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1

Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.  

PubMed

Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. PMID:19962682

Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

2010-01-01

2

Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

2006-01-01

3

Towards Integrated Practices in Early Detection of and Intervention for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well documented that undetected hearing loss can have a profound effect on a child's holistic development, including communicative, language and cognitive development. It is crucial therefore that deaf and hard of hearing infants are detected as early as possible so that appropriate intervention services and support can be initiated. To…

Storbeck, Claudine; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer

2008-01-01

4

Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

Corwin, Joanne

2011-01-01

5

Epidemiology of Early Hearing Loss Detection in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Universal Newborn Hearing Screening began in 2 Honolulu hospitals in 1992, and by 1999, all 14 civilian birthing facilities in Hawaii were providing screening. Examination of 1998 Hawaii data indicated that approximately 13% of infants who did not pass initial hearing screening in the hospital did not return for the indicated follow-up. The purpose of this study was to

Cheryl B. Prince; Lloyd Miyashiro; Yusnita Weirather

6

Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2004-01-01

7

Auditory Screening in Infants for Early Detection of Permanent Hearing Loss in Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Undiagnosed hearing loss can cause disorders in speech and language and delay in social and emotional development. Aim: This study aimed to screen for hearing loss in all newborns born in Babol city during 2009-2011. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen thousand one hundred and sixty-five newborns (49% [7430/15165] male and 51% [7735/15165] female) born during a 30-month period in Babol, underwent hearing screening by the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test at the age of 15 days. In infants referred at this stage, an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was the next investigation. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA, 16) through descriptive statistic method. Results: In the first screening stage, 10.8% (1648/15165) cases were referred to the second stage for further investigation. 9.4% (154/1648) were lost to follow-up from among the referred cases despite continuous contact and education about the importance of the problem. Among the participants in the second stage, 6.2% (92/1494) were referred to the third stage and underwent ABR and OAE testing. 14.1% (13/92) were lost at this stage. Of the remaining participants, 34.2% (27/79) were diagnosed with a hearing loss. Therefore, the incidence of hearing loss in this study was 1.8/1,000 newborns. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of hearing loss in this study, implementation of a universal newborn hearing screening program is recommended. PMID:24971205

Haghshenas, M; Zadeh, PY; Javadian, Y; Fard, HA; Delavari, K; Panjaki, HSA; Gorji, HAMH

2014-01-01

8

Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

2011-01-01

9

Hearing aid malfunction detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

1977-01-01

10

The Early Years: Hear That?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like breathing, the ability to hear sound is often taken for granted unless it becomes impaired. Children may not wonder about how sound is generated or detected until introduced to an inquiry activity about sound. Therefore, to heighten students' appreciation of sound, this month's column features an activity in which they use their senses to understand this abstract concept. In addition, students construct a kazoo out of simple materials in order to feel vibrations that create sound.

Ashbrook, Peggy

2009-04-01

11

Early Detection  

Cancer.gov

This group identifies and ascertains the effectiveness of both the operating characteristics and the impacts on mortality, and immediate and downstream risks of molecular and imaging cancer detection technologies and practices. It systematically assesses

12

Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.  

PubMed

The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

Narayanswamy, S

1992-01-01

13

Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

2011-01-01

14

Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

15

Early Detection Research Worldwide  

Cancer.gov

Genetic research on cancer has grown tremendously in the last decade, and the increase in the number of published research articles has been truly phenomenal. However, molecular and genetic research focusing on the early detection of cancer is still lagging.

16

Breast Cancer: Early Detection  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

17

Early Detection Research Network  

Cancer.gov

This initiative supports the creation of a national Network for early cancer detection with resources for translational research that will include laboratory science, clinical science, public health, biostatistics, informatics, and computer science. The goals of the Network are to discover and coordinate the evaluation of biomarkers and reagents for the earlier detection of cancer and for the assessment of risk.

18

Hearing Loss in Children: Treatment and Intervention Services  

MedlinePLUS

... Special Education for Children (3-22 years) Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) Program Every state has ... implants Bone-anchored hearing aids Other assistive devices Hearing Aids Hearing aids make sounds louder. They can ...

19

Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

1990-01-01

20

Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

2005-01-01

21

Developmental hearing loss impairs signal detection in noise: putative central mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Listeners with hearing loss have difficulty processing sounds in noisy environments. This is most noticeable for speech perception, but is reflected in a basic auditory processing task: detecting a tonal signal in a noise background, i.e., simultaneous masking. It is unresolved whether the mechanisms underlying simultaneous masking arise from the auditory periphery or from the central auditory system. Poor detection in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is attributed to cochlear hair cell damage. However, hearing loss alters neural processing in the central auditory system. Additionally, both psychophysical and neurophysiological data from normally hearing and impaired listeners suggest that there are additional contributions to simultaneous masking that arise centrally. With SNHL, it is difficult to separate peripheral from central contributions to signal detection deficits. We have thus excluded peripheral contributions by using an animal model of early conductive hearing loss (CHL) that provides auditory deprivation but does not induce cochlear damage. When tested as adults, animals raised with CHL had increased thresholds for detecting tones in simultaneous noise. Furthermore, intracellular in vivo recordings in control animals revealed a cortical correlate of simultaneous masking: local cortical processing reduced tone-evoked responses in the presence of noise. This raises the possibility that altered cortical responses which occur with early CHL can influence even simple signal detection in noise. PMID:25249949

Gay, Jennifer D.; Voytenko, Sergiy V.; Galazyuk, Alexander V.; Rosen, Merri J.

2014-01-01

22

New feedback detection method for performance evaluation of hearing aids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New objective and accurate feedback detection method, transfer function variation criterion (TVC), has been developed for evaluating the performance of feedback cancellation techniques. The proposed method is able to classify stable, unstable, and sub-oscillatory stages of feedback in hearing aids. The sub-oscillatory stage is defined as a state where the hearing aid user may perceive distortion of sound quality without the occurrence of oscillation. This detection algorithm focuses on the transfer function variation of hearing aids and the relationship between system stability and feedback oscillation. The transfer functions are obtained using the FIR Wiener filtering algorithm off-line. An anechoic test box is used for the exact and reliable evaluation of different hearing aids. The results are listed and compared with the conventional power concentration ratio (PCR), which has been generally adopted as a feedback detection method for the performance evaluation of hearing aids. The possibility of real-time implementation is discussed in terms of a more convenient and exact performance evaluation of feedback cancellation techniques.

Shin, Mincheol; Wang, Semyung; Bentler, Ruth A.; He, Shuman

2007-04-01

23

Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access  

PubMed Central

Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for improved research studies in these areas. PMID:20866021

Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

2010-01-01

24

Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

2010-01-01

25

The otolaryngologist's role in newborn hearing screening and early intervention.  

PubMed

Infant hearing loss is common. Screening is performed in more than 98% of US infants. Otolaryngologists play an important role in identification and management of infants and children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Otolaryngologists should routinely assess for hearing screening results and intervene for screens not passed. Long-term follow-up and reassessment of patients with hearing loss is an ongoing component of otolaryngology practice. This article reviews the otolaryngologist's role in the management of infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing from screening to intervention and management. PMID:25213275

Bower, Charles M; St John, Rachel

2014-10-01

26

Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment  

PubMed Central

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800?ms) or short (50?ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

27

Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution  

E-print Network

Outline Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution Conclusions and Future Extraction from PET Images #12;Outline Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution Conclusions and Future Work Application in Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection Deconvolution Regularized Least

Renaut, Rosemary

28

Brief hearing loss disrupts binaural integration during two early critical periods of auditory cortex development  

PubMed Central

Early binaural experience can recalibrate central auditory circuits that support spatial hearing. However, it is not known how binaural integration matures shortly after hearing onset or whether various developmental stages are differentially impacted by disruptions of normal binaural experience. Here we induce a brief, reversible unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) at several experimentally determined milestones in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) development and characterize its effects approximately one week after normal hearing is restored. We find that experience shapes A1 binaural selectivity during two early critical periods. CHL before P16 disrupts the normal co-registration of interaural frequency tuning, whereas CHL on P16, but not before or after, disrupts interaural level difference (ILD) sensitivity contained in long-latency spikes. These data highlight an evolving plasticity in the developing auditory cortex that may relate to the etiology of amblyaudia, a binaural hearing impairment associated with bouts of otitis media during human infancy. PMID:24077484

Polley, Daniel B.; Thompson, John H.; Guo, Wei

2013-01-01

29

A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETECT FREQUENCY-SPECIFIC COCHLEAR HEARING LOSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the ap- plication of time-frequency (TF) transforms and sup- port vector machines (SVM) to transient evoked otoa- coustic emissions (TEOAE) in order to achieve a de- tection of frequency-specific hearing loss. We intro- duce a system to determine detection rates between groups of persons with normal hearing, high frequency hearing loss, and

Hubert Dietl; Stephan Weiss

30

Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

2013-01-01

31

Nanotechnology for early cancer detection.  

PubMed

Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

2010-01-01

32

Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

2010-01-01

33

Dynamics of Random Early Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of Random Early Detection (RED) over traffic types categorized as non-adaptive, fragile and robust, according to their responses to congestion. We point out that RED allows unfair bandwidth sharing when a mixture of the three traffic types shares a link. This unfairness is caused by the fact that at any given time RED

Dong Lin; Robert Morris

1997-01-01

34

Hearing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans are able to hear through their ears. Sounds are made and travel through the air as vibration waves. These waves reach the human ear and go through a series of routes before the brain interprets them as sounds.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

35

From Screening to Early Identification and Intervention: Discovering Predictors to Successful Outcomes for Children with Significant Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings from a series of longitudinal studies of the language, speech, and social-emotional development of children with hearing impairments and hearing parents found language development is positively and significantly affected by the age of identification of the hearing loss and age of initiation into Colorado early intervention…

Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2003-01-01

36

Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

2011-01-01

37

Early Detection of Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall 5-year survival of lung cancer is only 10% in Europe and 15% in the United States, and progress in curative treatments during the last 20 years has been modest. Late diagnosis of extensive disease is the main reason of failure. Early detection with low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) is one of the most promising development of clinical research,

Ugo Pastorino

2006-01-01

38

NCI Sponsored Early Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Over an eight-year period (1992-1999), the funding for molecular cancer research has risen from 330 million in 1992 to 820 million in 1999. During this period, the number of funded grants in molecular disease (contracts not included) rose to 2957 in 1999 from 1622 in 1992. The grants addressing the area of early detection also grew in number and funded amount; 206 ($36 million) in 1992 to 455 ($94 million) in 2000.

39

Early Intervention for Children With Unilateral and Mild Bilateral Degrees of Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Some children with unilateral hearing loss or mild bilateral hearing loss are at risk for developmental delays, educational difficulties, and other adverse effects. However, these children face several challenges in receiving services that can prevent such problems. Many do not meet existing eligibility requirements for early intervention services in their state. Information disseminated to professionals and parents often does not convey the significance of unilateral and mild bilateral hearing loss. Some professionals indicate that there are insufficient guidelines defining appropriate intervention services for these children. Factors that influence developmental outcomes in this population are not well understood, making it difficult to determine which children can benefit from intervention services. Additional data are needed about how to minimize or prevent adverse outcomes in these children. This article presents suggestions for intervention and future research that were developed by participants of the 2005 National Workshop on Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss. PMID:18270177

Holstrum, W. June; Gaffney, Marcus; Gravel, Judith S.; Oyler, Robert F.; Ross, Danielle S.

2008-01-01

40

Open and closed cavity mastoid operations: comparing early hearing results.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to compare audiological results in patients treated surgically with either an open or closed cavity mastoidectomy. A prospective review of a single surgeon's case series based at two district general hospitals. All patients with 1-year post-operative hearing results following an open or closed cavity mastoid surgery were included. Outcome measured included the preoperative and postoperative air-bone gap (ABG). Belfast rule of thumb was used to assess the benefit from middle ear surgery. A total of 128 patients were identified from the database with 1 year post-operative hearing results. Sixty-three patients had undergone an open cavity mastoidectomy and 65 had a closed cavity mastoidectomy. The mean post-operative ABG in patients with open cavity mastoidectomy was 24 dB and for closed cavity 21 dB (p = 0.12). There was no statistical difference between open and closed cavity mastoidectomy with or without ossiculoplasty and if the underlying pathology was squamous or mucosal disease. However, patient with post-operative ABG below or equal to 20 dB was 41% for closed cavity compared to 21% for open cavity. Using the Belfast rule of thumb, 79% of the patients in both groups had successful hearing results post surgery. The 1-year post-operative audiological results between open and closed cavity masoidectomy showed no statistical difference. The pathology affecting the middle ear also had no influence on the hearing results between the two groups. However, there was a higher percentage of patients with closed cavity procedures who had a post-operative ABG that was below or equal to 20 dB. PMID:22249832

Galm, T; Martin, T P C; Raut, V

2013-01-01

41

Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.  

PubMed

Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners. PMID:25190410

Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

2014-09-01

42

Childhood infections, but not early life growth, influence hearing in the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort at age 14 years  

PubMed Central

Background While current research priorities include investigations of age-related hearing loss, there are concerns regarding effects on childhood hearing, for example through increased personal headphone use. By utilising historical data, it is possible to assess what factors may have increased hearing problems in children in the past, and this may be used to inform current public health policies to protect children against hearing loss and in turn reduce the long-term burden on individuals and services that may possible evolve. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors in early life significantly impacted on hearing level in childhood using existing data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a 1947 birth cohort. Methods Data on early life factors, including growth, socio-economic status and illness, and hearing at age 14 years were collated for a representative subset of individuals from the cohort (n?=?147). Factors were assessed using linear regression analysis to identify associations with hearing thresholds. Results Males were found to have lower hearing thresholds at 250 Hz, 500 Hz and 1 kHz. Main analyses showed no associations between hearing thresholds and early life growth or socio-economic indicators. An increasing number of ear infections from birth to age 13 years was associated with hearing thresholds at 250Hz (p?=?0.04) and 500Hz (p?=?0.03), which remained true for females (p?=?0.050), but not males (p?=?0.213) in sex-specific analysis. Scarlet fever and bronchitis were associated with hearing thresholds at 8 kHz. After adjustment for all significant predictors at each frequency, results remained unchanged. Conclusions We found no associations between childhood hearing thresholds and early life growth and socio-economic status. Consistent with other studies, we found associations between childhood infections and hearing thresholds. Current public health strategies aimed at reducing childhood infections may also have a beneficial effect upon childhood hearing. PMID:23895514

2013-01-01

43

Extraordinary Opportunities in Early Cancer Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Although a primary tumor can usually be successfully controlled with local therapy, most cancer deaths are caused by metastatic disease. Therefore, the goal of screening and early detection is to identify tumors at early stages of development. Unfortunately, clinically available screening and early detection modalities detect many tumors at a relatively late stage in their development.

44

Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection

Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

2004-01-01

45

Fostering early breast cancer detection.  

PubMed

This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

2014-12-01

46

Early Age Conductive Hearing Loss Causes Audiogenic Seizure and Hyperacusis Behavior  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical reports found a high incidence of recurrent otitis media in children suffering hyperacusis, a marked intolerance to an otherwise ordinary environmental sound. However, it is unclear whether the conductive hearing loss caused by otitis media in early age will affect sound tolerance later in life. Thus, we have tested the effects of tympanic membrane (TM) damage at an early age on sound perception development in rats. Two weeks after the TM perforation, more than 80% of the rats showed audiogenic seizure (AGS) when exposed to loud sound (120 dB SPL white noise, < 1 minute). The susceptibility of AGS lasted at least sixteen weeks after the TM damage, even the hearing loss recovered. The TM damaged rats also showed significantly enhanced acoustic startle responses compared to the rats without TM damage. These results suggest that early age conductive hearing loss may cause an impaired sound tolerance during development. In addition, the AGS can be suppressed by the treatment of vigabatrin, acute injections (250 mg/kg) or oral intakes (60 mg/kg/day for 7 days), an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA. c-Fos staining showed a strong staining in the inferior colliculus (IC) in the TM damaged rats, not in the control rats, after exposed to loud sound, indicating a hyper-excitability in the IC during AGS. These results indicate that early age conductive hearing loss can impair sound tolerance by reducing GABA inhibition in the IC, which may be related to hyperacusis seen in children with otitis media. PMID:21872651

Sun, Wei; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Jayaram, Aditi; Kumaraguru, Anand; Fu, Qiang; Li, Ji; Allman, Brian

2011-01-01

47

Comparing the clinical effectiveness of different new-born hearing screening strategies. A decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children with congenital hearing impairment benefit from early detection and treatment. At present, no model exists which explicitly quantifies the effectiveness of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) versus other programme alternatives in terms of early diagnosis. It has yet to be considered whether early diagnosis (within the first few months) of hearing impairment is of importance with regard to

Eva Grill; Franz Hessel; Uwe Siebert; Petra Schnell-Inderst; Silke Kunze; Andreas Nickisch; Jürgen Wasem

2005-01-01

48

First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: Evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.  

PubMed

One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. PMID:25138156

Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

2014-11-01

49

BRIEF COMMUNICATION Early Detection of Thrombin  

E-print Network

BRIEF COMMUNICATION Early Detection of Thrombin Activity in Neuroinflammatory Disease Dimitrios characterized the activity pattern of thrombin, the central protease of the coagulation cascade, in experi- mental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thrombin activ- ity preceded onset of neurological signs, increased

Tsien, Roger Y.

50

Nanotechnology in Early Detection of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Nanotechnology in Early Detection of Cancer August 30-31, 2001 Meeting Summary Nanotechnology is defined as the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter at the scale of 1 to 100 nanometers, and exploitation

51

Early Detection of Collaboration Conflicts and Risks  

E-print Network

Early Detection of Collaboration Conflicts and Risks Yuriy Brun, Member, IEEE, Reid Holmes, Michael developers identify, manage, and prevent conflicts. Crystal uses speculative analysis to make concrete advice unobtrusively available to developers. Index Terms--Collaborative development, collaboration conflicts

Ernst, Michael

52

Early detection of contagious diseases  

DOEpatents

This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

Colston, Jr., Billy W. (San Ramon, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Estacio, Pedro (Mission San Jose, CA); Chang, John (Walnut Creek, CA)

2011-08-09

53

Usher syndrome type (USH1) severe form characterized intense hearing loss birth constant vestibular dysfunction progressive retinitis pigmentosa beginning early adolescence results retarded motor development.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for Usher syndrome type (USH1) severe form characterized intense hearing loss birth constant vestibular dysfunction progressive retinitis pigmentosa beginning early adolescence results retarded motor development. ?

54

Random early detection gateways for congestion avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Random Early Detection (RED) gateways for congestion avoidance in packet-switched networks. The gateway detects incipient congestion by computing the av- erage queue size. The gateway could notify connections of con- gestion either by dropping packets arriving at the gateway or by setting a bit in packet headers. When the average queue size exceeds a preset threshold, the

Sally Floyd; Van Jacobson

1993-01-01

55

The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN)  

Cancer.gov

This initiative supports the creation of a national Network for early cancer detection with resources for translational research that will include laboratory science, clinical science, public health, biostatistics, informatics, and computer science. The goals of the Network are to discover and coordinate the evaluation of biomarkers and reagents for the earlier detection of cancer and for the assessment of risk.

56

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research  

Cancer.gov

Publications and Presentations Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research Table of Contents Overview Introduction CBRG Mission Trends in Early Detection Research Early Detection Research Worldwide NCI Sponsored

57

Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

58

Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education  

PubMed Central

Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children’s communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children’s communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers’ level of education and the male caregivers’ use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers’ use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

2013-01-01

59

Detection of Early-Stage Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an almost universally lethal disease, in large part, due to our inability to detect early-stage disease. Monoclonal antibody PAM4 is reactive with a unique biomarker expressed by greater than 85% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. In this report, we examined the ability of a PAM4-based immunoassay to detect early-stage disease. Methods The PAM4-based immunoassay was used to quantitate antigen in the serum of healthy volunteers (N=19), patients with known pancreatic adenocarcinoma (N=68), and patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (N=29). Results Sensitivity for detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 82%, with a false-positive rate of 5% for healthy controls. Patients with advanced disease had significantly higher antigen levels than those with early-stage disease (P<0.01), with a diagnostic sensitivity of 91%, 86%, and 62% for stage 3/4 advanced disease, stage-2, and stage-1, respectively. We also evaluated chronic pancreatitis sera, finding 38% positive for antigen; however, this was discordant with immunohistochemical findings that suggest the PAM4-antigen is not produced by inflamed pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, several of the serum-positive pancreatitis patients, for whom tissue specimens were available for pathological interpretation, had evidence of neoplastic precursor lesions. Conclusions These results suggest the use of the PAM4-serum assay to detect early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and that positive levels of PAM4-antigen are not derived from inflamed pancreatic tissues, but rather may provide evidence of subclinical pancreatic neoplasia. Impact The ability to detect pancreatic adenocarcinoma at an early stage could provide for early therapeutic intervention with potentially improved patient outcomes. PMID:20810605

Gold, David V.; Goggins, Michael; Modrak, David E.; Newsome, Guy; Liu, Mengling; Shi, Chanjuan; Hruban, Ralph H.; Goldenberg, David M.

2010-01-01

60

Hearing Screening and Diagnostic Evaluation of Children With Unilateral and Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

More than 90% of newborns in the United States are now being screened for hearing loss. A large fraction of cases of unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss are not currently identified through newborn hearing screening. This is of concern because a preponderance of research has demonstrated that unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss can lead to developmental delays and educational problems for some children. To help address this probable underidentification of unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss among infants and children, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Hearing Detection and Intervention program and the Marion Downs Hearing Center convened a workshop in Breckenridge, Colorado, in July 2005. During this workshop, several issues related to screening and diagnosing unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss were identified, as well as recommendations for future research in this area. Issues identified included the lack of standardized definitions for permanent unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss; the use of screening protocols that are primarily designed to identify bilateral and unilateral hearing losses of a moderate degree or greater (eg, above 40 dB); calibration of screening equipment; availability of facilities that can provide the full range of audiologic, diagnostic, and management services to this pediatric population; and an overall lack of awareness by many professionals and families about the potential effect of unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss. Suggestions for future research, such as identifying ways to improve the identification of cases of unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss, were also discussed. PMID:18270176

Ross, Danielle S.; Holstrum, W. June; Gaffney, Marcus; Green, Denise; Oyler, Robert F.; Gravel, Judith S.

2008-01-01

61

Friend to Friend Cancer Early Detection  

E-print Network

areas tend to be diagnosed in later stages of breast or cervical cancer, making treatment more difficult tests for early detection of breast and cervical cancer, when the disease is most curable. In 2013 specialist and patient navigators to ensure breast and cervical cancer screenings were completed

62

Scientists Detect Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Detect Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer Finding might lead one day to test for ... September 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Laboratory Tests Pancreatic Cancer SUNDAY, Sept. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers say ...

63

Early detection and identification of Trichophyton verrucosum.  

PubMed

A new medium for the early detection and identification of Trichophyton verrucosum has been formulated. The key ingredients of the medium are 4% casein and 0.5% yeast extract. T. verrucosum is recognized by its early hydrolysis of casein and very slow growth. Microconidia were produced by 19 out of 35 isolates (54%), and macroconidia were produced by 8 out of 35 isolates (23%). All isolates formed chains of chlamydospores at 37 degrees C, and 24 out of 35 isolates formed chains at 28 degrees C. Nutritional requirements of all 35 strains of T. verrucosum were confirmed. The medium was evaluated by isolating 570 suspected T. verrucosum from skin scrapings. The early detection of hydrolysis, formation of characteristic chains of chlamydospores, and restricted slow growth of this dermatophyte differentiate it from T. schoenleinii. PMID:744802

Kane, J; Smitka, C

1978-12-01

64

The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

1981-07-01

65

Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

1993-01-01

66

[Mammographic detection of early breast cancer].  

PubMed

For the discovery of minimal breast cancer with mammography, photos under appropriate conditions are required, and for the abnormal shadows in the breast, detailed readings of the shadows and photos on the spot under the sufficient pressure over the breast enable us to draw clearer pictures. It is desirable to examine micro-calcification to perform accurate biopsy and histopathology; with serial section of the specimen. Furthermore, it has become important for the diagnosis of lesion with galactography for nipple discharge to detect early breast cancer. Henceforth, the role of mammography among all graphic diagnosis will become greater for the discovery of early breast cancer. PMID:3172495

Watanabe, S

1988-08-01

67

[Subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children in Akita prefecture].  

PubMed

The dissemination of newborn hearing screening has detected children with mild-moderate hearing impairment at an early age. However, there is no nation-wide welfare system for children with mild-moderate hearing impairment in Japan. Under these kinds of social conditions, a subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children has come into force from April 2010 in Akita prefecture. All 18 candidates who applied for this project were subsidized in Akita prefecture. Eighteen children purchased their hearing aids using this subsidy. The feature of this project was that every child could have access to subsidies as long as their doctor recognized the effectiveness of hearing aids because children with hearing impairment need to learn language. They contacted the hospital, prefectural government and institutes related to hearing loss before this project come into force. We recognized parents who are raising a child with mild-moderate hearing impairment have high interest in this project. Hearing aids can represent a considerable expense for young parents who are raising a child. We encountered some children who had to give up the idea of hearing aids due to their parents' economic circumstances before this project become effective. These situations were completely avoided after this project came into being. This administrative purpose was of demonstrated value in children with mild-moderate hearing impairment. PMID:23865298

Sato, Teruyuki; Nakazawa, Misao; Takahashi, Shin; Ishikawa, Kazuo

2013-06-01

68

Automated Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, (‘Challenge2009’) against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Fundus photographic sets, consisting of two fundus images from each eye, were evaluated from 16,670 patient visits of 16,670 people with diabetes who had not previously been diagnosed with DR. Methods The fundus photographic set from each visit was analyzed by a single retinal expert; 793 of the 16,770 sets were classified as containing more than minimal DR (threshold for referral). The outcomes of the two algorithmic detectors were applied separately to the dataset and compared by standard statistical measures. Main Outcome Measures The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of DR detection. Results Agreement was high, and exams containing more than minimal DR were detected with an AUC of 0.839 by the ‘Eyecheck’ algorithm and an AUC of 0.821 for ‘Challenge2009’, a statistically non-significant difference (z-score 1.91). If either of the algorithms detected DR in combination, AUC for detection was 0.86, the same as the theoretically expected maximum. At 90% sensitivity, the specificity of the ‘EyeCheck’ algorithm was 47.7% and the ‘Challenge2009’ algorithm, 43.6%. Conclusions DR detection algorithms appear to be maturing, and further improvements in detection performance cannot be differentiated from best clinical practices, because the performance of competitive algorithm development has now reached the human intra-reader variability limit. Additional validation studies on larger, well-defined, but more diverse populations of patients with diabetes are urgently needed, anticipating cost-effective early detection of DR in millions of people with diabetes to triage those patients who need further care at a time when they have early rather than advanced DR. PMID:20399502

Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Russell, Stephen R.; Folk, James C.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Quellec, Gwénolé

2010-01-01

69

Detection and rate discrimination of amplitude modulation in electrical hearing  

PubMed Central

Three experiments were designed to examine temporal envelope processing by cochlear implant (CI) listeners. In experiment 1, the hypothesis that listeners’ modulation sensitivity would in part determine their ability to discriminate between temporal modulation rates was examined. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) obtained in an amplitude modulation detection (AMD) task were compared to threshold functions obtained in an amplitude modulation rate discrimination (AMRD) task. Statistically significant nonlinear correlations were observed between the two measures. In experiment 2, results of loudness-balancing showed small increases in the loudness of modulated over unmodulated stimuli beyond a modulation depth of 16%. Results of experiment 3 indicated small but statistically significant effects of level-roving on the overall gain of the TMTF, but no impact of level-roving on the average shape of the TMTF across subjects. This suggested that level-roving simply increased the task difficulty for most listeners, but did not indicate increased use of intensity cues under more challenging conditions. Data obtained with one subject, however, suggested that the most sensitive listeners may derive some benefit from intensity cues in these tasks. Overall, results indicated that intensity cues did not play an important role in temporal envelope processing by the average CI listener. PMID:21895095

Chatterjee, Monita; Oberzut, Cherish

2011-01-01

70

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

71

Early Detection and Screening: Screening for Colorectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Early Detection and Screening: Screening for Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer--currently the second leading cause of cancer death in this country--is frequently preventable and highly treatable if detected early. NCI's Division of Cancer Control and

72

Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

2014-01-01

73

The importance of early home-based guidance (EHBG) for hearing-impaired children and their families in Flanders.  

PubMed

This state-of-the-art report describes the rationale and evidence for family-centred early intervention after newborn hearing screening (NHS). More specifically, we document the organisation and practice of early home-based guidance (EHBG) in Flanders, as well as the new challenges and paradigm shifts induced by NHS. Since the introduction of NHS, the number of participants with bilateral hearing loss entering one of the five EHBG centres in Flanders (one in each of the region's provinces) before the age of twelve months has doubled. About half of the screened population receive EHBG and about 80% of them do so before the age of six months. However, there is enormous variation between the different provinces and this has still to be clarified. PMID:24383220

Lichtert, G; van Wieringen, A

2013-01-01

74

Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.  

PubMed

Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2014-11-01

75

Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

2014-01-01

76

Accelerating evidence into practice for the benefit of children with early hearing loss.  

PubMed

Over the years, multiple groups have issued recommendations for newborn hearing screening, diagnosis, and intervention. In January 2008, the US Department of Health and Human Services held an invitational workshop at which more than 50 national experts met for 2 days to consider ways to accelerate the movement of evidence-based recommendations into practice. Participants set priorities among existing recommendations, identified areas with the most promise and created a national blueprint to accelerate evidence into practice. Workshop participants adopted the "3T's Roadmap to Transform US Health Care" as the conceptual model for this work and used a modified Delphi process to identify high-priority recommendations in 5 areas (diagnosis, treatment, parental and public awareness, continuous quality improvement, and stewardship). A matrix of responsibility was developed to specify entities that could take action to implement these recommendations. Participants placed a high priority on measurement and recommended improved data-tracking of newborns after screening and creation of a limited set of national indicators to monitor progress toward evidence-based system goals. They also identified a greater role for parents and families in contributing to system transformation and a need for more culturally and linguistically appropriate resources. Targeting infants in the NICU for early testing and creating guidelines and resources for early intervention were additional priorities. Finally, the work group noted the need to create a stewardship function to monitor the progress of the entire system of care, disseminate reports, consider future research directions, and continue to develop critical cross-agency and public-private coordination of activities. PMID:20679322

Russ, Shirley A; Dougherty, Denise; Jagadish, Padmini

2010-08-01

77

Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

1984-02-01

78

Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 4. Song, Y. T. (2007) Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681.

Song, Y.

2013-12-01

79

Slimhole Early Kick Detection by Real-Time Drilling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early kick detection has been identified as being of primary importance in slimhole wellbores. Small annular volumes means that, to maintain the integrity of the well, allowable kick volumes must be small. Gas influxes must therefore be detected and shut in rapidly. This paper describes an early kick-detection system developed for slimholes to detect and confirm the presence of an

B. W. Swanson; A. G. Gardner; N. P. Brown; P. J. Murray

1997-01-01

80

Mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour: early detection of recurrence.  

PubMed

The case of a recurrent phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of the maxillary sinus 10 years after the first surgical excision is reported. The neoplasm first presented with paraneoplastic osteomalacia causing a pathological femur fracture. A right maxillary sinus tumour was identified and treated thereafter. The patient had no local symptoms and serum electrolytes returned to normal after surgical removal of the tumour. However, 10 years later, the patient's urine Ca and P levels increased and an octreoscan detected a new tumour in the right maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis prevented the effects of the paraneoplastic activity of the neoplasm. This case emphasises the importance of specific, close follow-up, because the neoplasm rarely produces local signs indicating its position. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a late relapse presenting without relevant symptoms (local pain or swelling or pathological fractures). PMID:24827649

Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

2014-01-01

81

Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss is a prominent feature of H syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report describes two patients with H syndrome, a multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the SLC29A3 gene. It is characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation, camptodactyly or flexion contractures and other features, among them hearing loss. The two patients had hearing loss as their presenting symptom, and had mutations in SLC29A3, one of them a novel mutation. The

Yuval Ramot; Koji Sayama; Ruth Sheffer; Victoria Doviner; Nurith Hiller; Michal Kaufmann-Yehezkely; Abraham Zlotogorski

2010-01-01

82

[Universal screening program and early intervention (USPEI) in congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in Chile].  

PubMed

Congenital hearing loss is the total or partial inability to hear sounds through the ears. It is the most common disability in newborns in Chile and worldwide, and is a permanent condition. The direct impact on children who are not adequately diagnosed is the alteration in acquisition of language and cognitive skills and a decline in their social and school insertion, jeopardizing their professional and potentially productive life. Universal screening programs for hearing loss are essential for the diagnosis, since 50% of infants with hearing loss have no known risk factor. Screening before one month of age, confirmation before 3 months, and effective intervention before 6 months, allows the development of these children as if they had normal hearing. In Chile there is a selective program of screening for infants aged less than 32 weeks or 1,500 grams, as part of Explicit Health Guarantees, but it covers only 0.9% of newborns per year. Therefore, a large majority of children remain without diagnosis. The aim of this review is to compare the situation in Chile with other countries, raising the need to move towards a universal neonatal hearing loss screening program, and propose necessary conditions in terms of justification and implementation of a universal screening public policy. PMID:24448863

Albertz, Nicolás; Cardemil, Felipe; Rahal, Maritza; Mansilla, Francisca; Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Zitko, Pedro

2013-08-01

83

The Master Hearing Aid  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R.

2013-01-01

84

The master hearing aid.  

PubMed

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

2013-06-01

85

Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

2011-01-01

86

Early detection and secondary prevention of psychosis: facts and visions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As effective and practical approaches to primary and universal prevention of psychosis are lacking, intervention efforts are targeted at the early stages of schizophrenia to prevent (by way of secondary prevention) or postpone psychosis onset, reduce severity of illness or at least ameliorate the social consequences involved. Early intervention requires early detection and early recognition (diagnosis) of persons at risk

Heinz Häfner; Kurt Maurer; Stephan Ruhrmann; Andreas Bechdolf; Joachim Klosterkötter; Michael Wagner; Wolfgang Maier; Ronald Bottlender; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Wolfgang Gaebel; Wolfgang Wölwer

2004-01-01

87

TEOS 06 Early Detection of Wildfires Team Members  

E-print Network

TEOS 06 Early Detection of Wildfires Team Members · Deborah Estrin, Faculty · Avinash Ravichandran, Post Doc* · Stefano Soatto, Faculty* * Primary Contact Overview Early detection of wildfires can-time/time-lapse video data and detecting the presence of wildfires. Figure 1 shows a typical example of a wildfire

California at Los Angeles, University of

88

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: NCI Sponsored Early Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Over an eight-year period (1992-1999), the funding for molecular cancer research has risen from 330 million in 1992 to 820 million in 1999. During this period, the number of funded grants in molecular disease (contracts not included) rose to 2957 in 1999 from 1622 in 1992. The grants addressing the area of early detection also grew in number and funded amount; 206 ($36 million) in 1992 to 455 ($94 million) in 2000.

89

Mechanism study of laser cochleostomy-induced early hearing loss in a rat model.  

PubMed

Hearing loss following laser-assisted ear surgery has been reported. However, the mechanism responsible for the hearing loss remains largely speculative. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between laser-induced hearing loss and changes in the number of hair cell ribbon synapses and ultrastructure in the cochlea. Laser cochleostomy was performed with a superpulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) laser at 2 and 5 W in Sprague-Dawley rats. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured preoperatively and 2 days after surgery. The synapse numbers in apical and middle cochlear turns were quantified. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to further examine the subcellular changes in the cochlea. Click and tonal ABR threshold shifts in both 2 and 5-W groups displayed a frequency-dependent loss within the frequency range measured. Laser cochleostomy induced a significant decrease of synapse numbers in the middle turn in both groups (p?hearing loss even under low-energy laser cochleostomy. The high-energy laser-induced hearing loss was associated with more reduction of synapse number. PMID:23912777

Ye, Qing; Geng, Yang; Zhang, Xian-Zeng; Chen, Wen-Lie; Tian, Tian-Jie; Xie, Shu-Sen; Huang, Zheng

2014-03-01

90

Impulse noise exposure in early adulthood accelerates age-related hearing loss.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of impulse noise on age-related hearing loss. The study consisted of two groups. Each group contained 109 men. Group I comprised veterans with normal hearing at the end of 1979 sino-vietnamese war. All these veterans were randomly selected from Guangzhou Military Command. Group II were men with no military experience randomly chosen from the health examination center of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. Pure-tone thresholds of these two groups were measured and compared. The pure-tone thresholds of Group I were poorer than those of Group II at the frequencies of 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Thus, impulse noise accelerates age-related hearing loss. PMID:23842602

Xiong, Min; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Wang, Jian

2014-06-01

91

Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System  

PubMed Central

Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

2009-01-01

92

[Sensorineural hearing loss due to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia].  

PubMed

In this article, the sensorineural hearing loss is presented as a possible sequelae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In our program of early hipoacusia detection, 241 babies were examined from January 1996 until November 1999; 7 cases had a history of hyperbilirubinemia in the neonatal period and 2 of them were diagnosed of sensorineural hearing loss. We discuss how the bilirubin or any other associated factor might have been the cause and this could explain the selective affectation of some children. PMID:14567073

Clarós, P; Turcanu, D; Caballero, M; Costa, C; Clavería, M A; Clarós, A; Clarós, A

2003-01-01

93

Latino Legislative Hearing on Pre-K & the Early Grades: NALEO Education Leadership Initiative. A Report of the NALEO Educational Fund  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On September 23, 2008, Latino state legislators from throughout the United States participated in a Legislative Hearing on Pre-K and the Early Grades on Capitol Hill. The nation's leading experts on Latinos and early childhood education presented new research and information on programs and policies that work. Their testimony provided an in-depth…

NALEO Educational Fund, 2008

2008-01-01

94

Early Identification of Hearing Impaired Children: Expanding and Refining Best Practices. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this project was to increase by 50 percent the number of children with significant hearing impairment identified by 12 months of age. Attainment of this goal was attempted through activities in three major areas: (1) replication and documentation of the benefits of a birth certificate-based screening system; (2) investigation of the…

White, Karl R.; Mauk, Gary W.

95

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of forest fires is the primary way of minimizing their dam- ages. We present the design of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires according to the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System which is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems in

Mohamed Hefeeda; M. Bagheri

2009-01-01

96

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks MOHAMED HEFEEDA Simon Fraser University, Canada Forest fires cost millions of dollars in damages and claim many human lives every year. Apart from preventive measures, early detection and suppression of fires is the only way

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

97

Early detection of amatoxins in human mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amatoxins were detected radioimmunologically as early as 90–120 min after ingestion in the gastric fluid and urine of a 15-year-old boy who tried to commit suicide by ingestion of wild mushrooms. This early detection of amatoxins in the urine is proof of rapid absorption from the intestinal tract and subsequent excretion by the kidneys in man.

Jiirgen Homann; Peter Rawer; Henning Bleyl; Karl-John Matthes I; Dieter Heinrich

1986-01-01

98

[Early detection of mental disorders in infants or children].  

PubMed

Early detection of babies or children mental disorders enables specific diagnosis and care in the very early life of the distressed children. It is critical to make all physicians able to identify early signs. Autism, depression, anguage and learning disorders are pathologies whose early diagnosis enables early care thus limiting the negative impact on child and family lives. In the specific context of child abuse, it is our duty to detect alarming signs as soon as possible to fully protect the abused baby or child. PMID:24855781

Touati-Pellegrin, Marie; Golse, Bernard

2014-04-01

99

Does early detection of otitis media with effusion prevent delayed language development?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To consider whether earlier detection of otitis media with effusion (OME) in asymptomatic children in the first 4 years of life prevents delayed language development.?METHODS—MEDLINE and other databases were searched and relevant references from articles reviewed. Critical appraisal and consensus development were in accordance with the methods of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.?RESULTS—No randomised controlled trials assessing the overall screening for OME and early intervention to prevent delay in acquiring language were identified, although one trial evaluated treatment in a screened population and found no benefit. The "analytic pathway" approach was therefore used, where evidence is evaluated for individual steps in a screening process. The evidence supporting the use of tools for early detection such as tympanometry, microtympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy in the first 4years of life is unclear. Some treatments (mucolytics, antibiotics, steroids) resulted in the short term resolution of effusions as measured by tympanometry. Ventilation tubes resolved effusions and improved hearing. Ventilation tubes in children with hearing loss associated with OME benefited children in the short term, but after 18 months there was no difference in comparison with those assigned to watchful waiting. Most prospective cohort studies that evaluated the association between OME and language development lacked adequate measurement of exposure or outcome, or suffered from attrition bias. Findings with regard to the association were inconsistent.?CONCLUSIONS—There is insufficient evidence to support attempts at early detection of OME in the first 4 years of life in the asymptomatic child to prevent delayed language development.?? PMID:11466181

Butler, C; MacMillan, H

2001-01-01

100

Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission  

E-print Network

. Verification of rebar corrosion was done by galvanic current, half-cell potential, and electrochemical analysisEarly Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Alan D. Zdunek and David Prine BIRL Industrial Research

101

Ensuring Accuracy of the Pediatric Hearing Aid Fitting  

PubMed Central

Considerable effort has recently been dedicated towards early detection of hearing loss in infants. The goal is to subsequently fit hearing aids to hearing-impaired infants so that they can develop speech and language as early and as well as possible. The responsibility of the audiologist is to provide the child with the optimal amplification from the hearing aid. This paper gives an overview of aspects involved in correctly assessing the hearing loss and optimally fitting and verifying the performance of the child's hearing aids. Special emphasis is directed towards differences that exist between children and adults, and how these differences can be considered during a pediatric fitting. We suggest a stringent terminology that can help avoid ambiguous terms and connotations in the child's domain which are derived from those that have become established in adult audiometry and hearing aid fittings. The quantification of hearing thresholds and their appropriate representation is reviewed. An appropriate threshold-based prescription of gain or output of the hearing aid is described. Issues of verification and the actual programming of the hearing aid are discussed. PMID:15004645

Marcoux, André; Hansen, Martin

2003-01-01

102

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It ...

103

Your Baby's Hearing and Communicative Development Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

... chart that shows how well you can hear. Audiologist: a person who tests and measures hearing. Earache: ... and provide information on speech and language development: Audiologist Early identification of hearing loss in children Speech- ...

104

Early combination treatment with intratympanic steroid injection in severe to profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss improves speech discrimination performance.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of early combined treatment with intratympanic steroid injection (ITSI) in patients with severe to profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), who did not respond to initial systemic steroid treatment (SST). The study design included historical controlled trials (retrospective analysis for the SST group). Patients (n = 73; 38 women and 35 men) diagnosed with severe to profound SSNHL at the time of their first visit in tertiary referral centers were recruited. Among these 73 patients, 30 patients who showed no early response within a week after the start of initial SST were prospectively included as the ITSI group. ITSI was performed twice a week for two consecutive weeks. In contrast, 43 patients with the same condition who did not receive ITSI were retrospectively included as the SST group. For each group, pure-tone audiogram (PTA) and speech discrimination score (SDS) tests were performed before SST and more than 2 months after termination of treatment in each group. After termination of each treatment, the final average gain on PTA showed no significant difference between the two groups; however, the final average gain of SDS demonstrated a significantly better recovery in the ITSI group. ITSI as part of an early combined therapy represents an effective treatment in terms of the improvement of SDS in severe to profound SSNHL showing no early response to initial SST. PMID:22160102

Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kyung Tae; Choi, Byung Yoon; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung-Ha; Chang, Sun O

2012-10-01

105

Immediate early gene response to hearing song correlates with receptive behavior and depends on dialect in a female songbird.  

PubMed

Stimulus-induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK (egr-1) in the songbird's auditory forebrain presumably depends on the behavioral significance of the stimulus. Few studies, however, have quantified both the ZENK and behavioral responses to a stimulus in the same individuals. We played conspecific male song of either hatch (local) or foreign dialect to female white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) and quantified both the auditory ZENK response and their behavioral response, which is known to depend on dialect. Birds hearing hatch dialect showed greater ZENK induction in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale and the dorsal portion of the caudomedial neostriatum than birds hearing foreign dialect, supporting previous work showing a relationship between ZENK and salience of the stimulus. In the dorsal portion of the caudomedial neostriatum, ZENK induction was correlated with the amount of non-vocal courtship behavior; however, in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale, ZENK induction was more highly correlated with the females' own vocal behavior and thus may have been partly self-induced. Some females sang and showed a male-like pattern of ZENK induction in their song systems. This study provides the first evidence that the ZENK response in a sensory area to a social stimulus is proportional to the animal's preference for the stimulus. PMID:12879354

Maney, D L; MacDougall-Shackleton, E A; MacDougall-Shackleton, S A; Ball, G F; Hahn, T P

2003-09-01

106

Spinster Homolog 2 (Spns2) Deficiency Causes Early Onset Progressive Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J.; White, Jacqueline K.; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P.

2014-01-01

107

Spinster homolog 2 (spns2) deficiency causes early onset progressive hearing loss.  

PubMed

Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J; White, Jacqueline K; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P

2014-10-01

108

Time of emergence: Moving up early detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural climate variability complicates the detection of anthropogenic climate change in the twenty-first century. Now, research shows that evidence of human influence first emerges from sea level rather than temperature rise.

Yin, Jianjun

2014-11-01

109

Early Detection Research Network Report 2000  

Cancer.gov

Many of the clinical tests currently in use are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to detect all cancers at a curable stage or to evaluate risk accurately enough to guide effective prevention interventions.

110

Early Detection of TB New research complex  

E-print Network

Detection It's estimated that a third of the world's population is infected with the bacteria that causes such as Diamond and ISIS, their work will deliver far-reaching benefits for our everyday lives, and attract

111

Impedance measurements for the early warning detection of epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS FOR THE EARLY WARNING DETECTION OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES A Thesis by MICHAEL SCOTT GLASS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Bioengineering IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS FOR THE EARLY WARNING DETECTION OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES A Thesis by MICHAEL SCOTT GLASS Approved as to style and content by: Gera Miller (Chair of Committee...

Glass, Michael Scott

2012-06-07

112

Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

2011-11-01

113

Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

1993-01-01

114

Early detection of peroneal neuropathy by ultrasound.  

PubMed

A 12 year old boy presented with ankle sprain. The physical examination revealed mild weakness of ankle dorsiflexion. An ultrasound was done for the soft tissues of the ankle. In addition to relative atrophy of the peroneus longus muscle, a compressive common peroneal nerve (CPN) lesion with a synovial cyst at the level of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) was accidently found. Since there were features of CPN compression by the synovial cyst, total excision of the cyst was performed. After the operation, muscle strength improved and the neurological deficit subsided. Therefore, the early diagnosis of PTFJ synovial cyst with nerve injury was crucial in order to achieve a better result. The obscure nature of clinical presentations can delay the diagnosis, which may potentially lead to a poor prognosis after treatment in such cases. This report highlights the fact that ankle sprain do need a thorough clinical work up in some cases. PMID:24600072

Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

2014-01-01

115

Early detection of peroneal neuropathy by ultrasound  

PubMed Central

A 12 year old boy presented with ankle sprain. The physical examination revealed mild weakness of ankle dorsiflexion. An ultrasound was done for the soft tissues of the ankle. In addition to relative atrophy of the peroneus longus muscle, a compressive common peroneal nerve (CPN) lesion with a synovial cyst at the level of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) was accidently found. Since there were features of CPN compression by the synovial cyst, total excision of the cyst was performed. After the operation, muscle strength improved and the neurological deficit subsided. Therefore, the early diagnosis of PTFJ synovial cyst with nerve injury was crucial in order to achieve a better result. The obscure nature of clinical presentations can delay the diagnosis, which may potentially lead to a poor prognosis after treatment in such cases. This report highlights the fact that ankle sprain do need a thorough clinical work up in some cases. PMID:24600072

Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

2014-01-01

116

Prognostic value of automatically detected early repolarization.  

PubMed

Early repolarization associated with sudden cardiac death is based on the presence of >1-mm J-point elevations in inferior and/or lateral leads with horizontal and/or downsloping ST segments. Automated electrocardiographic readings of early repolarization (AER) obtained in clinical practice, in contrast, are defined by ST-segment elevation in addition to J-point elevation. Nonetheless, such automated readings may cause alarm. We therefore assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of AER in 211,920 patients aged 18 to 75 years. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center serving a racially diverse urban population with a large proportion of Hispanics (43%). The first recorded electrocardiogram of each individual from 2000 to 2012 was included. Patients with ventricular paced rhythm or acute coronary syndrome at the time of acquisition were excluded from the analysis. All automated electrocardiographic interpretations were reviewed for accuracy by a board-certified cardiologist. The primary end point was death during a median follow-up of 8.0 ± 2.6 years. AER was present in 3,450 subjects (1.6%). The prevalence varied significantly with race (African-Americans 2.2%, Hispanics 1.5%, and non-Hispanic whites 0.9%, p <0.01) and gender (male 2.4% vs female 0.6%, p <0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for age, smoking status, heart rate, QTc, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant difference in mortality regardless of race or gender (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.07). This was true even if J waves were present. In conclusion, AER was not associated with an increased risk of death, regardless of race or gender, and should not trigger additional diagnostic testing. PMID:25306428

Aagaard, Philip; Shulman, Eric; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John D; Gross, Jay N; Kargoli, Faraj; Kim, Soo G; Palma, Eugen C; Ferrick, Kevin J; Krumerman, Andrew

2014-11-01

117

Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

Sutedja, Thomas G.

2013-01-01

118

Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging for Early Breast Cancer Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) method for early breast cancer detection. MAMI is a two-stage robust Capon beamforming (RCB) based image formation algorithm. MAMI exhibits higher resolution, lower sidelobes, and better noise and interference rejection capabilities than the existing approaches. The effectiveness of using MAMI for breast cancer detection is demonstrated via a simulated 3-D breast

Yao Xie; Bin Guo; Luzhou Xu; Jian Li; Petre Stoica

2006-01-01

119

The monitoring and early detection of internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet and cause severe damage to our society. Facing this great security threat, we need to build an early detection system that can detect the presence of a worm in the Internet as quickly as possible in order to

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley; Lixin Gao

2005-01-01

120

Effective Practices in Early Intervention: Infants Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Both Vision & Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual documents key program development strategies and inservice training topics provided by the Model Demonstration Early Intervention Network Project. This project focused on building the capacity of early intervention programs to serve infants who are deaf-blind and their families. The first section covers program development and includes…

Chen, Deborah; And Others

121

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research Table of Contents Overview Introduction CBRG Mission Trends in Early Detection Research Early Detection Research Worldwide

122

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to the audiologist and ... aid is turned on. Continue Types of Hearing Aids There are several hearing aid styles. Some are ...

123

Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.  

PubMed

Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 ?Pa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey. PMID:22189777

Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

2012-01-15

124

Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23?1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. Conclusions/Significance Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that proved advanced sensory perception to be of notable adaptive significance. PMID:17849018

Muller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A.

2007-01-01

125

Ritalin Use among Youth: Examining the Issues and Concerns. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on May 16, 2000, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed issues and concerns on the use of ritalin among youth with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

126

Advances in pancreatic cancer research: moving towards early detection.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application. PMID:25170208

He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

2014-08-28

127

Advances in pancreatic cancer research: Moving towards early detection  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application.

He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

2014-01-01

128

Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .  

PubMed

Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25417331

Platt, Lois M

2014-11-01

129

Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection  

PubMed Central

The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

2010-01-01

130

Slimhole early kick detection by real-time drilling analysis  

SciTech Connect

Early kick detection has been identified as being of primary importance in slimhole wellbores. Small annular volumes means that, to maintain the integrity of the well, allowable kick volumes must be small. Gas influxes must therefore be detected and shut in rapidly. This paper describes an early kick-detection system developed for slimholes to detect and confirm the presence of an influx rapidly. This system has been run successfully on a number of slimhole operations. The early kick-detection (EKD) system is based on real-time analysis of drilling data obtained directly from a comprehensive mud-logging system on the rig. The analysis technique compares predictions of mud flow out and standpipe pressure from a dynamic wellbore model with corresponding values from the rig. The predicted values are derived from a model driven in real time by rig data such as pump rate and pipe rotation rate. Kick detection is based on deviations between measured data and idealized model predictions. The EKD system has been incorporated into an operational engineer-oriented graphical interface, which has provided easy access to the model for both input and output of data, and for the interpretation of results. This paper describes the design considerations and technology behind the EKD system and the engineering interface. The paper also presents examples of the system running in real time at a slimhole rig site.

Swanson, B.W.; Gardner, A.G.; Brown, N.P.; Murray, P.J.

1997-03-01

131

The cost-effectiveness of tracking newborns with bilateral hearing impairment in Bavaria: a decision-analytic model  

PubMed Central

Background Although several countries, including Germany, have established newborn hearing screening programmes for early detection and treatment of newborns with hearing impairments, nationwide tracking systems for follow-up of newborns with positive test results until diagnosis of hearing impairment have often not been implemented. However, a recent study on universal newborn hearing screening in Bavaria showed that, in a high proportion of newborns, early diagnosis was only possible with the use of a tracking system. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the cost-effectiveness of tracking newborns with bilateral hearing impairment in Bavaria. Methods Data from a Bavarian pilot project on newborn hearing screening and Bavarian newborn hearing screening facilities were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the inclusion of a tracking system within a newborn hearing screening programme. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. The time horizon of the model was limited to the newborn hearing screening programme. Costs of the initial hearing screening test and subsequent tests were included, as well as costs of diagnosis and costs of tracking. The outcome measure of the economic analysis was the cost per case of bilateral hearing impairment detected. In order to reflect uncertainty, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of tracking vs. no tracking was €1,697 per additional case of bilateral hearing impairment detected. Conclusions Compared with no tracking, tracking resulted in more cases of bilateral hearing impairment detected as well as higher costs. If society is willing to pay at least €1,697 per additional case of bilateral hearing impairment detected, tracking can be recommended. PMID:23170955

2012-01-01

132

Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2014-08-28

133

Mothers’ Involvement in Early Intervention for Children With Hearing LossThe Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers’ involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers’ involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables (anxiety, curiosity, anger, and motivation) and (b) two maternal context-based perceptions conceived as

Sara Ingber; Michal Al-Yagon; Esther Dromi

2010-01-01

134

Dementia Screening and Surveillance: Are There Opportunities for Early Detection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of dementia, and in particular Alzheimer's disease, is expected to increase dramatically in the elderly population over the next few decades. Because of the possibilities of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, which aim to slow down or even prevent progress of the disease, early detection of dementia is of the utmost importance. The screening of patients at risk is

Reinhild Mulligan; Anne-Claude Juillerat; Martial Van del Linden

1998-01-01

135

Prospective study of early detection for primary liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether repeated screening can lead to early detection of primary liver cancer (PLC) and in turn to an improved clinical result.Methods: In this randomized controlled study, Shanghai urban residents aged 35–55 years and with serum evidence of HBV infection or chronic liver disease were eligible for recruitment. Using cluster sampling, these subjects were allocated into two groups

Binghui Yang; Boheng Zhang; Yaochao Xu; Wenping Wang; Yuefang Shen; Anru Zhang; Zhong Xu

1997-01-01

136

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER  

E-print Network

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER Marius George LINGURARU, Oxford OX2 7BZ, United Kingdom mglin@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract: The prevalence of breast cancer with a very low number of false positives per image. Key words: digital mammography, breast cancer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

2009-01-01

138

Functional and structural changes throughout the auditory system following congenital and early-onset deafness: implications for hearing restoration  

PubMed Central

The absence of auditory input, particularly during development, causes widespread changes in the structure and function of the auditory system, extending from peripheral structures into auditory cortex. In humans, the consequences of these changes are far-reaching and often include detriments to language acquisition, and associated psychosocial issues. Much of what is currently known about the nature of deafness-related changes to auditory structures comes from studies of congenitally deaf or early-deafened animal models. Fortunately, the mammalian auditory system shows a high degree of preservation among species, allowing for generalization from these models to the human auditory system. This review begins with a comparison of common methods used to obtain deaf animal models, highlighting the specific advantages and anatomical consequences of each. Some consideration is also given to the effectiveness of methods used to measure hearing loss during and following deafening procedures. The structural and functional consequences of congenital and early-onset deafness have been examined across a variety of mammals. This review attempts to summarize these changes, which often involve alteration of hair cells and supporting cells in the cochleae, and anatomical and physiological changes that extend through subcortical structures and into cortex. The nature of these changes is discussed, and the impacts to neural processing are addressed. Finally, long-term changes in cortical structures are discussed, with a focus on the presence or absence of cross-modal plasticity. In addition to being of interest to our understanding of multisensory processing, these changes also have important implications for the use of assistive devices such as cochlear implants. PMID:24324409

Butler, Blake E.; Lomber, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

139

Hearing screening by community physicians in under-2 year-olds.  

PubMed

The efficacy of neonatal screening in lowering age at diagnosis and treatment in congenital hearing loss should not mask the limitations due to the fact that hearing loss often appears or is detected after birth. Early diagnosis of secondary or progressive postnatal hearing loss is nevertheless necessary and justifies systematic screening of hearing disorder in all children seen in consultation, for whatever reason. Screening bilateral hearing loss in under-2 year-olds in a community context is feasible, using simple means: parent interview, clinical observation, and acoumetry using the voice and sound-emitting toys. In case of abnormality detected or suspected on screening, children of whatever age should be referred to an ENT specialist for complete audiometric assessment. Behavioural audiometry is feasible in very young children, and indispensable to diagnosis. The parents will only be reassured after specialized hearing examinations have been performed. PMID:24924113

Kolski, C

2014-09-01

140

77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

2012-11-05

141

A concept for early cancer detection and therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 ?m. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

2003-06-01

142

Epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, and early detection of melanoma.  

PubMed

The incidence of melanoma has increased over the past several decades. Despite improved case mortality, overall deaths from melanoma have increased because of the large increase in incidence. Although we have a better understanding of the pathogenesis of melanoma and improved early diagnostic capabilities, the burden of disease and societal costs remain high. This article provides an update on the epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma worldwide and the common risk factors including heritable and modifiable risks, emphasizing the importance of education, early detection, and prevention in reducing the disease burden. PMID:25245960

Azoury, Saïd C; Lange, Julie R

2014-10-01

143

A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

Ivanov, K. N.

2005-11-27

144

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Computer-Aided Detection  

Cancer.gov

New development in computer hardware and software, informatics, methodology and technology can assist physicians in early detection, interpretation of laboratory tests, automation of laboratory tests, and estimating prognosis and staging of cancer. Virtual colonoscopy, for example, can provide a three-dimensional image of colon, help surgeons pinpoint abnormality for surgical removal, and enhance the detection ability of colonoscopy.

145

Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of individual chapters. It may also be approached in a linear fashion, as a sequence of steps leading to a comprehensive approach to early-detection. Our primary audience comprises resource professionals within the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program’s networks of parks, but we think that the knowledge and experience captured in this document is more broadly applicable to include other natural areas professionals. We have chosen to emphasize the technical side of invasive species early-detection because this is the arena in which most professionals need more guidance. This approach includes but is not limited to complex techniques that may seem to be just beyond the budgetary and (or) time-bound grasps of some resource professionals. Nonetheless, we have provided low-cost options.

Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

2014-01-01

146

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

147

Hearing Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Impaired? For people who lose their hearing after learning to speak and hear, it can be difficult to adjust because hearing has been an essential aspect of their communication and relationships. The good news ...

148

A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

2003-01-01

149

Thermal Infrared Imaging in Early Breast Cancer Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging in breast cancer study started as early as 1961. However, it has not been\\u000a widely recognized due to the premature use of the technology, the superficial understanding of the infrared (IR) images, and\\u000a its poorly controlled introduction into breast cancer detection in the 1970s. Recent advances in image-processing ability\\u000a and pathophysiological-based understanding of

Hairong Qi; Nicholas A. Diakides

2009-01-01

150

PAX3 gene deletion detected by microarray analysis in a girl with hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Deletions of the PAX3 gene have been rarely reported in the literature. Mutations of this gene are a common cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and 3. We report a 16?year old female presenting hearing loss and normal intellectual development, without major features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1, and without family history of the syndrome. Her phenotype, however, overlaps with features of craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. Microarray analysis showed ~862?kb de novo deletion at 2q36.1 including PAX3. The above findings suggest that the rearrangement found in our patient appeared de novo and with high probability is a cause of her phenotype. PMID:24839464

2014-01-01

151

Early language outcomes of children with cochlear implants: Interim findings of the NAL study on longitudinal outcomes of children with hearing impairment*  

PubMed Central

This paper reports interim findings of a prospective study that examines longitudinal outcomes of early- and later-identified children with hearing impairment in Australia. Eighty-seven children with cochlear implants were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale at one or more intervals. Results demonstrated that children who received a cochlear implant before 12 months of age developed normal language skills and at a rate that is comparable to normal-hearing children. Children who received later implantation performed at two standard deviations below the normative mean. These results are preliminary, as there are currently insufficient data to examine the effect of multiple factors on language outcomes and the rate of language development. PMID:19067433

CHING, TERESA YC; DILLON, HARVEY; DAY, JULIA; CROWE, KATHRYN; CLOSE, LYNDA; CHISHOLM, KYLIE; HOPKINS, TRACY

2013-01-01

152

Xeromammography in the Early Detection of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Community hospitals can do much in the general effort toward earlier detection of breast cancer. Using xeromammography in the department of general radiology of one community hospital, 21 cases of occult carcinoma were detected in 2,392 patients in a two year period. Patients were both symptomatic and asymptomatic. This percentage is comparable to results in previously published series of similar patient populations, and can be expected to be slightly higher than screening populations of totally asymptomatic patients. In 24 percent of cases of occult carcinoma there was axillary node involvement, compared with 42 percent axillary node involvement in cases of nonoccult carcinoma. Early detection efforts are currently centered on improving thoroughness in physical examinations, stressing breast self-examination and identifying patients in high-risk categories. These, together with proper periodic use of mammograms, will yield the highest rate of early carcinoma detection until more sensitive biologic markers are developed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:1210330

Cooperman, Lawrence R.; Seltzer, Ronald A.; Reimer, George W.; Rossiter, Stanford B.

1975-01-01

153

Implications of Delay in Detection and Management of Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the rationale for early detection and management of children with significant hearing loss. Topics covered include attitudes toward hearing loss, monaural and binaural auditory sensory deprivation, auditory self-monitoring, and value of early intervention on linguistic and psychosocial development. (Author/DB)

Ross, Mark

1990-01-01

154

Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in children.  

PubMed

In the last decade, tremendous progress has been made very rapidly in the development of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) systems as a major public health initiative. The percentage of infants screened annually in Spain has increased significantly since the EHDI systems have expanded to all autonomic regions. Historically, high risk indicators have been used for the identification of infants who should receive audiological evaluation but who live in geographic locations where universal hearing screening is not yet available, to help identify infants who pass neonatal screening but are at risk of developing delayed-onset hearing loss and to identify infants who may have passed neonatal screening but have mild forms of permanent hearing loss. In this review, the standard risk factors for hearing loss are analysed and the risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss are identified. The recommendation for infants with a risk factor that may be considered as low risk is to perform at least one audiology assessment by 24-30 months. In contrast, for an infant with risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss (such as cytomegalovirus infection or family history), early and more frequent assessment is appropriate. All infants should have an objective standardised screening of global development with a validated assessment tool at 9, 18 and 24-30 months of age or at any time if the health care professional or the family is concerned. PMID:21514545

Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Alzina De Aguilar, Valentín; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen

2012-01-01

155

Hearing Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

2012-01-01

156

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Aging & Health A to Z Hearing Loss Basic Facts & Information What is Hearing Loss? About a third of adults older than 65—and half of those older ... to the brain where speech understanding takes place. Hearing Loss Defined Hearing loss is formally defined as ...

157

Detecting high-frequency hearing loss with click-evoked otoacoustic emissions  

PubMed Central

In contrast to clinical click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) tests that are inaccurate above 4–5 kHz, a research procedure measured CEOAEs up to 16 kHz in 446 ears and predicted the presence?absence of a sensorineural hearing loss. The behavioral threshold test that served as a reference to evaluate CEOAE test accuracy used a yes–no task in a maximum-likelihood adaptive procedure. This test was highly efficient between 0.5 and 12.7 kHz: Thresholds measured in 2 min per frequency had a median standard deviation (SD) of 1.2–1.5 dB across subjects. CEOAE test performance was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The mean AUC from 1 to 10 kHz was 0.90 (SD = 0.016). AUC decreased to 0.86 at 12.7 kHz and to 0.7 at 0.5 and 16 kHz, possibly due in part to insufficient stimulus levels. Between 1 and 12.7 kHz, the medians of the magnitude difference in CEOAEs and in behavioral thresholds were <4 dB. The improved CEOAE test performance above 4–5 kHz was due to retaining the portion of the CEOAE response with latencies as short as 0.3 ms. Results have potential clinical significance in predicting hearing status from at least 1 to 10 kHz using a single CEOAE response. PMID:21303007

Keefe, Douglas H.; Goodman, Shawn S.; Ellison, John C.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.; Gorga, Michael P.

2011-01-01

158

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Detection Technology  

Cancer.gov

Our ability to detect, diagnose and treat cancer will most likely be based on the molecular changes that distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterpart. Having reliable detection technologies to identify tumors early is therefore crucial before they become invasive. Development of technologies to quantitate molecular changes at all levels of gene expression, and to integrate the information is needed to identify molecular alterations that are selectively expressed in pre-invasive lesions, and correlated with tumor aggression.

159

Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

Navarro, Jaume

2006-03-01

160

Culturally Relevant Early Education Programs. Hearing on Oversight Hearing on Culturally Relevant Early Education Programs before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (November 24, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing produced testimony on the efforts of Hawaiian and American Indian educators to provide effective, culturally relevant education at preschool and elementary levels. Witnesses described (1) Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP) which developed elementary school reading and language arts curricula and teaching methods compatible…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

161

Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others. PMID:22090037

Akram, Usman M; Khan, Shoab A

2012-10-01

162

Are Our Children Ready To Learn? Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session on Examining Early Childhood Education and Related Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearing transcripts present testimony before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the 105th Congress on early childhood education and related services. Participants provided different perspectives on early education, focusing on the academic achievement of American students, especially in comparison to students in other countries;…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

163

Early Childhood Interventions: Public-Private Partnerships. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings transcripts recount testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives concerning early childhood development programs. Testimony addressed the questions of how public and private investments in early childhood programs contribute to successful outcomes for infants and mothers, and how these successes can be measured and replicated…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Human Resources.

164

Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

165

Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s normal operation. This technique eliminates the probing problem of a gain/phase margin method by connecting the power input to a spectral analyzer. Therefore, it is able to evaluate stability for all kinds of hybrid DC/DC converters with or without remote sense pins, and is suitable for real-time and in-circuit testing. This frequency-domain technique is more sensitive to detect oscillation at early stage than the time-domain method using an oscilloscope.

Wang, Bright L.

2011-01-01

166

Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

Salkind, M. J.

1975-01-01

167

Unilateral and Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss in Children: Past and Current Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1980s, audiologists have become increasingly aware of the potential effect of even mild degrees of hearing loss on the psychoeducational and psychosocial outcomes of children. This review describes some of the key research findings during the past several decades that have led us to our current thinking about unilateral and mild bilateral hearing loss in children. The first section addresses unilateral hearing loss. This is followed by a review of the literature on mild bilateral hearing loss. Specifically, the issues addressed include the significance of permanent mild degrees of hearing loss on children's psychoeducational and psychosocial development and the speech, language, and auditory characteristics of children with mild degrees of hearing loss. Finally, some recommendations regarding the direction of future research are offered. This review is followed by 2 articles summarizing the proceedings of a 2005 workshop convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, and the Marion Downs Hearing Center to address concerns about the underidentification of—and professionals' apparent lack of awareness of—permanent unilateral and minimal to mild hearing loss in children.56,57 PMID:18270174

Tharpe, Anne Marie

2008-01-01

168

Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

2014-01-01

169

Hearing Mothers and Their Deaf Children: The Relationship between Early, Ongoing Mode Match and Subsequent Mental Health Functioning in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the few studies that have been conducted, researchers have typically found that deaf adolescents have more mental health difficulties than their hearing peers and that, within the deaf groups, those who use spoken language have better mental health functioning than those who use sign language. This study investigated the hypotheses that mental…

Wallis, Delia; Musselman, Carol; MacKay, Sherri

2004-01-01

170

Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7-10 years in South Sinai, Egypt.  

PubMed

Hearing loss among schoolchildren in developing countries is reported to be a significant health problem. Data on child hearing loss in South Sinai, a remote governorate of Egypt, are lacking. Middle ear diseases and hearing impairment were assessed among 453 primary-school children aged 7-10 years in South Sinai (906 ears). Otoscopic examination, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA) were done. Ear disease was found in 27.5% of the ears examined. The commonest cause was secretory otitis media (10.8%), followed by occluded earwax (9.5%). Mild and moderate hearing loss affected 8.5% of the sample, while sensorineural hearing loss affected 2.4%; only 0.4% had moderate and severe hearing loss. Hearing impairment affects 19.3% of this age group in South Sinai. None of the children with hearing impairment had been previously diagnosed or was receiving treatment and support. Hearing and middle ear screening at schools is recommended for early detection and management of middle ear and hearing problems. PMID:22574480

Yamamah, G; Mabrouk, A; Ghorab, E; Ahmady, M; Abdulsalam, H

2012-03-01

171

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-357  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen…

Scott, George A.

2011-01-01

172

Study of the Knowledge of Pediatricians and Senior Residents Relating to the Importance of Hearing Impairment and Deafness Screening Among Newborns  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Newborn hearing screening leads to the early detection of hearing impairment. The aim of screening is to decrease or remove the effect of hearing impairment on development of speech and language by timely diagnosis and effective treatment. A number of risk factors lead to delayed start of decreased hearing ability including: 1. Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) virus, 2. Meningitis, 3. Mumps, 4. Positive family history, 5. Head trauma, 6. Chemotherapy,7. Syndrome pertaining to delayed start of decreased hearing. Unfortunately, lack of attention to early diagnosis of hearing impairment is becoming a general health problem. No research has yet been carried out relating to the knowledge of pediatricians on this issue, particularly the importance of hearing impairment and hearing screening. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude to newborn hearing screening among pediatricians. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was conducted in Isfahan in 2012 among 300 pediatricians and final-year pediatric residents. An adjusted 22-question version of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) questionnaire was used to collect data. The validity and reliability of the EHDI questionnaire was previously demonstrated by Boys Town National Research Hospital and its Farsi translated version was validated by the EDC Center at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Results: In our study, 83% of pediatricians agreed on the importance of hearing impairment screening for all infants. However 65% were not aware of special needs for hearing-impaired patients. Conclusion: Newborn hearing impairment and deafness screening is important, irrespective of the costs, and lack of timely diagnosis results in both individual and social consequences. The majority of physicians use textbooks to gain information about hearing screening, but recognize that this is insufficient. Although it is now one of the most useful tools for gathering and applying new information, the physicians in our study rely very little on the Internet as a source of information. PMID:24744993

Rogha, Mehrdad; Mokhtari, Elham

2014-01-01

173

Causative novel PNKP mutations and concomitant PCDH15 mutations in a patient with microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay syndrome and hearing loss.  

PubMed

We report on a 1-year-old boy with microcephaly with a simplified gyral pattern, early-onset seizures, congenital hearing loss and a severe developmental delay. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing identified candidate compound heterozygous mutations in two genes: c.163G>T (p.Ala55Ser) and c.874G>A (p.Gly292Arg) in polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase gene (PNKP), and c.195G>A (p.Met65Ile) and c.1210A>C (p.Ser404Arg) in PCDH15. PNKP and PCDH15 mutations have been reported in autosomal recessive microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay syndrome, and Usher syndrome type 1F, respectively. Our patient showed neurological features similar to reported cases of both syndromes that could be explained by the observed mutations in both PNKP and PCDH15, which therefore appear to be pathogenic in this case. PMID:24965255

Nakashima, Mitsuko; Takano, Kyoko; Osaka, Hitoshi; Aida, Noriko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

2014-08-01

174

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... newborn screening, her provider refers her to an audiologist. This is someone with special training to diagnose ... hearing loss in newborns, children and adults. An audiologist gives your baby a full hearing test to ...

175

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... who may refer you to an otolaryngologist or audiologist. An otolaryngologist is a physician who specializes in ... investigate the cause of the hearing loss. An audiologist is a hearing health professional who identifies and ...

176

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... improved significantly over the years and today’s hearing aids are vastly more sophisticated than 20 years ago. ... percent of people who could benefit from hearing aids actually use them. NIH-supported researchers are seeking ...

177

Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInsights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group

Johannes Müller; Linda A. Tsuji; Jenny Clack

2007-01-01

178

Hearing Assistive Technology  

MedlinePLUS

... Home › Information for the Public › Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared ... Other Hearing Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems ( ...

179

mga genosensor for early detection of human rheumatic heart disease.  

PubMed

The 5' amino-labeled DNA probe complementary to mga gene of Streptococcus pyogenes was immobilized on carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes electrode and hybridized with 0.1-100 ng/6 ?l single-stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) of S. pyogenes from throat swab of suspected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients. Electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance (EI). The sensitivity of the sensor was 106.03?(?A/cm(2))/ng and limit of detection (LOD) was found 0.014 ng/6 ?l with regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.921 using DPV. The genosensor was characterized by FTIR and SEM, and electrode was found stable for 6 months on storage at 4 °C with 5-6 % loss in initial DPV current. mga genosensor is the first report on RHD sensor which can save life of several suspected patients by early diagnosis in 30 min. PMID:24639090

Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

2014-05-01

180

Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

2007-03-01

181

Barriers for early detection of cancer amongst Indian rural women  

PubMed Central

Context: Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. Healthcare providers in developing countries regularly see women with advanced, incurable cancers. Health of a rural Indian women and her access to health facility is compromised due to sociocultural, economical, and environmental factors. Aims: To know the problems associated with early detection of cancers in rural women. Settings and Design: Rural area and cross-sectional. Subjects and Methods: Study subject: Women of 35 years and above. Exclusion criteria: Not willing to participate. Sample size: All eligible women of selected villages. Sampling Technique: Random selection of villages. Study duration: 2 months. Study tools: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, ?2 test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate analysis. Results: Awareness about symptoms, possibility of early detection, available tests, possibility of cure of disease was low. Main barrier for screening was cognitive, that is, ‘don’t know’ answer by 83.99% women for cancer cervix, 84.93%, for cancer breast, and 67.26% for oral cancer. Awareness score was significantly associated with age (?2 = 17.77, P = 0.001), education (?2 = 34.62, P = 0.000), and income (?2 = 16.72, P = 0.002); while attitude score with age (?2 = 16.27, P = 0.012) and education (?2 = 25.16, P = 0.003). Practice score was significantly associated with age (?2 = 11.28, P = 0.023), education (?2 = 32.27, P = 0.003), and occupation (?2 = 10.69, P = 0.03). Awareness, attitude, and practice score of women having history of cancer in family or relative was significantly high than women without history. Conclusions: Cognitive barrier was the important barrier which has to be taken care of. PMID:24818108

Tripathi, Neha; Kadam, Yugantara R.; Dhobale, Randhir V.; Gore, Alka D.

2014-01-01

182

Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

1999-04-01

183

DNA methylation biomarker candidates for early detection of colon cancer.  

PubMed

Promoter CpG island hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of all human cancers. Many researchers have been looking for potential epigenetic therapeutic targets in cancer using gene expression profiling with DNA microarray approaches. Our recent genome-wide platform of CpG island hypermethylation and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines revealed that FBN2 and TCERG1L gene silencing is associated with DNA hypermethylation of a CpG island in the promoter region. In this study, promoter DNA hypermethylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L in CRC occurs as an early and cancer-specific event in colorectal cancer. Both genes showed high frequency of methylation in colon cancer cell lines (>80% for both of genes), adenomas (77% for FBN2, 90% for TCERG1L, n = 39), and carcinomas (86% for FBN2, 99% for TCERG1L, n = 124). Bisulfite sequencing confirmed cancer-specific methylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L of promoters in colon cancer cell line and cancers but not in normal colon. Methylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L is accompanied by downregulation in cell lines and in primary tumors as described in the Oncomine™ website. Together, our results suggest that gene silencing of FBN2 and TCERG1L is associated with promoter DNA hypermethylation in CRC tumors and may be excellent biomarkers for the early detection of CRC. PMID:22238052

Yi, Joo Mi; Dhir, Mashaal; Guzzetta, Angela A; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwang Mo; Suzuki, Hiromu; Toyota, Minoru; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Ahuja, Nita

2012-04-01

184

Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

Wang, Bright L.

2011-01-01

185

Quantitative optical imaging for the detection of early cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this thesis are to provide insight of fundamental mechanisms of acetowhitening effect, upon which the colposcopic diagnosis of human cervical cancer is based and to develop novel quantitative optical imaging technologies supplementing colposcopy to improve its performance in detecting early cancer. Firstly, the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process are studied on monolayer cell cultures. It is found that the dynamic acetowhitening processes in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. Secondly, the changes in light scattering induced by acetic acid in intact cells and isolated cellular fractions are investigated by using confocal microscopy and light scattering spectroscopy. The results provide evidence that the small-sized components in the cytoplasm are the major contributors to the acetowhitening effect. Thirdly, a unified Mie and fractal model is proposed to interpret light scattering by biological cells. It is found that light scattering in forward directions is dominated by Mie scattering by bare cells and nuclei, whereas light scattering at large angles is determined by fractal scattering by subcellular structures. Fourthly, an optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is built to measure the 3-D surface topology of cervix and track the motion of patient. The information of motion tracking is used to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during colposcopic examination. The imaging system is evaluated by tracking the movements of cervix models. The results demonstrate that the imaging technique holds the promise to enable the quantitative mapping of the acetowhitening kinetics over cervical surface for more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer. At last, a calibrated autofluorescence imaging system is instrumented for detecting neoplasia in vivo. It is found that the calibrated autofluorescence signals from neoplasia are generally lower than signals from normal cervical tissue. The imaging system can be used to quantitatively detect abnormal tissue.

Wu, Tao

186

A new system for early chloride detection in concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion process understanding and for planning appropriately for preventive action in practical situations.

Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

2008-08-01

187

Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

188

Field Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Early Intervention and Preschool Programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Brooklyn, New York).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing, held in Brooklyn, New York, on the reauthorization of the early intervention and preschool programs of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addresses the at-risk factors that prevent school readiness of young children and seeks to ascertain the extent to which at-risk children have been identified and served. A statement…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

189

Field Hearing on Technology in Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Petaluma, California, August 30, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met, pursuant to call, on August 30, 1999 in the Petaluma Community Center, Petaluma, California, with Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presiding. This document represents the field hearing on how educational…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

190

Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-08-01

191

Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

192

Social network sensors for early detection of contagious outbreaks.  

PubMed

Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9-16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (p<0.05) on day 16 of the epidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

2010-01-01

193

Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9–16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (p<0.05) on day 16 of the epidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2010-01-01

194

The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

2011-01-01

195

Resistive fuses: Analog hardware for detecting discontinuities in early vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of discontinuities in motion, intensity, color, and depth is a well-studied but difficult problem in computer vision. We discuss our resistive fuse circuit--the first hardware circuit that explicitly implements either analog or binary line processes in a controlled fashion. We have successfully designed and tested an analog CMOS VLSI circuit that contains a 1-D resistive network of fuses implementing piece-wise smooth surface interpolation. The segmentation ability of this network is demonstrated for a noisy step-edge input. We derive the specific current-voltage relationship of the resistive fuse from a number of computational considerations, closely related to the early vision algorithms of Koch, Marroquin and Yuille (1986) and Blake and Zisserman (1987). We discuss the circuit implementation and the performance of the chip. In the last section, we show that a model of our resistive network--in which the resistive fuses have no internal dynamics--has an associated Lyapunov function, the co-content. The network will thus converge, without oscillations, to a stable solution, even in the presence of arbitrary parasitic capacitances throughout the network.

Harris, John; Koch, Christof; Luo, Jin; Wyatt, John

1989-06-01

196

Klinefelter syndrome: are we missing opportunities for early detection?  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome is a common condition that remains underdiagnosed, particularly prior to adulthood. Early detection could prevent morbidity and mortality, but the classic phenotype of small testes and tall stature may not be apparent until adolescence, and there is minimal guidance regarding whom to screen. We performed a retrospective study at Boston Children's Hospital in patients with the ICD-9 code for "Klinefelter syndrome" diagnosed prior to age 20 years, and determined age and reason for diagnosis, karyotype, heights, and comorbid conditions. Eighty percent had a 47,XXY karyotype, of whom half were diagnosed at age 11 to 19 years. The most common comorbidities were neurocognitive, including learning disabilities (67%), psychosocial problems (33%), and attention deficit disorder (27%). Subjects were only slightly taller than average in childhood (height standard deviation score = 0.64). These data show that Klinefelter syndrome is associated with long-standing comorbidities that frequently remain under-recognized; a karyotype should be considered in boys with neurocognitive problems. PMID:23836810

Nahata, Leena; Rosoklija, Ilina; Yu, Richard N; Cohen, Laurie E

2013-10-01

197

Fundus Image Processing System For Early Detection Of Glaucoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image processing system based on a MC 68000 microprocessor has been developed for analysis of fundus photographs. This personal computer based system has specific image enhancement capabilities comparable to existing large scale systems. Basic enhancement of fundus images consists of histogram modification or kernel convolution techniques to determine regions of specific interest such as textural difference in the nerve fiber layer or cupping of the optic nerve head. Fast Fourier transforms and filtering techniques are then utilized for specific regions of the original image. Textural difference in the nerve fiber layers are further highlighted using either interactive histogram modification or pseudocolor mappings. Menu driven software allows review of the steps applied, creating a feedback mechanism for optimum display of the fundus image. A wider noise margin than that of digitized fundus photographs can be obtained by direct fundus imaging. The present fundus image processing system clearly provides us with quantitative and detailed techniques of assessing textural changes in the fundus photographs of glaucoma patients and suspects for better classification and early detection of glaucoma. The versatility and computing capability of the system make it also suitable for other applications such as multidimensional image processing and image analysis.

Whiteside, S.; Mitra, S.; Krile, T. F.; Shihab, Z.

1986-12-01

198

A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

2003-01-01

199

Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: early detection resource allocation.  

PubMed

A key determinant of breast cancer outcome in any population is the degree to which cancers are detected at early stages of disease. Populations in which cancers are detected at earlier stages have lower breast cancer mortality rates. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) held its third Global Summit in Budapest, Hungary in October 2007, bringing together internationally recognized experts to address the implementation of breast healthcare guidelines for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). A multidisciplinary panel of experts specifically addressed the implementation of BHGI guidelines for the early detection of disease as they related to resource allocation for public education and awareness, cancer detection methods, and evaluation goals. Public education and awareness are the key first steps, because early detection programs cannot be successful if the public is unaware of the value of early detection. The effectiveness and efficiency of screening modalities, including screening mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination, were reviewed in the context of resource availability and population-based need by the panel. Social and cultural barriers should be considered when early detection programs are being established, and the evaluation of early detection programs should include the use of well developed, methodologically sound process metrics to determine the effectiveness of program implementation. The approach and scope of any screening program will determine the success of any early detection program as measured by cancer stage at diagnosis and will drive the breadth of resource allocation needed for program implementation. PMID:18837017

Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Anderson, Benjamin O; Miller, Anthony B; Thomas, David B; Ang, Eng-Suan; Caffarella, Rosemary S; Corbex, Marilys; Kreps, Gary L; McTiernan, Anne

2008-10-15

200

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the detection of early stage neoplastic pathologies  

E-print Network

Identification of changes associated with early stage disease remains a critical objective of clinical detection and treatment. Effective screening and detection is important for improving outcome because advanced disease, ...

Hsiung, Pei-Lin, 1975-

2005-01-01

201

75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

2010-02-18

202

76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

2011-05-26

203

"It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

2010-01-01

204

Computed tomography in the early detection of asbestosis.  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT; both conventional (CCT) and high resolution (HRCT)) scans of the thorax were evaluated to detect early asbestosis in 61 subjects exposed to asbestos dust in Québec for an average of 22(3) years and in five controls. The study was limited to consecutive cases with chest radiographs of the International Labour Organisation categories 0 or 1 determined independently. All subjects had a standard high kilovoltage posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph, a set of 10-15 1 cm collimation CCT scans and a set of three to five 2 mm collimation HRCT scans in the upper, middle, and lower lung fields. Five experienced readers independently read each chest radiograph and sets of CT scans. On the basis of three to five readers agreeing for small opacities of the lung parenchyma, 12/46 (26%) negative chest radiographs were positive on CT scans, but 6/18 (33%) positive chest radiographs were negative on CT scan. On the basis of four to five readers agreeing on a chest radiograph, 36/66 (54%) subjects were normal (group A), 17/66 (26%) were indeterminate (group B), and 13/66 (20%) were abnormal (group C). By the combined readings of CCT and HRCT, 4/31 (13%) asbestos exposed subjects of group A were abnormal (p < 0.001), 6/17 (35%) of group B were abnormal, and in group C, 1/13 (8%) was normal, 2/13 were indeterminate, and 10/13 (77%) were abnormal. Separate readings of CCT and HRCT on distinct films in 14 subjects showed that all cases of asbestosis were abnormal on both CCT and HRCT. Inter-reader analyses by kappa statistics showed significantly better agreement for the readings of CT than the chest radiographs (p < 0.001), and for the reading of CCT than HRCT (p < 0.01). Thus CT scans of the thorax identifies significantly more irregular opacities consistent with the diagnosis of asbestosis than the chest radiograph (20 cases on CT scans v 13 on chest radiographs when four to five readers agreed, 13% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal chest radiographs or 21% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal or near normal chest radiographs. It decreased the number of indeterminate cases significantly from 17 on chest radiographs to 13 on CT scans. All cases of asbestosis detected only on CT scans were similarly seen on CCT and HRCT and did not have significant changes in lung function. The CT scans significantly reduced the inter-reader variability, despite the absence of ILO type reference films for these scans. Images PMID:8398855

Begin, R; Ostiguy, G; Filion, R; Colman, N; Bertrand, P

1993-01-01

205

A Rapid Method for Simultaneous Screening of Multi-Gene Mutations Associated with Hearing Loss in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses. PMID:23469187

Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

2013-01-01

206

Hearings & Testimonies  

Cancer.gov

Occasionally, NCI subject matter experts are asked to testify before Congress on a wide range of topics. From this page you will be able to link to previous NCI-specific appropriations hearings or previous hearings that focused on a particular cancer

207

Framework for using grocery data for early detection of bio-terrorism attacks  

E-print Network

. A known case of bio-terrorism has been recorded in 1984 in Dalles, Oregon. The Rajneeshee religious cultFramework for using grocery data for early detection of bio-terrorism attacks #3; Anna Goldenberg 15213 anya@cmu.edu October 16, 2001 Abstract Early detection of epidemics and bio-terrorism attacks

Goldenberg, Anna

208

EEG filtering based on blind source separation (BSS) for early detection of Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

of disease (Blennow and Hampel, 2003; DeKosky and Marek, 2003; Rapoport, 2000; Wagner, 2000). Moreover, earlyEEG filtering based on blind source separation (BSS) for early detection of Alzheimer's disease preprocessing technique for improvement of detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The technique is based

Kaplan, Alexander

209

Evaluation of the American Academy of Dermatology's National Skin Cancer Early Detection and Screening Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing incidence and mortality rates from cutaneous melanoma are a major public health concern. As part of a national effort to enhance early detection of melanoma\\/skin cancer, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has sponsored an annual education and early detection program that couples provision of skin cancer information to the general public with almost 750,000 free skin cancer

Howard K Koh; Lawrence A Norton; Alan C Geller; Ting Sun; Darrell S Rigel; Donald R Miller; Ruth G Sikes; Karen Vigeland; Earl U Bachenberg; Padman A Menon; Sharon F Billon; Gerald Goldberg; Dwight A Scarborough; William M Ramsdell; Vincent A Muscarella; Robert A Lew

1996-01-01

210

Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2010-01-01

211

Development and evaluation of a portable audiometer for high-frequency screening of hearing loss from ototoxicity in homes/clinics.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment often requires patients to be exposed to drugs that can damage hearing. Drugs such as cisplatin can cause permanent damage to hearing if not detected early. Damage typically occurs first in the more basal regions of the cochlea which are specific for high-frequency (HF) hearing and progresses to more apical regions that are relevant to speech understanding. Monitoring of HF hearing loss can be an effective means for early detection of ototoxicity caused by chemotherapy. Once ototoxicity is detected, the oncology medical team could adjust the drug dosage or switch to medications that are less ototoxic. Telehealth technology may improve access to ototoxicity monitoring. Patients could monitor their own hearing using a device that alerts healthcare professionals in the event of a change in hearing. A portable audiometer is currently not available that is 1) capable of automatic or manual (by an audiologist) operation; 2) designed with precision pure-tone functionality up to 20 kHz; and 3) able to remotely transfer health status information to a healthcare professional. This paper describes the design of a technology, the ototoxicity identification (OtoID), that includes a portable audiometer with HF test functionality that meets ANSI/ASA S3.6-2010 standards and is capable of reliably detecting a person's drug-related hearing changes relative to a baseline period (i.e., before ototoxic drugs) using an automated test. The system includes a wireless cellular modem capable of notifying a remote healthcare professional in the event that a significant change in hearing has occurred in the patient. The system was evaluated on test subjects within a sound-proof booth, a noisy hospital ward, and within their homes. Results indicate that the OtoID system can be used by patients to effectively monitor hearing changes remotely within their home or in a hospital ward, ultimately enabling early detection of ototoxicity and potentially avoiding hearing loss. PMID:22801480

Jacobs, Peter G; Silaski, Grayson; Wilmington, Debra; Gordon, Samuel; Helt, Wendy; McMillan, Garnett; Fausti, Stephen A; Dille, Marilyn

2012-11-01

212

Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1.7 (HF-CVC) times less than that for the BB-triplet test. The effect on the HF-triplet test of varying presentation method (professional or cheap headphones and loudspeakers) was small for the NH group and somewhat larger, but nonsignificant for the hearing-impaired group. Test repetition produced a moderate, significant learning effect for the first and second retests, but was small and nonsignificant for further retesting. The learning effect was about two times larger for the HF-CVC test than for the HF-triplet test. The sensitivity of both new tests for high-frequency hearing loss was similar, with an 87% true-positive and 7% false-positive ratio for detecting an average high-frequency hearing loss of 20 dB or more. Conclusions: The new HF-triplet and HF-CVC tests provide a sensitive and accurate method for detecting high-frequency hearing loss. The tests may signal developing hearing impairment at an early stage. The HF-triplet is preferred over the HF-CVC test because of its smaller learning effect, smaller error rate, greater simplicity, and lower cultural dependency. PMID:25127323

MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

2014-01-01

213

The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timi?oara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

2014-03-01

214

Child Care and Child Welfare. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines the joint hearing before the House of Representatives, between the Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Human Resources and the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families. The hearing was scheduled out of concern by Congress members over the proliferation…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

215

Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Research into the early course of schizophrenia has identified a prepsychotic prodromal stage (mean duration: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

HÄFNER, HEINZ; MAURER, KURT

2006-01-01

216

Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans  

PubMed Central

The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD. PMID:20885966

Patterson, James C.; Lilien, David L.; Takalkar, Amol; Pinkston, James B.

2011-01-01

217

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

218

Congenital sensorineural hearing loss  

SciTech Connect

The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

1984-02-01

219

Non-Invasive Mobility Monitoring for Early Detection of Dementia  

E-print Network

for multiple residents simultaneously? · Changes in mobility can be an early sign of dementia in the elderly. · In-home care or nursing homes to monitor the elderly can be financially and emotionally draining in the home's layout. · Read in the data from the sensors, isolating those data from the motion sensors

Collins, Gary S.

220

Early detection of autism. Diagnostic instruments for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism and Asperger syndrome are disorders with early childhood onset. They are believed to exist on the same spectrum of impairments of reciprocal communication and social interaction restriction of imagination and behaviour. A number of screening and diagnostic tools have been developed in the field, and several of these are briefly reviewed here. It is concluded that autism may be

C. Gillberg; V. Nordin; S. Ehlers

1996-01-01

221

76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC is to provide...

2011-09-09

222

77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory...

2012-10-04

223

Call for research: detecting early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization.  

PubMed

This study delineated the extent to which a broad set of risk factors in youth, a period well suited to primary prevention strategies, influences the likelihood and timing of first lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations. Logistic regression was used to delineate early risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization among Americans in a nationally representative survey (NCS-R, Part II, 2001-2003: N?=?5,692). Results suggest that inpatient stay is more common and happens at earlier ages among Americans who report growing up with versus without: (1) depressed parents or caregivers, (2) family members who victimized them, or (3) one of three child mental illnesses (conduct, oppositional defiant, or separation anxiety disorder). In order to prevent inpatient stay, findings call for longitudinal research on early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization among families with: (1) depressed parents of children or adolescents, (2) violence against children, and (3) children that have externalizing or separation anxiety disorders. PMID:23160760

Prince, Jonathan D

2013-01-01

224

Mouse colorectal cancer an early detection approach using nonlinear microscopy.  

PubMed

Murine induced colon cancer has been used to demonstrate that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy images, combined with Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) and specific quantization scoring methods allow distinguishing early alterations in colon mucosa. TPEF was used only to identified crypts and submucosa regions, whereas the image analysis was used to get quantitative data (Integrated Intensity and Aspect Ratio scoring) of different cancer stages. The submucosa amount of collagen fibers was significant and their orientation suffering proportional changes with the development of the pathological processes. Both after the fourth and eighth weeks after colon cancer induction, integrated intensity and aspect ratio values have shown significant statistical differences compared with control samples. Thus, SHG microscopy has proved to be a useful quantitative tool to highlight early changes of submucosa and the progression of these through the cancer development. PMID:25227053

Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Ruff, Silvana Y; Izaguirre, María F; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L; Casco, Víctor H

2014-01-01

225

Early Education and Care: What Is the Federal Government's Role? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 20, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-116  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this hearing was to examine the federal role in improving the effectiveness and coordination of sixty-nine Federal programs that are designed to help parents help their young children with child care and early education. Opening statements were delivered by Subcommittee Chairman Senator Lamar Alexander, Tennessee; Ranking Member…

US Senate, 2005

2005-01-01

226

Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

227

NCI Begins Funding Early Detection Research Network: 18 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories Seek Tests for Common Cancers  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute today awarded nearly $8 million in grants toward the creation of a network to discover and develop new biological tests for the early detection of cancer and of biomarkers for increased cancer risk.

228

A Novel Imaging Approach for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Based on Endogenous Zinc Sensing  

E-print Network

The early detection of prostate cancer is a life-saving event in patients harboring potentially aggressive disease. With the development of malignancy, there is a dramatic reduction in the zinc content of prostate tissue ...

Ghosh, Subrata K.

229

NCI Begins Validation Study of New Test to Detect Early-Stage Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A two-year study to validate a test to detect early-stage liver cancer has been initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, at six centers* across the United States.

230

75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice...

2010-09-21

231

77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

2012-11-29

232

Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

2009-02-01

233

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Conclusions  

Cancer.gov

An integrated, multidisciplinary approach to early detection and risk assessment is likely to be more successful in cancer prevention than any other approach. For example, the linkage of early detection research to active screening trials or to prevention studies would accelerate the validation of biomarkers. Both molecular markers and interventions may be evaluated in the same study or trial, a potential saving in time and resources.

234

Parents’ detection of early signs in their children having an autistic spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to describe parents’ views of their early perception and detection that something was wrong with their child and to give a comprehensive description of early signs to help primary health care nurses to focus on relevant symptoms. Participants were 66 parents from a total of 37 families, a population-based sample from a Swedish county. Interview data were

Bengt Sivberg

2003-01-01

235

Stories about breast cancer in Australian women's magazines: information sources for risk, early detection and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty articles in five Australian women's magazines were analyzed for journalistic qualities, metaphors, narrative features and accuracy of clinical facts related to risk, early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The stories were features, news features or soft news stories. The stories reflected the ‘good news’ editorial style of women's magazines. A dominant theme in the stories was that early

Lesley Wilkes; Janice Withnall; Rebecca Harris; Kate White; Barbara Beale; Jane Hobson; Marsha Durham; Linda Kristjanson

2001-01-01

236

New tools in detecting early cartilage breakdown before morphologic changes.  

PubMed

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow detection of changes in molecular matrix of cartilage and thus allow the earliest detection of its breakdown. These MRI techniques are collectively referred to as "cartilage mapping," which attempts to designate a qualitative assessment of cartilage at each given location on the cartilage surface. These qualitative abnormalities can occur even in the setting of normal cartilage thickness and morphology. This article introduces the molecular biology behind this new technique, discusses some potential clinical applications, and discusses value added over traditional MRI cartilage evaluation. PMID:25153816

Pomeranz, Stephen J; Ugorji, Joseph O

2014-01-01

237

Early detection of glaucoma using fully automated disparity analysis of optic nerve head (ONH) from stereo fundus images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) is critical in diagnosis of glaucoma, because such glaucomatous damage precedes clinically identifiable visual loss. Early detection of glaucoma can prevent progression of the disease and consequent loss of vision. Traditional early detection techniques involve observing changes in the ONH through an ophthalmoscope. Stereo fundus photography is also routinely

Archie Sharma; Enrique Corona; Sunanda Mitra; Brian S. Nutter

2006-01-01

238

Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers. PMID:24371830

Zhang, Fan; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

2013-01-01

239

Developing services for the early detection of psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has attempted to improve the identification of individuals at-risk of developing schizophrenia to permit targeted\\u000a early prevention. Two sets of criteria, one characterized by a subgroup of ‘basic symptoms’ [Klosterkötter, Hellmich, Steinmeyer,\\u000a Schultze-Lutter (2001) Arch Gen Psychiat 58:158–164] and one by the ultra high-risk model [Miller, McGlashan, Woods, Stein,\\u000a Driesen, Corcoran, Hoffman, Davidson (1999) Psychiatr Q 70:273–287; Yung,

Andor E. Simon; Binia Roth; Solange Zmilacher; Emanuel Isler; Daniel Umbricht

2007-01-01

240

Automatic cry detection in early childhood education settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results on applying a novel machine learning approach for learning auditory moods in natural environments [1] to the problem of detecting crying episodes in preschool classrooms. The resulting system achieved levels of performance approaching that of human coders and also significantly outperformed previous approaches to this problem [2].

Paul Ruvolo; Javier Movellan

2008-01-01

241

Acoustic particle detection - From early ideas to future benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of acoustic neutrino detection technology is shortly reviewed from the first ideas 50 years ago to the detailed R&D programs of the last decade. The physics potential of ultra-high energy neutrino interaction studies is discussed for some examples. Ideas about the necessary detector size and suitable design are presented.

Nahnhauer, Rolf

2012-01-01

242

Recombinant Multiepitope Protein for Early Detection of Dengue Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent mainly in tropical countries. As the clinical manifestations of dengue are not very unique, laboratory diagnosis is crucial in identifying cases of dengue infection. Detection of dengue infection based on the identification of antidengue antibodies has emerged as a practical and reliable means of diagnosing dengue fever. We recently developed a customized

Ravulapalli AnandaRao; Sathyamangalam Swaminathan; Sirimali Fernando; Asha M. Jana; Navin Khanna

2006-01-01

243

Detection of fetal structural abnormalities with US during early pregnancy.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) is performed during early pregnancy for dating, determination of the number of fetuses, assessment of early complications, and increasingly for evaluation of the fetus, including measurement of the thickness of the nuchal translucency (NT). Measurement of NT thickness between 11 and 14 weeks gestation, combined with maternal age and maternal serum biochemistry, can be an effective method of screening for trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, an increased NT thickness in the presence of a normal karyotype is associated with an increased frequency of structural defects and genetic syndromes. Therefore, this finding is an indication for a more detailed anatomic survey of the fetus. Besides nuchal abnormalities, a wide range of other congenital anomalies can be diagnosed with US at 11-14 weeks gestation, including defects of the central nervous system, heart, anterior abdominal wall, urinary tract, and skeleton. The anatomic survey can be performed with a standardized protocol by using transabdominal US and, when necessary, transvaginal US. A thorough knowledge of the US features of normal fetal development is necessary to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:14730044

Fong, Katherine W; Toi, Ants; Salem, Shia; Hornberger, Lisa K; Chitayat, David; Keating, Sarah J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Johnson, Jo-Ann

2004-01-01

244

Role of Biomarkers in Early Detection of Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related, potentially life threatening condition. The incidence of PE has increased in the past decade, which has been attributed to various predisposing factors. Abnormal placentation is central to the evolution of this disease process. However, the triggering factor for this is still unknown. Interestingly, intense research done in this arena has unveiled the names of some important biomolecules which play important role in the vasculognesis of the early placenta, namely, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) and their antagonists, namely, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1, also known as sVEGFR1), and soluble endoglin (sEng). Besides these, Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was also implicated in this disease process. The roles of immune factors, genetic factors have been stressed from time to time. More novel approaches made, have shed light on the upcoming biomolecules. All these endeavours are directed to diagnose PE as early as possible, which is a real challenge. Question remains whether a single set parameters could diagnose a disease entity which is as complex as PE. Therefore, it is imperative to design feasible, predictive test-set utilizing multiple biomarkers. PMID:24959436

2014-01-01

245

Hearing on the Contract with America: Child Welfare and Childcare. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearing transcripts present testimony on the effects of the agenda of past Congresses on child welfare and childcare, focusing on the need for welfare and social services reform, subsidized child care, and abuses of the 1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). Testimony was heard from: (1) Representatives Randy "Duke"…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

246

The Role of Fucose in Early Cancer Detection  

E-print Network

sensitive to determine whether fucose levels are normal or elevated. Instrumental Methods The fucose concentrations in the unknown samples were calculated to be 888.7 ?M and 1227 ?M by extrapolation from the HPLC-PAD calibration curve (Figure 10... Detection INTRODUCTION In many disease states, biological changes occur that indicate disease progression. For example, protein from cancer patients is commonly observed with an increased amount of the sugar fucose. Fucose levels are often elevated...

Heinzman, Jeff; McKenzie, David; Melrose, Scott; Selley, Patrick; Wenke, Jamie

2009-10-01

247

Prevention and Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer: Mission Impossible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial ovarian cancer is neither a common nor a rare disease. In the United States, the prevalence of ovarian cancer in\\u000a postmenopausal women (1 in 2,500) significantly affects strategies for prevention and detection. If chemoprevention for ovarian\\u000a cancer were provided to all women over the age of 50, side effects would have to be minimal in order to achieve an

Robert C. Bast Jr; Molly Brewer; Changping Zou; Mary A. Hernandez; Mary Daley; Robert Ozols; Karen Lu; Zhen Lu; Donna Badgwell; Gordon B. Mills; Steven Skates; Zhen Zhang; Dan Chan; Anna Lokshin; Yinhua Yu

248

Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers  

PubMed Central

The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

2011-01-01

249

On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection  

E-print Network

On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection Jean January 2011; accepted for publication 6 February 2011; published xx xx xxxx Purpose: Pressure ulcers, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

EEG filtering based on blind source separation (BSS) for early detection of Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

the onset of clinical manifestations of disease (Blennow and Hampel, 2003; DeKosky and Marek, 2003; RapoportEEG filtering based on blind source separation (BSS) for early detection of Alzheimer's disease Objective: Development of an EEG preprocessing technique for improvement of detection of Alzheimer's disease

Cichocki, Andrzej

251

Oral cancer prevention and early detection : Knowledge and practice among Saudi Arabian healthcare practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the crucial role that healthcare practitioners (HCPs) have in preventing and detecting oral cancer (OC), studies suggest that dentists and physicians do not adequately detect early stage OC which is attributed to their attitude and knowledge. This Saudi Arabian study aims to assess HCP's knowledge and practice vis-à-vis OC's risk factors and patient evaluation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Louay Jaber; Sami Shaban; Deema Hariri

2012-01-01

252

Difference detection based early mode termination for depth map coding in MVC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth map coding is a new topic in multiview video coding (MVC) following the development of depth-image-based rendering (DIBR). Since depth map is monochromatic and has less texture than color map, fast algorithm is necessary and possible to reduce the computation burden of the encoder. This paper proposed difference detection based early mode termination strategy. The difference detection (DD) algorithms

Minghui Wang; Xin Jin; S. Goto

2010-01-01

253

Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with

Chisako Muramatsu; Yoshinori Hayashi; Akira Sawada; Yuji Hatanaka; Takeshi Hara; Tetsuya Yamamoto; Hiroshi Fujita

2010-01-01

254

Designing Technology to Aid in the Early Detection of Developmental Delay in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early detection of developmental delays, such as autism, in young children can be crucial in providing better interventions and education for affected children. Currently, these delays are detected by concerns from parents brought up to pediatricians or specialists well after the first signs occur. We present the design of a system aimed to help parents and caregivers of newborn

Julie A. Kientz; Gregory D. Abowd

255

Early fire detection algorithm based on irregular patterns of flames and hierarchical Bayesian Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new vision-based early fire detection method for real-world application. First, candidate fire regions are detected using a background and color model of fire. Probabilistic models of the fire are then generated based on the fact that fire pixel values in consecutive frames change constantly. These models are then applied to Bayesian Networks. This paper uses hierarchical

ByoungChul Ko; Kwang-Ho Cheong; Jae-Yeal Nam

2010-01-01

256

Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

2003-01-01

257

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE  

E-print Network

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection

Meyers, Steven D.

258

June 14-16 2004: NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop Meeting Dates June 14-16 2004 Meeting Site One Bethesda Metro Center Bethesda, Maryland 20814 This workshop addressed the biology and the methods of pre-clinical cancer detection.

259

The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

2013-01-01

260

Severity of hearing impairment is positively associated with urine albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction To identify risk factors for hearing impairment among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Materials A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled between March and September of 2011. Pure-tone auditory tests were carried out for each patient at the following speech frequencies: 250; 500; 1,000; 2,000; 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Participants were classified as having hearing impairment if the average of the pure-tone thresholds measured at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz in either ear exceeded 25 dBHL. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory parameters and diabetes-associated complications were analyzed. Results Patients were divided into those with (n = 32) and without (n = 36) hearing impairment. Hearing impaired participants had a higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio than those without (223.1 vs 56.5 mg/g, respectively). After adjustment for age, sex and other risk factors, the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio remained significantly associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio 9.07, 95% confidence interval 1.73–47.43, P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in oxidative stress between the two groups. Conclusions The present study showed increased albuminuria was positively associated with the severity of hearing impairment among patients with type 2 diabetes. Screening for hearing impairment in diabetic patients who develop albuminuria might provide early detection of hearing impairment.

Shen, Feng-Chih; Hsieh, Ching-Jung

2014-01-01

261

Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

1975-01-01

262

Party size and early detection of predators in sumatran forest primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical considerations suggest that the ability to detect the presence or approach of a predator when there is still enough\\u000a time to flee (early detection) should improve with group size, if group living is to be advantageous for individual non-human\\u000a primates. The hypothesis that the distance at which forest primates detect predators increases with the size of their party\\u000a was

Carel P. van Schaik; Maria A. van Noordwijk; Bambang Warsono; Edy Sutriono

1983-01-01

263

Speech-Language-Hearing Department of Communication  

E-print Network

-sound disorders, early childhood language disorders, and school age language- literacy disorders. Prof. PlanteUNH Speech-Language-Hearing Center Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders Meet faculty at the UNH Speech- Language-Hearing Center. She considers herself a generalist, with a particular

New Hampshire, University of

264

Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer  

E-print Network

Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

2011-01-01

265

Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer  

E-print Network

Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

2011-01-01

266

Amplification Considerations for Children With Minimal or Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss and Unilateral Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

2008-01-01

267

Early detection of CKD: the benefits, limitations and effects on prognosis.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen an increasing focus on chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its attendant complications, which has resulted in improved understanding of their impact on health-care resources. The early detection of CKD has been facilitated by the implementation of routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) and by education of primary care physicians on the implications of detecting a decreased eGFR with respect to patient safety as well as to cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The goals of early CKD detection are to prevent CKD progression and associated complications, thus improving patient outcomes and reducing the impact of CKD on health-care resources. This Review examines the benefits of the early detection of CKD, and describes the limitations of current knowledge with respect to screening, early detection and treatment, as well as the unintended consequences of detection. In addition, this article highlights what is currently known about cardiovascular and renal outcomes and the effects of intervention in patients with CKD. PMID:21712852

Levin, Adeera; Stevens, Paul E

2011-08-01

268

Validity of electronic medical record-based rules for the early detection of meningitis and encephalitis.  

PubMed

Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as meningitis or encephalitis may represent events of public health interest due to emerging infections and/or NIH/CDC Category B priority pathogens. Apart from influencing treatment and management of the index case, some diagnoses such as meningococcal meningitis warrant an immediate public health response. Others such as West Nile Virus may require public education and vector control. Thus early detection of CNS syndromes is of benefit to patients, providers and public health. While computer-based surveillance methods have been used with success in the early detection of respiratory syndromes, there is little data on their use in CNS syndromes. This study analyzed the validity of a hospital emergency department computer-based surveillance system in the early detection of meningitis and encephalitis and determined the test characteristics of selected computer-based rules. PMID:18693846

Gundlapalli, Adi V; Tang, Hongying; Tonnierre, Claude; Stoddard, Greg; Rolfs, Robert T; Evans, R Scott; Samore, Matthew H

2007-01-01

269

Validity of Electronic Medical Record-based Rules For the Early Detection of Meningitis and Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as meningitis or encephalitis may represent events of public health interest due to emerging infections and/or NIH/CDC Category B priority pathogens. Apart from influencing treatment and management of the index case, some diagnoses such as meningococcal meningitis warrant an immediate public health response. Others such as West Nile Virus may require public education and vector control. Thus early detection of CNS syndromes is of benefit to patients, providers and public health. While computer-based surveillance methods have been used with success in the early detection of respiratory syndromes, there is little data on their use in CNS syndromes. This study analyzed the validity of a hospital emergency department computer-based surveillance system in the early detection of meningitis and encephalitis and determined the test characteristics of selected computer-based rules. PMID:18693846

Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Tang, Hongying; Tonnierre, Claude; Stoddard, Greg; Rolfs, Robert T.; Evans, R. Scott; Samore, Matthew H.

2007-01-01

270

Preventing vision loss among students through eye safety and early detection.  

PubMed

Childhood vision problems that are detected and treated early can, in many cases, see improved outcomes compared with those detected late. Untreated, these problems can diminish the learning potential of the student and have long-term health and vision implications. School nurses can play a critical role in improving student outcomes by bringing vision screenings and eye health education to their schools. NASN and the National Eye Institute are working together to elevate awareness in schools about the importance of early detection and eye health and safety. While vision screenings can catch potentially worsening issues early, eye health education can teach children to adopt safe practices at a younger age and recognize changes in their vision. There may be barriers, but nurses can find support from those in their schools and the surrounding communities. PMID:24050044

Mattey, Beth; Zein, Wadih M; O'Malley, Debbie; Haron, Cecily

2013-09-01

271

[Early detection of corynespora spot on cucumber leaves based on FTIR spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was applied in the early detection of corynespora spot on cucumber leaves while the symptom had not appeared. The cucumber leaves were inoculated with Corynespora cassiicola. By observing the changes in the FTIR spectra of infected cucumber leaves at various times of post-infection, three sensitive bands, 1 735, 1 545 and 1 240 cm(-1) were selected for the identification of cucumber corynespora leaf spot. According to the peak areas at these sensitive bands, cucumber leaf samples infected with C. cassiicola and control uninfected leaf samples could be classified correctly. Results clearly demonstrated that the FTIR technology is an available one for the early detection of corynespora spot on cucumber leaves while the symptom has not appeared and it provides a new method for the early detection of corynespora spot. PMID:21847920

Chai, A-Li; Li, Bao-Ju; Shi, Yan-Xia; Xie, Xue-Wen

2011-06-01

272

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: CBRG Mission  

Cancer.gov

The mission of the CBRG is to engage basic and clinical scientists as well as epidemiologists and statisticians in a search for and validation of promising early cancer biomarkers. To do so, the CBRG supports and facilitates a broad spectrum of national and international research activities in molecular biology and genetics, particularly for the discovery of biomarkers for risk prediction and early detection of cancer.

273

Role of Diffusion-Weighted MRI in the Detection of Early Active Sacroiliitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study proposed to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to detect active inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints of patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (also spelled spondylarthritis). Su BJECTS AND METHODS. Forty-two patients with chronic low back pain under- went clinical and MRI evaluation for axial spondyloarthritis or early ankylosing spondylitis. STIR, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, fat-saturated T2-weighted, and

Zulkif Bozgeyik; Salih Ozgocmen; Ercan Kocakoc

2008-01-01

274

Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ??? (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were calculated for assessment the differences between the spectral data of healthy and injured (stressed) plants of two cultivars. The averaged reflectance spectra for all groups were analyzed in the most informative for green plants spectral ranges: green, red, red edge, and near infrared. Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the maximums of the emitted radiation and at the forefronts and rear slopes. On the 7th day no visual changes in the leaves occurred but a decrease of spectral reflectance was established in the green and red ranges for all cases of two cultivars. On the 14th day an increase of the number of statistically significant differences between spectral reflectance of healthy and treated plants was observed. A shift of the red edge position to the blue region was observed for the case of treatment only with CMV. The growth regulator MEIA is with the best preventing action on the leaves. The correlation of the results from spectral analyses and the DAS-ELISA findings for presence of CMV demonstrates the efficiency and sensitivity of these remote sensing techniques for reliable diagnosis of viral infection and injuries of the plants.

Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

275

Analysis of early host responses for asymptomatic disease detection and management of specialty crops.  

PubMed

The rapid and unabated spread of vector-borne diseases within US specialty crops threatens our agriculture, our economy, and the livelihood of growers and farm workers. Early detection of vector-borne pathogens is an essential step for the accurate surveillance and management of vector-borne diseases of specialty crops. Currently, we lack the tools that would detect the infectious agent at early (primary) stages of infection with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we outline a strategy for developing an integrated suite of platform technologies to enable rapid, early disease detection and diagnosis of huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease. The research has two anticipated outcomes: i) identification of very early, disease-specific biomarkers using a knowledge base of translational genomic information on host and pathogen responses associated with early (asymptomatic) disease development; and ii) development and deployment of novel sensors that capture these and other related biomarkers and aid in presymptomatic disease detection. By combining these two distinct approaches, it should be possible to identify and defend the crop by interdicting pathogen spread prior to the rapid expansion phase of the disease. We believe that similar strategies can also be developed for the surveillance and management of diseases affecting other economically important specialty crops. PMID:20370635

Dandekar, Abhaya M; Martinelli, Federico; Davis, Cristina E; Bhushan, Abhinav; Zhao, Weixiang; Fiehn, Oliver; Skogerson, Kirsten; Wohlgemuth, Gert; D'Souza, Raissa; Roy, Soumen; Reagan, Russell L; Lin, Dawei; Cary, R; Pardington, Paige; Gupta, Goutam

2010-01-01

276

Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries. PMID:24281081

Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

2010-01-01

277

Transparent hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes what we call Transparent Hearing: the use of microphone equipped headphones for augmented audio. It provides a framework for experiments like real-time audio alteration, multi-modal sensory integration and collaborative listening experiences. We attach high-quality microphones to headphones and send the signal through a computer to these headphones. We have built headphones that stop the music if somebody

Florian Mueller; Matthew Karau

2002-01-01

278

Influences of Working Memory and Audibility on Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with hearing loss demonstrate delays in language development relative to their peers with normal hearing. Early intervention has a profound impact on language outcomes in children with hearing loss. Data examining the relationship between degree of hearing loss and language outcomes are variable. Two approaches are used in the…

Stiles, Derek Jason

2010-01-01

279

Newborn Hearing Screening Programs: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of systematic programs for early identification of hearing impairment in the newborn and infant is increas- ing in Canada and worldwide. This article outlines the rationale for these programs, methods of screening, audiologic assess- ment and intervention, program outcomes and the crucial role of physicians. Sources of high-quality, current evidence on key aspects of these programs are identified. There

Martyn L. Hyde

2005-01-01

280

Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... by Adults with Hearing Loss Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss Percent of Persons with Hearing Loss[*] Who Have Ever Used Hearing Aids [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ...

281

Early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed which allows early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) in DNA extracts from cacao plantlets agroinoculated with the Togolese isolate Agou 1. The primers used were derived from badnavirus conserved sequences and nucleic acid was extracted with the Plant DNeasy extraction kit (Qiagen). CSSV genome was detectable between 6 and 20 days after inoculation. The first leaf symptoms appeared after 4 weeks and the first shoot swelling symptoms after 8 weeks. PMID:11311339

Muller, E; Jacquot, E; Yot, P

2001-04-01

282

TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

Cannon, Kipp [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cariou, Romain [Departement de physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan (France); Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-36, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA (United States); Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Frei, Melissa [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hanna, Chad [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Kara, Erin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Keppel, Drew [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationphysik, Hannover (Germany); Liao, Laura, E-mail: leo.singer@ligo.org [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2012-04-01

283

Hearing Aid Device  

MedlinePLUS

... showing how the hearing aid works. First, the drawing shows a hearing aid identifying the internal components. ... battery, sound processor, and speaker/receiver. A larger drawing shows the hearing aid placed in the ear. ...

284

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... and evaluation. It may be an otolaryngologist, an audiologist, or a hearing aid dispenser. Only two types ... and dispense hearing aids in the U.S.: an audiologist and a hearing aid dispenser. An otolaryngologist is ...

285

Getting Your Hearing Tested  

MedlinePLUS

... also refer you to another hearing professional, an audiologist. An audiologist can measure your hearing. Woman: You're going ... Solveig Ingersoll, M.A., CCC-A: In an audiologist's office, the exam for hearing sensitivity involves taking ...

286

Hearing Problems in Children  

MedlinePLUS

Most children hear and listen from the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them ... United States are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. More lose their hearing later during childhood. Babies ...

287

Children's Hearing Health  

MedlinePLUS

Children's Hearing Health Children's Hearing Health Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... of speech and language developmental delays. Indicators for hearing loss During pregnancy Mother had German measles, a ...

288

Get Your Hearing Checked  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening Tests > Get Your Hearing Checked Get Your Hearing Checked The Basics Take Action! Ver en español ... If you are worried that you might have hearing loss, you aren’t alone. Many people lose ...

289

Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. Results In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). Conclusions We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under Curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the biomarkers are associated with Signaling, Hemostasis, Hormones, and Immune System, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for biomarker discovery in early detection of other cancers. In the future, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is planned for validation of the ability of these potential biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. PMID:23369435

2013-01-01

290

Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

2013-07-01

291

Loss of dystrophin staining in cardiomyocytes: a novel method for detection early myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent diagnosis made in majority of sudden death cases subjected to clinical and medicolegal autopsies. When sudden death occurs at a very early stage of MI, traditional macroscopic examination, or histological stains cannot easily detect the myocardial changes. For this reason we propose a new method for detecting MI at an early stage. Murine model of MI was used to induce MI through permanent ligation of left anterior descending branch of left coronary artery. Five groups of C57B6/J mice were used for inducing MI, which includes 20 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, four hours and 24 hours post MI groups. One naïve group and sham-operated groups were used as controls. There is loss of dystrophin membranous staining in cardiac myocytes occurs as early as 20 minutes post myocardial infarction. This can be used as a novel method to diagnose early myocardial infarction in post mortem cases where diagnosis is unclear. In conclusion, evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of dystrophin represents a highly sensitive method for detecting early myocardial infarction due to the loss of staining in the infarcted areas. Dystrophin immunostaining can also be used to assess myocardial architecture. PMID:23330010

Hashmi, Satwat; Al-Salam, Suhail

2013-01-01

292

Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia  

PubMed Central

The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

2014-01-01

293

Hearing in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens): pre-adaptation to pressure hearing in tetrapods?  

PubMed

Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of the tetrapods, and the ear of recent lungfishes resembles the tetrapod ear more than the ear of ray-finned fishes and is therefore of interest for understanding the evolution of hearing in the early tetrapods. The water-to-land transition resulted in major changes in the tetrapod ear associated with the detection of air-borne sound pressure, as evidenced by the late and independent origins of tympanic ears in all of the major tetrapod groups. To investigate lungfish pressure and vibration detection, we measured the sensitivity and frequency responses of five West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) using brainstem potentials evoked by calibrated sound and vibration stimuli in air and water. We find that the lungfish ear has good low-frequency vibration sensitivity, like recent amphibians, but poor sensitivity to air-borne sound. The skull shows measurable vibrations above 100 Hz when stimulated by air-borne sound, but the ear is apparently insensitive at these frequencies, suggesting that the lungfish ear is neither adapted nor pre-adapted for aerial hearing. Thus, if the lungfish ear is a model of the ear of early tetrapods, their auditory sensitivity was limited to very low frequencies on land, mostly mediated by substrate-borne vibrations. PMID:20826468

Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Wilson, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter T

2011-02-23

294

Can You Hear Me? The Right of Young Children to Participate in Decisions Affecting Them. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 36  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Can You Hear Me? The Right of Young Children to Participate in Decisions Affecting Them" emphasises that participation enhances children's self-esteem and confidence, promotes their overall capacities, produces better outcomes, strengthens understanding of and commitment to democratic processes and protects children more effectively.…

Lansdown, Gerison

2005-01-01

295

Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

296

Assessing Component Language Deficits in the Early Detection of Reading Difficulty Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on some of the linguistic components that underlie letter-sound decoding skills and reading comprehension: specifically phonology, morphology, and syntax. Many children who have reading difficulties had language deficits that were detectable before they began reading. Early identification of language difficulties will…

van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Marshall, Chloe R.

2010-01-01

297

Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in

Bingqing Li; Liew Oi Wah; Anand K. Asundi

2005-01-01

298

Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

299

Teleconsultations in Breast Self-Examination (BSE) practice: Alternative solution for early detection of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women and the number of cases expend proportionately by each year. Teleconsultation is an alternative solution for early detection of breast cancer. Teleconsultations have been used widely in healthcare setting but none of the intervention concentrates at preventive level. This proposed system is the first attempt in introducing teleconsultation as Breast

Norayu Abdul Talib; Nasriah Zakaria; Sureswaran Ramadass

2008-01-01

300

Early Detection of Parkinson's Disease: The Challenges and Potential of New Biomarkers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webinar will explain the need for biomarkers for detecting early PD and how these biomarkers can be used in drug development and clinical trials, provide an overview of promising new biological and neuroimaging markers, and discuss the challenges and bottlenecks in the development of new biomarkers for PD and the role of the ParkinsonâÂÂs Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI).

n/a n/a (AAAS;)

2011-04-27

301

SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease , Michèle Allard5 , D. Louis Collins2 and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroi- maging Initiative* 1 Laboratoire it is in that moment when treatment is possible. The potential use of structural MRI as imaging biomarker for Alzheimer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

Early detection and the course of glomerular injury in patients with sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection and the course of glomerular injury in patients with sickle cell anemia. We performed a cross sectional analysis of glomerular function in 34 adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SSA). Patients were divided according to GFR and albumin excretion rate (AER): SSA controls (normal GFR and AER, N = 10), albuminuria (increased AER, but normal GFR, N =

Antonio Guasch; Millicent Cua; William E Mitch

1996-01-01

303

The Validity of the Uriscreen Test for Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infection in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the validity of the Uriscreen, a rapid diagnostic test based on the detec- tion of urine catalase for the early detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, compared with standard urinalysis and dipstick tests. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Study Population. Children 1 month to 17 years of age who presented to the emergency department of a

Yehezkel Waisman; Elisheva Zerem; Lisa Amir; Marc Mimouni

2010-01-01

304

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue  

E-print Network

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue Rita Chattopadhyay the characterization of muscle fatigue through noninvasive sensing mechanism such as surface electromyo- graphy (SEMG). While changes in the properties of SEMG signals with respect to muscle fatigue have been reported

Ye, Jieping

305

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue  

E-print Network

A Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue RITA of California We consider the characterization of muscle fatigue through noninvasive sensing mechanism fatigue have been reported in the literature, the large variation in these signals across different

Davidson, Ian

306

A Model of Early Detection and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are a group of severe developmental disorders that are characterized by 3 core sets of developmental abnormalities: impairment of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior. The disorder is far more common than previously thought. There is no cure for autism but it is apparent that early detection followed

Suniti Cbakraharti; Christine Haubus; Sally Dugmore; Gill Orgill; Frank Devine

307

New Early Detection Studies of Lung Cancer in Non-Smokers Launched Today  

Cancer.gov

Government and private sector cancer scientists today launched a research partnership to find biomarkers for lung cancer that develops in people who have never smoked. The research studies are designed to create a better understanding of the biology of lung cancer and to develop a test to detect early-stage lung cancer in lifetime nonsmokers.

308

BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)  

EPA Science Inventory

To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

309

A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

2000-01-01

310

A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Biomarkers  

E-print Network

A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Atlas software system that allows a researcher to correlate lung cancer patients with similar for lung cancer researchers to browse lung cancer specimens collected at sites participating

Mattmann, Chris

311

Breast Cancer in Limited-Resource Countries: Early Detection and Access to Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract: Although incidence, mortality, and survival rates vary fourfold in the world's regions, in the world as a whole, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing, and in regions without early detection programs, mortality is also increasing. The growing burden of breast cancer in low-resource countries demands adaptive strategies that can improve on the too common pattern of disease

312

Early drought stress detection in cereals: simplex volume maximisation for hyperspectral image analysis  

E-print Network

Early drought stress detection in cereals: simplex volume maximisation for hyperspectral image. The method was tested for drought stress, applied to potted barley plants in a controlled rain-out shelter research in the understanding of plant adaptation under drought to improve management practices

Kersting, Kristian

313

Original Paper Skin Self-Examination Education for Early Detection of Melanoma  

E-print Network

provide a self-report of their confidence in performing SSE and take a knowledge-based test immediatelyOriginal Paper Skin Self-Examination Education for Early Detection of Melanoma: A Randomized Feinberg School of Medicine Arkes Family Pavilion, Suite 1260 676 N St Clair St Chicago, IL, 60611 United

Chisholm, Rex L.

314

A medical game changer New device shows early promise for detecting heart disease  

E-print Network

Fall 2012 A medical game changer New device shows early promise for detecting heart disease It as a functional test for people at high risk of developing heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United heart disease became Johnson's mission. After finishing three postdoctoral fellowships, she returned

Minnesota, University of

315

Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender. Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=?2/90, P<0/05) and “grammatical completion” (t=?3/39, P<0/05) subtests, with no significant difference in the “grammatical understanding” subtest (t=1/67, P>0/05). Moreover, there was no significant difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in terms of syntactic skills development. Conclusion: With early diagnosis and timely rehabilitating intervention, children with hearing loss can perform in a similar way to children of their age with normal hearing in some syntactical areas. Furthermore, the gender factor in the present study had no effect on the development of syntactical skills of children with hearing loss. PMID:24744994

PahlavanNezhad, Mohammad Reza; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid

2014-01-01

316

On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil  

PubMed Central

During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

Rach, Miguel Martinez; Gomis, Hector Migallon; Granado, Otoniel Lopez; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Marti; Martin, Juan Jose Serrano

2013-01-01

317

Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis a virus and norovirus outbreaks.  

PubMed

Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

2014-11-01

318

Interferometric detection of early markers for epithelial ovarian cancer and prognostic markers for acute lymphocytic leukemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing fluorescence-free interferometric biosensors for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and prognosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). We can detect potential early markers for EOC (CA125, human epididymus protein 4, osteopontin) spiked into serum as well as elevated CA125 in EOC patient serum. For ALL prognosis we are focusing on three intracellular protein markers (p73, p57/Kip2, and p15/Ink4b), the down-regulation of any two being indicative of a more aggressive cancer. We have detected p15 and p57 spiked into buffer and are preparing to test positive and negative control lysates from bone marrow biopsies.

O'Neil, P.; Zhao, M.; Wang, X.; Nolte, D. D.

2010-02-01

319

The State of Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Using biomarkers to select the most at-risk population, to detect the disease while measurable and yet not clinically apparent has been the goal of many investigations. Recent advances in molecular strategies and analytic platforms, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have identified increasing numbers of potential biomarkers in the blood, urine, exhaled breath condensate, bronchial specimens, saliva, and sputum, but none have yet moved to the clinical setting. Therefore, there is a recognized gap between the promise and the product delivery in the cancer biomarker field. In this review, we define clinical contexts where risk and diagnostic biomarkers may have use in the management of lung cancer, identify the most relevant candidate biomarkers of early detection, provide their state of development, and finally discuss critical aspects of study design in molecular biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:22689914

Hassanein, Mohamed; Callison, J. Clay; Callaway-Lane, Carol; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Grogan, Eric L.; Massion, Pierre P.

2013-01-01

320

Combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury.  

PubMed

Early detection and intervention of deep tissue injury are important to lead good outcome. Although the efficiency of ultrasonographic assessment of deep tissue injury has been reported previously, it requires a certain level of skill for accurate assessment. In this study, we present an investigation of the combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury. We retrospectively reviewed 28 early-stage pressure ulcers (21 patients) presenting at the University of Tokyo Hospital between April 2009 and February 2010, surveying the associated thermographic and ultrasonographic findings. The wound temperature patterns were divided into low, even and high compared with the surrounding skin. Ultrasonographic findings were classified into unclear layer structure, hypoechoic lesion, discontinuous fascia and heterogeneous hypoechoic area. All 13 ulcers that were associated with low temperature showed good outcome; three ulcers had even temperatures and 12 ulcers showed high temperature on thermographic assessment. The two deep tissue injuries were rated high on thermographic assessment and showed heterogeneous hypoechoic area findings on ultrasonographic assessment. No non-deep tissue injury lesion was associated with these two findings simultaneously. The combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments is expected to increase the accuracy of the early detection of deep tissue injuries. PMID:23174023

Higashino, Takuya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Ogawa, Yuki; Iizaka, Shinji; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Sanada, Hiromi

2014-10-01

321

Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24840047

Kathuria, Hasmeena; Gesthalter, Yaron; Spira, Avrum; Brody, Jerome S.; Steiling, Katrina

2014-01-01

322

How to motivate newborn hearing screening in the absence of a national programme: a collaboration between parents and professionals.  

PubMed

The establishment of the Italian Pediatric Federation Newborn Hearing Screening Network and the Italian Society of Neonatology Infant Hearing Study Group is the result of an international collaboration between Parents and Medical Professionals in order to promote an effective model in developing Early Hearing Detection Intervention Programs that recognize the role of parents as partners in the process. Among other factors, one important component frequently underestimated in most early intervention programs, both in the USA and other countries, involves the role of parental involvement within the Early Hearing Detection Intervention (EHDI) process. When a parent receives the news of their child's hearing loss, reactions may include, but are not limited to denial, grief, guilt, shame, fear and impotency. A parent may begin to ask certain questions: How do we know if the professionals in our children's lives are capable, educated, trained, up to date in their chosen fields of expertise? Do they respect our children and us as parents? Do they understand the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing? A life-long health professional - parental collaboration begins at the moment of the diagnosis of that child. When analyzing the habilitation process of a deaf child, the relationship between health professionals and the crucial role of parents in raising that child is a 50-50 shared responsibility. An objective of EHDI programs must be to empower parents by providing support from the beginning of the process. Distributing informative literature regarding the newborn hearing screening process and providing parents with access to resources such as parental support groups upon diagnosis equips parents with the tools necessary to immediately begin advocating for their children. The Italian Federation Pediatric Audiology Network was created by combining the parental perspective and medical protocols in order to establish the roots for stronger EHDI programs. PMID:22958038

Cutler, Jodi; Lenzi, Giovanni; Berrettini, Stefano; Martini, Alessandro; Martinelli, Stefano

2012-10-01

323

Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2006-12-15

324

CA-125 change over time shows promise as screening tool for early detection of ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Evaluating its change over time, CA-125, the protein long-recognized for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, now shows promise as a screening tool for early-stage disease, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The updated findings are published in Cancer; preliminary data were first presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. If a larger study shows survival benefit, the simple blood test could offer a much-needed screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages – even in the most aggressive forms – in post-menopausal women at average risk for the disease.

325

3D ultrasound elastography for early detection of lesions. evaluation on a pressure ulcer mimicking phantom.  

PubMed

A pressure ulcer is a damaged tissue area induced by an unrelieved pressure compressing the tissue during a prolonged period of immobility. The lack of information and studies on the development of this pathology makes its prevention difficult. However, it is both acknowledged that lesions initiate in the deep muscular tissues before they expand to the skin, and that lesions are harder than healthy tissues. Elastography is therefore an interesting tool for an early detection of the pathology. A 3D strain estimation algorithm is presented and evaluated on a PVA-cryogel phantom, mimicking a pressure ulcer at an early stage. PMID:18001893

Deprez, Jean-François; Cloutier, Guy; Schmitt, Cédric; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, André; Basset, Olivier; Brusseau, Elisabeth

2007-01-01

326

3D Ultrasound Elastography for Early Detection of Lesions. Evaluation on a Pressure Ulcer Mimicking Phantom  

PubMed Central

A pressure ulcer is a damaged tissue area induced by an unrelieved pressure compressing the tissue during a prolonged period of immobility. The lack of information and studies on the development of this pathology makes its prevention difficult However, it is both acknowledged that lesions initiate in the deep muscular tissues before they expand to the skin, and that lesions are harder than healthy tissues. Elastography is therefore an interesting tool for an early detection of the pathology. A 3D strain estimation algorithm is presented and evaluated on a PVA-cryogel phantom, mimicking a pressure ulcer at an early stage. PMID:18001893

Deprez, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Guy; Schmitt, Cedric; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; Basset, Olivier; Brusseau, Elisabeth

2007-01-01

327

Strategies for improving early detection of glaucoma: the combined structure-function index  

PubMed Central

The early detection of glaucoma is important in order to enable appropriate monitoring and treatment, and to minimize the risk of irreversible visual field loss. Although advances in ocular imaging offer the potential for earlier diagnosis, the best method is likely to involve a combination of information from structural and functional tests. Recent studies have shown it is possible to estimate the number of retinal ganglion cells from optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry, and to then pool the results to produce a combined structure–function index (CSFI). The CSFI represents the estimated percentage of retinal ganglion cells lost compared to an age-matched healthy eye. Previous studies have suggested that the CSFI is better able to detect glaucoma than isolated measures of structure and function, and that it performs well even in preperimetric glaucoma. The purpose of this review is to describe new strategies, such as the CSFI, that have the potential to improve the early detection of glaucoma. We also describe how our ability to detect early glaucoma may be further enhanced by incorporating demographic risk factors, clinical examination findings, and imaging and functional test results into intuitive models that provide estimates of disease probability. PMID:24707166

Tatham, Andrew J; Weinreb, Robert N; Medeiros, Felipe A

2014-01-01

328

10 CFR 52.21 - Administrative review of applications; hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 52.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.21 Administrative review of applications; hearings. An early site...

2013-01-01

329

Modulation Detection Interference for Asynchronous Presentation of Masker and Target in Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The sensitivity to sinusoidal amplitude modulations (SAMs) is reduced when other modulated maskers are presented simultaneously at a distant frequency (also referred to as "modulation detection interference" [MDI]). This article describes the results of onset differences between masker and target as a parameter. Method: Carrier…

Koopman, Jan; Houtgast, Tammo; Dreschler, Wouter A.

2008-01-01

330

On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators  

SciTech Connect

A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2008-11-15

331

Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: The potential role of auditory Gestalt perception  

PubMed Central

To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian–German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

2012-01-01

332

Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: the potential role of auditory Gestalt perception.  

PubMed

To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian-German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

2012-01-01

333

Early Detection of Severe Apnoea through Voice Analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is part of an on-going collaborative effort between the medical and the signal processing communities to promote research on applying voice analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition techniques (ASR) for the automatic diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Early detection of severe apnoea cases is important so that patients can receive early treatment. Effective ASR-based diagnosis could dramatically cut medical testing time. Working with a carefully designed speech database of healthy and apnoea subjects, we present and discuss the possibilities of using generative Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), generally used in ASR systems, to model distinctive apnoea voice characteristics (i.e. abnormal nasalization). Finally, we present experimental findings regarding the discriminative power of speaker recognition techniques applied to severe apnoea detection. We have achieved an 81.25 % correct classification rate, which is very promising and underpins the interest in this line of inquiry.

Fernández, Ruben; Blanco, Jose Luis; Díaz, David; Hernández, Luis A.; López, Eduardo; Alcázar, José

334

Early and Efficient Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum by Microscopic Observation of Broth Cultures  

PubMed Central

Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture) in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein–Jensen (LJ) solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB) suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3%) pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3%) versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8%) (p?=?0.0007). The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7–13), versus 21 days (IQR 14–28) (p<0.0001). The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive) in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture) is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings. PMID:23469014

Kidenya, Benson R.; Kabangila, Rodrick; Peck, Robert N.; Mshana, Stephen E.; Webster, Lauren E.; Koenig, Serena P.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

335

Early and efficient detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by microscopic observation of broth cultures.  

PubMed

Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture) in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB) suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3%) pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3%) versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8%) (p?=?0.0007). The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7-13), versus 21 days (IQR 14-28) (p<0.0001). The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive) in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture) is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings. PMID:23469014

Kidenya, Benson R; Kabangila, Rodrick; Peck, Robert N; Mshana, Stephen E; Webster, Lauren E; Koenig, Serena P; Johnson, Warren D; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

2013-01-01

336

Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City  

PubMed Central

Background School absenteeism data may have utility as an early indicator of disease outbreaks, however their value should be critically examined. This paper describes an evaluation of the utility of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection in New York City (NYC). Methods To assess citywide temporal trends in absenteeism, we downloaded three years (2001–02, 2002–03, 2003–04) of daily school attendance data from the NYC Department of Education (DOE) website. We applied the CuSum method to identify aberrations in the adjusted daily percent absent. A spatial scan statistic was used to assess geographic clustering in absenteeism for the 2001–02 academic year. Results Moderate increases in absenteeism were observed among children during peak influenza season. Spatial analysis detected 790 significant clusters of absenteeism among elementary school children (p < 0.01), two of which occurred during a previously reported outbreak. Conclusion Monitoring school absenteeism may be moderately useful for detecting large citywide epidemics, however, school-level data were noisy and we were unable to demonstrate any practical value in using cluster analysis to detect localized outbreaks. Based on these results, we will not implement prospective monitoring of school absenteeism data, but are evaluating the utility of more specific school-based data for outbreak detection. PMID:16212669

Besculides, Melanie; Heffernan, Richard; Mostashari, Farzad; Weiss, Don

2005-01-01

337

Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

2002-06-01

338

Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

2011-03-01

339

Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

2012-09-01

340

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Population-based Research  

Cancer.gov

A requirement for developing screening tools is to measure the frequency and prevalence of alterations in genes and proteins. This helps determine the required sensitivity and specificity of some potential early detection marker for its use in screening. The initiative facilitates molecular analyses at the population level, possibly through linkage to established cancer registries, such as SEER (Surveillance, Evaluation and End Results) and the Colon Cancer Registry.

341

Early Error Detection Predicted by Reduced Pre-response Control Process: An ERP Topographic Mapping Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced ERP topographic mapping techniques were used to study error monitoring functions in human adult participants, and\\u000a test whether proactive attentional effects during the pre-response time period could later influence early error detection\\u000a mechanisms (as measured by the ERN component) or not. Participants performed a speeded go\\/nogo task, and made a substantial\\u000a number of false alarms that did not differ

Gilles Pourtois

2011-01-01

342

May 14-15, 2007: Cancer Stem Cells as Targets for Cancer Prevention and Early Detection  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Stem cells represent a small population within a tumor, driving growth and metastasis. Whereas expansion of normal stem cells is under genetic and epigenetic constraints, cancer stem cells have escaped these controls. The goal of this workshop is to evaluate current research on cancer stem cells and the potential benefits to cancer prevention and early detection. Keynote speakers include Michael Clarke from Stanford University and Stewart Sell from the Wadsworth Center and Ordway Research Institute.

343

Early Detection of Cervical Cancer among Native American Women: A Qualitative Supplement to a Quantitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year (1989-1995) National Cancer Institute–funded, community-based, early detection of cervical cancer intervention implemented among two Native American tribes in North Carolina: the eastern band of the Cherokee Indians and the Lumbee. The initial quantitative analysis of the intervention showed modest effects and found that the intervention had different effects

Lynne Messer; Allan Steckler; Mark Dignan

1999-01-01

344

Role of biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer and chemoprevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer and chemoprevention. F.R. Hirsch, D.T. Merrick, W.A. Franklin. #ERS Journals Ltd 2002. ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. The poor prognosis associated with this disease is closely related to the fact that most lung cancer patients are not identified until their malignancy has reached

F. R. Hirsch; D. T. Merrick; W. A. Franklin

2002-01-01

345

Three-Dimensional Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in the Early Diagnosis and Detection of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents doctoral thesis of three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis in the early diagnosis and detection\\u000a of breast cancer. The purpose is to prove that digital breast tomosynthesis has the potential to provide clinically important\\u000a information, which cannot be obtained with conventional breast imaging methods. Three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis\\u000a seeks to (1) determine whether a mammographic finding is the result

Mari Varjonen; Planmed Oy

2006-01-01

346

Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems.  

PubMed

Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to terrorists because animal disease agents are easily available. This review addresses the vulnerabilities of the livestock industry to agroterrorism. However, we also show that early detection systems have recently been developed for agroterrorism and deliberate spread of animal pathogens in livestock, including an agroterrorism intelligence cycle, syndromic surveillance programs, and computer-based clinical decision support systems that can be used for early detection of notifiable animal diseases. The development of DIVA-vaccines in the past 10 to 15 years has created, in principle, an excellent response instrument to counter intentional animal disease outbreaks. These developments have made our animal agriculture less vulnerable to agroterrorism. But we cannot relax; there are still many challenges, in particular with respect to integration of first line of defense, law enforcement, and early detection systems for animal diseases. PMID:23971814

Elbers, Armin; Knutsson, Rickard

2013-09-01

347

The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility) in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test), to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI) were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test) and motor functions (10-meter walking test). All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT]), and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI) of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. PMID:24426778

Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles

2014-01-01

348

March 20-22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) is a consortium of scientists committed to the task of translating cancer biomarker in to clinical application and for creating the needed infrastructure for validating biomarkers for clinical application. Their main objective is to detect cancers at an early stage when therapeutic options work best. They are constantly looking for ways to improve existing, identify novel biomarkers and develop methods to detect pre-malignant lesions in clinical scenarios.

349

Use of laser fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent oral disease in spite of remarkable progress made during the past half- century to reduce its prevalence. Conventional procedures for caries detection are unable to detect the lesions until they are well advanced and involve about one-third of the thickness of enamel. Laboratory research on alternative caries detection methods based upon alterations in the conductance and optical properties associated with enamel demineralization has shown significant promise in recent years. Of these alternative measures, quantitative laser/light fluorescence appears to show the greatest promise for the detection of dental caries at a much earlier stage of development than is currently possible. A clinical trial was initiated in 150 children to evaluate, compare and validate several caries detection methods; in addition to the conventional diagnostic procedure, these detection methods involved quantitative light fluorescence, electrical conductivity, and direct digital radiography. Although the clinical trial is not yet complete, early results suggest the possibility for the earlier detection of dental caries with these alternative methods.

Stookey, George K.; Analoui, Mostafa

1998-04-01

350

Native Hawaiian Early Education, Development and Care. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs To Receive Testimony on Early Childhood Education and Development. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (Honolulu, Hawaii).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Senate committee hearing received testimony on the educational needs of Native Hawaiian families and young children and on existing programs that serve them. Oral and written statements were presented by Senators, parents, teachers, school and program administrators, and organizations concerned with Native education and culture. These statements…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

351

Robust regression and posterior predictive simulation increase power to detect early bursts of trait evolution.  

PubMed

A central prediction of much theory on adaptive radiations is that traits should evolve rapidly during the early stages of a clade's history and subsequently slowdown in rate as niches become saturated--a so-called "Early Burst." Although a common pattern in the fossil record, evidence for early bursts of trait evolution in phylogenetic comparative data has been equivocal at best. We show here that this may not necessarily be due to the absence of this pattern in nature. Rather, commonly used methods to infer its presence perform poorly when when the strength of the burst--the rate at which phenotypic evolution declines--is small, and when some morphological convergence is present within the clade. We present two modifications to existing comparative methods that allow greater power to detect early bursts in simulated datasets. First, we develop posterior predictive simulation approaches and show that they outperform maximum likelihood approaches at identifying early bursts at moderate strength. Second, we use a robust regression procedure that allows for the identification and down-weighting of convergent taxa, leading to moderate increases in method performance. We demonstrate the utility and power of these approach by investigating the evolution of body size in cetaceans. Model fitting using maximum likelihood is equivocal with regards the mode of cetacean body size evolution. However, posterior predictive simulation combined with a robust node height test return low support for Brownian motion or rate shift models, but not the early burst model. While the jury is still out on whether early bursts are actually common in nature, our approach will hopefully facilitate more robust testing of this hypothesis. We advocate the adoption of similar posterior predictive approaches to improve the fit and to assess the adequacy of macroevolutionary models in general. PMID:24149077

Slater, Graham J; Pennell, Matthew W

2014-05-01

352

Factors Influencing Follow-up to Newborn Hearing Screening for Infants who are Hard-of-Hearing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To document the epidemiological characteristics of a group of hard-of-hearing children, to identify individual predictor variables for timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screen, and to identify barriers to follow-up encountered by families. Method An accelerated longitudinal design was used to investigate outcomes for children who are hard-of-hearing in a large multicenter study. The current study involves a subgroup of 193 of children with hearing loss who did not pass the newborn hearing screen. Available records were used to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark. Results Of several predictor variables, only higher levels of maternal education were significantly associated with earlier confirmation of hearing loss and fitting of hearing aids. Severity of hearing loss was not. No variables were significantly associated with age of entry into early intervention. Each recommended benchmark was met by a majority of children, but only one-third met all of the benchmarks within the recommended time frame. Conclusions Results suggest that underserved communities need extra support in navigating steps that follow failed newborn hearing screening. PMID:22585937

Holte, Lenore; Walker, Elizabeth; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Roush, Patricia; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ou, Hua

2012-01-01

353

Compound Heterozygosity of the Functionally Null Cdh23v-ngt and Hypomorphic Cdh23ahl Alleles Leads to Early-onset Progressive Hearing Loss in Mice  

PubMed Central

The waltzer (v) mouse mutant harbors a mutation in Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) and is a model for Usher syndrome type 1D, which is characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and prepubertal onset of progressive retinitis pigmentosa. In mice, functionally null Cdh23 mutations affect stereociliary morphogenesis and the polarity of both cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In contrast, the murine Cdh23ahl allele, which harbors a hypomorphic mutation, causes an increase in susceptibility to age-related hearing loss in many inbred strains. We produced congenic mice by crossing mice carrying the v niigata (Cdh23v-ngt) null allele with mice carrying the hypomorphic Cdh23ahl allele on the C57BL/6J background, and we then analyzed the animals’ balance and hearing phenotypes. Although the Cdh23v-ngt/ahl compound heterozygous mice exhibited normal vestibular function, their hearing ability was abnormal: the mice exhibited higher thresholds of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and rapid age-dependent elevation of ABR thresholds compared with Cdh23ahl/ahl homozygous mice. We found that the stereocilia developed normally but were progressively disrupted in Cdh23v-ngt/ahl mice. In hair cells, CDH23 localizes to the tip links of stereocilia, which are thought to gate the mechanoelectrical transduction channels in hair cells. We hypothesize that the reduction of Cdh23 gene dosage in Cdh23v-ngt/ahl mice leads to the degeneration of stereocilia, which consequently reduces tip link tension. These findings indicate that CDH23 plays an important role in the maintenance of tip links during the aging process. PMID:24172198

Miyasaka, Yuki; Suzuki, Sari; Ohshiba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kei; Sagara, Yoshihiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P.; Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Kominami, Ryo; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki

2013-01-01

354

Social network effects of nonlifesaving early-stage breast cancer detection on mammography rates.  

PubMed

Objectives. We estimated the effect of anecdotes of early-stage, screen-detected cancer for which screening was not lifesaving on the demand for mammography. Methods. We constructed an agent-based model of mammography decisions, in which 10?000 agents that represent women aged 40 to 100 years were linked together on a social network, which was parameterized with a survey of 716 women conducted through the RAND American Life Panel. Our model represents a population in equilibrium, with demographics reflecting the current US population based on the most recent available census data. Results. The aggregate effect of women learning about 1 category of cancers-those that would be detected but would not be lethal in the absence of screening-was a 13.8 percentage point increase in annual screening rates. Conclusions. Anecdotes of detection of early-stage cancers relayed through social networks may substantially increase demand for a screening test even when the detection through screening was nonlifesaving. PMID:25322304

Nowak, Sarah A; Parker, Andrew M

2014-12-01

355

ORiginal Article Is Health Screening Beneficial for Early Detection and Prognostic Improvement in Pancreatic Cancer?  

E-print Network

Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of health screening for early detection and improved prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Methods: Between 1995 and 2008, 176,361 examinees visited the Health Promotion Center (HPC). Twenty patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer were enrolled. During the same period, 40 patients were randomly selected from 2,202 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer at the Out Patient Clinic (OPC) for comparison. Results: Within the HPC group, 10 patients were initially suspected of having pancreatic cancer following abnormal ultrasonographic findings, and 9 patients had suspected cases following the detection of elevated serum CA 19-9. The curative resection rate was higher in the HPC group than in the OPC group (p=0.011). The median survival was longer in the HPC group than in the OPC group (p=0.000). However, there was no significant difference in the 3-year survival rate between the two groups. Asymptomatic patients (n=6/20) in the HPC group showed better curative resection and survival rates than symptomatic patients. However, the difference was not statistically signifi cant. Conclusions: Health screening is somewhat helpful for improving the curative resection rate and median survival of patients with pancreatic cancer detected by screening tests. However, the benefit of this method in improving long-term survival is limited by how early the cancer is detected. (Gut Liver 2011;5:194-

Eun Ran Kim; Sun Youn Bae; Kwang Hyuk Lee; Kyu Taek Lee; Hee Jung Son; Jong Chul Rhee; Jong Kyun Lee

356

Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

2013-02-01

357

Early Venous Occlusion Detection in a Free Flap Using Real-time Laser Doppler Imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary: Early detection of venous occlusion in free flaps is particularly difficult to identify, and its duration is known to be directly proportional to flap mortality. Here, we report a case of deep inferior epigastric perforator based breast reconstruction in which the intraoperative use of a perfusion camera enabled identifying a venous occlusion based on microcirculatory pulsation dynamics in real time. The sensitivity of our proposed method suggests that in certain cases in which the onset of venous occlusion begins in the operating room we can detect and treat occlusion before sending the patient to recovery. Further development of this technique will allow for earlier and more objective decision making with regard to venous occlusion detection in free tissue transfer.

Alkhashnam, Heba; Sarfati, Benjamin; Kolb, Frederic

2013-01-01

358

Similarity Ratio Analysis for Early Stage Fault Detection with Optical Emission Spectrometer in Plasma Etching Process  

PubMed Central

A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes. PMID:24755865

Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

2014-01-01

359

National program of colorectal carcinoma early detection in Brod-Posavina County (east Croatia).  

PubMed

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major public health problem as the third leading malignant tumor in men and fourth in women in Croatia. Prognosis and treatment greatly depend on tumor stage at the time of detection. Therefore, the National Program of Colorectal Carcinoma Early Detection has been performed since 2007. The aim is to present the response rate, colonoscopy findings and number of newly detected CRC cases in Brod-Posavina County. During five years of the National Program performance, 28 CRC cases were detected in Brod-Posavina County, with the 3.3% rate of carcinoma detection. The majority of CRC cases were found in the 50-64 age group. The response rate in the County was low (20.4%), corresponding to the national rate but far from the recommended one. Such a result could be attributed to the low level of awareness in the population at large, complex testing technique for general population, fear from disease detection and from colonoscopy as a diagnostic procedure. Note should be made of the underestimated role of family physicians; their involvement in the National Program should certainly result in better response rate in our County as well as at the national level. PMID:24611338

Jurisi?, Irena; Paradzik, Maja Tomi?; Juri?, Dragana; Kolovrat, Ana; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2013-12-01

360

Design and Implementation of a Unique Blood-Vessel Detection Algorithm towards Early Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults, can be cured by the early and precise detection of the disease. An important aspect of DR is the micro-vascular changes that cause detectable changes in the appearance of retinal blood vessels. In this paper, we propose a new blood-vessel detection

Sumeet Dua; Naveen Kandiraju; Hilary W. Thompson

2005-01-01

361

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP) to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. Findings The assay was performed with Bst DNA polymerase at 65°C for 1 h. The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was as low as 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 and 1000 fold higher than that of the LAMP targeting B1 gene (B1-LAMP) and nested PCR targeting 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-nested PCR), respectively. The specificity of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was determined using the DNA samples of Trypanosoma evansi, Plasmodium falciparum, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of any parasites was found. The assay was able to detect T. gondii DNA in all mouse blood samples at one day post infection (dpi). Conclusions We report the following findings: (i) The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay is 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA; (ii) The assay does not involve any cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites; (iii) This is the first report on the application of the LAMP assay for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in blood samples from experimentally infected mice. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness for common use, we suggest that this assay should be used as an early diagnostic tool for health control of toxoplasmosis. PMID:22214421

2012-01-01

362

Non-Invasive Detection of Early Retinal Neuronal Degeneration by Ultrahigh Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionises the diagnosis of retinal disease based on the detection of microscopic rather than subcellular changes in retinal anatomy. However, currently the technique is limited to the detection of microscopic rather than subcellular changes in retinal anatomy. However, coherence based imaging is extremely sensitive to both changes in optical contrast and cellular events at the micrometer scale, and can generate subtle changes in the spectral content of the OCT image. Here we test the hypothesis that OCT image speckle (image texture) contains information regarding otherwise unresolvable features such as organelle changes arising in the early stages of neuronal degeneration. Using ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT imaging at 800 nm (spectral width 140 nm) we developed a robust method of OCT image analyses, based on spatial wavelet and texture-based parameterisation of the image speckle pattern. For the first time we show that this approach allows the non-invasive detection and quantification of early apoptotic changes in neurons within 30 min of neuronal trauma sufficient to result in apoptosis. We show a positive correlation between immunofluorescent labelling of mitochondria (a potential source of changes in cellular optical contrast) with changes in the texture of the OCT images of cultured neurons. Moreover, similar changes in optical contrast were also seen in the retinal ganglion cell- inner plexiform layer in retinal explants following optic nerve transection. The optical clarity of the explants was maintained throughout in the absence of histologically detectable change. Our data suggest that UHR OCT can be used for the non-invasive quantitative assessment of neuronal health, with a particular application to the assessment of early retinal disease. PMID:24776961

Tudor, Debbie; Kajic, Vedran; Rey, Sara; Erchova, Irina; Povazay, Boris; Hofer, Bernd; Powell, Kate A.; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Morgan, James E.

2014-01-01

363

Acceptability of binaural hearing aids: a cross-over study.  

PubMed Central

Using screening questionnaires we were able to detect individuals aged 50-65 years with hearing disability in a general practice population. Those who had better ear hearing levels of 30 dB or worse were invited to take place in a cross-over study comparing the acceptability of a monaural or binaural hearing-aid fitting. Fifty-five per cent ultimately opted for a binaural fitting and had greater hearing disability and worse mean hearing levels than those who opted for a monaural fitting. They made their choice for acoustical reasons, particularly on the basis of improved localization ability. PMID:2041002

Stephens, S D; Callaghan, D E; Hogan, S; Meredith, R; Rayment, A; Davis, A

1991-01-01

364

Hearing Aids and Cell Phones  

MedlinePLUS

... Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Links Hearing Aids and Cell Phones What is that buzzing noise ... in my cell phone? People who wear hearing aids or have implanted hearing devices may experience some ...

365

Center for Hearing and Communication  

MedlinePLUS

... demos » Technology wonders include Halo, the Made For iPhone hearing aid. Hearing Aids and Technology We’re ... demos » Technology wonders include Halo, the Made For iPhone hearing aid. Hearing Aids + Devices Styles + Models Lyric ...

366

Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Occupational hearing loss is the most ... controlled or eliminated. Learn About Workplace Noise and Hearing Loss Facts and Statistics Publications and Tools Hearing ...

367

Early detection of cerebral glucose uptake changes in the 5XFAD mouse.  

PubMed

Brain glucose hypometabolism has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and is detected with (18)F radiolabelled glucose, using positron emission tomography. A pathological hallmark of AD is deposition of brain ?- amyloid plaques that may influence cerebral glucose metabolism. The five times familial AD (5XFAD) mouse is a model of brain amyloidosis exhibiting AD-like phenotypes. This study examines brain ?-amyloid plaque deposition and (18)FDG uptake, to search for an early biomarker distinguishing 5XFAD from wild-type mice. Thus, brain (18)FDG uptake and plaque deposition was studied in these mice at age 2, 5 and 13 months. The 5XFAD mice demonstrated significantly reduced brain (18)FDG uptake at 13 months relative to wild-type controls but not in younger mice, despite substantial ?- amyloid plaque deposition. However, by comparing the ratio of uptake values for glucose in different regions in the same brain, 5XFAD mice could be distinguished from controls at age 2 months. This method of measuring altered glucose metabolism may represent an early biomarker for the progression of amyloid deposition in the brain. We conclude that brain (18)FDG uptake can be a sensitive biomarker for early detection of abnormal metabolism in the 5XFAD mouse when alternative relative uptake values are utilized. PMID:24801216

Macdonald, I R; DeBay, D R; Reid, G A; O'Leary, T P; Jollymore, C T; Mawko, G; Burrell, S; Martin, E; Bowen, C V; Brown, R E; Darvesh, S

2014-01-01

368

Eshkol-Wachman movement notation in diagnosis: The early detection of Asperger's syndrome  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), considered a part of the autistic spectrum disorder, are still unclear. A critical marker, which distinguishes AS from autism, is the presence of language. The ability of a child with AS to acquire and use language early results in the fact that AS usually is diagnosed much later than autism. Autism is not usually diagnosed until around the age of 3, whereas AS usually is not diagnosed until the child is 6 or 7 years of age. In the present article, using Eshkol–Wachman movement notation, we present evidence that abnormal movement patterns can be detected in AS in infancy. This finding suggests that AS can be diagnosed very early, independent of the presence of language. As shown earlier by us, almost all of the movement disturbances in autism can be interpreted as infantile reflexes “gone astray”; i.e., some reflexes are not inhibited at the appropriate age in development, whereas others fail to appear when they should. This phenomenon appears to apply to AS as well. Based on preliminary results, a simple test using one such reflex is proposed for the early detection of a subgroup of children with AS or autism. PMID:15282371

Teitelbaum, Osnat; Benton, Tom; Shah, Prithvi K.; Prince, Andrea; Kelly, Joseph L.; Teitelbaum, Philip

2004-01-01

369

Early Detection of Cerebral Glucose Uptake Changes in the 5XFAD Mouse  

PubMed Central

Brain glucose hypometabolism has been observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and is detected with 18F radiolabelled glucose, using positron emission tomography. A pathological hallmark of AD is deposition of brain ?-amyloid plaques that may influence cerebral glucose metabolism. The five times familial AD (5XFAD) mouse is a model of brain amyloidosis exhibiting AD-like phenotypes. This study examines brain ?-amyloid plaque deposition and 18FDG uptake, to search for an early biomarker distinguishing 5XFAD from wild-type mice. Thus, brain 18FDG uptake and plaque deposition was studied in these mice at age 2, 5 and 13 months. The 5XFAD mice demonstrated significantly reduced brain 18FDG uptake at 13 months relative to wild-type controls but not in younger mice, despite substantial ?-amyloid plaque deposition. However, by comparing the ratio of uptake values for glucose in different regions in the same brain, 5XFAD mice could be distinguished from controls at age 2 months. This method of measuring altered glucose metabolism may represent an early biomarker for the progression of amyloid deposition in the brain. We conclude that brain 18FDG uptake can be a sensitive biomarker for early detection of abnormal metabolism in the 5XFAD mouse when alternative relative uptake values are utilized. PMID:24801216

I.R, Macdonald; D.R, DeBay; G.A, Reid; T.P, O'Leary; C.T, Jollymore; G, Mawko; S, Burrell; E, Martin; C.V, Bowen; R.E, Brown; S, Darvesh

2014-01-01

370

Rare examples of early VLF events observed in association with ISUAL-detected gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine narrowband VLF observations and investigate the association of early VLF perturbations with gigantic jets recorded by the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings (ISUAL) instrument aboard FORMOSAT-2. From its inception in 2004 to April 2013, the ISUAL instrument has recorded 90 gigantic jets using a triggered camera. Stanford VLF receivers located around the world are used to detect perturbations to VLF transmitter signals associated with lightning. While nine gigantic jet events occurred within 100 km of a VLF transmitter-receiver great circle path, only four early VLF events were detected in association with three ISUAL gigantic jets. One of these is a moderate event of 0.4 dB amplitude change, and the others are very small. The recovery time of these events are less than a couple of minutes and so do not constitute the "long recovery" early VLF events that have been postulated to be associated with gigantic jets. We speculate on possible explanations for the lack of other events on monitored paths, including a lack of significant ionization produced in the D region ionosphere by the gigantic jet event, weak transmitter signals recorded by the receivers, or mode effects on transmitter paths.

Marshall, R. A.; Adachi, T.; Hsu, R.-R.; Chen, A. B.

2014-01-01

371

Role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for early detection of acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by abrupt or rapid decline of renal function and is usually associated with the development of serious complications as well as an independent risk of mortality in hospitalized patients. Emergency physicians play a critical role in recognizing early AKI, preventing iatrogenic injury, and reversing the course of AKI. Among the various available biomarkers for AKI, reliable and automated assay methods are commercially available for only cystatin-C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). NGAL appears to be a promising marker for early detection of AKI and is likely to be adapted for wide-scale clinical use in patient management as a point-of-care test. Use of NGAL along with panel of other renal biomarkers can improve the rate of early detection of AKI. Large, multicenter studies demonstrate the association between biomarkers and hard end points such as need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), cardiovascular events, hospital stay, and death, independent of serum creatinine concentrations. PMID:25337484

Sanjeevani, Scienthia; Pruthi, Sonal; Kalra, Sarathi; Goel, Ashish; Kalra, Om Prakash

2014-01-01

372

Loss-of-Function Mutations of ILDR1 Cause Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment DFNB42  

PubMed Central

By using homozygosity mapping in a consanguineous Pakistani family, we detected linkage of nonsyndromic hearing loss to a 7.6 Mb region on chromosome 3q13.31-q21.1 within the previously reported DFNB42 locus. Subsequent candidate gene sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1135G>T [p.Glu379X]) in ILDR1 as the cause of hearing impairment. By analyzing additional consanguineous families with homozygosity at this locus, we detected ILDR1 mutations in the affected individuals of 10 more families from Pakistan and Iran. The identified ILDR1 variants include missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations as well as a start codon mutation in the family that originally defined the DFNB42 locus. ILDR1 encodes the evolutionarily conserved immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1, a putative transmembrane receptor of unknown function. In situ hybridization detected expression of Ildr1, the murine ortholog, early in development in the vestibule and in hair cells and supporting cells of the cochlea. Expression in hair cell- and supporting cell-containing neurosensory organs is conserved in the zebrafish, in which the ildr1 ortholog is prominently expressed in the developing ear and neuromasts of the lateral line. These data identify loss-of-function mutations of ILDR1, a gene with a conserved expression pattern pointing to a conserved function in hearing in vertebrates, as underlying nonsyndromic prelingual sensorineural hearing impairment. PMID:21255762

Borck, Guntram; Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Kakar, Naseebullah; von Ameln, Simon; Grillet, Nicolas; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Nurnberg, Gudrun; Ansar, Muhammad; Basit, Sulman; Javed, Qamar; Morell, Robert J.; Nasreen, Nabilah; Shearer, A. Eliot; Ahmad, Adeel; Kahrizi, Kimia; Shaikh, Rehan S.; Ali, Rana A.; Khan, Shaheen N.; Goebel, Ingrid; Meyer, Nicole C.; Kimberling, William J.; Webster, Jennifer A.; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Schiller, Martin R.; Bahlo, Melanie; Najmabadi, Hossein; Gillespie, Peter G.; Nurnberg, Peter; Wollnik, Bernd; Riazuddin, Saima; Smith, Richard J.H.; Ahmad, Wasim; Muller, Ulrich; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Friedman, Thomas B.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Leal, Suzanne M.; Ahmad, Jamil; Kubisch, Christian

2011-01-01

373

Clinical utility of the Xpert MRSA assay for early detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for many nosocomial and community-acquired infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A practical way to limit the spread of MRSA is early detection and proper treatment. However, screening culture for MRSA typically requires 2–3 days. The Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay developed for screening an MRSA-specific DNA sequence within the staphylococcal cassette chromosome in 2 h. Lower respiratory tract specimens, such as transtracheal aspirates (TTAs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), are commonly obtained from intubated patients. Therefore, using the lower respiratory tract specimens with the Xpert MRSA assay may be a practical tool for patient care. We performed the Xpert MRSA assay on 108 TTA and 21 BALF specimens from 92 patients and compared the results to those obtained by culture. The two assays showed concordant results in 120 (93.0%) cases and discordant results in 9 (7.0%) cases, which were culture-negative and Xpert MRSA-positive. Among the discordant cases, 5 patients developed culture-positive samples 2–15 days after the Xpert MRSA detected MRSA. We conclude that the Xpert MRSA assay is a rapid, sensitive and clinically useful test, particularly for the early detection of MRSA. PMID:23064681

OH, AE-CHIN; LEE, JIN KYUNG; LEE, HA NA; HONG, YOUNG JUN; CHANG, YOON HWAN; HONG, SEOK-IL; KIM, DONG HO

2013-01-01

374

Early Detection of Volcanic Eruptions Using Lightning Activity in South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the lightning activity produced by the eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcano during June 2011 was performed by using the World Wide Lightning Location Network data. The observed lightning activity corresponds to the electrical activity of the volcanic plume with a good correlation between the amount of lightning detected and the volcanic plume height. Although the detected lightning activity was low, the results agree with previous studies and show that lightning activity could be use as a proxy of the volcanic activity. This study also shows the feasibility on the use of the network for early detection of volcanic eruptions. The Global Volcanic Lightning Monitor is an experimental research project, based on the World Wide Lightning Location Network data, which sent an alert of the eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex before the report of the National Service of Geology and Mining (SERNAGEOMIN) of Chile. This demonstrate the relevance of the system as support of national warning systems (if any) and, where there are no continuous monitoring of eruptive systems, as early warning of volcanic eruptions.

Nicora, M. G.; Bürgesser, R. E.; Quel, E. J.; Avila, E.

2013-05-01

375

A review of novel biological tools used in screening for the early detection of lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and causes more deaths per year than any other cancer. It has a very poor 5-year survival rate of 8-16%, partly because of comorbidity preventing curative treatments but mainly because of the disease presenting with symptoms only when it is at an advanced and incurable stage. When lung cancer is detected earlier and is amenable to radical treatments such as potentially curative surgery and radical radiotherapy, 5-year survival rates are much higher (up to 67%). Therefore reliable detection of lung cancer at this earlier (usually asymptomatic) stage of disease should be an important way to improve outcomes. This review discusses the principles of screening with respect to lung cancer, concentrating mainly on the biological modalities used to detect it. The lack of impact achieved by early studies using sputum cytology (in conjunction with chest radiographs) is described, and then newer technology used to measure other biomarkers in sputum, serum, exhaled breath and bronchial mucosa to diagnose (early) lung cancer is detailed. Many techniques show promise, but debate continues about which population to screen and what is the most (cost) effective modality to use. Moreover, no single biomarker or combination of biomarkers in screening has yet been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality in large prospective randomised studies. PMID:19581246

Ghosal, R; Kloer, P; Lewis, K E

2009-07-01

376

Spectral Imaging with Scattered Light: From Early Cancer Detection to Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

This article reports the evolution of scanning spectral imaging techniques using scattered light for minimally invasive detection of early cancerous changes in tissue and cell biology applications. Optical spectroscopic techniques have shown promising results in the diagnosis of disease on a cellular scale. They do not require tissue removal, can be performed in vivo, and allow for real time diagnoses. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are most effective in revealing molecular properties of tissue. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles, such as epithelial cell nuclei and organelles, to their size, shape and refractive index. It is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue on cellular and sub-cellular scales. However, in order to be useful in the detection of early cancerous changes which are otherwise not visible to the naked eye, it must rapidly survey a comparatively large area while simultaneously detecting these cellular changes. Both goals are achieved by combining LSS with spatial scanning imaging. Two examples are described in this article. The first reviews a clinical system for screening patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The second presents a novel advancement in confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy. PMID:23087592

Qiu, Le; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Chuttani, Ram; Pleskow, Douglas; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D.; Guo, Lianyu; Vitkin, Edward; Itzkan, Irving; Hanlon, Eugene B.

2012-01-01

377

Early detection of cardiac involvement in thalassemia: From bench to bedside perspective  

PubMed Central

Myocardial siderosis is known as the major cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients since it can lead to iron overload cardiomyopathy. Although this condition can be prevented if timely effective intensive chelation is given to patients, the mortality rate of iron overload cardiomyopathy still remains high due to late detection of this condition. Various direct and indirect methods of iron assessment, including serum ferritin level, echocardiogram, non-transferrin-bound iron, cardiac magnetic resonance T2*, heart rate variability, and liver biopsy and myocardial biopsy, have been proposed for early detection of cardiac iron overload in TM patients. However, controversial evidence and limitations of their use in clinical practice exist. In this review article, all of these iron assessment methods that have been proposed or used to directly or indirectly determine the cardiac iron status in TM reported from both basic and clinical studies are comprehensively summarized and presented. Since there has been growing evidence in the past decades that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as cardiac autonomic status known as the heart rate variability can provide early detection of cardiac involvement in TM patients, these two methods are also presented and discussed. The existing controversy regarding the assessment of cardiac involvement in thalassemia is also discussed. PMID:24009816

Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chattipakorn, Nipon

2013-01-01

378

Heidelberg Edge Perimetry for the Detection of Early Glaucomatous Damage: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To illustrate the potential role for Heidelberg edge perimetry (HEP) in the assessment of early functional loss in glaucoma. Case Report A 46-year-old male presented with raised intraocular pressure but healthy optic discs and normal standard automated perimetry (SAP). He was diagnosed with ocular hypertension, but after 16 years, he developed glaucomatous changes to the right optic disc and inferior retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. Despite the evidence of progressive structural damage, functional testing using SAP was repeatedly normal, based on conventional criteria. HEP, on the other hand, revealed an extensive superior visual field damage in agreement with the structural changes. Additionally, and in contrast to SAP, the HEP indices of Glaucoma Hemifield Test, mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were all outside normal limits. Conclusion This case illustrates that HEP may have an important role in the early detection of functional damage in glaucoma, with potential advantages over SAP. PMID:24163683

Marvasti, Amir H.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

2013-01-01

379

Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

2009-05-01

380

Early detection of neurologic injury and issues of rehabilitation after pediatric cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.  

PubMed

Neurological impairment results in a significant population of children after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for treatment of otherwise intractable circulatory failure. Pre-ECMO hypoxia/ischemia, reperfusion injury, and impaired cerebral perfusion during low output situations possibly aggravated by harmful effects of a pulsatile perfusion are discussed in terms of possible etiological reasons. To develop preventive strategies or to enable curative measure, early detection of neuronal injury seems mandatory. Electroencephalographic surveillance and/or monitoring of evoked potentials and monitoring of cerebral oxygenation by means of near infrared spectroscopy or jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation, as well as measurements of serum neuron specific enolase, S-100 protein, and brain type creatine kinase can be employed clinically. To improve functional outcome following neuronal injury, early rehabilitation seems essential to minimize the resulting effects on physical, cognitive, and emotional development. PMID:10564309

Golej, J; Trittenwein, G

1999-11-01

381

Detecting early-warning signals for sudden deterioration of complex diseases by dynamical network biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that during the progression of complex diseases, the deteriorations are not necessarily smooth but are abrupt, and may cause a critical transition from one state to another at a tipping point. Here, we develop a model-free method to detect early-warning signals of such critical transitions, even with only a small number of samples. Specifically, we theoretically derive an index based on a dynamical network biomarker (DNB) that serves as a general early-warning signal indicating an imminent bifurcation or sudden deterioration before the critical transition occurs. Based on theoretical analyses, we show that predicting a sudden transition from small samples is achievable provided that there are a large number of measurements for each sample, e.g., high-throughput data. We employ microarray data of three diseases to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The relevance of DNBs with the diseases was also validated by related experimental data and functional analysis. PMID:22461973

Chen, Luonan; Liu, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Li, Meiyi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2012-01-01

382

Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with 99 NFLDs, were used. After major blood vessels were removed, the images were transformed so that the curved paths of retinal nerves become approximately straight on the basis of ellipses, and the Gabor filters were applied for enhancement of NFLDs. Bandlike regions darker than the surrounding pixels were detected as candidates of NFLDs. For each candidate, image features were determined and the likelihood of a true NFLD was determined by using the linear discriminant analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN). The sensitivity for detecting the NFLDs was 91% at 1.0 false positive per image by using the ANN. The proposed computerized system for the detection of NFLDs can be useful to physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in a mass screening.

Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

383

A Clinical Analysis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Cases  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives High-dose systemic steroid therapy is the mainstay treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Recovery rates from SSNHL range are about 47-63% and are influenced by various prognostic factors. To evaluate the prognostic value of specific clinical parameters, we reviewed 289 cases by clinical and statistical analysis. Subjects and Methods This study included 289 patients with SSNHL who visited the Department of Otolaryngology at Soonchunhyang University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2012. The cases were reviewed retrospectively based on clinical charts. Hearing improvement was evaluated in relation to pure-tone audiogram results, duration between SSNHL onset and time of initial treatment, seasonal incidence, dizziness, patient age, degree of hearing loss, patterns of initial pure-tone audiogram and presence of underlying disease. Results Hearing improvement was observed in 196 of 289 (67.8%) patients; such improvement began within 7 days in most patients, followed by rapid hearing recovery. Cases that failed to show improvement within 14 days were unlikely to achieve hearing recovery. The more severe the hearing loss during the early stage, the lower the hearing recovery rates. Patients aged less than 60 years appear to have better prognosis of hearing improvement compared to those who are over 60 years. Conclusions Important prognostic factors for recovery in patients with SSNHL include the time of initiating treatment after symptom onset, the degree of early-stage hearing loss, and the age of the affected patient.

Lee, Hyun Soo; Lee, You Jae; Kang, Bo Sung; Lee, Ji Sung

2014-01-01

384

Circulating Micro-RNAs as Potential Blood-Based Markers for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718). Results Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. Conclusions MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to establish these new biomarkers in clinical use. PMID:22242178

Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Strissel, Pamela L.; Kahmann, Laura; Loehberg, Christian R.; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Bani, Mayada R.; Richter, Swetlana; Adamietz, Boris R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Rauh, Claudia; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.

2012-01-01

385

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

386

What's Hearing Loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... that the parents take the kid to an audiologist. An audiologist (say: awd-ee- ah -luh-jist) is someone ... the problems related to hearing loss. A pediatric audiologist tests a child's hearing by doing different types ...

387

Help with Hearing  

MedlinePLUS

... ear, nose, and throat or ENT doctor), the audiologist (a specialist who evaluates hearing), and the speech- ... for follow-up hear- ing testing with an audiologist and an evaluation by an otolaryngologist to check ...

388

Child's Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... play in managing your child?s hearing loss. The Audiologist The audiologist is likely to be the first professional you ... initial news regarding your child?s hearing loss. The audiologist will carry out behavioral or objective testing (such ...

389

Occupational hearing loss  

MedlinePLUS

Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Occupational hearing loss is ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., the maximum job ...

390

Living with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... family, including dad Bob, have adapted to her hearing impairment. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke. ...

391

Can Baby Hear?  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Can Baby Hear? Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Photo courtesy of NIH/NIDCD "Yes!" says newborn hearing screening At dawn on January 1, 2007, Evelyn ...

392

A sensitive period for the impact of hearing loss on auditory perception.  

PubMed

Manipulations of the sensory environment typically induce greater changes to the developing nervous system than they do in adulthood. The relevance of these neural changes can be evaluated by examining the age-dependent effects of sensory experience on quantitative measures of perception. Here, we measured frequency modulation (FM) detection thresholds in adult gerbils and investigated whether diminished auditory experience during development or in adulthood influenced perceptual performance. Bilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) of ?30 dB was induced either at postnatal day 10 or after sexual maturation. All animals were then trained as adults to detect a 5 Hz FM embedded in a continuous 4 kHz tone. FM detection thresholds were defined as the minimum deviation from the carrier frequency that the animal could reliably detect. Normal-hearing animals displayed FM thresholds of 25 Hz. Inducing CHL, either in juvenile or adult animals, led to a deficit in FM detection. However, this deficit was greater for juvenile onset hearing loss (89 Hz) relative to adult onset hearing loss (64 Hz). The effects could not be attributed to sensation level, nor were they correlated with proxies for attention. The thresholds displayed by CHL animals were correlated with shallower psychometric function slopes, suggesting that hearing loss was associated with greater variance of the decision variable, consistent with increased internal noise. The results show that decreased auditory experience has a greater impact on perceptual skills when initiated at an early age and raises the possibility that altered development of CNS synapses may play a causative role. PMID:24501366

Buran, Bradley N; Sarro, Emma C; Manno, Francis A M; Kang, Ramanjot; Caras, Melissa L; Sanes, Dan H

2014-02-01

393

[Program for early detection of ovarian cancer for women as prophylaxis provided at a municipal hospital].  

PubMed

Neoplasms are still severe social problem; they are one of the most common causes of death (30-40%), they last for a very long time and the symptoms are characterized by significant intensity. There have been many attempts of introducing an effective screening program for early detection of ovarian cancer. This paper describes one of them, taking place in municipal hospital. To create and introduce a complex prophylactic program considering early diagnosis of ovarian cancer (with use of Doppler transvaginal sonography and serologic markers--CA125); to assess the value of various features (TVS, CA125 levels, family history) for sensitivity and specificity of screening method; to assess the effectiveness of Doppler TVS as a screening method; and to describe the group of participants that is of the best benefit in screening program. From October 1997 to December 2000 the Program for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer, introduced by Foundation "Godula HOPE", gathered 3775 women aged 46 +/- 9.5. Most of the participants were self-referred, but there was the group of doctor-referred patients. Bimanual pelvic examination and Doppler TVS were performed in all participants; in case of doubtful results of TVS--serum CA 125 was obtained. The form created by author was used to gather the most important information of medical and family history. The most of participating women were: above 45 yr. old, married, on middle education level, non-working or mental worker, living in town. 365 adnexal tumors were detected among examined women. Using our own criteria 228 patients were chosen to laparotomy--16 of operated tumors were histologically confirmed to be malignant. Our sensitivity of PI was 93.75%, specificity--89.62%. The values for RI were respectively: 89.61% and 73.72%. Program of early detection of ovarian cancer using transvaginal sonography can be organized in municipal hospital; the most important feature of the examination (for screening program) is the grayscale sonographic morphology and the Doppler parameters are of additional value. The best cut-off values of PI and RI were 0.8 and 0.5 respectively. The great meaning of family history of ovarian cancer was confirmed. Demographic results suggest that program should be modified to be available for older patients on low level of education with family history of ovarian or breast cancer. PMID:15884203

Cnota, Wojciech; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Olesiak-Andryszczak, Ma?gorzata; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Marek

2004-01-01

394

Early PCR detection of tyramine-producing bacteria during cheese production.  

PubMed

Biogenic amines (BA) are toxic substances that appear in foods and beverages. Tyramine is the most abundant BA in cheeses. A PCR method was developed to detect the presence of tyramine-producing bacteria during cheese manufacture and ripening. Six different batches of a farmhouse blue cheese were analysed by PCR. Tyramine concentrations were also determined by HPLC. The PCR method was able to anticipate tyramine accumulation in the cheeses; the presence of tyramine-producing microorganisms in the early stages of manufacture correlated well with a high concentration of BA in mature cheese samples. PMID:16674840

Fernández, María; Belén Flórez, Ana; Linares, Daniel M; Mayo, Baltasar; Alvarez, Miguel A

2006-08-01

395

NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

Schmidt, Gregory; Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

396

Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins  

DOEpatents

Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

Willard, Karen E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01

397

March 15, 2004: NCI's Early Detection Research Network: Clinical Epidemiology and Validation Centers Pre-submission Meeting; Rockville, MD  

Cancer.gov

Meeting Date March 15, 2004 Meeting Site Neuroscience Conference Center Room A1/A2 6001 Executive Blvd Rockville, MD 20852 Meeting Materials The Early Detection Research Network presented by Dr. Srivastava (ppt, 416kb) Clinical Epidemiology and Validation

398

Early detection of extrafoveal neovascular membranes by daily central field evaluation.  

PubMed

Argon laser photocoagulation can reduce the risk of severe vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration, ocular histoplasmosis, and idiopathic neovascularization. Early detection of neovascularization soon after the onset increases the likelihood of identifying patients with a new vessel membrane in a potentially treatable position. Patients with one or both eyes at risk for the development of a new vessel membrane should assess their central visual fields on a daily basis by occluding first one eye and then the other. Any disturbance in distance vision or reading vision or the appearance of distortion in the patient's field or on the Amsler grid should prompt an eye examination at the earliest feasible time, in an effort to detect neovascularization in a treatable position. PMID:2409502

Fine, S L

1985-05-01

399

Towards early ice detection on wind turbine blades using acoustic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study focuses on the early detection of ice using controlled acoustic waves propagating in the wind turbine blades. An experimental set-up with a cold climate chamber, a composite test object used in turbine blades and equipment for glaze and rime ice production has been developed. Controlled acoustic waves are generated by magnetostrictive Terfenol-D based actuator. The propagation of three orthogonally polarized acoustic waves was studied by means of 6 accelerometers positioned, 3 each, in 2 holders on the 8 m long composite test object. The results show that for the considered composite test object the formation of ice, the ice mass, icing areas and the temperature have a significant influence on controlled acoustic waves propagation w.r.t. Fourier transform, amplitude attenuation and RMS values as indicators concluding that the proposed acoustic wave technique is a promising approach for ice detection.

Berbyuk, Viktor; Peterson, Bo; Möller, Jan

2014-03-01

400

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator.  

PubMed

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety. PMID:25308055

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

401

[The problem of early detection cervical cancer in republic of Kazakhstan].  

PubMed

Cervical cancer (CC) is the 2nd malignant tumor in Republic of Kazakhstan (RK). The quantity of late stage CC diagnoses remains high. Annual reports (2011-2012) of 19 cytology laboratories were analyzed. Study of the incidences and detection of early forms of cervical cancer screening was conducted. The investigation showed incomplete screening coverage of the female population in Kazakhstan, and a shortage of specialists (Cytopathologists, cytotechnicians). The peculiarities of CC during formal and informal screening were detected. Measures to increase female screening coverage are proposed. Among them creation of a reference laboratory at the national level, adoption of the training methods of the International Academy of Cytology (IAC), periodic testing of cytopathologists, training by specialists from Kazakhstan and experts from IAC. PMID:23676480

Kausova, G K; Eleubaeva, Zh B; Shibanova, A I; Kusainova, B T

2013-04-01

402

Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice.

Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Cristina Montesi, Maria; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

2007-02-01

403

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind–solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-10-01

404

Detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by silicon nanowire transistors.  

PubMed

A silicon nanowire-based biosensor has been designed and applied for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by RecA protein. Silicon nanowires transistors were fabricated by atomic force microscopy nanolithography and integrated into a microfluidic environment. The sensor operates by measuring the changes in the resistance of the nanowire as the biomolecular reactions proceed. We show that the nanoelectronic sensor can detect and differentiate several steps in the binding of RecA to a single-stranded DNA filament taking place on the nanowire-aqueous interface. We report relative changes in the resistance of 3.5% which are related to the interaction of 250 RecA·single-stranded DNA complexes. Spectroscopy data confirm the presence of the protein-DNA complexes on the functionalized silicon surfaces. PMID:22364265

Chiesa, Marco; Cardenas, Paula P; Otón, Francisco; Martinez, Javier; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Garcia, Fernando; Alonso, Juan C; Rovira, Concepció; Garcia, Ricardo

2012-03-14

405

Optical imaging of periostin enables early endoscopic detection and characterization of esophageal cancer in mice.  

PubMed

Imaging strategies that detect early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) could improve clinical outcomes, when combined with endoscopic approaches. Periostin is an integrin-binding protein that is important in the tumor microenvironment. We created a fluorescent-labeled antibody that recognizes periostin and binds specifically to ESCC xenograft tumors in mice. In L2-cre;p120ctnLoxP/LoxP mice, which develop squamous cell cancers that resemble human ESCC, we visualized the probe in preneoplastic and neoplastic esophageal lesions using near-infrared fluorescent imaging with upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy. Periostin might be a biomarker of the esophageal tumor microenvironment that can be used to detect preneoplastic lesions. PMID:23085486

Wong, Gabrielle S; Habibollahi, Peiman; Heidari, Pedram; Lee, Ju-Seog; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Waldron, Todd J; Gimotty, Phyllis; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Taylor, Philip R; Wang, Timothy C; Mahmood, Umar; Rustgi, Anil K

2013-02-01

406

Characterization and identification of smoke plume for early forest fire detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization and discrimination of fire smoke for a land-based early forest fire detection system are discussed. Preliminary results of several fire plume identification schemes applied to multispectral video data obtained from a number of controlled fire experiments are presented. The temporal, spectral, and spatial signatures of the fire are exploited. The methods discussed include: (1) range filtering followed by entropy filtering of the infrared (IR) video data, (2) dual range moving average differencing followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of IR video data, and (3) PCA of visible color video data followed by texture analysis and segmentation. The three schemes presented are tailored to detect the fire core, the heat plume, and the smoke, respectively.

Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Kohler, Daniel; Davenport, Tim; Moussa, Georges

2012-10-01

407

Incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania after introduction of the Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme.  

PubMed

In Lithuania, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is offered to healthy asymptomatic men as a screening test in the population-based Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme (EPCDP). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of prostate cancer before and after introduction of the EPCDP in Lithuania. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry were analysed for the period 1990-2008. Age-specific incidence and mortality data were adjusted to the European Standard Population. There have been extraordinary changes in the incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania following introduction of the EPCDP, and there is strong evidence that these changes are the result of increased detection rates, especially in men of screening age. Further observation of changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania may help to determine the extent to which PSA testing at the population level influences incidence and mortality in the general population. PMID:22381571

Smailyte, G; Aleknaviciene, B

2012-12-01

408

A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine  

PubMed Central

Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance. PMID:22303139

Ramasubramanian, Melur K.; Tiruthani, Karthik

2009-01-01

409

Early detection of ventricular tachycardia with sending messages to cell phone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VTs) can be asymptomatic for some people, but for other is deadly because it is a major cause of sudden cardiac death [1]. Some patients may present this arrhythmia, and even so, they decide to drive car increasing the likelihood of VTs, putting at risk not only his life but that of the other drivers. We developed a system for early detection of VTs, consisting of EKG sensors, a card of processing and a cell phone, which detects this arrhythmia, gives an alarm signal to the driver, and it simultaneously sending to text messages a specialist doctor and a relative or friend, all in real time. This design was conditioned to the car, is light and comfortable, that allowed that work of car's driver without discomfort. This system will save lives, since in case of emergency sends a help message, no matter where you are in the driver.

Ramirez, L. J.; Lozano, F. A.; Rondon, C. R.

2011-09-01

410

DESI-Detection of early-season invasives (software-installation manual and user's guide version 1.0)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a software system for detecting early-season invasive plant species, such as cheatgrass. The report includes instructions for installing the software and serves as a user's guide in processing Landsat satellite remote sensing data to map the distributions of cheatgrass and other early-season invasive plants. The software was developed for application to the semi-arid regions of southern Utah; however, the detection parameters can be altered by the user for application to other areas.

Kokaly, Raymond F.

2011-01-01

411

Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women. Mammography is used for early detection, but it cannot detect all instances of cancer. New magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

1 Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women. Mammography is used for early detection by Stanford University and used at Presbyterian Hospital have detected breast cancer where mammography has possible to render MR data in 3D at interactive rates. This paper presents the design of breast cancer

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

412

Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies in the Perth Abyssal Plain  

E-print Network

Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies the early spreading history between India and Australia during the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana. However from Australia with Greater India during initial breakup at ~130 Ma, then rifted from India following

Granot, Roi

413

Proactive, early screening to detect behaviorally at-risk students: Issues, approaches, emerging innovations, and professional practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of current practices and tools used in the proactive screening of behaviorally at-risk students within the context of schooling. While there are many obstacles to the early detection of vulnerable students, some recent developments have helped make educators more receptive to early identification and prevention approaches. In addition to describing current best practices, this article

Herbert H. Severson; Hill M. Walker; Jennifer Hope-Doolittle; Thomas R. Kratochwill; Frank M. Gresham

2007-01-01

414

News Note: Multi-center Study Validates ProPSA Test for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Past studies have found a form of free PSA, called proenzyme PSA (pro-PSA), to be elevated in cancerous prostate tissue. Results from a multi-center study, supported by the NCI Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), have validated proPSA as a detector of early stage prostate cancer.

415

Rapid detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA for early infant diagnosis using recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in infants can greatly reduce mortality rates. However, current infant HIV-1 diagnostics cannot reliably be performed at the point of care, often delaying treatment and compromising its efficacy. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel technology that is ideal for an HIV-1 diagnostic, as it amplifies target DNA in <20 min at a constant temperature, without the need for complex thermocycling equipment. Here we tested 63 HIV-1-specific primer and probe combinations and identified two RPA assays that target distinct regions of the HIV-1 genome (long terminal repeat [LTR] and pol) and can reliably detect 3 copies of proviral DNA by the use of fluorescence detection and lateral-flow strip detection. These pol and LTR primers amplified 98.6% and 93%, respectively, of the diverse HIV-1 variants tested. This is the first example of an isothermal assay that consistently detects all of the major HIV-1 global subtypes. PMID:23549916

Boyle, David S; Lehman, Dara A; Lillis, Lorraine; Peterson, Dylan; Singhal, Mitra; Armes, Niall; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Overbaugh, Julie

2013-01-01

416

Rapid Detection of HIV-1 Proviral DNA for Early Infant Diagnosis Using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in infants can greatly reduce mortality rates. However, current infant HIV-1 diagnostics cannot reliably be performed at the point of care, often delaying treatment and compromising its efficacy. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel technology that is ideal for an HIV-1 diagnostic, as it amplifies target DNA in <20 min at a constant temperature, without the need for complex thermocycling equipment. Here we tested 63 HIV-1-specific primer and probe combinations and identified two RPA assays that target distinct regions of the HIV-1 genome (long terminal repeat [LTR] and pol) and can reliably detect 3 copies of proviral DNA by the use of fluorescence detection and lateral-flow strip detection. These pol and LTR primers amplified 98.6% and 93%, respectively, of the diverse HIV-1 variants tested. This is the first example of an isothermal assay that consistently detects all of the major HIV-1 global subtypes. PMID:23549916

Boyle, David S.; Lehman, Dara A.; Lillis, Lorraine; Peterson, Dylan; Singhal, Mitra; Armes, Niall; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Overbaugh, Julie

2013-01-01

417

Methods for Detecting Early Warnings of Critical Transitions in Time Series Illustrated Using Simulated Ecological Data  

PubMed Central

Many dynamical systems, including lakes, organisms, ocean circulation patterns, or financial markets, are now thought to have tipping points where critical transitions to a contrasting state can happen. Because critical transitions can occur unexpectedly and are difficult to manage, there is a need for methods that can be used to identify when a critical transition is approaching. Recent theory shows that we can identify the proximity of a system to a critical transition using a variety of so-called ‘early warning signals’, and successful empirical examples suggest a potential for practical applicability. However, while the range of proposed methods for predicting critical transitions is rapidly expanding, opinions on their practical use differ widely, and there is no comparative study that tests the limitations of the different methods to identify approaching critical transitions using time-series data. Here, we summarize a range of currently available early warning methods and apply them to two simulated time series that are typical of systems undergoing a critical transition. In addition to a methodological guide, our work offers a practical toolbox that may be used in a wide range of fields to help detect early warning signals of critical transitions in time series data. PMID:22815897

Dakos, Vasilis; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Brock, William A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Guttal, Vishwesha; Ives, Anthony R.; Kefi, Sonia; Livina, Valerie; Seekell, David A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

2012-01-01

418

Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24146940

Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

2013-01-01

419

Principal component analysis for the early detection of mastitis and lameness in dairy cows.  

PubMed

This investigation analysed the applicability of principal component analysis (PCA), a latent variable method, for the early detection of mastitis and lameness. Data used were recorded on the Karkendamm dairy research farm between August 2008 and December 2010. For mastitis and lameness detection, data of 338 and 315 cows in their first 200 d in milk were analysed, respectively. Mastitis as well as lameness were specified according to veterinary treatments. Diseases were defined as disease blocks. The different definitions used (two for mastitis, three for lameness) varied solely in the sequence length of the blocks. Only the days before the treatment were included in the blocks. Milk electrical conductivity, milk yield and feeding patterns (feed intake, number of feeding visits and time at the trough) were used for recognition of mastitis. Pedometer activity and feeding patterns were utilised for lameness detection. To develop and verify the PCA model, the mastitis and the lameness datasets were divided into training and test datasets. PCA extracted uncorrelated principle components (PC) by linear transformations of the raw data so that the first few PCs captured most of the variations in the original dataset. For process monitoring and disease detection, these resulting PCs were applied to the Hotelling's T 2 chart and to the residual control chart. The results show that block sensitivity of mastitis detection ranged from 77·4 to 83·3%, whilst specificity was around 76·7%. The error rates were around 98·9%. For lameness detection, the block sensitivity ranged from 73·8 to 87·8% while the obtained specificities were between 54·8 and 61·9%. The error rates varied from 87·8 to 89·2%. In conclusion, PCA seems to be not yet transferable into practical usage. Results could probably be improved if different traits and more informative sensor data are included in the analysis. PMID:23823869

Miekley, Bettina; Traulsen, Imke; Krieter, Joachim

2013-08-01

420

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

2005-03-01

421

Rank-Based miRNA Signatures for Early Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

We describe a new signature definition and analysis method to be used as biomarker for early cancer detection. Our new approach is based on the construction of a reference map of transcriptional signatures of both healthy and cancer affected individuals using circulating miRNA from a large number of subjects. Once such a map is available, the diagnosis for a new patient can be performed by observing the relative position on the map of his/her transcriptional signature. To demonstrate its efficacy for this specific application we report the results of the application of our method to published datasets of circulating miRNA, and we quantify its performance compared to current state-of-the-art methods. A number of additional features make this method an ideal candidate for large-scale use, for example, as a mass screening tool for early cancer detection or for at-home diagnostics. Specifically, our method is minimally invasive (because it works well with circulating miRNA), it is robust with respect to lab-to-lab protocol variability and batch effects (it requires that only the relative ranking of expression value of miRNA in a profile be accurate not their absolute values), and it is scalable to a large number of subjects. Finally we discuss the need for HPC capability in a widespread application of our or similar methods. PMID:25054131

2014-01-01

422

Multimodality approach to optical early detection and mapping of oral neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of cancer remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by dysplasia presenting as white, red, or mixed red and white epithelial lesions on the oral mucosa (leukoplakia, erythroplakia). Dysplastic lesions in the form of erythroplakia can carry a risk for malignant conversion of 90%. A noninvasive diagnostic modality would enable monitoring of these lesions at regular intervals and detection of treatment needs at a very early, relatively harmless stage. The specific aim of this work was to test a multimodality approach [three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarimetry] to noninvasive diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy using the hamster cheek pouch model (nine hamsters). The results were compared to tissue histopathology. During carcinogenesis, epithelial down grow, eventual loss of basement membrane integrity, and subepithelial invasion were clearly visible with OCT. Polarimetry techniques identified a four to five times increased retardance in sites with squamous cell carcinoma, and two to three times greater retardance in dysplastic sites than in normal tissues. These techniques were particularly useful for mapping areas of field cancerization with multiple lesions, as well as lesion margins.

Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chung, Jungrae; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

2011-07-01

423

Early detection of relapse in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after allo-SCT.  

PubMed

Allo-SCT is the only potentially curative regimen for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), but it is associated with a high relapse risk. The role of chimerism analysis for prediction of relapse is yet to be determined. To assess the clinical usefulness of mixed chimerism (MC) for predicting hematological relapse, 75 consecutively transplanted patients with MDS were analyzed with regard to lineage-specific chimerism, encompassing CD33(+) cells in peripheral blood (PB, n=49) and CD34(+) cells in BM (n= 35). A cutoff of 5% recipient cells was used to discriminate complete donor chimerism from MC. A total of 19 patients (25%) experienced hematological relapse after a median of 5 (1-31) months. Sensitivity for detection of relapse was 59% for CD33(+) PB cells and 92% for CD34(+) BM cells with corresponding specificities of 91% and 65%. CD34(+) BM cells were analyzed before relapse in seven patients, five of whom showed MC at a median of 2.5 (0.5-7) months before relapse. In contrast, 8 of 18 patients showed MC involving CD33 PB with a median of one month (0.5-2) before relapse. Here, we provide a model for early detection of relapse after SCT in MDS, in which serial characterization of both CD33(+) PB cells and CD34(+) BM cells gives an opportunity for early treatment before overt relapse. PMID:20697367

Tobiasson, M; Olsson, R; Hellström-Lindberg, E; Mattsson, J

2011-05-01

424

Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

2011-09-01

425

Diabetic Nephropathy for the Primary Care Provider: New Understandings on Early Detection and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal disease in the United States, occurring in 20%-40% of patients with diabetes. This condition is a distinct manifestation of diabetic renal disease seen in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Despite clear screening and management recommendations, diabetic nephropathy remains substantially underdiagnosed. Methods This review presents recent guidelines and recommendations from varied work groups to identify, monitor, and halt the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Our search of the recent literature focused on diagnostic criteria, the latest screening recommendations, novel screening methods, current research, new treatment recommendations, and goals for early intervention. Results Current recommendations for early detection and treatment of diabetic nephropathy include yearly albumin to creatinine ratio checks and more frequent tests if indicated based on glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria; optimizing glucose control with a target hemoglobin A1c goal of <7%; initiating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) as the first line in disease management with dual therapy of ACE inhibitors and ARBs no longer recommended; managing blood pressure with a goal of <140/90 mmHg as the target for all patients with diabetes; and initiating statin therapy for patients <50 years old and with concomitant chronic kidney disease and diabetes and in all patients with chronic kidney disease >50 years of age regardless of the coexistence of diabetes. Conclusion With early detection, proper screening, and management, the impact of diabetic nephropathy may be better mitigated to lessen its impact on society and healthcare. PMID:25249803

Kowalski, Andrew; Krikorian, Armand; Lerma, Edgar V.

2014-01-01

426

In vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging allows early detection of a therapeutic response in glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which account for more than 50% of all gliomas, is among the deadliest of all human cancers. Given the dismal prognosis of GBM, it would be advantageous to identify early biomarkers of a response to therapy to avoid continuing ineffective treatments and to initiate other therapeutic strategies. The present in vivo longitudinal study in an orthotopic mouse model demonstrates quantitative assessment of early treatment response during short-term chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) by amide proton transfer (APT) imaging. In a GBM line, only one course of TMZ (3 d exposure and 4 d rest) at a dose of 80 mg/kg resulted in substantial reduction in APT signal compared with untreated control animals, in which the APT signal continued to increase. Although there were no detectable differences in tumor volume, cell density, or apoptosis rate between groups, levels of Ki67 (index of cell proliferation) were substantially reduced in treated tumors. In another TMZ-resistant GBM line, the APT signal and levels of Ki67 increased despite the same course of TMZ treatment. As metabolite changes are known to occur early in the time course of chemotherapy and precede morphologic changes, these results suggest that the APT signal in glioma may be a useful functional biomarker of treatment response or degree of tumor progression. Thus, APT imaging may serve as a sensitive biomarker of early treatment response and could potentially replace invasive biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis. This would have a major impact on the clinical management of patients with glioma. PMID:24616497

Sagiyama, Koji; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Togao, Osamu; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Pan, Edward; Sherry, A. Dean; Bachoo, Robert M.; Takahashi, Masaya

2014-01-01

427

Heritage of Army Audiology and the Road Ahead: The Army Hearing Program  

PubMed Central

Noise-induced hearing loss has been documented as early as the 16th century, when a French surgeon, Ambroise Paré, wrote of the treatment of injuries sustained by firearms and described acoustic trauma in great detail. Even so, the protection of hearing would not be addressed for three more centuries, when the jet engine was invented and resulted in a long overdue whirlwind of policy development addressing the prevention of hearing loss. We present a synopsis of hearing loss prevention in the US Army and describe the current Army Hearing Program, which aims to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in soldiers and to ensure their maximum combat effectiveness. PMID:18923117

Gates, Kathy; Ciliax, Donald

2008-01-01

428

Serum sphingolipids level as a novel potential marker for early detection of human myocardial ischaemic injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are the most common and often the first manifestation of coronary heart disease and lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Early detection/identification of acute myocardial ischaemic injury at risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients remains an unmet medical need. In the present study, we examined the sphingolipids level after transient cardiac ischaemia following temporary coronary artery occlusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients and determined the role of sphingolipids level as a novel marker for early detection of human myocardial ischaemic injury. Methods and Results: Venous samples were collected from either the coronary sinus (n = 7) or femoral vein (n = 24) from 31 patients aged 40–73 years-old at 1, 5 min, and 12 h, following elective PCI. Plasma sphingolipids levels were assessed by HPLC. At 1 min coronary sinus levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), sphingosine (SPH), and sphinganine (SA) were increased by 314, 115, and 614%, respectively (n = 7), while peripheral blood levels increased by 79, 68, and 272% (n = 24). By 5 min, coronary sinus S1P and SPH levels increased further (720%, 117%), as did peripheral levels of S1P alone (792%). Where troponin T was detectable at 12 h (10 of 31), a strong correlation was found with peak S1P (R2 = 0.818; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: For the first time, we demonstrate the behavior of plasma sphingolipids following transient cardiac ischaemia in humans. The observation supports the important role of sphingolipids level as a potential novel marker of transient or prolonged myocardial ischaemia. PMID:23781203

Egom, Emmanuel E.; Mamas, Mamas A.; Chacko, Sanoj; Stringer, Sally E.; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; El-Omar, Magdi; Chirico, Debora; Clarke, Bernard; Neyses, Ludwig; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Lei, Ming; Fath-Ordoubadi, Farzin

2013-01-01

429

Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

2010-01-01

430

Primary reflex persistence in children with partial hearing.  

PubMed

Persistence of the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) was examined in children with partial hearing (aged 6-12 years). Core literacy skills were also assessed. Three groups of children were selected from three schools with special units for children with partial hearing. All children completed an upright ATNR test protocol and standardized tests of reading and spelling. Children with partial hearing had significant levels of ATNR persistence, and significant reading and spelling difficulties. The findings suggest that persistence of an early sub-cortical reflex system may be associated with some of the motor and cognitive difficulties experienced by children with partial hearing. PMID:24742313

Livingstone, Nuala; McPhillips, Martin

2014-01-01

431

Development of high-sensitivity near-infrared fluorescence imaging device for early cancer detection.  

PubMed

We have developed a high-sensitivity near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging system for noninvasive cancer detection based on the molecular-labeled fluorescent contrast agents. Recent developments in molecular beacons offer a way to selectively tag various precancer and cancer signatures and provide high tumor-to-background contrast. Near-infrared imaging can deeply probe tissue up to a couple of centimeters; thus, it possesses the potential for noninvasive detection of breast or lymph node cancer. A phase cancellation (in- and antiphase) device is used to increase the sensitivity in detecting fluorescent photons and the accuracy of tumor localization. The optoelectronic system consists of the laser diode sources, fiber optics, interference filter (to select the fluorescent photons), and the high-sensitivity photon detector (photomultiplier tube). The source-detector pair scans the tissue surface in multiple directions, and the localization image can be obtained by angular back-projection reconstruction. Simulations and experimental data demonstrated the feasibility of detection and localization offluorescent object embedded inside the highly scattering media. Tumor-bearing mouse model with injection of fluorescent contrast agents is used to simulate the human breast tumor labeled with molecular beacons. The system can detect fluorescent contrast agents as small as one nanomole at the depth of three centimeters, with a three-millimeter localization error. This instrument has the potential for tumor diagnosis and imaging, and the accuracy of the localization suggests that this system could help guide the clinical fine-needle biopsy. Also, this portable device would be complementary to x-ray mammography and provide add-on information on early diagnosis and localization of breast tumor. PMID:15742853

Chen, Yu; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

2005-01-01

432

Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds.  

PubMed

Auditory sensitivity in pinnipeds is influenced by the need to balance efficient sound detection in two vastly different physical environments. Previous comparisons between aerial and underwater hearing capabilities have considered media-dependent differences relative to auditory anatomy, acoustic communication, ecology, and amphibious life history. New data for several species, including recently published audiograms and previously unreported measurements obtained in quiet conditions, necessitate a re-evaluation of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds. Several findings related to underwater hearing are consistent with earlier assessments, including an expanded frequency range of best hearing in true seals that spans at least six octaves. The most notable new results indicate markedly better aerial sensitivity in two seals (Phoca vitulina and Mirounga angustirostris) and one sea lion (Zalophus californianus), likely attributable to improved ambient noise control in test enclosures. An updated comparative analysis alters conventional views and demonstrates that these amphibious pinnipeds have not necessarily sacrificed aerial hearing capabilities in favor of enhanced underwater sound reception. Despite possessing underwater hearing that is nearly as sensitive as fully aquatic cetaceans and sirenians, many seals and sea lions have retained acute aerial hearing capabilities rivaling those of terrestrial carnivores. PMID:23563644

Reichmuth, Colleen; Holt, Marla M; Mulsow, Jason; Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L

2013-06-01

433

Two Early Gamma-ray Bursts Optical Afterglow Detections with TAOS Telescopes--GRB 071010B and GRB 071112C  

SciTech Connect

We present on two early detections of GRB afterglows with the Taiwanese-American Occltation Sruvey (TAOS) telescopes. The robotic TAOS system has been devised so that the routine Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) survey is interrupted when a GRB alert is triggered. Our first detection, GRB 071010B was detected by TAOS 62 s after the burst and showed a weak early brightening during the observations. No significant correction with the prompt gamma-ray emission indicated that our optical emission detected is afterglow emission. The second detection of TAOS, GRB 071112C was detected 96 s after the burst, also showed a possible initial raising then followed a steep decay in the R-band light curve.

Huang, K. Y.; Wang, S. Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Urata, Y. [Dept. of Physics, Saitama University, Shimookubo, Saitama 338-8570 Japan (Japan); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2009-05-25

434

A urinary Bcl-2 surface acoustic wave biosensor for early ovarian cancer detection.  

PubMed

In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration. PMID:22969352

Onen, Onursal; Sisman, Alper; Gallant, Nathan D; Kruk, Patricia; Guldiken, Rasim

2012-01-01

435

Affinity fluorescence-labeled peptides for the early detection of cancer in Barrett's esophagus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence-labeled peptides that affinity bind to neoplastic mucsosa are promising for use as a specific contrast agent in the detection of pre-malignant tissue in the esophagus. This method is can be used to identify expression of biological markers associated with dysplasia on endoscopic imaging as a guide for biopsy and represents a novel method for the early detection and prevention of cancer. We demonstrate the use of phage display to select affinity peptides and identify the sequence "ASYNYDA" that binds with high target-to-background ratio to dysplastic esophageal mucosa compared to that of intestinal metaplasia. Validation of preferential binding is demonstrated for neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. An optimal tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 85% was found at the relative threshold of 0.60 with a target-to-background ratio of 1.81 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.87. Peptides are a novel class of ligand for targeted detection of pre-malignant mucosa for purposes of screening and surveillance.

Li, Meng; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Appelman, Henry; Kwon, Rich; Soetikno, Roy; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Wang, Thomas D.

2009-02-01

436

A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration. PMID:22969352

Onen, Onursal; Sisman, Alper; Gallant, Nathan D.; Kruk, Patricia; Guldiken, Rasim

2012-01-01

437

Machine vision-based real-time early flame and smoke detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel real-time machine video-based flame and smoke detection method that can be incorporated with a surveillance system for early alerts. Automatic monitoring systems use the motion history detection algorithm to register the possible flame and smoke position in a video and then analyze the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the flame and smoke regions in the image sequences. The spectral probability density is represented by comparing the flame and smoke color histogram model, where HSI color spaces are used. The spatial probability density is represented by computing the flame and smoke turbulent phenomena with the relation of perimeter and area. Statistical distribution of the spectral and spatial probability density is weighted with the fuzzy reasoning system to give the potential flame and smoke candidate region. The temporal probability density is represented by extracting the flickering area with level crossing and separating the alias objects from the flame and smoke region. Then, the continuously adaptive mean shift (CAMSHIFT) vision tracking algorithm is employed to provide feedback of the flame and smoke real-time position at a high frame rate. Experimental results under a variety of conditions show that the proposed method is capable of detecting flame and smoke reliably.

Ho, Chao-Ching

2009-04-01

438

Early detection of cell activation events by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activation of Jurkat T-cells in culture following treatment with anti-CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3) antibody is detectable by interrogating the treated T-cells using the Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy technique. Cell activation was detected within 75 min after the cells encountered specific immunoglobulin molecules. Spectral markers noted following ligation of the CD3 receptor with anti CD3 antibody provides proof-of-concept that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a sensitive measure of molecular events subsequent to cells interacting with anti-CD3 Immunoglobulin G. The resultant ligation of the CD3 receptor results in the initiation of well defined, specific signaling pathways that parallel the measurable molecular events detected using ATR-FTIR. Paired t-test with post-hoc Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons has resulted in the identification of statistically significant spectral markers (p < 0.02) at 1367 and 1358 cm-1. Together, these data demonstrate that early treatment-specific cellular events can be measured by ATR-FTIR and that this technique can be used to identify specific agents via the responses of the cell biosensor at different time points postexposure.

Titus, Jitto; Filfili, Chadi; Hilliard, Julia K.; Ward, John A.; Unil Perera, A. G.

2014-06-01

439

Detection of glycosylated proteins in rabbit oviductal isthmus and uterine endometrium during early embryo development.  

PubMed

In this study, lectin histochemistry was performed on paraffin sections to compare carbohydrate expression of oviductal isthmus and uterine endometrium in rabbits during early embryo development. Rabbit embryos are surrounded not only by the zona pellucida but also by tubal secretion-derived mucinous coat material, the mucin coat. Twenty sexually mature females were euthanized at 0 (pre-ovulatory group) and 24, 72 and 96 h after insemination (pseudopregnancy group). The following lectin-binding agents were used: Arachis hypogaea, Peanut (PNA) to label galactosyl (?-1,3)N- acetyl-galactosamine, Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) to label galactosyl (?-1,4)N- acetyl-galactosamine, Lens curinaris (LCA) to label ?--mannose, ?-d-glucose and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) to label ?-d-mannose, ?-d-glucose. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and direct enzyme immunoassay technique was used to measure progesterone concentration. A significant increase in total plasma progesterone concentrations was detected at 96 h post-ovulation when compared with 0, 24 and 72 h post-ovulation (2.9 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.15, 1.6 ± 0.5 and 1.5 ± 0.4 ng/ml, at 96 h vs 0, 24 and 72 h post-ovulation, respectively). No differences between pre-ovulatory and pseudopregnant females were observed for glycoprotein localization in isthmus. In contrast, in the endometrium, differences in the glycoprotein detection between pre-ovulatory and pseudopregnant stages were detected. PNA to label galactosyl (?-1,3)N- acetyl-galactosamine was not detected at the pre-ovulatory stage, but its presence was detected at 24 h after ovulation. Both PSA and LCA to label ?-d-mannose, ?-d-glucose were only detected at 72 h after ovulation. DBA detection was similar for all stages of the reproductive cycle. Therefore, N-acetyl-galactosamine secreted from isthmus could be involved in the formation of the embryonic mucin coat. d-galactose (PNA), d-glucose and d-mannose (PSA and LCA) might be crucial for the implantation period. PMID:23758545

Marco-Jiménez, F; López-Bejar, M

2013-12-01

440

Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study  

SciTech Connect

Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a polyclonal detector antibody. The capture antibody was covalently immobilized on modified glass slides. The detector antibody was conjugated with AF532 labeled secondary antibody prior to being used as probe for the antigen. Imaging was performed with a TIRF system. This technique is demonstrated for detecting HIV-1 p24 antigen down to 0.1 pg/mL with a dynamic range of over 4 orders of magnitude. A Langmuir isotherm fit the molecule count dependence on the target concentration. The results also showed that neither sensitivity nor dynamic range was affected by the biological matrix. SMISA is therefore a promising approach for the early diagnosis of virus-induced diseases. Single-molecule enzymatic kinetics and enantioselectivity were monitored in real time by using TIRF microscopy. AF532 labeled poly-L-lysine (PLL) or poly-D-lysine (PDL) was covalently immobilized on a dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) self-assembled monolayer (DSU SAM). Chain shortening due to enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the reduction of the individual fluorescence intensities. A broad distribution was obtained when 100 single-molecule half-lives were analyzed. However, the detailed hydrolysis process involved also a long-lived component and an induction period that varied significantly among molecules. Charge and steric heterogeneity at the surface are responsible for these features.

Li, Jiangwei

2008-10-15

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