses on satellite determination and characterization of these early melt events using the Yukon River Basin (Canada/USA) as a test domain. The timing of these events was estimated using data from passive (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—EOS (AMSR-E)) and active (SeaWinds on Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT)) microwave remote sensors, employing detection algorithms for brightness temperature (AMSR-E) and radar backscatter (QuikSCAT). The satellite detected events were validated with ground station meteorological and hydrological data, and the spatial and temporal variability of the events across the entire river basin was characterized. Possible causative factors for the detected events, including ROS, fog, and positive air temperatures, were determined by comparing the timing of the events to parameters from SnowModel and National Centers for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) outputs, and weather station data. All melt events coincided with above freezing temperatures, while a limited number corresponded to ROS (determined from SnowModel and ground data) and a majority to fog occurrence (determined from NARR). The results underscore the significant influence that warm air intrusions have on melt in some areas and demonstrate the large temporal and spatial variability over years and regions. The study provides a method for melt detection and a baseline from which to assess future change.

Alese Semmens, Kathryn; Ramage, Joan; Bartsch, Annett; Liston, Glen E.

2013-03-01

405

Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds.  

PubMed

Auditory sensitivity in pinnipeds is influenced by the need to balance efficient sound detection in two vastly different physical environments. Previous comparisons between aerial and underwater hearing capabilities have considered media-dependent differences relative to auditory anatomy, acoustic communication, ecology, and amphibious life history. New data for several species, including recently published audiograms and previously unreported measurements obtained in quiet conditions, necessitate a re-evaluation of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds. Several findings related to underwater hearing are consistent with earlier assessments, including an expanded frequency range of best hearing in true seals that spans at least six octaves. The most notable new results indicate markedly better aerial sensitivity in two seals (Phoca vitulina and Mirounga angustirostris) and one sea lion (Zalophus californianus), likely attributable to improved ambient noise control in test enclosures. An updated comparative analysis alters conventional views and demonstrates that these amphibious pinnipeds have not necessarily sacrificed aerial hearing capabilities in favor of enhanced underwater sound reception. Despite possessing underwater hearing that is nearly as sensitive as fully aquatic cetaceans and sirenians, many seals and sea lions have retained acute aerial hearing capabilities rivaling those of terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23563644

Reichmuth, Colleen; Holt, Marla M; Mulsow, Jason; Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L

2013-06-01

406

Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

Bothun, G.

2005-01-01

407

Methods for Detecting Early Warnings of Critical Transitions in Time Series Illustrated Using Simulated Ecological Data  

PubMed Central

Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called ‘early warning signals’, and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data. PMID:22815897

Dakos, Vasilis; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Guttal, Vishwesha; Ives, Anthony R.; Kéfi, Sonia; Livina, Valerie; Seekell, David A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

2012-01-01

408

Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24146940

Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

2013-01-01

409

Rapid detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA for early infant diagnosis using recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in infants can greatly reduce mortality rates. However, current infant HIV-1 diagnostics cannot reliably be performed at the point of care, often delaying treatment and compromising its efficacy. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel technology that is ideal for an HIV-1 diagnostic, as it amplifies target DNA in <20 min at a constant temperature, without the need for complex thermocycling equipment. Here we tested 63 HIV-1-specific primer and probe combinations and identified two RPA assays that target distinct regions of the HIV-1 genome (long terminal repeat [LTR] and pol) and can reliably detect 3 copies of proviral DNA by the use of fluorescence detection and lateral-flow strip detection. These pol and LTR primers amplified 98.6% and 93%, respectively, of the diverse HIV-1 variants tested. This is the first example of an isothermal assay that consistently detects all of the major HIV-1 global subtypes. PMID:23549916

Boyle, David S; Lehman, Dara A; Lillis, Lorraine; Peterson, Dylan; Singhal, Mitra; Armes, Niall; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Overbaugh, Julie

2013-01-01

410

Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

2011-09-01

411

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

2005-03-01

412

Multimodality approach to optical early detection and??mapping of oral neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Early detection of cancer remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by dysplasia presenting as white, red, or mixed red and white epithelial lesions on the oral mucosa (leukoplakia, erythroplakia). Dysplastic lesions in the form of erythroplakia can carry a risk for malignant conversion of 90%. A noninvasive diagnostic modality would enable monitoring of these lesions at regular intervals and detection of treatment needs at a very early, relatively harmless stage. The specific aim of this work was to test a multimodality approach [three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarimetry] to noninvasive diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy using the hamster cheek pouch model (nine hamsters). The results were compared to tissue histopathology. During carcinogenesis, epithelial down grow, eventual loss of basement membrane integrity, and subepithelial invasion were clearly visible with OCT. Polarimetry techniques identified a four to five times increased retardance in sites with squamous cell carcinoma, and two to three times greater retardance in dysplastic sites than in normal tissues. These techniques were particularly useful for mapping areas of field cancerization with multiple lesions, as well as lesion margins. PMID:21806268

Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chung, Jungrae; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

2011-01-01

413

Ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients detected by a screening program for early lung carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation-perfusion (V-P) lung scans obtained in 114 patients in a screening program for the early detection of lung cancer were reviewed, and abnormalities were correlated with radiographic and surgical findings. Eighty-seven patients eventually had a tissue diagnosis of carcinoma; 65 (75%) had a perfusion defect and 56 (67%) had a ventilation abnormality at the tumor site. Lobar or segmental perfusion abnormalities were present at the tumor site in two of 13 patients whose lung cancer could not be localized by chest radiographs. However, 12 of these 13 patients and 54% of those with radiographically visible lesions had perfusion abnormalities in other lung regions. Twenty-seven patients with suspected carcinoma who were subsequently proved to have benign lesions had V-P abnormalities similar to those in patients with lung cancer. Thus, no pattern of V-P abnormalities allowed lung cancer in this screened population to be reliably distinguished from coexisting airway disease or nonmalignant pulmonary masses. V-P lung studies have a limited role in the early detection of lung cancer.

Katz, R.D.; Alderson, P.O.; Tockman, M.S.

1981-10-01

414

Rank-Based miRNA Signatures for Early Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

We describe a new signature definition and analysis method to be used as biomarker for early cancer detection. Our new approach is based on the construction of a reference map of transcriptional signatures of both healthy and cancer affected individuals using circulating miRNA from a large number of subjects. Once such a map is available, the diagnosis for a new patient can be performed by observing the relative position on the map of his/her transcriptional signature. To demonstrate its efficacy for this specific application we report the results of the application of our method to published datasets of circulating miRNA, and we quantify its performance compared to current state-of-the-art methods. A number of additional features make this method an ideal candidate for large-scale use, for example, as a mass screening tool for early cancer detection or for at-home diagnostics. Specifically, our method is minimally invasive (because it works well with circulating miRNA), it is robust with respect to lab-to-lab protocol variability and batch effects (it requires that only the relative ranking of expression value of miRNA in a profile be accurate not their absolute values), and it is scalable to a large number of subjects. Finally we discuss the need for HPC capability in a widespread application of our or similar methods. PMID:25054131

2014-01-01

415

Quantitative PCR in Epidemiology for Early Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis Cases in India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies employing serological, DTH or conventional PCR techniques suggest a vast proportion of Leishmania infected individuals living in regions endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) remain asymptomatic. This study was designed to assess whether quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used for detection of asymptomatic or early Leishmania donovani infection and as a predictor of progression to symptomatic disease. Methods The study included 1469 healthy individuals living in endemic region (EHC) including both serology-positive and -negative subjects. TaqMan based qPCR assay was done on peripheral blood of each subject using kDNA specific primers and probes. Results A large proportion of EHC 511/1469 (34.78%) showed qPCR positivity and 56 (3.81% of 1469 subjects) had more than 1 calculated parasite genome/ml of blood. However, the number of individuals with parasite load above 5 genomes/ml was only 20 (1.36% of 1469). There was poor agreement between serological testing and qPCR (k?=?0.1303), and 42.89% and 31.83% EHC were qPCR positive in seropositive and seronegative groups, respectively. Ten subjects had developed to symptomatic VL after 12 month of their follow up examination, of which eight were initially positive according to qPCR and among these, five had high parasite load. Discussion Thus, qPCR can help us to detect significant early parasitaemia, thereby assisting us in recognition of potential progressors to clinical disease. This test could facilitate early intervention, decreased morbidity and mortality, and possibly interruption of disease transmission. PMID:25503103

Sudarshan, Medhavi; Singh, Toolika; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Chourasia, Ankita; Singh, Bhawana; Wilson, Mary E.; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

2014-01-01

416

Early Detection of Osteoporosis by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: An early detection of osteoporosis through DEXA procedure will not only improve the disease management practices but also would help in impeding national productivity losses by mass screening and awareness. Our objective was to measure efficacy of DEXA procedure in early detection of osteoporosis and prevention of its complications. Methods: This case series observational study was designed to confirm the bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). The duration of study was three years from November 2010 to October 2013. Subjects aged between 30 (when the risk of osteoporosis is low) to 60 (when osteoporosis is almost sure to be found). Results: Three hundred thirty patients were evaluated. There were 23 (6.96%) male and 307 (93.03%) female. Normal male were 09 (39.10%), osteopenia 11 (47.80%) and osteoporosis 3 (13%). Normal females were 72 (23.50%), osteopenia 140 (45.60%) and osteoporosis 95 (30.90%). P-value was more then 0.005 and not significant. Mean age was 48.73, minimum 30, maximum 60 and SD 7.247. Population category distribution was 243(76.6%) from urban and 87(26.4%) rural. In urban areas normal were 56(23%), osteopenia 113(46.50%) and osteoporosis 74(30.50%). In rural areas normal 25(28.70%), osteopenia 38(43.70%) and osteoporosis 24(27.60%). P-value was 0.567. Out of 330 there were 81(24.54%) normal, 98 ((29.69%) osteoporosis and 151 (45.75%) osteopenia. Conclusion: Osteopenia was the most common diagnosis mostly in younger age group and early diagnosis of this problem can help prevent osteoporosis.

Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Makhdoom; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed; Qureshi, Ghulam Ali

2014-01-01

417

Cystatin C for early detection of acute kidney injury after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives: Mortality due to AKI has not changed significantly over the past 50 years. This is due in part to failure to detect early AKI and to initiate appropriate therapeutic measures. There is therefore a need to identify biomarkers that would improve the early detection of AKI. The objective of this study was to assess whether cystatin C levels obtained at specific timepoints during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (PN) could be early predictors of AKI. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients underwent laparoscopic PN for organ-confined tumors. All procedures were performed by two surgeons in a single institution. Plasma samples were collected preoperatively, and post-unclamping at 5, 20, 120 min and on the day following surgery. Plasma cystatin C was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation between levels of cystatin C and other parameters of interest were assessed in order to define cystatin C ability to predict AKI and loss of renal function following laparoscopic PN. Results: The mean baseline eGFR was 93 ml/min/1.73 m2. Warm ischemia time varied between 16 and 44 min. Post-operative day 1 (POD1) cystatin C levels compared to baseline were increased in 13 (52%) of the patients. There was a high correlation between the difference of POD 1 and baseline value, and eGFR in the immediate postoperative period (r = ?0.681; P = 0.0002) and at 12-month follow-up (r = ?0.460, P = 0.048). However, the variation in cystatin C levels at earlier timepoints were not associated to AKI nor renal function. Conclusions: High increase in POD 1 cystatin C levels from baseline may help identify patients with AKI and those at higher risk of chronic kidney disease, following laparoscopic PN. PMID:25371605

Alesawi, Anwar; Nadeau, Geneviève; Bergeron, Alain; Dujardin, Thierry; Lacombe, Louis; Caumartin, Yves

2014-01-01

418

Moving beyond behaviour-only assessment: incorporating biomarkers to improve the early detection and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This paper presents a response to the Camarata (2014) lead article regarding the accuracy and effectiveness of early identification and early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While Caramata focused heavily on the challenges of behavioural screening for ASD, we believe that he has overlooked the potential that the identification of ASD biomarkers may have for the early detection of the disorder. We propose that the discovery of biomarkers, particularly those that may be used in conjunction with behavioural screening, may provide an important next step in reliably detecting and accurately diagnosing ASD in the early years. This would have important clinical implications in terms of providing early intervention, which may alter the developmental path for the child. PMID:24236911

Taylor, Lauren J; Maybery, Murray T; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

2014-02-01

419

Blueprint of quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for early detection of breast cancer through salivary autoantibodies against ATP6AP1.  

PubMed

Breast cancer represents a significant health problem because of its high prevalence. Tests like mammography, which are used abundantly for the detection of breast cancer, suffer from serious limitations. Mammography correctly detects malignancy about 80-90% of the times, failing in places when (1) the tumor is small at early stage, (2) breast tissue is dense or (3) in women of less than 40 years. Serum-based detection of biomarkers involves risk of disease transfer, along with other concerns. These techniques compromise in the early detection of breast cancer. Early detection of breast cancer is a crucial factor to enhance the survival rate of patient. Development of regular screening tests for early diagnosis of breast cancer is a challenge. This review highlights the design of a handy and household biosensor device aimed for self-screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer. The design makes use of salivary autoantibodies for specificity to develop a noninvasive procedure, breast cancer specific biomarkers for precision for the development of device, and biosensor technology for sensitivity to screen the early cases of breast cancer more efficiently. PMID:25461139

Arif, Sania; Qudsia, Syeda; Urooj, Samina; Chaudry, Nazia; Arshad, Aneeqa; Andleeb, Saadia

2014-10-01

420

A global hydrographic array for early detection of floods and droughts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of over 700 20 km-long river gaging reaches, distributed world-wide, is imaged by the SeaWinds radar scatterometer aboard QuikSCAT every 2.5 days. Strongly negative HH/VV polarity ratios indicate large amounts of surface water. We set individual reach thresholds so that the transition from bankfull to overbank river flow can be identified according to changes in this ratio. Similarly, the wide-swath MODIS optical sensors provide frequent repeat coverage of the reaches at much higher spatial resolution (250 m). In this case, several reach water surface area thresholds can be identified: low flow or drought conditions, normal in-channel flow, overbank flow, and extreme flood conditions. Sustained data collection for the reaches by both sensors allows the radar response to changing surface water to be defined, and allows evaluation of the sensitivity of the MODIS data to river discharge changes. New approaches, such as ``unmixing'' analysis of mixed water/land MODIS pixels can extend detection limits to smaller rivers and streams. It is now possible for wide-area, frequent revisit terrestrial remote sensing to provide human society with early warning of both floods and droughts and by direct observation of the runoff component of the Earth's hydrologic cycle. Examples of both radar and optical approaches towards this end are at the web sites below: http://www.dartmouth.edu/˜ floods/Modisrapidresponse.html http://www.dartmouth.edu/˜ floods/sensorweb/SensorWebindex.html http://www.dartmouth.edu/˜ floods/Quikscat/Regional2/CurrentTisza.jpg} In particular, early flood detection results are obtained over an extensive region in eastern Europe including the Tisza River basin, Romania, Hungary, and adjacent nations. Flood detection maps are updated weekly at the web site. The combination of QuikSCAT and MODIS takes advantage of the large-area coverage of these sensors together with the high temporal resolution of QuikSCAT and the high spatial resolution of MODIS. Such capabilities are also appropriate for early flood detection in Asian monsoon regions including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, and southeast Asia.

Brakenridge, G.; Nghiem, S.; Caquard, S.

421

Music and Hearing Aids  

PubMed Central

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Moore, Brian C. J.

2014-01-01

422

Music and hearing aids.  

PubMed

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

2014-01-01

423

Discovery and Validation of New Potential Biomarkers for Early Detection of Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate detection of characteristic proteins secreted by colon cancer tumor cells in biological fluids could serve as a biomarker for the disease. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate new serum biomarkers and demonstrate their potential usefulness for early diagnosis of colon cancer. Methods The study was organized in three sequential phases: 1) biomarker discovery, 2) technical and biological validation, and 3) proof of concept to test the potential clinical use of selected biomarkers. A prioritized subset of the differentially-expressed genes between tissue types (50 colon mucosa from cancer-free individuals and 100 normal-tumor pairs from colon cancer patients) was validated and further tested in a series of serum samples from 80 colon cancer cases, 23 patients with adenoma and 77 cancer-free controls. Results In the discovery phase, 505 unique candidate biomarkers were identified, with highly significant results and high capacity to discriminate between the different tissue types. After a subsequent prioritization, all tested genes (N?=?23) were successfully validated in tissue, and one of them, COL10A1, showed relevant differences in serum protein levels between controls, patients with adenoma (p?=?0.0083) and colon cancer cases (p?=?3.2e-6). Conclusion We present a sequential process for the identification and further validation of biomarkers for early detection of colon cancer that identifies COL10A1 protein levels in serum as a potential diagnostic candidate to detect both adenoma lesions and tumor. Impact The use of a cheap serum test for colon cancer screening should improve its participation rates and contribute to decrease the burden of this disease. PMID:25215506

Olivares, David; Guinó, Elisabet; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Rodriguez-Moranta, Francisco; Sanjuan, Xavier; de Oca, Javier; Salazar, Ramon; Moreno, Victor

2014-01-01

424

Biomarker research with prospective study designs for the early detection of cancer.  

PubMed

This article describes the principles of marker research with prospective studies along with examples for diagnostic tumor markers. A plethora of biomarkers have been claimed as useful for the early detection of cancer. However, disappointingly few biomarkers were approved for the detection of unrecognized disease, and even approved markers may lack a sound validation phase. Prospective studies aimed at the early detection of cancer are costly and long-lasting and therefore the bottleneck in marker research. They enroll a large number of clinically asymptomatic subjects and follow-up on incident cases. As invasive procedures cannot be applied to collect tissue samples from the target organ, biomarkers can only be determined in easily accessible body fluids. Marker levels increase during cancer development, with samples collected closer to the occurrence of symptoms or a clinical diagnosis being more informative than earlier samples. Only prospective designs allow the serial collection of pre-diagnostic samples. Their storage in a biobank upgrades cohort studies to serve for both, marker discovery and validation. Population-based cohort studies, which may collect a wealth of data, are commonly conducted with just one baseline investigation lacking serial samples. However, they can provide valuable information about factors that influence the marker level. Screening programs can be employed to archive serial samples but require significant efforts to collect samples and auxiliary data for marker research. Randomized controlled trials have the highest level of evidence in assessing a biomarker's benefit against usual care and present the most stringent design for the validation of promising markers as well as for the discovery of new markers. In summary, all kinds of prospective studies can benefit from a biobank as they can serve as a platform for biomarker research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:24361552

Pesch, B; Brüning, T; Johnen, G; Casjens, S; Bonberg, N; Taeger, D; Müller, A; Weber, D G; Behrens, T

2014-05-01

425

Serum sphingolipids level as a novel potential marker for early detection of human myocardial ischaemic injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are the most common and often the first manifestation of coronary heart disease and lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Early detection/identification of acute myocardial ischaemic injury at risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients remains an unmet medical need. In the present study, we examined the sphingolipids level after transient cardiac ischaemia following temporary coronary artery occlusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients and determined the role of sphingolipids level as a novel marker for early detection of human myocardial ischaemic injury. Methods and Results: Venous samples were collected from either the coronary sinus (n = 7) or femoral vein (n = 24) from 31 patients aged 40–73 years-old at 1, 5 min, and 12 h, following elective PCI. Plasma sphingolipids levels were assessed by HPLC. At 1 min coronary sinus levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), sphingosine (SPH), and sphinganine (SA) were increased by 314, 115, and 614%, respectively (n = 7), while peripheral blood levels increased by 79, 68, and 272% (n = 24). By 5 min, coronary sinus S1P and SPH levels increased further (720%, 117%), as did peripheral levels of S1P alone (792%). Where troponin T was detectable at 12 h (10 of 31), a strong correlation was found with peak S1P (R2 = 0.818; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: For the first time, we demonstrate the behavior of plasma sphingolipids following transient cardiac ischaemia in humans. The observation supports the important role of sphingolipids level as a potential novel marker of transient or prolonged myocardial ischaemia. PMID:23781203

Egom, Emmanuel E.; Mamas, Mamas A.; Chacko, Sanoj; Stringer, Sally E.; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; El-Omar, Magdi; Chirico, Debora; Clarke, Bernard; Neyses, Ludwig; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Lei, Ming; Fath-Ordoubadi, Farzin

2013-01-01

426

Age-Related Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Age-Related Hearing Loss Age-Related Hearing Loss On this page: What is age-related hearing ... sheet Cochlear Implants for more information.) Bone anchored hearing systems bypass the ear canal and middle ear, and are designed to ...

427

Noise-Induced Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... continue constantly or occasionally throughout a person’s life. Hearing loss ... or both ears. Sometimes exposure to impulse or continuous loud noise ...

428

New polymorphic mtDNA restriction site in the 12S rRNA gene detected in Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss  

SciTech Connect

The 12S rRNA gene was shown to be a hot spot for aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss since several deafness-associated mtDNA mutations were identified in this gene. Among them, we distinguished the A1555G, the C1494T and the T1095C mutations and C-insertion or deletion at position 961. One hundred Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss and 100 hearing individuals were analysed in this study. A PCR-RFLP analysis with HaeIII restriction enzyme showed the presence of the A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene in only one out of the 100 patients. In addition, PCR-RFLP and radioactive PCR revealed the presence of a new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site in the same gene of 12S rRNA site in 4 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss. UVIDOC-008-XD analyses showed the presence of this new polymorphic restriction site with a variable heteroplasmic rates at position +1517 of the human mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, direct sequencing of the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in the 100 patients and in 100 hearing individuals revealed the presence of the A750G and A1438G polymorphisms and the absence of the C1494T, T1095C and 961insC mutations in all the tested individuals. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome in the 4 patients showing the new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site revealed only the presence of the A8860G transition in the MT-ATP6 gene and the A4769G polymorphism in the ND2 gene.

Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Avenue Magida Boulila, Sfax 3029 (Tunisia)], E-mail: emna_mkaouar@mail2world.com; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Avenue Magida Boulila, Sfax 3029 (Tunisia); Charfeddine, Ilhem [Service d'O.R.L., C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Avenue Magida Boulila, Sfax 3029 (Tunisia)], E-mail: faiza.fakhfakh@gnet.tn

2008-05-09

429

Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... to parents, teachers, television and radio. Music, the sounds of nature and the voices of loved ones ... destroyed by continuous or repeated exposure to loud sounds. If enough cells and nerves are destroyed, hearing ...

430

Do You Hear What Horton Hears?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I've never heard of a small speck of dust that is able to yell" says Horton of a sound he hears well (Geisel 1954). It is always valuable to connect science to student's interests and their everyday world--so what better way to teach concepts relating to sound than to read "Horton Hears a Who" by Dr. Seuss? Here the authors present several…

Snyder, Robert; Johnson, Jordan

2010-01-01

431

Predicting Language Performance in Hearing Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2-year study evaluated the language performance of 69 hearing impaired, preschool children born following the rubella epidemic of the early 1960's in order to develop an instrument for objectively assessing language achievement and a predictive index of language achievement. Two language rating scales were developed which were tied to the…

Monsees, Edna K.

432

Hearing Loss among Persons with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communicative interactions provide the foundation for cognitive and social development early in life and continue to impact our behaviors, social patterns, and thoughts throughout our lives. Expressive and receptive exchanges are essential to communication, and hearing is an essential part of all spoken communicative attempts. For individuals who use spoken communication, maximizing auditory ability is imperative. This is especially true

Heather Porter; Anne Marie Tharpe

2010-01-01

433

Vision-Based Sensor for Early Detection of Periodical Defects in Web Materials  

PubMed Central

During the production of web materials such as plastic, textiles or metal, where there are rolls involved in the production process, periodically generated defects may occur. If one of these rolls has some kind of flaw, it can generate a defect on the material surface each time it completes a full turn. This can cause the generation of a large number of surface defects, greatly degrading the product quality. For this reason, it is necessary to have a system that can detect these situations as soon as possible. This paper presents a vision-based sensor for the early detection of this kind of defects. It can be adapted to be used in the inspection of any web material, even when the input data are very noisy. To assess its performance, the sensor system was used to detect periodical defects in hot steel strips. A total of 36 strips produced in ArcelorMittal Avilés factory were used for this purpose, 18 to determine the optimal configuration of the proposed sensor using a full-factorial experimental design and the other 18 to verify the validity of the results. Next, they were compared with those provided by a commercial system used worldwide, showing a clear improvement. PMID:23112629

Bulnes, Francisco G.; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Molleda, Julio

2012-01-01

434

Machine vision-based real-time early flame and smoke detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel real-time machine video-based flame and smoke detection method that can be incorporated with a surveillance system for early alerts. Automatic monitoring systems use the motion history detection algorithm to register the possible flame and smoke position in a video and then analyze the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the flame and smoke regions in the image sequences. The spectral probability density is represented by comparing the flame and smoke color histogram model, where HSI color spaces are used. The spatial probability density is represented by computing the flame and smoke turbulent phenomena with the relation of perimeter and area. Statistical distribution of the spectral and spatial probability density is weighted with the fuzzy reasoning system to give the potential flame and smoke candidate region. The temporal probability density is represented by extracting the flickering area with level crossing and separating the alias objects from the flame and smoke region. Then, the continuously adaptive mean shift (CAMSHIFT) vision tracking algorithm is employed to provide feedback of the flame and smoke real-time position at a high frame rate. Experimental results under a variety of conditions show that the proposed method is capable of detecting flame and smoke reliably.

Ho, Chao-Ching

2009-04-01

435

A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration. PMID:22969352

Onen, Onursal; Sisman, Alper; Gallant, Nathan D.; Kruk, Patricia; Guldiken, Rasim

2012-01-01

436

CapitolHearings.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exactly goes on in the U.S. Congress on a daily basis? This is a question that many people would like to know, and this website is a great way to find that out. The CapitolHearings.org site was created by C-SPAN in conjunction with Congressional Quarterly, and it provides detailed information about ongoing Congressional hearings and sessions, along with some fun trivia. Visitors can use the website to listen to gavel-to-gavel coverage of U.S. Senate Committee hearings, and there are a total of 26 hearing rooms that are included. On the homepage, visitors can view the current hearing schedule and access the full text of each item that is up for debate and discussion. Also, visitors can use the "Watch Congress" button to get easy access to the proceedings, and they can also search past hearings as well.

437

Biomechanics of hearing in katydids.  

PubMed

Animals have evolved a vast diversity of mechanisms to detect sounds. Auditory organs are thus used to detect intraspecific communicative signals and environmental sounds relevant to survival. To hear, terrestrial animals must convert the acoustic energy contained in the airborne sound pressure waves into neural signals. In mammals, spectral quality is assessed by the decomposition of incoming sound waves into elementary frequency components using a sophisticated cochlear system. Some insects like katydids (or bushcrickets) have evolved biophysical mechanisms for auditory processing that are remarkably equivalent to those of mammals. Located on their front legs, katydid ears are small, yet are capable of performing several of the tasks usually associated with mammalian hearing. These tasks include air-to-liquid impedance conversion, signal amplification, and frequency analysis. Impedance conversion is achieved by a lever system, a mechanism functionally analogous to the mammalian middle ear ossicles, yet morphologically distinct. In katydids, the exact mechanisms supporting frequency analysis seem diverse, yet are seen to result in dispersive wave propagation phenomenologically similar to that of cochlear systems. Phylogenetically unrelated katydids and tetrapods have evolved remarkably different structural solutions to common biophysical problems. Here, we discuss the biophysics of hearing in katydids and the variations observed across different species. PMID:25515594

Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel

2015-01-01

438

Is All Human Hearing Cochlear?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the possibility that the saccule may contribute to human hearing. The forty participants included twenty healthy people and twenty other subjects selected from patients who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo to Audiology Department of Hazrat Rasoul Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran). Assessments comprised of audiological evaluations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), recognition of spoken phonemes in white noise (Rsp in wn), and auditory brainstem response to 500?Hz tone burst (ABR500?HZ). Twenty affected ears with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs revealed decreased scores of Rsp in wn and abnormal findings of ABR500?HZ. Both unaffected and normal ears had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs and ABR500?HZ between three groups were significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA). The correlation between RSP in wn and p13 latencies was significant. The peak-to-peak amplitudes showed significant correlation to RSP in wn. The correlation between RSP in wn and the latencies of n23 was significant. In high-level of noisy competing situations, healthy human saccular sensation can mediate the detection of low frequencies and possibly help in cochlear hearing for frequency and intensity discrimination. So, all human hearing is not cochlear. PMID:24453793

2013-01-01

439

Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study  

SciTech Connect

Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a polyclonal detector antibody. The capture antibody was covalently immobilized on modified glass slides. The detector antibody was conjugated with AF532 labeled secondary antibody prior to being used as probe for the antigen. Imaging was performed with a TIRF system. This technique is demonstrated for detecting HIV-1 p24 antigen down to 0.1 pg/mL with a dynamic range of over 4 orders of magnitude. A Langmuir isotherm fit the molecule count dependence on the target concentration. The results also showed that neither sensitivity nor dynamic range was affected by the biological matrix. SMISA is therefore a promising approach for the early diagnosis of virus-induced diseases. Single-molecule enzymatic kinetics and enantioselectivity were monitored in real time by using TIRF microscopy. AF532 labeled poly-L-lysine (PLL) or poly-D-lysine (PDL) was covalently immobilized on a dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) self-assembled monolayer (DSU SAM). Chain shortening due to enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the reduction of the individual fluorescence intensities. A broad distribution was obtained when 100 single-molecule half-lives were analyzed. However, the detailed hydrolysis process involved also a long-lived component and an induction period that varied significantly among molecules. Charge and steric heterogeneity at the surface are responsible for these features.

Li, Jiangwei

2008-10-15

440

Autism and Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 199 children and adolescents (153 boys, 46 girls) with autistic disorder was audiologically evaluated. Mild to moderate hearing loss was diagnosed in 7.9% and unilateral hearing loss in 1.6% of those who could be tested appropriately. Pronounced to profound bilateral hearing loss or deafness was diagnosed in 3.5% of all cases, representing a prevalence considerably above that

Ulf Rosenhall; Viviann Nordin; Mikael Sandström; Gunilla Ahlsén; Christopher Gillberg

1999-01-01

441

A Mutation in Synaptojanin 2 Causes Progressive Hearing Loss in the ENU-Mutagenised Mouse Strain Mozart  

PubMed Central

Background Hearing impairment is the most common sensory impairment in humans, affecting 1?1,000 births. We have identified an ENU generated mouse mutant, Mozart, with recessively inherited, non-syndromic progressive hearing loss caused by a mutation in the synaptojanin 2 (Synj2), a central regulatory enzyme in the phosphoinositide-signaling cascade. Methodology/Principal Findings The hearing loss in Mozart is caused by a p.Asn538Lys mutation in the catalytic domain of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase synaptojanin 2. Within the cochlea, Synj2 mRNA expression was detected in the inner and outer hair cells but not in the spiral ganglion. Synj2N538K mutant protein showed loss of lipid phosphatase activity, and was unable to degrade phosphoinositide signaling molecules. Mutant Mozart mice (Synj2N538K/N538K) exhibited progressive hearing loss and showed signs of hair cell degeneration as early as two weeks of age, with fusion of stereocilia followed by complete loss of hair bundles and ultimately loss of hair cells. No changes in vestibular or neurological function, or other clinical or behavioral manifestations were apparent. Conclusions/Significance Phosphoinositides are membrane associated signaling molecules that regulate many cellular processes including cell death, proliferation, actin polymerization and ion channel activity. These results reveal Synj2 as a critical regulator of hair cell survival that is essential for hair cell maintenance and hearing function. PMID:21423608

Manji, Shehnaaz S. M.; Williams, Louise H.; Miller, Kerry A.; Ooms, Lisa M.; Bahlo, Melanie; Mitchell, Christina A.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.

2011-01-01

442

[Clinical features associated with sudden hearing loss in children].  

PubMed

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is usually unilateral, and the cause is not identified in most adult cases. However, a specific cause has frequently been found in the case of children, in whom idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISHL) is comparatively rare. We investigated 20 cases of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in children associated with a certain disease, but which was first diagnosed as ISHL. Thirteen patients aged 6 to 16 years old were diagnosed as having psychogenic (functional) hearing loss. Discrepancies in behavioral and objective tests are most valuable when functional hearing loss is suspected. Elevated pure-tone thresholds associated with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) enable prompt further investigation. There are several conditions that may mimic functional hearing loss, so auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing is necessary to verify the actual cause. The unilateral profound hearing loss in 2 patients aged 7 and 11 years old was due to asymptomatic mumps proven by detecting the mumps IgM antibody. Total hearing recovery in the 125-1000 Hz frequencies occurred in one case. In 5 patients aged 6 to 12 years old with acute hearing loss and vertigo, high resolution CT imaging showed an abnormally enlarged vestibular aqueduct on the affected side. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome should be considered in acute high-frequency sloping hearing loss with an A-B gap at low frequencies. PMID:22991853

Taiji, Hidenobu; Morimoto, Noriko

2012-07-01

443

Immersive simulation of hearing loss and auditory prostheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation of hearing loss is useful for demonstrating the communication challenges facing hearing-impaired people. However, current simulations, most of which are only recordings, do not actually elevate thresholds; i.e., they do not simulate hearing loss, per se. The hearing loss simulator described in this talk is immersive; the user's detection thresh- olds for ambient sounds are shifted by a prescribed degree. This threshold shift is achieved through a combination of passive attenuation (from muff-type hearing protectors) and additive masking noise (introduced by within-muff earphones). Acoustic signals picked up by microphones near each ear are processed through bandpass AGC channels and delivered via the earphones to complete the simulation of frequency-dependent hearing loss and loudness recruitment. Preliminary results validating the accuracy of specified threshold shift will be presented, along with speech-reception data comparing simulated with actual hearing losses. Subjective reactions of users engaged in one-on-one conversation suggest that strong feelings of communication disability are engendered by even moderate degrees of simulated hearing loss. The system, which is capable of simulating any degree of recruiting hearing loss along with hearing aids or cochlear implants, can provide effective interactive demonstrations of both auditory communication handicap and rehabilitation options. [Work supported by NIDCD.

Zurek, Patrick M.; Desloge, Joseph G.

2001-05-01

444

Breath analysis system for early detection of lung diseases based on multi-sensor array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expiratory breath contains various VOCs(Volatile Organic Compounds) produced from the human. When a certain disease exists, the exhalation has specific VOCs which may be generated from diseases. Many researchers have been actively working to find different types of biomarkers which are characteristic for particular diseases. Research regarding the identification of specific diseases from exhalation is still in progress. The aim of this research is to implement early detection of lung disease such as lung cancer and COPD(Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), which was nominated on the 6th of domestic death rate in 2010, based on multi-sensor array system. The system has been used to acquire sampled expiratory gases data and PCA(Principle Component Analysis) technique was applied to analyze signals from multi-sensor array. Throughout the experimental trials, a clearly distinguishable difference between lung disease patients and healthy controls was found from the measurement and analysis of their respective expiratory gases.

Jeon, Jin-Young; Yu, Joon-Boo; Shin, Jeong-Suk; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

2013-05-01

445

A method for early detection of abnormal trends in serial clinical examination results over time.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a method for the early detection of changing health conditions which may eventually lead to serious disease. The method makes use of health screening test results accumulated for individuals and can be applied to those who have taken at least four health examinations. The degree of abnormality is calculated using a logistic regression equation. The variables defining the equation are selected by factor analysis and a stepwise variable selection method based on the likelihood ratio criterion. Statistical estimates include linear regression coefficients, isotonic regression probabilities and their standard deviations. These are used to represent trends in health screening results over time. The method is illustrated using a sample of 308 persons with gastric cancer and 3002 healthy persons. Cross-validations were also performed. PMID:2622294

Mori, H; Nakamura, T; Nose, Y

1989-01-01

446

Correcting the Results of the Wrong Model: Treatment Effects under Early Detection of Cancer.  

PubMed

Early detection of cancer leads to variability of the point of diagnosis advanced by the amount of the so-called lead time, a random variable. Estimated treatment effects by the proportional hazards (PH) model may be biased if this variability is ignored. We study how true and PH-estimated treatment effects differ in screened vs. unscreened populations and offer an approximate correction for the reported PH-based estimate that does not require raw data, targeting a meta-analysis-type application. We rely on a joint cancer incidence and survival model of prostate cancer to furnish key information for the correction. The procedure is applied to a series of prostate cancer data analyses using the PH models reported in the literature. Simulations are used for assessing the quality of the method and sensitivity analyses. PMID:24032001

Lee, Shih-Yuan; Tsodikov, Alex

2013-04-01

447

Early attack reaction sensor (EARS), a man-wearable gunshot detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Early Attack Reaction Sensor (EARS) is a modified passive acoustic system that detects gunshots (muzzle blast and/or shockwave) to provide the user with relative azimuth and range of sniper fire via both audio alert and visual display. The EARS system consists of a microphone array in a small planar configuration and an equivalently sized Digital Signal Processing board, which is interfaced to a PDA via a PCMCIA slot. Hence, configuration easily provides portability. However, the system is being repackaged for man-wearable and vehicle mount applications. The EARS system in a PDA configuration has been tested in open fields at up to 500 meters range and has provided useable bearing and range information against the sniper rounds. This paper will discuss EARS system description, various test results, and EARS system capabilities and limitations.

Chang, Jay; Mendyk, William; Thier, Lisa; Yun, Paul; LaRow, Andy; Shaw, Scott; Schoenborn, William

2006-05-01

448

Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years) — 15 normal controls (NCs), 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the detection of pathophysiological changes in early-stage AD. PMID:25610788

McBride, Joseph C.; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Munro, Nancy B.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Smith, Charles D.; Jiang, Yang

2014-01-01

449

Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years) - 15 normal controls (NCs), 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the detection of pathophysiological changes in early-stage AD. PMID:25610788

McBride, Joseph C; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Munro, Nancy B; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D; Jiang, Yang

2015-01-01

450

Prototype early warning system for heart disease detection using Android application.  

PubMed

Heart Disease affects approximately 70 million people worldwide where most people do not even know the symptoms. This research examines the prototype of early warning system for heart disease by android application. It aims to facilitate users to early detect heart disease which can be used independently. To build the application in android phone, variable centered intelligence rule system (VCIRS) as decision makers and pulse sensor - Arduino as heart rate detector were applied in this study. Moreover, in Arduino, the heart rate will become an input for symptoms in Android Application. The output of this system is the conclusion statement of users diagnosed with either coronary heart disease, hypertension heart disease, rheumatic heart disease or do not get any kind of heart disease. The result of diagnosis followed by analysis of the value of usage variable rate (VUR) rule usage rate (RUR) and node usage rate (NUR) that shows the value of the rule that will increase when the symptoms frequently appear. This application was compared with the medical analysis from 35 cases of heart disease and it showed concordance between diagnosis from android application and expert diagnosis of the doctors. PMID:25570737

Zennifa, Fadilla; Fitrilina; Kamil, Husnil; Iramina, Keiji

2014-08-01

451

Current Status of Molecular Markers for Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy with near 100% mortality. This is in part due to the fact that most patients present with metastatic or locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Significantly, in nearly 95% of PC patients there is neither an associated family history of PC nor of diseases known to be associated with an increased risk of PC. These groups of patients who comprise the bulk of PC cases are termed as “sporadic PC” in contrast to the familial PC cases that comprise only about 5% of all PCs. Given the insidious onset of the malignancy and its extreme resistance to chemo and radiotherapy, an abundance of research in recent years has focused on identifying biomarkers for the early detection of PC, specifically aiming at the sporadic PC cohort. However, while several studies have established that asymptomatic individuals with a positive family history of PC and those with certain heritable syndromes are candidates for PC screening, the role of screening in identifying sporadic PC is still an unsettled question. The present review attempts to assess this critical question by investigating the recent advances made in molecular markers with potential use in the early diagnosis of sporadic PC- the largest cohort of PC cases worldwide. It also outlines a novel yet simple risk-factor based stratification system that could be potentially employed by clinicians to identify those individuals who at an elevated-risk for the development of sporadic PC and therefore candidates for screening. PMID:20888394

Chakraborty, Subhankar; Baine, Michael J.; Sasson, Aaron R.; Batra, Surinder K.

2010-01-01

452

Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg