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Sample records for early hearing detection

  1. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  2. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  3. Rural Family Perspectives and Experiences with Early Infant Hearing Detection and Intervention: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. PMID:26316007

  4. Hearing of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) suggests underwater pressure detection and rudimentary aerial hearing in early tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-02-01

    In the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle, vertebrate auditory systems have undergone major changes while adapting to aerial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods and their auditory system may therefore be a suitable model of the auditory systems of early tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Therefore, experimental studies on the hearing capabilities of lungfish may shed light on the possible hearing capabilities of early tetrapods and broaden our understanding of hearing across the water-to-land transition. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) lungfish are sensitive to underwater pressure using their lungs as pressure-to-particle motion transducers and (ii) lungfish can detect airborne sound. To do so, we used neurophysiological recordings to estimate the vibration and pressure sensitivity of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) in both water and air. We show that lungfish detect underwater sound pressure via pressure-to-particle motion transduction by air volumes in their lungs. The morphology of lungfish shows no specialized connection between these air volumes and the inner ears, and so our results imply that air breathing may have enabled rudimentary pressure detection as early as the Devonian era. Additionally, we demonstrate that lungfish in spite of their atympanic middle ear can detect airborne sound through detection of sound-induced head vibrations. This strongly suggests that even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing that may have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears in recent tetrapods. PMID:25653420

  5. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  6. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  7. Early detection of non-organic hearing loss using a simple tone-in-noise test.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Daniel; Morris, Olwyn; Adewale, Mabel; Millgate, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of non-organic hearing loss (NOHL) is important in order to ensure appropriate management decisions. One possible audiometric test for achieving this is the tone-in-noise (TIN) test although its current format is not widely applicable and may not optimize accuracy. We sought to investigate a modified TIN test, using narrowband noise, and the influence of different noise levels and alternative approaches to determining the outcome. Seventy-five normal-hearing and 8 hearing-impaired subjects were asked to feign or exaggerate a hearing loss. The shift in genuine or exaggerated/feigned thresholds with the introduction of ipsilateral noise was determined. The TIN test was able to accurately separate between genuine and feigned thresholds when using narrowband noise presented at the effective masking level corresponding to the apparent tone threshold and using a 'fail' criterion of a repeatable threshold shift of ? 10 dB at one or more frequencies. It also produced similar shifts in exaggerated thresholds. In conclusion, this modified TIN test is a potentially accurate method to rapidly identify unilateral and bilateral NOHL in a wide range on contexts and could be applied to automated audiometry. PMID:22918148

  8. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: How Far We've Come, How Far We've yet to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimondo, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The February 2011 National Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) conference marked its tenth annual event. During the opening plenary, speakers looked back and described the progress and accomplishments of past years. They highlighted activities of the various federal agencies, medical organizations, and individuals who helped move EHDI…

  9. Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchbank, Alison Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

  10. Auditory Screening in Infants for Early Detection of Permanent Hearing Loss in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, M; Zadeh, PY; Javadian, Y; Fard, HA; Delavari, K; Panjaki, HSA; Gorji, HAMH

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undiagnosed hearing loss can cause disorders in speech and language and delay in social and emotional development. Aim: This study aimed to screen for hearing loss in all newborns born in Babol city during 2009-2011. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen thousand one hundred and sixty-five newborns (49% [7430/15165] male and 51% [7735/15165] female) born during a 30-month period in Babol, underwent hearing screening by the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test at the age of 15 days. In infants referred at this stage, an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was the next investigation. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA, 16) through descriptive statistic method. Results: In the first screening stage, 10.8% (1648/15165) cases were referred to the second stage for further investigation. 9.4% (154/1648) were lost to follow-up from among the referred cases despite continuous contact and education about the importance of the problem. Among the participants in the second stage, 6.2% (92/1494) were referred to the third stage and underwent ABR and OAE testing. 14.1% (13/92) were lost at this stage. Of the remaining participants, 34.2% (27/79) were diagnosed with a hearing loss. Therefore, the incidence of hearing loss in this study was 1.8/1,000 newborns. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of hearing loss in this study, implementation of a universal newborn hearing screening program is recommended. PMID:24971205

  11. Decision-Making in Families Engaged in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainscott, Sarah Dawson

    2010-01-01

    Families are faced with numerous decisions shortly after their infants are identified with a hearing loss. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the family decision-making process including how families receive and respond to information and how family priorities and concerns for their child's future relate to the decisions they make. Of…

  12. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  13. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  14. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  15. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  16. Early Vocal Patterns in Infants with Varied Hearing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara L.; Morrison, Helen M.; von Hapsburg, Deborah; Warner, Andrea D.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the relative contributions of auditory perceptual access and production system characteristics to early vocalization patterns, three infants identified with hearing loss at birth were followed longitudinally for 11 months beginning at 4 to 6 months hearing age (i.e. time of post-hearing instrument fitting). The infant with…

  17. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  18. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  19. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  20. Loudness perception affected by early age hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Chao; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Kumaraguru, Anand; Li, Ji

    2014-07-01

    Tinnitus and hyperacusis, commonly seen in adults, are also reported in children. Although clinical studies found children with tinnitus and hyperacusis often suffered from recurrent otitis media, there is no direct study on how temporary hearing loss in the early age affects the sound loudness perception. In this study, sound loudness changes in rats affected by perforation of the tympanic membranes (TM) have been studied using an operant conditioning based behavioral task. We detected significant increases of sound loudness and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rats with bilateral TM damage at postnatal 16 days. As increase to sound sensitivity is commonly seen in hyperacusis and tinnitus patients, these results suggest that early age hearing loss is a high risk factor to induce tinnitus and hyperacusis in children. In the TM damaged rats, we also detected a reduced expression of GABA receptor ? and ?6 subunits in the inferior colliculus (IC) compared to the controls. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 7-14 days), an anti-seizure drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA, not only blocked AGS, but also significantly attenuated the loudness response. Administration of vigabatrin following the early age TM damage could even prevent rats from developing AGS. These results suggest that TM damage at an early age may cause a permanent reduction of GABA tonic inhibition which is critical towards the maintenance of normal loudness processing of the IC. Increasing GABA concentration during the critical period may alleviate the impairment in the brain induced by early age hearing loss. PMID:24747532

  1. Augmented warning sound detection for hearing protectors.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Eric R; Brammer, Anthony J; Yu, Gongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Perception of warning sounds, such as vehicle backup alarms, is reduced when hearing protection devices (HPDs) are worn. A cross-correlation approach is employed to detect a pre-selected warning sound and enable it to bypass the attenuation of the HPD while still attenuating the environmental noise. Computer simulation shows that the algorithm can detect the specified alarm at signal-to-environmental-noise ratios as low as -30?dB. Human subject testing of the algorithm, implemented on a modified commercial HPD, confirms the minimum detection threshold obtained in simulation, and demonstrates a 7?dB improvement in detection threshold compared with the unmodified HPD. PMID:24437853

  2. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  3. Breast Cancer: Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  4. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  5. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  6. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs. PMID:25790949

  7. Hearing.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    The main hazard for hearing in the workplace is noise. Organic solvents and heavy metals may increase the danger of developing occupational hearing loss, particularly in the case of co-exposure with noise. While noise produces damage predominantly to the cochlea, chemicals may be responsible for pathologic changes in both peripheral and central parts of the auditory pathway. Noise-induced hearing loss develops slowly over the years, although its progression is most dynamic during the first 10-15 years of exposure. Pure-tone audiometry indicates a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, affecting predominantly high frequencies, with typical notch at 3-6kHz in the early stages of the disease. Where there is co-exposure to noise and chemicals, the noise effect on hearing threshold shifts is dominant; however chemicals seem to increase the vulnerability of the cochlea to the damage by noise, particularly at its low and moderate levels. According to European Directive 2003/10/EC, the employer is obliged to implement hearing prevention programs when the A-weighted equivalent 8-hour level of noise (LAEX8hr) exceeds 80dB. Since chemicals may impair intelligibility of speech despite a lack of audiometric hearing threshold shift, implementation of speech audiometry, particularly speech in noise tests, is recommended in prevention programs. PMID:26563797

  8. Developmental hearing loss impairs signal detection in noise: putative central mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Jennifer D.; Voytenko, Sergiy V.; Galazyuk, Alexander V.; Rosen, Merri J.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss have difficulty processing sounds in noisy environments. This is most noticeable for speech perception, but is reflected in a basic auditory processing task: detecting a tonal signal in a noise background, i.e., simultaneous masking. It is unresolved whether the mechanisms underlying simultaneous masking arise from the auditory periphery or from the central auditory system. Poor detection in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is attributed to cochlear hair cell damage. However, hearing loss alters neural processing in the central auditory system. Additionally, both psychophysical and neurophysiological data from normally hearing and impaired listeners suggest that there are additional contributions to simultaneous masking that arise centrally. With SNHL, it is difficult to separate peripheral from central contributions to signal detection deficits. We have thus excluded peripheral contributions by using an animal model of early conductive hearing loss (CHL) that provides auditory deprivation but does not induce cochlear damage. When tested as adults, animals raised with CHL had increased thresholds for detecting tones in simultaneous noise. Furthermore, intracellular in vivo recordings in control animals revealed a cortical correlate of simultaneous masking: local cortical processing reduced tone-evoked responses in the presence of noise. This raises the possibility that altered cortical responses which occur with early CHL can influence even simple signal detection in noise. PMID:25249949

  9. Infants and children with hearing loss need early language access.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing, who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the loss of a normally hearing child). Clinical research indicates that a deaf child's poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression. Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents' decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child. In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880. While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet, the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly. The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for improved research studies in these areas. PMID:20866021

  10. Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for improved research studies in these areas. PMID:20866021

  11. Consistency of Hearing Aid Use in Infants with Early-Identified Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; Hoover, Brenda; Peterson, Barbara; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the consistency of hearing aid use by infants. A goal was to identify maternal, child and situational factors that affected consistency of device use. Method Maternal interviews were conducted using a non-validated structured interview (Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire), which included five-point Likert scale items and open-ended questions. Participants were mothers of seven infants with mild to moderately-severe hearing loss, who were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Data were collected at four intervals (10.5–12, 16.5, 22.5 and 28.5 months of age). Results Consistency of amplification use was variable at early ages, but improved with age. By 28.5 months of age, toddlers used amplification regularly in most settings. Selected daily situations (e.g., car, outdoors) were more challenging for maintaining device use than contexts where the child was closely monitored. Only two families established early, consistent full time use across all contexts examined. Qualitative results were used to identify familial, developmental and situational variables that influenced the consistency of infant/toddler device use. Conclusion Families may benefit from audiological counseling that acknowledges the multi-faceted challenges that arise. Audiologists can work in partnership with families to promote consistent device use across a variety of daily situations. PMID:19029531

  12. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  13. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

    2010-01-01

    Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

  14. Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800 ms) or short (50 ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

  15. Improved health and development of children who are deaf and hard of hearing following early intervention.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Deborah

    2008-12-01

    Infants begin to learn language in the earliest months of life. In the absence of early identification and intervention, infants who are deaf or hard-of-hearing experience significant and lasting deficits in language learning, academic achievement, social-emotional development, and quality of life. Evidence is mounting that early identification of infants who are deaf or hard of hearing through newborn hearing screening and intervention by the age of 6 months improves developmental outcomes for these children, especially in the area of language proficiency. Newborn screening programmes, including newborn hearing screening, are typically public health activities aimed at the early identification of infants who are affected by certain congenital disorders: including genetic, metabolic, haematologic, and infectious diseases. Early identification of these conditions is critical, as timely intervention can lead to a significant reduction of morbidity, mortality and associated disabilities in affected infants. For infants with hearing loss, the goal of early identification is to provide early intervention leading to language development and academic achievement commensurate with cognitive ability, and ultimately an improved quality of life. For newborn hearing screening, the definition of early intervention is initiation of intervention by the age of 6 months. Initiatives for newborn hearing screening have spread to every continent and many countries now have well-developed, comprehensive programmes of screening, diagnosis, and early intervention for childhood hearing loss. Although no exact statistics currently exist, tens of millions of infants probably receive newborn hearing screening each year. Because the developmental effects of early intervention for hearing loss are improved and sustained language development, large-scale studies documenting the language outcomes in early-identified children take decades to collect. Furthermore, because full-scale implementation of universal newborn hearing screening has occurred only within the last 5 years in most countries, many early-identified children are still at preschool-age. Thus, documenting these youngsters' language development is a work in progress. Despite these limitations, evidence is mounting that early intervention for childhood hearing loss improves the developmental outcome of these children. PMID:19904474

  16. The Early Educational Programme at the Fujimidai Auditory Centre for Hearing Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokumitsu, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    This transcript of a videotaped presentation introduces the early education program at the Fujimidai Auditory Centre for hearing-impaired children. The center serves children from birth until their enrollment in elementary school, and its activities include audiological assessment; hearing aid selection, check, and maintenance; individualized,…

  17. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

  18. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

  19. Effect of Early Intervention on Language Development in Hearing-Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Elahe; Jafari, Zahra; Gholami, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss from birth up to the age of 3 years has a negative effect on speech/language development and results in sensory, cognitive, emotional, and academic defects in adulthood by causing delayed development of communicative-linguistic abilities. The present study was performed in order to assess the effect of early intervention on language development in Persian children aged 6-7 years with severe sensorineural hearing loss. Materials and Methods: Thirty boys and girls aged 6-7 years participated in this study, all of them had severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. All children were using bilateral behind-the-ear hearing aid, and had similar economic/socio-cultural backgrounds. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on the age of identification/intervention of hearing loss (3-6 and 12-15 months of age). The Persian TOLD-P3 test was used to evaluate language development in all subjects. Data collection was accomplished by observation, completion of questionnaires, and speech recording. Results: There was a significant difference in language development in 11 sub-tests and five lingual gains on the Persian TOLD-P3 test between early (3-6 months of age) and late identified/intervened (12-15 months of age) hearing-impaired children (P<0.05). Early identified/intervened hearing-impaired children had a notable preference in all assessed sub-tests and lingual gains. Conclusion: Early identification/intervention of hearing loss before the age of 6 months has a significant positive effect on a child’s language development in terms of picture/relational/oral vocabulary, grammatical comprehension, sentence combining, grammatical completion, phonologic analysis, word differentiation, word production, semantics, and syntax. Moreover, early identification/ intervention of hearing loss develops the hearing-impaired child’s lingual gains in visual vocabulary, grammatical completion, word differentiation, phonologic analysis, and word production. PMID:26877999

  20. Brief hearing loss disrupts binaural integration during two early critical periods of auditory cortex development

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Daniel B.; Thompson, John H.; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Early binaural experience can recalibrate central auditory circuits that support spatial hearing. However, it is not known how binaural integration matures shortly after hearing onset or whether various developmental stages are differentially impacted by disruptions of normal binaural experience. Here we induce a brief, reversible unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) at several experimentally determined milestones in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) development and characterize its effects approximately one week after normal hearing is restored. We find that experience shapes A1 binaural selectivity during two early critical periods. CHL before P16 disrupts the normal co-registration of interaural frequency tuning, whereas CHL on P16, but not before or after, disrupts interaural level difference (ILD) sensitivity contained in long-latency spikes. These data highlight an evolving plasticity in the developing auditory cortex that may relate to the etiology of amblyaudia, a binaural hearing impairment associated with bouts of otitis media during human infancy. PMID:24077484

  1. Brief hearing loss disrupts binaural integration during two early critical periods of auditory cortex development.

    PubMed

    Polley, Daniel B; Thompson, John H; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Early binaural experience can recalibrate central auditory circuits that support spatial hearing. However, it is not known how binaural integration matures shortly after hearing onset or whether various developmental stages are differentially impacted by disruptions of normal binaural experience. Here we induce a brief, reversible unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) at several experimentally determined milestones in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) development and characterize its effects ~1 week after normal hearing is restored. We find that CHL shapes A1 binaural selectivity during two early critical periods. CHL before P16 disrupts the normal coregistration of interaural frequency tuning, whereas CHL on P16, but not before or after, disrupts interaural level difference sensitivity contained in long-latency spikes. These data highlight an evolving plasticity in the developing auditory cortex that may relate to the aetiology of amblyaudia, a binaural hearing impairment associated with bouts of otitis media during human infancy. PMID:24077484

  2. Detection of temporal gaps in sinusoids by normally hearing and hearing-impaired subjects.

    PubMed

    Moore, B C; Glasberg, B R; Donaldson, E; McPherson, T; Plack, C J

    1989-03-01

    A two-alternative forced-choice task was used to measure psychometric functions for the detection of temporal gaps in a 1-kHz, 400-ms sinusoidal signal. The signal always started and finished at a positive-going zero crossing, and the gap duration was varied from 0.5 to 6.0 ms in 0.5-ms steps. The signal level was 80 dB SPL, and a spectrally shaped noise was used to mask splatter associated with the abrupt onset and offset of the signal. Two subjects with normal hearing, two subjects with unilateral cochlear hearing loss, and two subjects with bilateral cochlear hearing loss were tested. The impaired ears had confirmed reductions in frequency selectivity at 1 kHz. For the normal ears, the psychometric functions were nonmonotonic, showing minima for gap durations corresponding to integer multiples of the signal period (n ms, where n is a positive integer) and maxima for durations corresponding to (n - 0.5) ms. For the impaired ears, the psychometric functions showed only small (nonsignificant) nonmonotonicities. Performance overall was slightly worse for the impaired than for the normal ears. The main features of the results could be accounted for using a model consisting of a bandpass filter (the auditory filter), a square-law device, and a sliding temporal integrator. Consistent with the data, the model demonstrates that, although a broader auditory filter has a faster transient response, this does not necessarily lead to improved performance in a gap detection task. The model also indicates that gap thresholds do not provide a direct measure of temporal resolution, since they depend at least partly on intensity resolution. PMID:2708669

  3. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341

  4. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technolog | Research on the effectiveness and clinical impact of early detection technologies and practices.

  5. Evaluation of early hearing damage in personal listening device users using extended high-frequency audiometry and otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A H; Husain, R; Seluakumaran, K

    2014-06-01

    Although sound exposure from personal listening devices (PLDs) could potentially lead to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the actual hearing risk associated with the use of these devices is still unclear. In this study, early hearing effects related to PLD usage were evaluated in 35 young adult PLD users (listening for >1 h/day, at >50% of the maximum volume setting of their devices) and their age- and sex-matched controls using a combination of conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry as well as transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product of otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements. The mean listening duration of the PLD users was 2.7 ± 1.0 h/day while their estimated average listening volume was 81.3 ± 9.0 dBA (free-field corrected). Typical signs of NIHL were not detected in the audiogram of PLD users and their audiometric thresholds at most of the conventional test frequencies (0.25-8 kHz) were comparable with those obtained from controls. However, compared with the controls, mean hearing thresholds of PLD users at many of the extended high-frequencies (9-16 kHz) were significantly higher. In addition, TEOAE and DPOAE amplitudes in users were reduced compared with controls. The deterioration of extended high-frequency thresholds and the decrease in DPOAE amplitudes were more evident in the users' right ears. These results indicate the presence of an early stage of hearing damage in the PLD user group. Preventive steps should be taken as the initial hearing damage in these users could eventually progress into permanent NIHL after many years of PLD use. PMID:23812554

  6. Early detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Victoria M; Ahuja, Nita

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2(nd) leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  7. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  8. Newborn Hearing Screening and Early Diagnostic in the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca; Hein, Thaís Antonelli Diniz; de Souza, Gabriele Libano; do Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos; Casali, Raquel Leme

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to describe the outcome of neonatal hearing screening (NHS) and audiological diagnosis in neonates in the NICU. The sample was divided into Group I: neonates who underwent NHS in one step and Group II: neonates who underwent a test and retest NHS. NHS procedure was automated auditory brainstem response. NHS was performed in 82.1% of surviving neonates. For GI, referral rate was 18.6% and false-positive was 62.2% (normal hearing in the diagnostic stage). In GII, with retest, referral rate dropped to 4.1% and false-positive to 12.5%. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in 13.2% of infants and conductive in 26.4% of cases. There was one case of auditory neuropathy spectrum (1.9%). Dropout rate in whole process was 21.7% for GI and 24.03% for GII. We concluded that it was not possible to perform universal NHS in the studied sample or, in many cases, to apply it within the first month of life. Retest reduced failure and false-positive rate and did not increase evasion, indicating that it is a recommendable step in NHS programs in the NICU. The incidence of hearing loss was 2.9%, considering sensorineural hearing loss (0.91%), conductive (1.83%) and auditory neuropathy spectrum (0.19%). PMID:24999481

  9. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

  10. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Adults with Early Stage Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2’) following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

  11. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  12. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  13. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.623 Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of...

  14. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604 Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction permit... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of...

  15. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604 Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction permit... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of...

  16. Training Needs of Early Intervention Personnel Working with Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Rosalyn; Niemeyer, Judith A.; Compton, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of newborn hearing screenings, infants with hearing loss are identified earlier than ever before. Each state is responsible for providing trained personnel and delivery of early intervention services to families with newly identified infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing. Consequently, the role of each state's Part C…

  17. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

  18. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  19. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  20. Early Literacy of Kindergartners with Hearing Impairment: The Role of Mother-Child Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Most, Tova; Simon, Adi Ben

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the value of maternal writing mediation in predicting children's early literacy. Thirty kindergartners with hearing impairment (HI) and their mothers participated. Mothers were videotaped at home while helping their children write words, and the children's early literacy was assessed in the kindergarten. Maternal writing…

  1. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  2. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons. PMID:26161524

  3. Bioinformatics: biomarkers of early detection.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Daniel J; Mattmann, Chris A; Thornquist, Mark; Anton, Kristen; Hughes, J Steven

    2010-01-01

    Capturing, sharing, and publishing cancer biomarker research data are all fundamental challenges of enabling new opportunities to research and understand scientific data. Informatics experts from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) have pioneered a principled informatics infrastructure to capture and disseminate data from biomarker validation studies, in effect, providing a national-scale, real-world successful example of how to address these challenges. EDRN is a distributed, collaborative network and it requires its infrastructure to support research across cancer research institutions and across their individual laboratories. The EDRN informatics infrastructure is also referred to as the EDRN Knowledge Environment, or EKE. EKE connects information about biomarkers, studies, specimens and resulting scientific data, allowing users to search, download and compare each of these disparate sources of cancer research information. EKE's data is enriched by providing annotations that describe the research results (biomarkers, protocols, studies) and that link the research results to the captured information within EDRN (raw instrument datasets, specimens, etc.). In addition EKE provides external links to public resources related to the research results and captured data. EKE has leveraged and reused data management software technologies originally developed for planetary and earth science research results and has infused those capabilities into biomarker research. This paper will describe the EDRN Knowledge Environment, its deployment to the EDRN enterprise, and how a number of these challenges have been addressed through the capture and curation of biomarker data results. PMID:22112493

  4. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

    2014-09-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners. PMID:25190410

  5. Early Detection Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarojini, Sreeja; Tamir, Ayala; Lim, Heejin; Li, Shihong; Zhang, Shifang; Goy, Andre; Pecora, Andrew; Suh, K. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of conventional and contemporary methods to detect ovarian cancer development, ovarian cancer remains a common and commonly fatal gynecological malignancy. The identification and validation of early detection biomarkers highly specific to ovarian cancer, which would permit development of minimally invasive screening methods for detecting early onset of the disease, are urgently needed. Current practices for early detection of ovarian cancer include transvaginal ultrasonography, biomarker analysis, or a combination of both. In this paper we review recent research on novel and robust biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer and provide specific details on their contributions to tumorigenesis. Promising biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer include KLK6/7, GSTT1, PRSS8, FOLR1, ALDH1, and miRNAs. PMID:23319948

  6. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection…

  7. Early Detection of Core Deficits in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marian; Dijamco, Angeline; Gratier, Maya; Rozga, Agata

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this review of the research literature is to discuss approaches to the early detection of autism in infancy. Early detection would enable diagnoses to be made before 18 months of age rather than at 24-30 months, the age where diagnoses start to be made now. After summarizing the criteria for a deficit to be considered "core" to the…

  8. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention Programs in the Education of Children with Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcamete, Gonul; Kargin, Tevhide

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the effectiveness of an early intervention program based on the needs of Turkish mothers of six children (ages 0-3) with hearing impairments. The program included an informational component and an educational component. During the preparation of the program, the mothers' expressed needs were taken…

  9. A Model of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss Provided through Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Stredler-Brown, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families need access to appropriate early intervention services that are delivered by professionals who are well trained and experienced using their chosen communication approach. Unfortunately, a lack of qualified practitioners, especially in remote and rural communities, and limited funding can…

  10. Actual versus Desired Family-Centered Practice in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention programs (EIPs) for children with hearing loss (HL) are increasingly characterized by a growing family-centered orientation. This article examined mothers' and professionals' assessments of actual and desired parental involvement in 6 educational centers in Israel that implement an EIP for young children with HL and their…

  11. A Model of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss Provided through Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Stredler-Brown, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families need access to appropriate early intervention services that are delivered by professionals who are well trained and experienced using their chosen communication approach. Unfortunately, a lack of qualified practitioners, especially in remote and rural communities, and limited funding can…

  12. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melody; Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Berry, Lauren Unflat; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for…

  13. Foundations for literacy: An early literacy intervention for deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Lederberg, Amy R; Miller, Elizabeth M; Easterbrooks, Susan R; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A "business as usual" comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children's hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  14. Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  15. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  16. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  17. Early Detection of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating illness, although its autosomal dominant genetic transmission allows a unique opportunity to study apparently healthy individuals before manifest disease. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Vascular Cognitive Impairment), but studying otherwise-healthy appearing individuals who will go on with nearly 99% certainty to manifest the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. The field has witnessed an explosion of research examining possible early indicators of HD during what is now referred to as the “prodrome” of HD. A NIH study in its ninth year (PREDICT-HD) has offered a glimpse into the transition from an apparently healthy state to an obviously diseased state, and can serve as a model for many other genetic diseases, both neurological and non-neurological. PMID:24348095

  18. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  19. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  20. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  1. Parental Level of Satisfaction Regarding Early Intervention Services for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Barbara Smith

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the level of satisfaction of parents regarding early identification/intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The purpose of this study is to compare the progress of children who are D/HH with their hearing peers on elements used to measure the readiness of students to enter the…

  2. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  3. Early detection of congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Rani, Bs Kavya; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K

    2014-01-01

    Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson's teeth. PMID:25231043

  4. Early Detection of Maternal Risk for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mikat, B.; Gellhaus, A.; Wagner, N.; Birdir, C.; Kimmig, R.; Köninger, A.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. New molecular insights offer new possibilities of early diagnosis of elevated maternal risk. Maternal risk factors, biophysical parameters like Doppler examination of the uterine arteries and biochemical parameters allow early risk calculation. Preventive and effective therapeutic agents like acetylsalicylacid can be started in the early second trimester. This article reviews the diagnostic possibilities of early risk calculation to detect women having high risk for preeclampsia and the potential benefits for them, the offspring and health care systems. We provide risk calculation for preeclampsia as an important and sensible part of first trimester screening. PMID:22852092

  5. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  6. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  7. Early-onset hearing loss reorganizes the visual and auditory network in children without cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Yang, Li-Zhuang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shu-Li; Wang, Ying; Gu, Feng; Yang, Zhiyu; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-02-10

    The present study investigates the effect of early-onset hearing loss on the reorganization of visual and auditory networks in children without cochlear implants. Eleven congenitally deaf children and 12 age-matched hearing children were included in the study. Bilateral transverse temporal cortices and bilateral lateral occipital cortices were defined as auditory and visual seeds, respectively (as verified using an independent component analysis). The four seed-based connectivity maps were computed for each participant. As a result, group analysis showed that the primary auditory cortex was less connected with the motor cortex, whereas the visual cortex showed strengthened connectivity with motor and speech cortices in congenitally deaf children compared with the controls. Moreover, we found that the differences in functional connectivity between deaf and control children were not because of morphometric changes. Our results provide neural evidence for the sensorimotor coupling model of speech development. PMID:26730516

  8. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. PMID:25138156

  9. Early contact detection between two components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Jyoti K.; Balla, C. B. N. S.; Meher, K. K.

    2007-06-01

    There are several structural components in industries and plants that come in contact with adjacent components over a period of their functional use, for example, the use of coaxial tubes for carrying hot fluid through inner tube. The early detection of such contacts between two components is important for the system performance and safety considerations in many cases. The detection based on the change in the natural frequencies may not be practical in many cases as the shift in frequencies is often found to be insignificant during contact. However, they interact nonlinearly when excited either by the external aid like shaker or through their service loads. Here, the experimentally measured responses in a simple laboratory setup simulating nonlinear interaction between two components were processed to identify the feature for the early contact detection. It has been observed that the higher order coherences (Bicoherence and Tricoherence) of the responses are the most effective parameters for such contact detection, which is presented here.

  10. Early Cancer Detection at the Epithelial Surface.

    PubMed

    Rogalla, Stephan; Contag, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Malignant neoplastic lesions derived from epithelial tissue, carcinomas, account for 80% to 100% of all human cancers including some of the most deadly diseases such as cervical and non-small cell lung cancer. Many of these carcinomas present at readily accessible epithelial surfaces offering unique detection opportunities. Effective clinical management of carcinomas is enabled by early detection, at a time when full surgical resection is possible and before invasion of adjacent tissue or significant intravasation into blood vessels leading to metastasis. Good prognosis with long-term disease-free survival is more likely after early detection when progression is limited. At present, detection of carcinomas at epithelial surfaces largely relies on routine inspection with the naked eye (e.g., skin and oropharynx) or simple white light tools (e.g., cervix and colon). Emerging optical tools based on differential refraction, absorption, reflection, scattering, or fluorescence of carcinomas relative to normal tissues enable label-free visualization of neoplasia. However, the differences in intrinsic optical properties of normal and malignant tissues can be subtle, and relying on these may lead to high miss rates. Enhanced optical contrast offered by molecularly targeted agents can be used to improve early detection; and given that optical imaging and sensing tools can be readily combined, integrated systems that image over a range of scales, or detect multiple parameters, can be developed to aid in early detection. Diagnosis is, at present, made by histologic examination of tissue biopsies after identification of suspicious lesions. Miniature and handheld microscopic imaging tools have recently been developed, and integration of these tools with wide-field optical surveillance devices offers both rapid detection and confirmatory histologic examination at the point-of-care, that can provide guidance for biopsy and/or resection. A wide variety of targeted probe strategies have been described with demonstrated benefit in preclinical models and in a limited number of human studies. Here, we present examples of integrated multimodality optical imaging and sensing tools that use combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic optical contrast for early detection or margin delineation for carcinomas at epithelial surfaces. We will discuss several new technologies that have use in detecting the most common carcinomas that derive from the epithelium of the skin, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, and bronchoalveoli. PMID:26049697

  11. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.623 Notice of... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license proceeding. 2.623 Section 2.623 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  12. Utah Multi-University Consortium Statewide Preparation of Early Childhood Specialists in Vision and Hearing. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Kathleen

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of a project designed to prepare early interventionists and preschool teachers to serve children with vision and hearing impairments. The purpose of the project was to build upon existing early childhood special education and sensory impairment programs across two universities, the University…

  13. Reorganization of auditory cortex in early-deaf people: functional connectivity and relationship to hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation is a model for understanding brain plasticity. Although it is a well-documented phenomenon, we still know little of the mechanisms underlying it or the factors that constrain and promote it. Using fMRI, we identified visual motion-related activity in 17 early-deaf and 17 hearing adults. We found that, in the deaf, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) was responsive to visual motion. We compared functional connectivity of this reorganized cortex between groups to identify differences in functional networks associated with reorganization. In the deaf more than the hearing, the STG displayed increased functional connectivity with a region in the calcarine fissure. We also explored the role of hearing aid use, a factor that may contribute to variability in cross-modal reorganization. We found that both the cross-modal activity in STG and the functional connectivity between STG and calcarine cortex correlated with duration of hearing aid use, supporting the hypothesis that residual hearing affects cross-modal reorganization. We conclude that early auditory deprivation alters not only the organization of auditory regions but also the interactions between auditory and primary visual cortex and that auditory input, as indexed by hearing aid use, may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early-deaf people. PMID:25000527

  14. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation. PMID:24636881

  15. Early detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edmund M T; Humbert, Marc; Celermajer, David S

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains an incurable disease associated with an unacceptably high early mortality, despite advances in therapeutic options. The disease is clinically silent until late in its natural history, when most of the distal pulmonary arteries have been obliterated. Early diagnosis of PAH is associated with improved long-term survival, and screening of at-risk populations is, therefore, a rational strategy to improve outcomes in this condition. Doppler echocardiography is the most widely used screening tool in current clinical practice. The role of evidence-based screening strategies has been clarified by research such as the DETECT study in patients with systemic sclerosis. A multimodal approach, using a range of noninvasive tests, improves the performance of screening algorithms. Right heart catheterization is mandatory to confirm a diagnosis of PAH. Uncertainties exist about the definition and prognostic relevance of pulmonary hypertension during exercise, but accumulating evidence suggests that stress testing of the pulmonary circulation can unmask clinically important early disease. Novel tools for the early detection of pulmonary vascular disease are urgently needed, given the substantial limitations of currently available techniques. PMID:25421168

  16. Acceleration of Age-Related Hearing Loss by Early Noise Exposure: Evidence of a Misspent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Sharon G.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2007-01-01

    Age-related and noise-induced hearing losses in humans are multifactorial, with contributions from, and potential interactions among, numerous variables that can shape final outcome. A recent retrospective clinical study suggests an age-noise interaction that exacerbates age-related hearing loss in previously noise-damaged ears (Gates et al., 2000). Here, we address the issue in an animal model by comparing noise-induced and age-related hearing loss (NIHL; AHL) in groups of CBA/CaJ mice exposed identically (8-16 kHz noise band at 100 dB sound pressure level for 2 h) but at different ages (4-124 weeks) and held with unexposed cohorts for different postexposure times (2-96 weeks). When evaluated 2 weeks after exposure, maximum threshold shifts in young-exposed animals (4-8 weeks) were 40-50 dB; older-exposed animals (? 16 weeks) showed essentially no shift at the same postexposure time. However, when held for long postexposure times, animals with previous exposure demonstrated AHL and histopathology fundamentally unlike unexposed, aging animals or old-exposed animals held for 2 weeks only. Specifically, they showed substantial, ongoing deterioration of cochlear neural responses, without additional change in preneural responses, and corresponding histologic evidence of primary neural degeneration throughout the cochlea. This was true particularly for young-exposed animals; however, delayed neuropathy was observed in all noise-exposed animals held 96 weeks after exposure, even those that showed no NIHL 2 weeks after exposure. Data suggest that pathologic but sublethal changes initiated by early noise exposure render the inner ears significantly more vulnerable to aging. PMID:16481444

  17. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  18. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  19. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  20. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5?-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  1. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  2. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  3. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  4. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction permit proceeding. 2.604 Section 2.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... relate only to the site suitability issue or issues under review. (b) After docketing of part two of...

  5. Mothers' Involvement in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: The Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Al-Yagon, Michal; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers' involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers' involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables…

  6. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  7. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  8. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  9. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  10. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  11. Technology--and Colorado Early Education Staff--Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler-Woodard, Dee

    2009-01-01

    The youngest deaf and hard of hearing children with disabilities in Colorado can now participate more fully in the world around them thanks to funding from grants solicited through the Early Education Department at the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind. The grants enable the children, from birth to age 3, to overcome their physical…

  12. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 4. Song, Y. T. (2007) Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681.

  13. Principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-04-01

    This document is a supplement to the year 2007 position statement of the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and provides comprehensive guidelines for establishing strong early intervention (EI) systems with appropriate expertise to meet the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Optimal outcomes can only be achieved when there is high quality to the universal newborn hearing screening programs, the audiologic diagnostic process of confirmation that a child is D/HH and fitting of amplification, and the provision of appropriate, individualized, targeted, and high-quality EI services. There are 12 best practice guidelines for EI programs that include the provision of timely referral to EI services with providers who have knowledge and skills in early childhood deafness and hearing loss, infusion within the system of partnerships with parents as well as professionals who are D/HH, longitudinal developmental assessments for monitoring the child's development, data management systems that include developmental outcomes, a process to monitor the fidelity of the intervention, and appropriate services for children with additional disabilities, those from non-English speaking families, and those from special populations, including unilateral hearing loss and auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony. PMID:24131505

  14. The Incidence of Early Postoperative Conductive Hearing Loss after Microvascular Decompression of Hemifacial Spasm.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tingting; Thirumala, Parthasarathy; Gardner, Paul; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Objectives?To evaluate the incidence and discuss the pathogenesis of early postoperative conductive hearing loss (CHL) after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). Design?Pre- and postoperative audiogram data and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) from patients who had underwent MVD for HFS were analyzed. Setting?The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Participants?MVD for HFS patients who had pre- and postoperative audiogram data, BAEP data, and normal structure of the external and middle ear were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures?CHL was diagnosed if there was an air-bone gap in pure tone audiometry of at least 10?dB at 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 kHz. Results?The incidence of early postoperative CHL in the ipsilateral ear was 18.7% postoperatively. No CHL was observed in the contralateral side. No significant relationship between CHL and intraoperative BAEP changes was found. Demographic parameters were not significantly different between groups with and without CHL. Conclusions?Early postoperative CHL is a significant complication after MVD. Fluid entering the mastoid air cells and/or bone-dust deposition during craniotomy may result in CHL. Long-term audiograms will be needed to evaluate the risk factors that lead to permanent CHL. PMID:26682118

  15. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  16. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  17. Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

  18. Prevention and early detection of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaratnam, K.

    1985-01-01

    The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

  19. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed. PMID:21263260

  20. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; Mascaux, C; Nackaerts, K

    2012-09-01

    The greatest news of the past year in this field was the first large-scale early detection trial that could prove a 20% reduction in lung cancer-related mortality by screening high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Several expert groups and medical societies have assessed the data and concluded that LDCT screening for lung cancer is, however, not ready for large-scale population-based implementation. Too many open questions remain, such as definition of the at-risk population, timing and intervals of screening, optimal method of acquisition and interpretation of the images, how to handle (false) positive findings, and especially cost-effectiveness in relation to other lung cancer prevention strategies, mainly smoking cessation. Further analyses and several ongoing European trials are eagerly awaited. Much hope also resides in the use of biomarkers, as their use in, e.g., blood or exhaled air may provide more easy-to-use tests to better stratify high-risk populations for screening studies. While exciting research is ongoing in this domain--e.g. with microRNAs--none of the tests has yet reached sufficient validation for clinical use. Early central lung cancers are more difficult to visualise by CT. For these patients, standard bronchoscopy, complemented by autofluoresence endoscopy, has been studied in different screening and follow-up settings. PMID:22987984

  1. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

  2. Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: our experience in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Tumpi, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. This paper aims to assess the prevalence of early NIHL and the awareness of the effects of noise on health among stone crushing industry workers. This was a comparative cross-sectional study in Ghana of 140 workers from the stone crushing industry compared with a control group of 150 health workers. The stone workers and controls were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, which assessed symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in noisy environment and the use of hearing protective device. Pure tone audiometric assessment was carried out for stone workers and controls. Noise levels at the work stations of the stone workers and of the controls were measured. Statistical Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS package version 16. The mean age of stone workers and controls was 42.58±7.85 and 42.19±12 years, respectively. Subjective hearing loss occurred in 21.5% of the workers and in 2.8% of the controls. Tinnitus occurred in 26.9% of stone workers and 21.5% of controls, while 87.5% stone workers had sound knowledge on the health hazards of a noisy environment. Early NIHL in the left ear occurred in 19.3% of the stone workers compared with 0.7% in controls and in the right ear, it occurred in 14.3% of the stone workers and in 1.3% of the controls; P<0.005. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of early NIHL among stone crushing workers is about 19.3% for the left ear and 14.3% for the right ear. PMID:22517306

  3. Effectiveness of a Family-Focused Early Intervention Program in the Education of Children with Hearing Impairments Living in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargin, Tevhide

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a family-focused early intervention program developed to meet the needs of children with hearing loss and their parents. The participants were 12 children with severe and profound hearing loss who lived in a rural area of Turkey. They did not have any additional disabilities. Their…

  4. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  5. Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: AUA Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Carter, H. Ballentine; Albertsen, Peter C.; Barry, Michael J.; Etzioni, Ruth; Freedland, Stephen J.; Greene, Kirsten Lynn; Holmberg, Lars; Kantoff, Philip; Konety, Badrinath R.; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Penson, David F.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The guideline purpose is to provide the urologist with a framework for the early detection of prostate cancer in asymptomatic average risk men. Materials and Methods A systematic review was conducted and summarized evidence derived from over 300 studies that addressed the predefined outcomes of interest (prostate cancer incidence/mortality, quality of life, diagnostic accuracy and harms of testing). In addition to the quality of evidence, the panel considered values and preferences expressed in a clinical setting (patient-physician dyad) rather than having a public health perspective. Guideline statements were organized by age group in years (age <40; 40 to 54; 55 to 69; >70). Results With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, there was minimal evidence to assess the outcomes of interest for other tests. The quality of evidence for the benefits of screening was moderate, and evidence for harm was high for men age 55 to 69 years. For men outside this age range, evidence was lacking for benefit, but the harms of screening, including over diagnosis and over treatment, remained. Modeled data suggested that a screening interval of two years or more may be preferred to reduce the harms of screening. Conclusions The Panel recommended shared decision-making for men age 55 to 69 years considering PSA-based screening, a target age group for whom benefits may outweigh harms. Outside this age range, PSA-based screening as a routine could not be recommended based on the available evidence. The entire guideline is available at www.AUAnet.org/education/guidelines/prostate-cancer-detection.cfm PMID:23659877

  6. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Jerant, A F; Johnson, J T; Sheridan, C D; Caffrey, T J

    2000-07-15

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. Squamous cell cancers may be preceded by actinic keratoses-premalignant lesions that are treated with cryotherapy, excision, curettage or topical 5-fluorouracil. While squamous cell carcinoma is usually easily cured with local excision, it may invade deeper structures and metastasize. Aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. Early detection greatly improves the prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions is challenging, although the ABCD and seven-point checklists are helpful in determining which pigmented lesions require excision. Sun exposure remains the most important risk factor for all skin neoplasms. Thus, patients should be taught basic "safe sun" measures: sun avoidance during peak ultraviolet-B hours; proper use of sunscreen and protective clothing; and avoidance of suntanning. PMID:10929700

  7. Neuropsychological strategies for detecting early dementia.

    PubMed

    Grober, Ellen; Hall, Charles; McGinn, Maryanne; Nicholls, Toni; Stanford, Stephanie; Ehrlich, Amy; Jacobs, Laurie G; Kennedy, Gary; Sanders, Amy; Lipton, Richard B

    2008-01-01

    As new and more effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) emerge, the development of efficient screening strategies in educationally and racially diverse primary care settings has increased in importance. A set of candidate screening tests and an independent diagnostic assessment were administered to a sample of 318 patients treated at a geriatric primary care center. Fifty-six subjects met criteria for dementia. Exploratory analysis led to the development of three two-stage screening strategies that differed in the composition of the first stage or Rapid Dementia Screen, which is applied to all patients over the age of 65. The second stage, applied to those patients who screen positively for dementia, is accomplished with the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test to detect memory impairment. Using clinical diagnosis as a gold standard, the strategies had high sensitivity and specificity for identifying dementia and performed better for identifying AD than non-AD dementias. Sensitivity and specificity did not differ by race or education. The strategies provide an efficient approach to screening for early dementia. PMID:18078539

  8. Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

  9. Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

  10. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  11. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  12. Gesture in Early Child Language: Studies of Deaf and Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Morford, Marolyn

    1985-01-01

    The gesture systems developed by 10 deaf children, each incapable of acquiring a conventional spoken language naturally and not exposed to a conventional manual language by their hearing parents, were compared and contrasted to both the speech and the gesture systems developed by three hearing children learning English. (Author/BE)

  13. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  14. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  15. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  16. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  17. Measures of tactual detection and temporal order resolution in congenitally deaf and normal-hearing adults

    PubMed Central

    Moallem, Theodore M.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.

    2010-01-01

    To guide the development of tactile speech aids, tactual detection and temporal order discrimination by congenitally deaf and normal-hearing adults have been examined. Tactual detection thresholds for sinusoidal vibrations between 2 and 300 Hz were measured at the left thumb and index finger using an adaptive paradigm. Temporal onset- and offset-order discrimination were tested using stimuli of 50 Hz at the thumb and 250 Hz at the index finger, delivered asynchronously and varied independently in amplitude and duration. Mean detection thresholds for the deaf and normal-hearing groups did not differ significantly at any frequency tested. Temporal onset-order discrimination thresholds varied widely, particularly among congenitally deaf individuals, but no statistically significant difference was found between group means. Both experimental groups exhibited a broad range of discrimination thresholds for temporal offset-order, and mean thresholds did not differ significantly. On the whole, tactual offset-order thresholds were substantially higher than onset-order thresholds. Differences in the relative levels of paired stimuli systematically affected sensitivity to both onset- and offset-orders in most subjects. Differences in the relative durations of paired stimuli had little effect on onset-order discrimination, but had a robust effect on offset-order discrimination thresholds, which was consistent across all subjects. PMID:20550268

  18. Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

    2014-01-01

    It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

  19. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  20. Evaluation of hearing among kindergarten children in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss among kindergarten children is considered as a major health problem especially when there is a deficiency in routine hearing screening during the clinical examination. The aim of the study was to detect any pattern of hearing loss among kindergarten children in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). Methods A total of 1220 kindergarten students in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) were subjected to meticulous hearing evaluation using otological examination, Tuning fork tests, pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry, and tympanometry. Results We found that 18 kindergarten students had type C tympanogram (Eustachian tube dysfunction), 28 had type B tympanogram (secretory otitis media with conductive hearing loss), 4 had chronic otitis media with conductive hearing loss, and 6 had mild sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusions Early detection and eradication of hearing loss improves quality of life outcomes of children which reduces the incidence of social burden from unrecognized hearing loss. PMID:26527196

  1. Salicylate-Induced Hearing Loss and Gap Detection Deficits in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Radziwon, Kelly E.; Stolzberg, Daniel J.; Urban, Maxwell E.; Bowler, Rachael A.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    To test the “tinnitus gap-filling” hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200?mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30–60?dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10?ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60?dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible. PMID:25750635

  2. Salicylate-induced hearing loss and gap detection deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Radziwon, Kelly E; Stolzberg, Daniel J; Urban, Maxwell E; Bowler, Rachael A; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    To test the "tinnitus gap-filling" hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200?mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30-60?dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10?ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60?dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible. PMID:25750635

  3. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  4. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  5. Newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D L; Pearlman, A

    1994-11-01

    Congenital deafness is a relatively common problem with an incidence of 1/300 to 1/1000. Most states have no mass screening program for hearing loss, but the state of Kentucky compiles a High Risk Registry which is a historical survey of parents relating to risk factors for hearing loss. Unfortunately this survey can miss 50% of those who have a hearing deficit. If not detected prior to discharge, there is often a delay in diagnosis of deafness which prevents early intervention. We report 2 years' experience at Kosair Children's Hospital where 1,987 infants admitted to well baby, intermediate, or intensive care nurseries were screened using the ALGO-1 screener (Natus Medical Inc, Foster City, CA) which is a modified auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR). Our screening of this population led to an 11% incidence of referral for complete audiological evaluation. There were no significant complications. Forty-eight infants were found to have nonspecified, sensorineural, or conductive hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the test was 96%. Therefore, we feel that the use of the modified ABR in the newborn is a timely, cost efficient method of screening for hearing loss and should be used for mass screening of all newborns. PMID:7806952

  6. Early Detection Still Key to Breast Cancer Survival

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154995.html Early Detection Still Key to Breast Cancer Survival: Study Despite advances in treatment, finding smaller ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Even with recent strides in breast cancer treatment, a woman's chances of surviving the disease ...

  7. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  8. Learning to Learn: An Analysis of Early Learning Behaviours Demonstrated by Young Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Children with High/Low Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Claudia M.; Kritzer, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multiple case-study design, this study compares the early learning behaviours of young deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) children with high/low mathematics ability (as defined by test score on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3). Children's simultaneous use of multiple learning behaviours was also examined as were contributing adult…

  9. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  10. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Cochleae Contributes to the Early Onset of Hearing Loss in A/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Ge, Ruli; Xie, Gang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Xin; Gao, Lixiang; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Oumei; Huang, Fei; Han, Fengchan

    2015-01-01

    A/J and C57BL/6 J (B6) mice share a mutation in Cdh23 (ahl allele) and are characterized by age-related hearing loss. However, hearing loss occurs much earlier in A/J mice at about four weeks of age. Recent study has revealed that a mutation in citrate synthase (Cs) is one of the main contributors, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that A/J mice displayed more severe degeneration of hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in the cochleae compared with B6 mice. Moreover, messenger RNA accumulation levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the inner ears of A/J mice were significantly higher than those in B6 mice at 2 and 8 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry localized caspase-3 expression mainly to the hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in cochleae. In vitro transfection with Cs short hairpin RNA (shRNA) alone or cotransfection with Cs shRNA and Cdh23 shRNA significantly increased the levels of caspase-3 in an inner ear cell line (HEI-OC1). Finally, a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK could preserve the hearing of A/J mice by lowering about 15 decibels of the sound pressure level for the auditory-evoked brainstem response thresholds. In conclusion, our results suggest that caspase-mediated apoptosis in the cochleae, which may be related to a Cs mutation, contributes to the early onset of hearing loss in A/J mice. PMID:25732708

  11. Blood analysis for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between the nuclear quadrupole moments of ions and the electric field gradient in a biological membrane can explain the mechanism of active transport in cells. On the basis of a model, we discuss the NMR isotopic analyzer of blood for the detection of cancer without exposing the patient to any radiation. The method involves a low temperature technique.

  12. Coherence measurement for early contact detection between two components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryam, B. C. B. N.; Meher, K. K.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Rama Rao, A.

    2006-02-01

    In process and power plants, there are several structural components which may come in contact with the neighbouring components over a period of time. For example, the coaxial tubes often used for conveying hot fluids, where the detection of contact between the tubes at an early stage is important for safety and performance considerations. The paper presents the observation on the coherence behaviour for the detection of early contact based on the simple laboratory experiments.

  13. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  14. Multilingual Children with Hearing Loss: Factors Contributing to Language Use at Home and in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed…

  15. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 ?Ci source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  16. A Team Approach to Quality Programming for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Priscilla Shannon

    2011-01-01

    In this issue of "Odyssey," Joanne Corwin describes New Mexico's statewide partnership among several agencies for the provision of early intervention services to infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families (Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks, p. 20). A…

  17. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Early detection and referral

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Noth, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause or cure, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3–5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Vigilance among clinicians in recognizing IPF early in the disease course remains critical to properly caring for these patients, as this provides the widest range of management options. When IPF is suspected, a multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) by a clinician, radiologist and pathologist with ILD expertise should occur, as this improves diagnostic agreement in both community and academic settings. When community MDE is not possible, or diagnostic doubt exists, referral to an ILD center should be considered. ILD center referral may also provide access specialized care, including clinical trials and lung transplantation, and should be considered for any patient with an established diagnosis of IPF. PMID:24746629

  19. Early Detection of Kawasaki Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Hae; Hong, Seung Ji; Seo, In Ae; Kwak, Min Ha; Cho, Seung Man; Kim, Doo Kwon; Choi, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of infantile Kawasaki disease (KD), and to evaluate early diagnostic features of KD in febrile infants. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 KD patients from January 2010 to October 2014. There was an analysis of the clinical, laboratory data of the infants versus children groups. Furthermore, the clinical and laboratory data of infantile KD patients were compared with 16 infants who were admitted for other acute febrile diseases. Results A total of 64 patients with KD were identified; 20 (31.3%) were infants; 44 (68.8%) were >1 year old children. Incomplete KD was much more common in infants (n=13, 65.0%) than in children group (n=14, 31.8%) (p=0.013). The infants were characterized by significantly higher rates of inflammatory changes at the Bacille Calmett-Guérin (BCG) inoculation site (p<0.001), but lower rates of changes in the extremities (p=0.029) and cervical lymphadenopathy (p=0.006). The serum levels of platelet after 1 week (p=0.005), C-reactive protein (p=0.038), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (p=0.026) were all significantly higher in the infants group. Comparing the infants with KD versus the other acute febrile diseases, there were significantly higher serum levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.002), C-reactive protein (p=0.046) and NT-proBNP (p=0.001) for the infants with KD group. Conclusion BCGitis and higher levels of NT-proBNP can be helpful for early diagnosis of the incomplete KD in infants, and may be a good predictor of KD in acute febrile infants, when combined with other acute phase reactants. PMID:26617654

  20. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  1. Using the dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: perspectives of a panel of experts.

    PubMed

    Luckner, John L

    2013-01-01

    Early literacy skills serve as the foundation for the development of subsequent reading skills and strategies. Increasingly, educators are administering early literacy assessments to identify young students who are at risk for reading failure and providing them with additional evidence based interventions. The most widely used assessments for reading in preschools and elementary schools for typical hearing students are the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of a panel of experts in the area of reading and individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing regarding the potential appropriateness of using the subtests of the DIBELS with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Results, as well as practical and research implications, are provided. PMID:23858700

  2. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. PMID:26994265

  3. [Ethics and clinical practice guidelines: newborn hearing screening and early deaf childcare].

    PubMed

    André-Vert, J; Laurence, M

    2014-08-01

    A national program for newborn hearing screening is gradually spreading throughout France, coming at a specific historical time: French sign language was recognized as a French language only in 2005, after almost a century of this language being banned in French educational institutions. Therefore, social views on deafness vary considerably depending on hearing status--deaf or hearing--and on the language used: spoken language, sign language, or bilingual. To help professionals take these different perspectives into account, the ethical questions raised during the French Authority for Health clinical practice guidelines development on deaf child care were retrospectively analyzed based on the Childress and Beauchamp principles: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This analysis showed that the steps followed during the guideline development were very similar to those devised by J.M. Gomas's model for ethical decision making and were respectful of R. Ogien's minimal ethics principles: equal consideration for everyone, neutrality toward conceptions of what is good for oneself, and interventions limited to cases of obvious harm caused to others. PMID:25001434

  4. Sensitivity of cortical auditory evoked potential detection for hearing-impaired infants in response to short speech sounds

    PubMed Central

    Van Dun, Bram; Carter, Lyndal; Dillon, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are an emerging tool for hearing aid fitting evaluation in young children who cannot provide reliable behavioral feedback. It is therefore useful to determine the relationship between the sensation level of speech sounds and the detection sensitivity of CAEPs, which is the ratio between the number of detections and the sum of detections and non-detections. Twenty-five sensorineurally hearing impaired infants with an age range of 8 to 30 months were tested once, 18 aided and 7 unaided. First, behavioral thresholds of speech stimuli /m/, /g/, and /t/ were determined using visual reinforcement orientation audiometry. Afterwards, the same speech stimuli were presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB sound pressure level, and CAEPs were recorded. An automatic statistical detection paradigm was used for CAEP detection. For sensation levels above 0, 10, and 20 dB respectively, detection sensitivities were equal to 72±10, 75±10, and 78±12%. In 79% of the cases, automatic detection P-values became smaller when the sensation level was increased by 10 dB. The results of this study suggest that the presence or absence of CAEPs can provide some indication of the audibility of a speech sound for infants with sensorineural hearing loss. The detection of a CAEP might provide confidence, to a degree commensurate with the detection probability, that the infant is detecting that sound at the level presented. When testing infants where the audibility of speech sounds has not been established behaviorally, the lack of a cortical response indicates the possibility, but by no means a certainty, that the sensation level is 10 dB or less. PMID:26557328

  5. First Information Parents Receive after UNHS Detection of Their Baby's Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover…

  6. Protein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Misek, David E.; Kim, Evelyn H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in breast cancer control will be greatly aided by early detection so as to diagnose and treat breast cancer in its preinvasive state prior to metastasis. For breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States, early detection does allow for increased treatment options, including surgical resection, with a corresponding better patient response. Unfortunately, however, many patients' tumors are diagnosed following metastasis, thus making it more difficult to successfully treat the malignancy. There are, at present, no existing validated plasma/serum biomarkers for breast cancer. Only a few biomarkers (such as HER-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor) have utility for diagnosis and prognosis. Thus, there is a great need for new biomarkers for breast cancer. This paper will focus on the identification of new serum protein biomarkers with utility for the early detection of breast cancer. PMID:22084684

  7. Early detection and intervention in schizophrenia: editor's introduction.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, T H

    1996-01-01

    A greater understanding of the nature of schizophrenia, along with the continuing limitations of our current treatments, has refocused attention on the early course of psychosis in the form of early detection and intervention around onset. This issue of the Bulletin offers an indepth look at the knowledge, models, current data, and seminal clinical research programs that support why renewed interest in the late premorbid, prodromal, and onset phases of schizophrenia appears both timely and reasonable. PMID:8782281

  8. Gallbladder Carcinoma, the Difficulty of Early Detection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephen L; Bear, Jonathan R; Van Echo, David C; Dainer, Hugh M

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an uncommon malignancy with a high mortality rate. Detecting gallbladder carcinoma in its early stages can be difficult, despite improvements in ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Most diagnoses of GBC are made at advanced stages, with the majority being found incidentally during surgery for cholelithiasis. The presented case demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing GBC preoperatively in its early stages. PMID:27014527

  9. Acute autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss associated with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Bachmeyer, C; Leclerc-Landgraf, N; Laurette, F; Coutarel, P; Cadranel, J F; Médioni, J; Dhôte, R; Mougeot-Martin, M

    1998-12-01

    We report the sudden onset of bilateral hearing loss in a patient with Crohn's disease while the intestinal disease was quiescent. Antibodies directed against collagen type II were detected in the serum. Dramatic improvement of his hearing was observed under corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss was established. This condition could be considered as an extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease. Early diagnosis is mandated, as prompt and intensive treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs is effective and could prevent irreversible hearing loss. PMID:9860428

  10. The Effectiveness of a Phonics-Based Early Intervention for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Preschool Children and Its Possible Impact on Reading Skills in Elementary School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S.; Oetting, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and…

  11. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  12. Advances in pancreatic cancer research: moving towards early detection.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application. PMID:25170208

  13. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  14. Rural Barriers to Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Infant Hearing Loss in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Hardin, Bryan; Rayle, Christopher; Lester, Cathy; Studts, Christina R.; Shinn, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess regional parental barriers in the diagnostic and therapeutic process following abnormal newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Study Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study Setting Tertiary medical center Patients Parents of infants who failed NHS in Kentucky from January 2009 – February 2012 Main Outcome Measure Demographic information, county of origin, and attitudes and perceptions regarding NHS and barriers in the NHS diagnostic process. Results There were 460 participants in the study, which included25.4% of parents were from the Appalachian region. 21% of Appalachian parents found the process on newborn hearing testing difficult. Appalachian parents were more likely to have no more than 12 years of education (OR 1.7, p=0.02) and Medicaid insurance (OR 2.3, p<0.001) compared with non-Appalachian parents. A higher percentage of Appalachian parents were unaware of the NHS results at the time of hospital discharge than non-Appalachians (14% v. 7%, p=0.03). Distance from the diagnostic/therapeutic center represented was a significant barrier for Appalachian parents (OR 2.8, p=0.001). Compared with urban parents, a greater percentage of rural parents had never heard of a cochlear implant (p=0.01). Appalachian parents expressed a strong interest in telemedicine and a desire for closer services. Conclusion Multiple barriers including education, distance, accessibility, socioeconomic factors can affect timely diagnosis and treatment of congenital hearing loss for children residing in rural areas. Educational and telemedicine programs may benefit parents in Appalachia, as well as parents in other rural areas. PMID:25325844

  15. Spinster Homolog 2 (Spns2) Deficiency Causes Early Onset Progressive Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J.; White, Jacqueline K.; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

  16. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field. PMID:26656286

  17. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  18. Ensuring Accuracy of the Pediatric Hearing Aid Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, André; Hansen, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Considerable effort has recently been dedicated towards early detection of hearing loss in infants. The goal is to subsequently fit hearing aids to hearing-impaired infants so that they can develop speech and language as early and as well as possible. The responsibility of the audiologist is to provide the child with the optimal amplification from the hearing aid. This paper gives an overview of aspects involved in correctly assessing the hearing loss and optimally fitting and verifying the performance of the child's hearing aids. Special emphasis is directed towards differences that exist between children and adults, and how these differences can be considered during a pediatric fitting. We suggest a stringent terminology that can help avoid ambiguous terms and connotations in the child's domain which are derived from those that have become established in adult audiometry and hearing aid fittings. The quantification of hearing thresholds and their appropriate representation is reviewed. An appropriate threshold-based prescription of gain or output of the hearing aid is described. Issues of verification and the actual programming of the hearing aid are discussed. PMID:15004645

  19. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  20. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

  1. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

  2. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  3. Detection of early cancer and precancer with scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelman, Lev T.; Backman, Vadim

    2001-05-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Over 85% of all cancers, such as colorectal, esophageal, bladder, cervical, and oral cancers, originate in the epithelial linings of the body and are readily curable if diagnosed at an early stage. However, many forms of precancerous epithelial lesions are difficult to detect and diagnose using current methods.

  4. [Early detection of colorectal cancer: role of endoscopy and imaging].

    PubMed

    Kolligs, F T; Graser, A

    2013-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Colorectal cancer commonly develops slowly via adenomatous polyps, a process usually requiring ? 10 years. This allows for early detection. Endoscopic polypectomy and surgery of early disease can reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Both hemoccult testing and colonoscopy are the most widely used tests for colorectal cancer screening; however, colonoscopy has the highest sensitivity for colorectal neoplasia. Sigmoidoscopy is not commonly used for screening in Germany. Colon contrast enema is no longer recommended for screening. As colonoscopy serves as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool and is the reference method in hemoccult and sigmoidoscopy studies, it is viewed as the gold standard for the diagnosis of colonic disease. New methods including capsule colonoscopy and virtual colonoscopy have great potential but are currently not recommended for early detection of colonic neoplasia. PMID:23736957

  5. Further Support for the Benefits of Early Identification and Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Rosemary; Naidu, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Data are presented from two studies that investigated short- and long-term outcomes of early identification and intervention for young children from birth to age 3. Results from the studies support the immediate and longer-term benefits of early entry into intervention for language, academic, and social-emotional development. (Contains extensive…

  6. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay?nd?r, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  7. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  8. Prognosis, screening, early detection and differentiation of arterial pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, Guido

    2007-06-16

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been partially reclassified during the 2003 Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension held in Venice. PH is a common disorder that may complicate a variety of cardiopulmonary diseases, including severe COPD, left ventricular failure and chronic thromboembolic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure which is not due to classical coexistent cardiopulmonary disease. PAH usually occurs in the absence of an evident cause (idiopathic or familial) or it may be associated with connective tissue disease, HIV infection, chronic liver disease, congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts, venous or capillary involvement, thyroid or myeloproliferative disorders as well as a result of the use of toxic agents and anorexigens. The actuality of developed disease-specific treatments over the past decade, emphasises the importance of an early screening and detection of PH which, even optimally treated in advanced stages, still remains a progressive lethal disease in most of its forms. Early identification represents a real challenge for the clinician: in fact, it is believed that an early recognition and, thus, an early treatment, might be associated with improved survival. In this review, after a short introduction on disease prognosis, we will focus on screening and early recognition of some categories of PH, based on a sequential approach that includes clinical suspicion, detection and differentiation of pulmonary hypertension. This strategy should consent to reach an assessment of severity, ultimately providing the best selective use of therapies. PMID:17629802

  9. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  10. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  11. Physical principles of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

  12. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  13. The Mass1frings mutation underlies early onset hearing impairment in BUB/BnJ mice, a model for the auditory pathology of Usher syndrome IIC

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K.R.; Zheng, Q.Y.; Weston, M.D.; Ptacek, L.J.; Noben-Trauth, K.

    2010-01-01

    The human ortholog of the gene responsible for audiogenic seizure susceptibility in Frings and BUB/BnJ mice (mouse gene symbol Mass1) recently was shown to underlie Usher syndrome type IIC (USH2C). Here we report that the Mass1frings mutation is responsible for the early onset hearing impairment of BUB/BnJ mice. We found highly significant linkage of Mass1 with ABR threshold variation among mice from two backcrosses involving BUB/BnJ mice with mice of strains CAST/EiJ and MOLD/RkJ. We also show an additive effect of the Cdh23 locus in modulating the progression of hearing loss in backcross mice. Together, these two loci account for more than 70% of the total ABR threshold variation among the backcross mice at all ages. The modifying effect of the strain-specific Cdh23ahl variant may account for the hearing and audiogenic seizure differences observed between Frings and BUB/BnJ mice, which share the Mass1frings mutation. During postnatal cochlear development in BUB/BnJ mice, stereocilia bundles develop abnormally and remain immature and splayed into adulthood, corresponding with the early onset hearing impairment associated with Mass1frings. Progressive base–apex hair cell degeneration occurs at older ages, corresponding with the age-related hearing loss associated with Cdh23ahl. The molecular basis and pathophysiology of hearing loss suggest BUB/BnJ and Frings mice as models to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying USH2C auditory pathology. PMID:15820310

  14. Early breast cancer detection using techniques other than mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Kopans, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    X-ray mammography is the only imaging method currently available with any proven efficacy for screening to detect early-stage, clinically occult breast cancer. Sonography has a limited role in the differentiation of cystic from solid masses and as a guide for aspiration and preoperative localization of selected breast lesions. Computed tomography has a more limited role to determine the spatial orientation of a lesion detected only in the lateral mammographic position. All other imaging methods should be considered experimental at this time.

  15. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  16. Future Directions for the Early Detection of Recurrent Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

  17. [Cost-effective and early detection of oncologic pathology].

    PubMed

    Zmeul, V K; Kindialov, V M

    1990-01-01

    A critical analysis of prophylactic medical examination of population was conducted for detecting early oncological pathology. Methodological approaches in the practice of selecting persons with pretumorous diseases were examined. Great emphasis was put on the necessity of ascertaining the rates of accelerating functional changes as the most characteristic and accessible sign of tissue change from normal into pathological. A diagram-inset for the case histories of ambulatory patients to be included into prospective programme of prophylactic medical examination is suggested. PMID:2115697

  18. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  19. Post-processing analysis of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions to detect 4 kHz-notch hearing impairment – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zimatore, Giovanna; Fetoni, Anna Rita; Paludetti, Gaetano; Cavagnaro, Marta; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Troiani, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background To identify a parameter to distinguish normal hearing from hearing impairment in the early stages. The parameter was obtained from transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), overcoming the limitations of the usually adopted waveform descriptive parameters which may fail in standard clinical screenings. Material/Methods Audiometric examinations and TEOAE analysis were conducted on 15 normal ears and on 14 hearing-impaired ears that exhibited an audiometric notch around 4 kHz. TEOAE signals were analyzed through a multivariate technique to filter out the individual variability and to highlight the dynamic structure of the signals. The new parameter (named radius 2-dimension – RAD2D) was defined and evaluated for simulated TEOAE signals modeling a different amount of hearing impairment. Results Audiometric examinations indicated 14 ears as impaired-hearing (IH), while the TEOAE ILO92 whole reproducibility parameter (WWR) indicated as IH 7 signals out of 14 (50%). The proposed new parameter indicated as IH 9 signals out of 14 (64%), reducing the number of false negative cases of WWR. Conclusions In this preliminary study there is evidence that the new parameter RAD2D defines the topology and the quantification of the damage in the inner ear. The proposed protocol can be useful in hearing screenings to identify hearing impairments much earlier than conventional pure tone audiometry and TEOAE pass/fail test. PMID:21629197

  20. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  1. School Safety, Discipline, and IDEA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Waynesboro, Georgia, August 13, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on August 13, 1999, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed school safety, discipline, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the report includes…

  2. Ritalin Use among Youth: Examining the Issues and Concerns. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on May 16, 2000, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed issues and concerns on the use of ritalin among youth with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the…

  3. Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Melo, Sonia A; Luecke, Linda B; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F; Gammon, Seth T; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2015-07-01

    Exosomes are lipid-bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in the circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identify a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer-cell-derived exosomes. GPC1(+) circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of patients and mice with cancer. GPC1(+) crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreatic cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreatic disease from patients with early- and late-stage pancreatic cancer. Levels of GPC1(+) crExos correlate with tumour burden and the survival of pre- and post-surgical patients. GPC1(+) crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreatic tumours carry specific KRAS mutations, and reliably detect pancreatic intraepithelial lesions in mice despite negative signals by magnetic resonance imaging. GPC1(+) crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreatic cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  4. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  5. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early ‘lepospondyl’ microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  6. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-03-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early 'lepospondyl' microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  7. Early detection of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; Papantoniou, Alonso; Morita, Luis A; Prado, Nilda G; Dorelle, Adriana N; Riarte, Adelina R; Prezioso, Horacio A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chagas' disease may cause left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its early detection in asymptomatic patients would allow to stratify the risk and to optimize medical treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate if transmitral Doppler flow can detect early abnormalities of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients during the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease, in which the electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray and 2-D echocardiogram (2D-echo) are normal. Methods a group of 54 patients with Chagas' disease was studied and compared to a control group of 27 subjects of similar age. All were assessed with an ECG, chest X-ray, 2-D echo, and transmitral Doppler flow. Results both groups had similar values in the 2D-echo. In patients with Chagas' disease, the transmitral Doppler showed a higher peak A velocity (control group: 0.44 m/sec, Chagas group: 0.55 m/sec, p = 0.001), a lower E/A ratio (control group: 1.45, Chagas group: 1.22, p < 0.05), and a lengthening of the deceleration time of early diastolic filling (control: 138.7 ± 26.8 msec, Chagas group: 167.9 ± 34.6 msec, p = 001), thus revealing an early disorder of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients with Chagas' disease. Conclusion in patients with Chagas' disease who are in the indeterminate phase, transmitral Doppler flow allowed to identify early abnormalities of the left ventricular diastolic function, which provide useful clinical information for prognostic stratification and treatment. PMID:16573837

  8. Purpose and benefits of early phase cancer trials: what do oncologists say? What do patients hear?

    PubMed

    Kass, Nancy; Taylor, Holly; Fogarty, Linda; Sugarman, Jeremy; Goodman, Steven N; Goodwin-Landher, Annallys; Carducci, Michael; Hurwitz, Herbert

    2008-09-01

    CANCER PATIENTS OVERESTIMATE BENEFITS of early phase trials but studies have not reported what oncologists say to patients about trials. We audiotaped oncologists talking to cancer patients about Phase I or II trials and interviewed patients about the purpose and expected outcomes of trials presented to them. Oncologists gave mixed messages, saying Phase I trials measure safety and dosing, yet referring to trials as treatment with uncertain therapeutic effects. Seventeen percent of Phase I respondents said the trial's purpose related to safety/dosing (p = 0.017); 17% of Phase I respondents said the purpose was "to cure my cancer." Patients may find it important to believe trials offer significant benefit. Oncologists, while respecting patients' hopes, should be precise in their language, particularly regarding Phase I trials, distinguishing early stages of research from treatment. PMID:19385771

  9. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Millan-Garcia, Leonardo; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Nakano, Mariko; Toscano-Medina, Karina; Perez-Meana, Hector; Rojas-Cardenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained. PMID:22778607

  10. An early fire detection algorithm using IP cameras.

    PubMed

    Millan-Garcia, Leonardo; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Nakano, Mariko; Toscano-Medina, Karina; Perez-Meana, Hector; Rojas-Cardenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained. PMID:22778607

  11. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Dawn M.; Grimes, Ian C.; Weiss, Jennifer M.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Agni, Rashmi M.; Vyazunova, Irina; Clipson, Linda; Storts, Douglas R.; Thliveris, Andrew T.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR) tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29–55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega). This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001), which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001). The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible. PMID:26252492

  12. Relationship between the linguistic environments and early bilingual language development of hearing children in deaf-parented families.

    PubMed

    Kanto, Laura; Huttunen, Kerttu; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2013-04-01

    We explored variation in the linguistic environments of hearing children of Deaf parents and how it was associated with their early bilingual language development. For that purpose we followed up the children's productive vocabulary (measured with the MCDI; MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory) and syntactic complexity (measured with the MLU10; mean length of the 10 longest utterances the child produced during videorecorded play sessions) in both Finnish Sign Language and spoken Finnish between the ages of 12 and 30 months. Additionally, we developed new methodology for describing the linguistic environments of the children (N = 10). Large variation was uncovered in both the amount and type of language input and language acquisition among the children. Language exposure and increases in productive vocabulary and syntactic complexity were interconnected. Language acquisition was found to be more dependent on the amount of exposure in sign language than in spoken language. This was judged to be related to the status of sign language as a minority language. The results are discussed in terms of parents' language choices, family dynamics in Deaf-parented families and optimal conditions for bilingual development. PMID:23349396

  13. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  14. Functional and structural changes throughout the auditory system following congenital and early-onset deafness: implications for hearing restoration

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Blake E.; Lomber, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of auditory input, particularly during development, causes widespread changes in the structure and function of the auditory system, extending from peripheral structures into auditory cortex. In humans, the consequences of these changes are far-reaching and often include detriments to language acquisition, and associated psychosocial issues. Much of what is currently known about the nature of deafness-related changes to auditory structures comes from studies of congenitally deaf or early-deafened animal models. Fortunately, the mammalian auditory system shows a high degree of preservation among species, allowing for generalization from these models to the human auditory system. This review begins with a comparison of common methods used to obtain deaf animal models, highlighting the specific advantages and anatomical consequences of each. Some consideration is also given to the effectiveness of methods used to measure hearing loss during and following deafening procedures. The structural and functional consequences of congenital and early-onset deafness have been examined across a variety of mammals. This review attempts to summarize these changes, which often involve alteration of hair cells and supporting cells in the cochleae, and anatomical and physiological changes that extend through subcortical structures and into cortex. The nature of these changes is discussed, and the impacts to neural processing are addressed. Finally, long-term changes in cortical structures are discussed, with a focus on the presence or absence of cross-modal plasticity. In addition to being of interest to our understanding of multisensory processing, these changes also have important implications for the use of assistive devices such as cochlear implants. PMID:24324409

  15. On early detection of strong infections in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2014-02-01

    Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

  16. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  17. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  18. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of individual chapters. It may also be approached in a linear fashion, as a sequence of steps leading to a comprehensive approach to early-detection. Our primary audience comprises resource professionals within the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program’s networks of parks, but we think that the knowledge and experience captured in this document is more broadly applicable to include other natural areas professionals. We have chosen to emphasize the technical side of invasive species early-detection because this is the arena in which most professionals need more guidance. This approach includes but is not limited to complex techniques that may seem to be just beyond the budgetary and (or) time-bound grasps of some resource professionals. Nonetheless, we have provided low-cost options.

  19. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  20. Acquired hearing loss in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katbamna, Bharti; Flamme, Gregory A

    2008-12-01

    Studies on prevalence of acquired hearing loss across the life span have shown a trend of increase in hearing loss with age. A parallel decline in age of recreational use of loud music and cigarette smoking suggests that these early listening and recreational habits may be major contributing factors to the chronic hearing disability seen in later years. In recognition of these new recreational patterns of adolescents and young adults, Healthy People 2010 has issued a list of objectives for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss and smoking in adolescents and young adults through early education and intervention. In this article, the authors describe the effects of noise- and music-induced and smoking-induced hearing loss and provide guidelines for early identification and hearing conservation. Such an early approach to identification and conservation should ultimately help reduce hearing loss prevalence rates in adults. PMID:19041465

  1. First information parents receive after UNHS detection of their baby's hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover (a) the content of the information provided to parents and (b) the service providers' assumptions and beliefs concerning deafness and care. To do this, we conducted an interpretative phenomenological analysis, followed by a discourse analysis. Results showed that parents receive diverse information, depending on the reference center to which they are referred. Moreover, all service providers used a medical discourse. We suggest that there is value to be gained from closer consideration of the nature of follow-up services provided in response to UNHS in Flanders and from auditing the professional preparation of service providers that are involved in providing information to parents. PMID:22960753

  2. Ethanol labeling: detection of early fluid absorption in endometrial resection.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S; Cruise, M; Reilly, C; Reid, P C; Sharp, F

    1992-02-01

    A study is presented of ethanol labeling of irrigation fluid in endometrial resection. The introduction of ethanol labeling and intraoperative breath ethanol analysis provided an inexpensive and potentially useful means of detecting early fluid absorption during uterine surgery. The breath ethanol analyzer used was a hand-held meter; the irrigant solution was 5% dextrose with 1% ethanol. Simultaneous breath and venous samples were taken from women undergoing endometrial resection. An increase in breath ethanol was positively correlated with fluid absorption, blood ethanol, and serum glucose. This technique may prove valuable in preventing fluid overload during endometrial resection. PMID:1731301

  3. Exosomes: potential for early detection in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-04-01

    Progress in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer at earlier stages has motivated research in identifying novel noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection. Exosomes, which contain bioactive molecules (such as proteins, RNAs and lipids), are membrane-structured nanovesicles that are secreted from living cells and are found in human body fluids. As functional mediators, exosomes play key roles in cell-cell communications, regulating diverse biological processes. Here we aim to examine recent findings in the potential diagnostic value of serum exosomes in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26860951

  4. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  5. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  6. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s normal operation. This technique eliminates the probing problem of a gain/phase margin method by connecting the power input to a spectral analyzer. Therefore, it is able to evaluate stability for all kinds of hybrid DC/DC converters with or without remote sense pins, and is suitable for real-time and in-circuit testing. This frequency-domain technique is more sensitive to detect oscillation at early stage than the time-domain method using an oscilloscope.

  7. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  8. Early Detection and Treatment of Hemodialysis Access Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego Beuter, Juan Jose; Hernandez Lezana, Antonio

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a program for the early detection of hemodialysis graft dysfunction and the impact on graft survival of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent implantation to correct venous stenosis.Methods: A program for the early detection of hemodialysis access graft dysfunction was carried out in 110 patients over a period of 80 months. Detection was based on physical examination, flow rate measurements, venous pressure, and analytical determinations performed at dialysis. The stenoses detected were treated by PTA or PTA plus stent deployment. Survival curves compared primary and assisted patency rates for the different graft types.Results: The most important indicators of dysfunction were increased venous pressure and difficulty in cannulation of the graft. Significant stenoses were revealed by 227 (92.2%) of the 246 fistulography procedures performed. PTA results were satisfactory in 100% of the Thomas grafts, 74% of the Brescia-Cimino (BC) grafts, and 53% of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Technical success rates for stent deployment were 92% for BC grafts and 100% for PTFE grafts, while functional success rates were 96% and 97%, respectively. The difference in the primary patency (P1) and assisted patency (AP) values was statistically significant for all three graft types. There was no significant difference in the patency rates for grafts treated by PTA alone or by PTA and stent deployment.Conclusion: A surveillance program helped prevent graft thrombosis, and intervention as required achieved excellent primary and assisted patency rates. Stent deployment salvaged a considerable number of accesses but did not significantly extend access survival time.

  9. Primary observation of early transtympanic steroid injection in patients with delayed treatment of noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yide; Zheng, Guiliang; Zheng, Hongliang; Zhou, Ronjue; Zhu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the population worldwide suffer from varieties of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Prevention and early identification remain the best methods of approaching NIHL. Over the years, numerous methods of improving the outcome in patients presenting with NIHL have been evaluated; however, these are far from sufficient. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of early transtympanic steroid injection in patients with delayed treatment of NIHL. Because systemic steroid treatment is the most common treatment of choice in the management of NIHL, it was considered unethical to replace the first-line systemic steroid treatment with transtympanic treatment. Therefore, the present study evaluated the combination of conventional steroid treatment with a transtympanic steroid injection. A total of 53 patients diagnosed with delayed treatment of NIHL were randomized into a transtympanic group (TR group, n=27) and a control group (n=26). The TR group received the conventional steroid treatment plus four courses of additional transtympanic injections of methylprednisolone 3 days after NIHL onset, and the control group received the conventional steroid treatment. Transtympanic injection was performed through laser-assisted myringotomy (a 0.5- to 1-mm perforation was made in the tympanic membrane) under an operation microscope. A total of 51.9% of the patients in the TR group had a ?15-dB HL improvement in pure-tone average, compared with 23.1% of the patients in the control group, at the 8-week follow-up audiogram. A total of 66.7% of the patients in the TR group had an improvement of ?15% in the speech discrimination score, compared with 30.8% of patients in the control group, 8 weeks after the treatment. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The outcome of this trial indicates that delayed treatment of NIHL may be preferable if transtympanic therapy can be applied earlier. The large variability in the individual results indicates that additional carefully controlled studies with larger sample sizes are needed to understand the effect of early transtympanic therapy in patients with delayed treatment of NIHL. PMID:23208457

  10. Autism spectrum disorders: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Susan E; Rogers, Sally J; Fombonne, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, "autism"). We conclude from our review of the evidence that, in the absence of additional, more compelling data, the clinical usefulness of existing screening instruments remains questionable. However, the potential importance of such research is underscored by the clear benefits of early behavioural intervention: despite differences in orientation, outcomes for children with autism can be significantly enhanced with early intensive intervention. Although many questions remain (notably, What are the critical therapeutic components? For whom? For what domains of development? For what level of intensity and duration?), interventions shown to be effective are all carefully planned, engineered, monitored, and designed to target specific skill domains. Including children with autism in regular classes within the public school system poses several challenges, the most pressing of which is the large number of school personnel who need to be trained in evidence-based teaching and behavioural management practices. Finally, psychotropic drugs may help to reduce some symptoms, but they are neither curative nor a substitute for other forms of support and intervention. PMID:14574826

  11. Early detection of schizophrenia by diffusion weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Lynn E.; Szulc, Kamila U.; Bertisch, Hilary; Majcher, Magda; Brown, Kyle; Bappal, Arthika; Branch, Craig A.; Ardekani, Babak A.

    2007-01-01

    A novel magnetic resonance imaging method was used to determine whether it is feasible to detect early signs of cortical atrophy among individuals who are at high risk for developing schizophrenia. Fifteen individuals at high-risk for schizophrenia and 15 of their first degree relatives diagnosed with schizophrenia were compared with controls (n = 25) who did not have a family history of psychiatric illness or psychiatric hospitalizations. On the basis of a voxelwise analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps derived from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, these individuals showed evidence of deficits in four separate regions of the brain, all on the left side only: parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. However, conventional volumetric quantification of ventricular space to detect atrophy failed to reveal differences between high-risk subjects and controls. It is concluded that ADC may be a more sensitive measure than ventricular volume assessments for use in future studies of early prediction of schizophrenia. PMID:17070020

  12. Future Directions for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Avery S.; Johnson, Eric K.; Maykel, Justin A.; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J.; Steele, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence. PMID:24790655

  13. Early detection of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Britain.

    PubMed

    Melia, J

    1995-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to research has been one of the hallmarks of Walter Holland's outstanding career in medical research. Studies arising from evaluation of the Cancer Research Campaign's health education programme for the early detection of cutaneous malignant melanoma were reviewed at Walter's Festschrift because they illustrate the importance of the multidisciplinary approach and raise issues about medical screening which has been a special interest of Walter's The programme took place in 1987 in seven areas of England and Scotland with a target population of 3.6 million. The main aim of the evaluation study is to investigate the effect of the programme on mortality from melanoma. Interim effects on awareness about melanoma, workload and incidence rates of melanoma by stage are reviewed. The importance of collaboration between dermatologists, epidemiologists, histopathologists and health education specialists has been essential. However, the effectiveness of high profile campaigns alone to promote early detection of melanoma is uncertain and future initiatives should be evaluated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:7558550

  14. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  15. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  16. FluBreaks: Early Epidemic Detection from Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Background The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. Objective To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. Methods We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Results Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region’s population size. Regions with larger populations (regions 4 and 6) had higher values of EA than region 10 (which had the smallest population) for negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms. The difference was 12.5% and 13.5% on average in negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms, respectively. Conclusions We present the first detailed comparative analysis of popular early epidemic detection algorithms on Google Flu Trends data. We note that realizing this opportunity requires moving beyond the cumulative sum and historical limits method-based normal distribution approaches, traditionally employed by the CDC, to negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms to deal with potentially noisy search query data from regions with varying population and Internet penetrations. Based on our work, we have developed FluBreaks, an early warning system for flu epidemics using Google Flu Trends. PMID:23037553

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  18. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Ortega, Angel; Estrela, Jose Maria

    2004-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique as it provides fundamental information about vibrational modes of a system. Eigenvalues of these modes are very sensitive to the strength of the chemical bonds and perturbations caused by the environment, particularly charge distribution and alterations in the dipole strength of the system. All these parameters are profoundly modified during the tumor formation process nad hence Raman technique could be a unique and also a direct approach for evaluating tumor genesis at early stages. for this pupose the present investigation was carried out. We used cultured wild type and c-ras transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblast. The samples were treated with methyl alcohol solution ina conventional manner and then Raman spectra nad images were obtained by a specially developed confocal Raman microscope. The present results reveal differences between both cell types in the spectral details as well as in the morphology. Raman images are able to detect the exact site where cancer-related changes have taken place. These results clearly indicate the superiority of the present technique over conventional methods such as images obtained by X-rays or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Moreover, unlike other approaches, Raman images detect alterations at the submicron level rather than in the centimeter or millimeter range. Being an optical method it can be applied in vivo as a non-invasive technique potentially useful to early detection of cancer (particularly easy accessible cancers such as those of the skin and the digestive tract). The obtained resulsts suggest the great potential of Raman imaging in premature clinical diagnostic approaches.

  19. Performance of mitochondrial DNA mutations detecting early stage cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P; Maragh, Samantha; Markowitz, Maura E; Greenberg, Alissa K; Hoque, Mohammad O; Maitra, Anirban; Barker, Peter E; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sidransky, David; O'Connell, Catherine D

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with cancer and many other disorders. These mutations can be point mutations or deletions, or admixtures (heteroplasmy). The detection of mtDNA mutations in body fluids using resequencing microarrays, which are more sensitive than other sequencing methods, could provide a strategy to measure mutation loads in remote anatomical sites. Methods We determined the mtDNA mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 26 individuals with different early stage cancers (lung, bladder, kidney) and 12 heavy smokers without cancer. MtDNA was sequenced from three matched specimens (blood, tumor and body fluid) from each cancer patient and two matched specimens (blood and sputum) from smokers without cancer. The inherited wildtype sequence in the blood was compared to the sequences present in the tumor and body fluid, detected using the Affymetrix Genechip® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 1.0 and supplemented by capillary sequencing for noncoding region. Results Using this high-throughput method, 75% of the tumors were found to contain mtDNA mutations, higher than in our previous studies, and 36% of the body fluids from these cancer patients contained mtDNA mutations. Most of the mutations detected were heteroplasmic. A statistically significantly higher heteroplasmy rate occurred in tumor specimens when compared to both body fluid of cancer patients and sputum of controls, and in patient blood compared to blood of controls. Only 2 of the 12 sputum specimens from heavy smokers without cancer (17%) contained mtDNA mutations. Although patient mutations were spread throughout the mtDNA genome in the lung, bladder and kidney series, a statistically significant elevation of tRNA and ND complex mutations was detected in tumors. Conclusion Our findings indicate comprehensive mtDNA resequencing can be a high-throughput tool for detecting mutations in clinical samples with potential applications for cancer detection, but it is unclear the biological relevance of these detected mitochondrial mutations. Whether the detection of tumor-specific mtDNA mutations in body fluidsy this method will be useful for diagnosis and monitoring applications requires further investigation. PMID:18834532

  20. Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

  1. Training in Early Gastric Cancer Diagnosis Improves the Detection Rate of Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-yu; Chen, Chu-di; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xiao-wei; Ren, Yu-tang; Huang, Si-lin; Cui, Xiao-bing; An, Sheng-li; Xiao, Bing; Bai, Yang; Liu, Si-de; Jiang, Bo; Zhi, Fa-chao; Gong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have analyzed the training of endoscopists in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). This study assessed whether specific training of endoscopists improves the detection rate of EGC. The rates of detection of EGC by endoscopists at the Digestive Endoscopy Center of the Affiliated Nanfang Hospital of China Southern Medical University between January 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Because some endoscopists received training in the diagnosis of EGC, beginning in September 2013, the study was divided into 3 time periods: January to September 2013 (period 1), September 2013 to January 2014 (period 2), and January to May 2014 (period 3). The rates of EGC detection during these 3 periods were analyzed. From January 2013 to May 2014, a total of 25,314 gastroscopy examinations were performed at our center, with 48 of these examinations (0.2%) detecting EGCs, accounting for 12.1% (48/396) of the total number of gastric cancers detected. The EGC detection rates by trained endoscopists during periods 1, 2, and 3 were 0.3%, 0.6%, and 1.5%, respectively, accounting for 22.0%, 39.0%, and 60.0%, respectively, of the gastric cancers detected during these time periods. In comparison, the EGC detection rates by untrained endoscopists during periods 1, 2, and 3 were 0.05%, 0.08%, and 0.10%, respectively, accounting for 3.1%, 6.0%, and 5.7%, respectively, of the gastric cancers detected during these times. After training, the detection rate by some trained endoscopists markedly increased from 0.2% during period 1 to 2.3% during period 3. Further, the use of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) (odds ratio?=?3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.4–4.1, P?detection rate of EGC. M-NBI contributed to the diagnosis of EGC. PMID:25590840

  2. Implications of Delay in Detection and Management of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This article explores the rationale for early detection and management of children with significant hearing loss. Topics covered include attitudes toward hearing loss, monaural and binaural auditory sensory deprivation, auditory self-monitoring, and value of early intervention on linguistic and psychosocial development. (Author/DB)

  3. Best practices in family-centered early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing: an international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Mary Pat; Carr, Gwen; Seaver, Leeanne; Stredler-Brown, Arlene; Holzinger, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    A diverse panel of experts convened in Bad Ischl, Austria, in June of 2012 for the purpose of coming to consensus on essential principles that guide family-centered early intervention with children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The consensus panel included parents, deaf professionals, early intervention program leaders, early intervention specialists, and researchers from 10 nations. All participants had expertise in working with families of children who are D/HH, and focus was placed on identifying family-centered practice principles that are specific to partnering with these families. Panel members reported that the implementation of family-centered principles was uneven or inconsistent in their respective nations. During the consensus meeting, they identified 10 agreed-upon foundational principles. Following the conference, they worked to refine the principles and to develop a document that described the principles themselves, related program and provider behaviors, and evidence supporting their use (drawing upon studies from multiple disciplines and nations). The goal of this effort was to promote widespread implementation of validated, evidence-based principles for family-centered early intervention with children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families. PMID:24030911

  4. Epigenetic Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Mi; Fang, Jing-Yua

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, the two most frequent cancers within the gastrointestinal tract, account for a large proportion of human malignancies worldwide. The initiation and progression of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) is controlled by both genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation, specific histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and noncoding RNA-mediated gene silencing, are potentially reversible and heritable. Summary In this article, we summarize the current advances in epigenetic biomarkers as potential substrates for GIC detection. The combined screening of a panel of methylated genes, hyperacetylated histones, microRNAs or other noncoding RNAs is currently under evaluation to improve sensitivity. Key Message Current studies concentrated on the development of cost-effective epigenetic diagnostic biomarkers for GIC based on noninvasive blood or stool samples. The combined blood or stool test with a relatively high sensitivity could be a cost-effective screening tool for the detection of patients with asymptomatic cancers who could therefore choose whether or not to go for further examinations, such as endoscopy or colonoscopy. Practical Implications A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has not only offered new insights into a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis, but has also allowed identification of clinically relevant putative biomarkers for the early detection, disease monitoring, prognosis and risk assessment of GIC. In particular, noninvasive biomarkers in serum or fecal samples for the detection of GIC could have potential for better compliance and can be incorporated into routine clinical practice in the foreseeable future, pending their validation in large-scale prospective trials.

  5. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  6. Rethinking Positron Emission Technology for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, D. B.

    2006-04-01

    Current PET technology, which detects cancer indirectly by measuring the size of tumors, is contrasted with a new technology that emphasizes measuring directly the abnormal metabolic activity characteristic of the very first cancerous cells by improving the efficiency of the medical imaging device hundreds of times. Rather than maximizing spatial resolution, this approach minimizes the abnormal metabolic threshold needed for early cancer diagnosis. A redesigned detector assembly takes full advantage of innovations in electronics to implement real-time algorithms that allow the use of economical crystal detectors. The tradeoffs inherent in choosing components, such as crystals, sensors, and electronics, for achieving the largest reduction in cancer deaths is discussed and justified. Theoretical calculations and prototype data are provided in references that demonstrate that all this can be achieved at a significantly lower radiation dosage and per exam cost to the patient.

  7. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice. PMID:26260369

  8. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  9. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  10. Early detection of intentional harm in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean; Sigman, Mariano; Garcia, María Del Carmen; Silva, Walter; Ciraolo, Carlos; Vaucheret, Esteban; Baglivo, Fabricio; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    A decisive element of moral cognition is the detection of harm and its assessment as intentional or unintentional. Moral cognition engages brain networks supporting mentalizing, intentionality, empathic concern and evaluation. These networks rely on the amygdala as a critical hub, likely through frontotemporal connections indexing stimulus salience. We assessed inferences about perceived harm using a paradigm validated through functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye-tracking and electroencephalogram recordings. During the task, we measured local field potentials in three patients with depth electrodes (n = 115) placed in the amygdala and in several frontal, temporal, and parietal locations. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that intentional harm induces early activity in the amygdala (<200 ms), which-in turn-predicts intention attribution. The amygdala was the only site that systematically discriminated between critical conditions and predicted their classification of events as intentional. Moreover, connectivity analysis showed that intentional harm induced stronger frontotemporal information sharing at early stages. Results support the 'many roads' view of the amygdala and highlight its role in the rapid encoding of intention and salience-critical components of mentalizing and moral evaluation.media-1vid110.1093/brain/awv336_video_abstractawv336_video_abstract. PMID:26608745

  11. Urinary protein biomarkers in the early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nolen, Brian M; Lomakin, Aleksey; Marrangoni, Adele; Velikokhatnaya, Liudmila; Prosser, Denise; Lokshin, Anna E

    2015-02-01

    The early detection of lung cancer has the potential to greatly impact disease burden through the timely identification and treatment of affected individuals at a manageable stage of development. The insufficient specificity demonstrated by currently used screening and diagnostic techniques has led to intense investigation into biomarkers as diagnostic tools. Urine may represent a noninvasive alternative matrix for diagnostic biomarker development. We performed an analysis of 242 biomarkers in urines obtained from 83 patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), 74 patients diagnosed with benign pulmonary conditions, and 77 healthy donors. A large number of significant alterations were observed between the NSCLC and control groups. A multivariate analysis identified a three-biomarker panel consisting of IGFBP-1, sIL-1Ra, CEACAM-1, which discriminated NSCLC from healthy controls with a sensitivity/specificity of 84/95 in an initial training set and 72/100 in an independent validation set. This panel performed well among multiple subtypes of NSCLC and early-stage disease but demonstrated only limited efficacy for the discrimination of NSCLC from benign controls and limited specificity for patients with several other cancers and tuberculosis. These findings demonstrate that urine biomarkers may provide screening and diagnostic properties which exceed those reported for serum biomarkers and approach a level necessary for further clinical development. PMID:25416410

  12. Urinary protein biomarkers in the early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Brian M.; Lomakin, Aleksey; Marrangoni, Adele; Velikokhatnaya, Liudmila; Prosser, Denise; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of lung cancer has the potential to greatly impact disease burden through the timely identification and treatment of affected individuals at a manageable stage of development. The insufficient specificity demonstrated by currently used screening and diagnostic techniques has led to intense investigation into biomarkers as diagnostic tools. Urine may represent a non-invasive alternative matrix for diagnostic biomarker development. We performed an analysis of 242 biomarkers in urines obtained from 83 NSCLC patients, 74 patients diagnosed with benign pulmonary conditions and 77 healthy donors. A large number of significant alterations were observed between the NSCLC and control groups. A multivariate analysis identified a three biomarker panel consisting of IGFBP-1, sIL-1Ra, CEACAM-1 which discriminated NSCLC from healthy controls with a SN/SP of 84/95 in an initial training set and 72/100 in an independent validation set. This panel performed well among multiple subtypes of NSCLC and early stage disease but demonstrated only limited efficacy for the discrimination of NSCLC from benign controls and limited specificity for several other cancers and tuberculosis patients. These findings demonstrate that urine biomarkers may provide screening and diagnostic properties which exceed those reported for serum biomarkers and approach a level necessary for further clinical development. PMID:25416410

  13. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  14. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hear a buzzing sound when I use my cell phone. Some people who wear hearing aids or have ... with the radio frequency interference caused by digital cell phones. Both hearing aids and cell phones are improving, ...

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a result of disease, aging, or injury from noise or certain medicines. A hearing aid magnifies sound ... See your audiologist for adjustments. I hear background noise. A hearing aid does not completely separate the ...

  16. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by wearing protective ear plugs or earmuffs. Once ... t be reversed. If you think you have occupational hearing loss, see your doctor. No 2. Are you experiencing ...

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  18. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  19. Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

  20. Detecting high-frequency hearing loss with click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Goodman, Shawn S.; Ellison, John C.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to clinical click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) tests that are inaccurate above 4–5 kHz, a research procedure measured CEOAEs up to 16 kHz in 446 ears and predicted the presence?absence of a sensorineural hearing loss. The behavioral threshold test that served as a reference to evaluate CEOAE test accuracy used a yes–no task in a maximum-likelihood adaptive procedure. This test was highly efficient between 0.5 and 12.7 kHz: Thresholds measured in 2 min per frequency had a median standard deviation (SD) of 1.2–1.5 dB across subjects. CEOAE test performance was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The mean AUC from 1 to 10 kHz was 0.90 (SD = 0.016). AUC decreased to 0.86 at 12.7 kHz and to 0.7 at 0.5 and 16 kHz, possibly due in part to insufficient stimulus levels. Between 1 and 12.7 kHz, the medians of the magnitude difference in CEOAEs and in behavioral thresholds were <4 dB. The improved CEOAE test performance above 4–5 kHz was due to retaining the portion of the CEOAE response with latencies as short as 0.3 ms. Results have potential clinical significance in predicting hearing status from at least 1 to 10 kHz using a single CEOAE response. PMID:21303007

  1. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion process understanding and for planning appropriately for preventive action in practical situations.

  2. Rope can help with early detection of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, C.

    1993-06-01

    Many of the waters in the western US meet all the ecological requirements of suitable habitat for zebra mussels, which can spread to new bodies of water by attaching to boats. With that in mind, Reclamation has launched Zebra Mussel Watch, a program aimed at early detection of the mussel in western waters. As part of the watch program, Reclamation suggests attaching one end of a rope to a weight such as a brock, rick, or cinder block, and placing the weight in shallow water to detect the arrival of zebra mussels. Any kind of rope will do, but nylon is preferred because small mussels are easier to distinguish on nylon's smooth surface than on ropes with rough surfaces. Young mussels smaller than the head of a common straight pin are transparent when they first settle and probably will not be visible to the naked eye for several weeks, when they are larger and they take on the appearance of small, dark-colored clams. [Note: over time, algae, bacteria, and debris will cause the rope to darken. So the color of the rope used doesn't make much difference.] Hang a rope in 8 feet or less of well-oxygenated water where wave action will not move the bottom of the rope to any great degree. (Zebra mussels like slow currents and will not attach where the current is moving 4 to 5 feet per second or faster.) Leave the rope in the water two or three weeks to allow microorganisms to grow on it. Young mussels will settle on surfaces that are coated with algae and other microscopic organisms. Then, at two- to three-week intervals, lift the rope and examine it for young mussels. If adults are around, the young eventually will show up. Reclamation believes that by detecting the first arrival of the mussels, it can implement plans to control the spread of the mussels and alert nearby projects to the approaching menace.

  3. A nurse-managed universal newborn hearing screen program.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rita Allen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common major birth defects, yet the average age for identifying significant hearing loss in children in the United States is 30 months. Hearing loss directly affects a child's ability to develop normal language skills, impairs his or her ability to communicate with others in the environment, and has been shown to correlate with poor academic performance. However, if hearing loss is detected early and interventions are begun before 6 months of age, children with hearing loss develop language, cognitive, and speech skills comparable to their non-hearing-impaired peers. Only 38 states mandate universal newborn hearing screening before discharge from the hospital. This article describes an institutional universal hearing screening program developed by nursing, which collaborated with physicians, audiologists, and otolaryngologists. Careful planning, including a thorough literature review, networking with area hospitals, and dialoging with experts in the field led to a successful program.The outcomes from this program compare favorably to nationally published data. PMID:15329635

  4. Are Our Children Ready To Learn? Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session on Examining Early Childhood Education and Related Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the 105th Congress on early childhood education and related services. Participants provided different perspectives on early education, focusing on the academic achievement of American students, especially in comparison to students in other countries;…

  5. The Federal Role in K-12 Mathematics Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (February 2, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: Michael N. Castle, Chairman, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Howard P. "Buck" Mckeon, Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary…

  6. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  7. Early Childhood Interventions: Public-Private Partnerships. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Human Resources.

    These hearings transcripts recount testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives concerning early childhood development programs. Testimony addressed the questions of how public and private investments in early childhood programs contribute to successful outcomes for infants and mothers, and how these successes can be measured and replicated…

  8. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  10. Prevention and early detection of cervical cancer in the UK.

    PubMed

    Foran, Claire; Brennan, Arthur

    This literature review explores the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer in the UK. Current findings indicate that there is a risk for women under the age of 25 years, who may develop cervical cancer. There appears to be a gap in UK policy that may overlook these women, who are beneath the age for initial screening but exceed the age for vaccination. Despite the inextricable link between sexual activity and cervical cancer, cervical screening and sexual health promotion still appear to be disjointed, and the role of a sexually transmitted infection leading to the development of cervical cancer has not been emphasised enough in public health messages. Further training should be provided and its impact monitored, designed to address this anomaly in health promotion. There are many barriers to health promotion including, those of a societal, cultural and religious nature. Additional research is required to ascertain the types of educational and awareness interventions that would be most effective in promoting and encouraging positive sexual behaviours among young people, and to explore how these might be successfully implemented. PMID:26018178

  11. Autonomic dysfunction in PD: a window to early detection?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Sewell, LaToya; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2011-11-15

    It has been suggested that autonomic dysfunction constitutes a biomarker for early detection of the disease process in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent findings based on cardiac sympathetic and striatal dopaminergic imaging in the same patients indicate that this view is overly simple. Although evidence of cardiac sympathetic denervation is associated with other non-motor manifestations such as anosmia, REM behavior disorder, dementia, baroreflex failure, and orthostatic hypotension (OH), across individual patients the severities of OH and of the cardiac sympathetic lesion (indicated by thoracic 6-[(18)F]fluorodopamine PET scanning) are unrelated to the severity of the putamen dopaminergic lesion (indicated by brain 6-[(18)F]fluorodopa PET scanning). Moreover, whereas cases have been reported with neuroimaging evidence of cardiac sympathetic denervation several years before motor onset of PD, in other cases loss of cardiac sympathetic innervation progresses approximately concurrently with the movement disorder or can even occur as a late finding. Bases for independent sympathetic noradrenergic and striatal dopaminergic lesions in Lewy body diseases remain poorly understood. In elderly patients with unexplained OH or other evidence of autonomic failure, it is reasonable for clinicians to look for subtle signs of parkinsonism, such as masked facies, cogwheel rigidity, and shuffling gate. PMID:21529844

  12. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  13. Fundus Image Processing System For Early Detection Of Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, S.; Mitra, S.; Krile, T. F.; Shihab, Z.

    1986-12-01

    An image processing system based on a MC 68000 microprocessor has been developed for analysis of fundus photographs. This personal computer based system has specific image enhancement capabilities comparable to existing large scale systems. Basic enhancement of fundus images consists of histogram modification or kernel convolution techniques to determine regions of specific interest such as textural difference in the nerve fiber layer or cupping of the optic nerve head. Fast Fourier transforms and filtering techniques are then utilized for specific regions of the original image. Textural difference in the nerve fiber layers are further highlighted using either interactive histogram modification or pseudocolor mappings. Menu driven software allows review of the steps applied, creating a feedback mechanism for optimum display of the fundus image. A wider noise margin than that of digitized fundus photographs can be obtained by direct fundus imaging. The present fundus image processing system clearly provides us with quantitative and detailed techniques of assessing textural changes in the fundus photographs of glaucoma patients and suspects for better classification and early detection of glaucoma. The versatility and computing capability of the system make it also suitable for other applications such as multidimensional image processing and image analysis.

  14. [Hearing impairment and dementia].

    PubMed

    Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia. PMID:25217286

  15. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  16. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: early detection resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Anderson, Benjamin O; Miller, Anthony B; Thomas, David B; Ang, Eng-Suan; Caffarella, Rosemary S; Corbex, Marilys; Kreps, Gary L; McTiernan, Anne

    2008-10-15

    A key determinant of breast cancer outcome in any population is the degree to which cancers are detected at early stages of disease. Populations in which cancers are detected at earlier stages have lower breast cancer mortality rates. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) held its third Global Summit in Budapest, Hungary in October 2007, bringing together internationally recognized experts to address the implementation of breast healthcare guidelines for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). A multidisciplinary panel of experts specifically addressed the implementation of BHGI guidelines for the early detection of disease as they related to resource allocation for public education and awareness, cancer detection methods, and evaluation goals. Public education and awareness are the key first steps, because early detection programs cannot be successful if the public is unaware of the value of early detection. The effectiveness and efficiency of screening modalities, including screening mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination, were reviewed in the context of resource availability and population-based need by the panel. Social and cultural barriers should be considered when early detection programs are being established, and the evaluation of early detection programs should include the use of well developed, methodologically sound process metrics to determine the effectiveness of program implementation. The approach and scope of any screening program will determine the success of any early detection program as measured by cancer stage at diagnosis and will drive the breadth of resource allocation needed for program implementation. PMID:18837017

  17. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  18. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-357

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen…

  19. Hearing in Insects.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias

    2016-03-11

    Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution. PMID:26667273

  20. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  1. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer...

  2. The effectiveness of a phonics-based early intervention for deaf and hard of hearing preschool children and its possible impact on reading skills in elementary school: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S; Oetting, Tara L

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and group phonics-based instruction supplemented by Visual Phonics in a language-enriched preschool classroom. Standardized assessments were conducted before, during, and after the intervention. Along with some additional assessments, the same assessments were conducted in early elementary school. The results showed that all participants demonstrated at least some use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills when they were explicitly trained, and that these skills were sustained in early elementary school. Furthermore, all participants exhibited overall reading levels at or above age level when measured in early elementary school. PMID:23967767

  3. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  4. The effects of age on sensory thresholds and temporal gap detection in hearing, vision, and touch

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Larry E.; Busey, Thomas A.; Craig, James C.; Kewley-Port, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Differences in sensory function between young (n = 42, 18–31 years old) and older (n = 137, 60–88 years old) adults were examined for auditory, visual, and tactile measures of threshold sensitivity and temporal acuity (gap-detection threshold). For all but one of the psychophysical measures (visual gap detection), multiple measures were obtained at different stimulus frequencies for each modality and task. This resulted in a total of 14 dependent measures, each based on four to six adaptive psychophysical estimates of 75% correct performance. In addition, all participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1997). Mean data confirmed previously observed differences in performance between young and older adults for 13 of the 14 dependent measures (all but visual threshold at a flicker frequency of 4 Hz). Correlational and principal-components factor analyses performed on the data from the 137 older adults were generally consistent with task and modality independence of the psychophysical measures. PMID:19429964

  5. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  6. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  7. Opportunistic hearing screening in elderly inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jordan; Dale, Oliver T; Corbridge, Rogan; Chatterjee, Apurba; Gosney, Margot A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients, to evaluate feasibility of opportunistic hearing screening and to determine subsequent provision of hearing aids. Materials and methods: Subjects (>65?years) were recruited from five elderly care wards. Hearing loss was detected by a ward-based hearing screen comprising patient-reported assessment of hearing disability and a whisper test. Subjects failing the whisper test or reporting hearing difficulties were offered formal audiological assessment. Results: Screening was performed on 51 patients aged between 70 and 95?years. Of the patients, 21 (41%) reported hearing loss and 16 (31%) failed the whisper test. A total of 37 patients (73%) were referred for audiological assessment with 17 (33%) found to have aidable hearing loss and 11 were fitted with hearing aids (22%). Discussion: This study highlights the high prevalence of occult hearing loss in elderly inpatients. Easy two-step screening can accurately identify patients with undiagnosed deafness resulting in significant proportions receiving hearing aids. Key sentences Approximately 14% of the elderly population use hearing aids despite a reported prevalence of deafness in up to 55%. The use of hearing aids is associated with an improvement in physical, emotional, mental and social well-being. An easy screening test for hearing loss consists of patient-reported hearing loss and a whisper test. Opportunistic screening of elderly inpatients resulted in referral of 73% of screened patients for formal audiology. Of the screened patients, 22% were provided with hearing aids.

  8. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... screened unless they have received this information. The discussion about screening should take place at: Age 50 ... prostate cancer at an early age). After this discussion, those men who want to be screened should ...

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  10. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hearing loss in your baby: Cytomegalovirus (also called CMV). This is a kind of herpes virus that ... hearing loss in your baby: Cytomegalovirus (also called CMV). This is a kind of herpes virus that ...

  11. Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    HÄFNER, HEINZ; MAURER, KURT

    2006-01-01

    Research into the early course of schizophrenia has identified a prepsychotic prodromal stage (mean duration: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

  12. A Fresh Start for New Orleans' Children: Improving Education after Katrina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Education System of New Orleans (July 14, 2006, New Orleans, LA). Senate Hearing 109-626

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the education system of New Orleans. Statements were presented by: Honorable Lamar Alexander, Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Honorable Mary L. Landrieu, U.S. Senator from Louisiana; Honorable Richard Burr, U.S. Senator from North Carolina; Linda Johnson, President,…

  13. Field Hearing on Technology in Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Petaluma, California, August 30, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met, pursuant to call, on August 30, 1999 in the Petaluma Community Center, Petaluma, California, with Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presiding. This document represents the field hearing on how educational…

  14. Field Hearing on Education Technology and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Newark, Delaware, April 12, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the House Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce on Educational Technology and the Elementary Secondary Education Act contains statements by: Michael Castle, Subcommittee Chairman; Dale Kildee, Subcommittee member; Thomas Carper, Governor of Delaware, accompanied by…

  15. Examining the Bilingual Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Washington, DC, June 24, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This Congressional hearing on the Bilingual Education Act examines current law and changes necessary to ensure that it provides limited English speaking students with the best possible educational opportunities. After opening statements by Chairman Michael Castle and Representative Carlos Romero-Barcelo, both of the Subcommittee on Early…

  16. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  17. The Role of Technology in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 8, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, Washington, DC met in Washington, DC on March 8, 2000 to hear testimony on the role of technology in America's schools. Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presided. Contents include the opening statements of Chairman Michael Castle and of…

  18. Head Start Reauthorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony concerning the reauthorization of the Head Start Act given on June 9, 1998, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families. The testimony focused on the efficacy of specific programs and activities funded by the Head Start Act, successes and failures, and future needs and directions the…

  19. The Role of Character Education in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 1, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This publication covers the hearing held on March 1, 2000, in Washington, DC, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives on the role of character education in U.S. schools. The publication contains the following: "Statement of Mr. Michael N. Castle,…

  20. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features. PMID:22736539

  1. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence for Early Breast Cancer Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features. PMID:22736539

  2. Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  3. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. PMID:26429333

  4. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  5. Spontaneous improvement in sensorineural hearing loss developed as a complication of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Sameen; Qadir, Maqbool; Salat, Muhammad Sohail

    2015-09-01

    Icterus neonatorum, or neonatal jaundice, is defined as a total serum bilirubin level above 5mg/dl. Acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus are known to be the two major complications associated with it, resulting in neurotoxic effects, including sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, delayed motor skills and intellectual deficits. We report two similar cases of neonatal jaundice requiring exchange transfusion that subsequently developed sensorineural hearing loss. Follow-up at the end of 1year revealed spontaneous recovery of hearing with normal speech. This report aims at increasing awareness of this condition among physicians to allow early detection of risk factors and prompt management and follow-up. PMID:26338755

  6. Strategies for early melanoma detection: approaches to the patient with nevi

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Agnessa G.; Grossman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Although there are no non-invasive techniques for definitive diagnosis of melanoma, and the “gold standard” remains biopsy with histologic examination, a variety of modalities may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi. This article reviews general clinical principles of early melanoma detection, and various modalities that are currently available or on the horizon, providing the clinician with an up-to-date understanding of management strategies for their patients with numerous or atypical nevi. Learning objectives At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should: 1) understand the clinical importance of early melanoma detection; 2) appreciate the challenges of early melanoma diagnosis and which patients are at highest risk; 3) know general principles of early melanoma detection; 4) be familiar with current and emerging modalities that may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi; 5) know the advantages and limitations of each modality; and 6) be able to practice a combined approach to the patient with numerous or clinically atypical nevi. PMID:19389517

  7. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers. PMID:26247944

  8. Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laske, Christoph; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Frost, Shaun M; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Garrard, Peter; Buscema, Massimo; Dauwels, Justin; Soekadar, Surjo R; Mueller, Stephan; Linnemann, Christoph; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Martins, Ralph N; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2015-05-01

    Current state-of-the-art diagnostic measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are invasive (cerebrospinal fluid analysis), expensive (neuroimaging) and time-consuming (neuropsychological assessment) and thus have limited accessibility as frontline screening and diagnostic tools for AD. Thus, there is an increasing need for additional noninvasive and/or cost-effective tools, allowing identification of subjects in the preclinical or early clinical stages of AD who could be suitable for further cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnostics. Implementation of such tests may facilitate early and potentially more effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for AD. Before applying them in clinical practice, these tools should be examined in ongoing large clinical trials. This review will summarize and highlight the most promising screening tools including neuropsychometric, clinical, blood, and neurophysiological tests. PMID:25443858

  9. Evidence of hearing loss in a “normally-hearing” college-student population

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Hensley, B.N.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Hall, J. W.; Guire, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25–8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ≥25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ≥20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for “notched” audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students’ hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects. PMID:21288064

  10. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  11. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  12. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  13. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  14. Screening for Hearing Impairment in High Risk Neonates: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Muddasir; Najar, Bilal Ahmad; Chowdhary, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Background Hearing loss very early in life can have multiple deleterious effects on the new born most commonly being related to attainment of speech and language. Also, it can affect social, emotional and academic achievement of the child.Early identification of hearing impairment has been shown to improve prognosis and hence screening programs have been widely and strongly advocated. Aims and Objectives To estimate the incidence of neonatal hearing loss in high risk neonates admitted in tertiary level teaching hospital and to determine the risk factors predictive of hearing impairment in them. Materials and Methods It was a prospective study over a period of one year. We screened high risk neonates for hearing impairment admitted to NICU using Brain stem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER).The morphology of the response and wave and interwave latencies was examined in respect to age-appropriate forms. Follow up BAER after one month was performed in cases where initial BAER was abnormal. Babies who tested abnormal on the follow-up were referred for detailed audiology diagnostic work up. Results A total of 200 cases comprising 118 males (59%) and 82 females (41%) were enrolled. On initial BAER testing, 18 (15.25%) males and 14 (17%) female neonates had hearing loss. Whereas 7 males (70%) and 3 females (30%) had hearing loss out of the total 10 hearing loss cases in the Follow up-BAER testing. Two out of the 6 neonates with birth weight <1500g had hearing loss in the follow up of BAER testing. Use of ototoxic medications, hyperbilirubinemia requiring exchange transfusion, perinatal asphyxia and bacterial meningitis were the major risk factors occurring in 45%, 30% and 26% and 10%. Five neonates had unilateral hearing loss and the rest five (5%) had bilateral impairment.Meningitis was the significant independent clinical risk factors for predicting hearing impairment in high risk neonates.The risk of BAER increased cumulatively with BAER abnormality rate of 4.2%, 22.2% and 33.3% with one two and three risk factors respectively. Conclusion The overall incidence of hearing loss in initial BERA testing was 16%, in males it was 15.25% in males and in 17% in females,only 62.5% of neonates had a persistent abnormal BAER, with male gender a significant risk factor for this. The incidence of hearing loss increased with number of risk factors. The study highlights that although universal hearing screening programs are warranted; most newborns with a detected hearing loss can be identified based on the risk factors. Thus, a targeted approach for hearing screening may be more feasible in resource limited settings. PMID:26266180

  15. Acoustic particle detection - From early ideas to future benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahnhauer, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The history of acoustic neutrino detection technology is shortly reviewed from the first ideas 50 years ago to the detailed R&D programs of the last decade. The physics potential of ultra-high energy neutrino interaction studies is discussed for some examples. Ideas about the necessary detector size and suitable design are presented.

  16. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  17. Detecting the Ambiguity of Sentences: Relationship to Early Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Helen Smith; Waltzman, Dava; Schlisselberg, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a preliminary study of 18, 4- and 5-year-old children, followed by a longitudinal study of 44 children, who were tested in the first, second, and third grades. The children's ability to detect the ambiguity of lexically ambiguous sentences (e. g., "The children saw the bat lying by the fence") and structurally…

  18. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers. PMID:25605618

  19. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  20. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  1. The R109H variant of fascin-2, a developmentally regulated actin crosslinker in hair-cell stereocilia, underlies early-onset hearing loss of DBA/2J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Longo-Guess, Chantal M.; Gagnon, Leona H.; Saylor, Katherine W.; Dumont, Rachel A.; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Pagana, James M.; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; David, Larry L.; Gillespie, Peter G.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative trait locus ahl8 is a key contributor to the early-onset, age-related hearing loss of DBA/2J mice. A non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in the mouse fascin-2 gene (Fscn2) is responsible for this phenotype, confirmed by wild-type BAC transgene rescue of hearing loss in DBA/2J mice. In chickens and mice, FSCN2 protein is abundant in hair-cell stereocilia, the actin-rich structures comprising the mechanically sensitive hair bundle, and is concentrated towards stereocilia tips of the bundle's longest stereocilia. FSCN2 expression increases when these stereocilia differentially elongate, suggesting that FSCN2 controls filament growth, stiffens exposed stereocilia, or both. Because ahl8 accelerates hearing loss only in the presence of mutant cadherin 23, a component of hair-cell tip links, mechanotransduction and actin crosslinking must be functionally interrelated. PMID:20660251

  2. Early detection of postoperative residual tumor using image subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Suresh B.; Dhawan, Atam P.; Taha, Jamal M.; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lamba, Michael; Sarwal, Alok; Chitre, Yateen S.

    1995-05-01

    The detection after surgery of residual tumor from magnetic resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the low contrast level of the images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging has been found valuable in detecting residual enhancing tumor when performed within 72 hours after surgery. The patient is scanned by the MR scanner with and without infusion of gadolinium, a contrast agent. Usually, the estimation of post-operative tumor volume is done by visual comparison of the T1 MR images obtained with and without gadolinium infusion. The T1 MR images, in most cases, without contrast demonstrates areas of hyper intensities (high brightness levels), consistent with hemorrhage. These hyper intense areas often make it difficult to detect residual tumor in post contrast images. This is due to the presence of both acute hemorrhage and gadolinium enhancement which have high brightness levels in T1 MR images. Even in MR images taken within 72 hours after surgery, detection of tumor enhancement in areas of increased T1 signal produced by blood products or by postoperative changes can be difficult when performed by the naked eye. Due to these problems, the quantification of residual tumor becomes a subjective issue among neuro-radiologists. Thus to reduce errors produced by the human factor, an automated procedure to detect residual tumor is required. We have developed a technique to differentiate tumor enhancement from postoperative changes and blood products on MR imaging. The technique involves fusion of pre- and post-gadolinium MR images performed in the immediate postoperative period. Computerized slice based substraction is then done on the corresponding fused images of the two sets. The subtraction process results in a composite slice, which is examined for differences between pre- and post-gadolinium studies. The presented technique was tested on 14 cases in which MR images were obtained from brain tumor patients within 72 hours after surgery. The subtraction technique easily distinguished residual enhancing tumor from postoperative surgical changes and was simple to perform. The technique proposed and developed has given good results and will be used in clinical trial and diagnosis. Future potentials of the technique are discussed and illustrative cases presented.

  3. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  4. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  5. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Liv Hansen, Naja; Osler, Merete; Lauritzen, Martin; Rostrup, Egill; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently applied to score independent data sets from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) and the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort (Metropolit). Hippocampal texture was superior to volume reduction as predictor of MCI-to-AD conversion in ADNI (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.74 vs 0.67; DeLong test, p = 0.005), and provided even better prognostic results in AIBL (AUC 0.83). Hippocampal texture, but not volume, correlated with Addenbrooke's cognitive examination score (Pearson correlation, r = -0.25, p < 0.001) in the Metropolit cohort. The hippocampal texture marker correlated with hippocampal glucose metabolism as indicated by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (Pearson correlation, r = -0.57, p < 0.001). Texture statistics remained significant after adjustment for volume in all cases, and the combination of texture and volume did not improve diagnostic or prognostic AUCs significantly. Our study highlights the presence of hippocampal texture abnormalities in MCI, and the possibility that texture may serve as a prognostic neuroimaging biomarker of early cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1148-1161, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26686837

  6. Eating disorders in elementary and middle school children: risk factors, early detection, and prevention.

    PubMed

    White, J H

    2000-04-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are significant problems that are typically diagnosed during adolescence. However, the risk factors for and early symptoms of EDs often develop in the elementary and middle school years. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, obesity, parental attitudes, and the influence of the media are some of the significant identifiable risk factors. Prevention programs need to be developed that focus on education, consultation, and consciousness-raising. Early detection involves screening, assessment, and referral for appropriate treatment. School nurses are skilled, educated, and positioned to develop programs for the prevention and early detection of EDs. PMID:11151539

  7. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  8. Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Minimal Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chin Saeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of patients who did not match the audiometric criteria of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) but complained of acute hearing loss. Methods By thorough medical chart reviews, historical cohort study was performed with consecutive data of 589 patients complaining of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss without identifiable causes between 2005 and 2013. Those patients demonstrating a hearing loss of at least 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies based on pure tone audiometry were classified as group I; the others were classified as group II. Patients' characteristics, final hearing, and hearing improvement rate (HIR) between the two groups were compared. Results Group II exhibited distinctive characteristics, including an early age of onset of the hearing loss (P<0.01), an absence of accompanying diabetes (P<0.01) and hypertension (P<0.01), and better unaffected hearing and final hearing compared with group I (P<0.001). However, the HIR of the patients in the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients who did not meet the audiological criteria of SSNHL exhibited distinctive characteristics compared to SSNHL patients. PMID:26622953

  9. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  10. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  11. Early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate by measuring chlorophyll reflectance and fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from off-target drift of herbicide is critical in crop production. Subtle changes in canopy reflectance could present useful information to detect the onset of crop stress. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate a portable spectroradiometer and a portable...

  12. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  13. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  14. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  15. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  16. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  17. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  18. [Research on early fire detection with CO-CO2 FTIR-spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Jian-hua; Zhang, Ren-cheng; Huang, Xiang-ying; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2007-05-01

    A new fire detection method is put forward based on the theory of FTIR spectroscopy through analyzing all kinds of detection methods, in which CO and CO2 are chosen as early fire detection objects, and an early fire experiment system has been set up. The concentration characters of CO and CO2 were obtained through early fire experiments including real alarm sources and nuisance alarm sources. In real alarm sources there are abundant CO and CO2 which change regularly. In nuisance alarm sources there is almost no CO. So it's feasible to reduce the false alarms and increase the sensitivity of early fire detectors through analyzing the concentration characters of CO and CO2. PMID:17655099

  19. Development and evaluation of a portable audiometer for high-frequency screening of hearing loss from ototoxicity in homes/clinics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Peter G; Silaski, Grayson; Wilmington, Debra; Gordon, Samuel; Helt, Wendy; McMillan, Garnett; Fausti, Stephen A; Dille, Marilyn

    2012-11-01

    Cancer treatment often requires patients to be exposed to drugs that can damage hearing. Drugs such as cisplatin can cause permanent damage to hearing if not detected early. Damage typically occurs first in the more basal regions of the cochlea which are specific for high-frequency (HF) hearing and progresses to more apical regions that are relevant to speech understanding. Monitoring of HF hearing loss can be an effective means for early detection of ototoxicity caused by chemotherapy. Once ototoxicity is detected, the oncology medical team could adjust the drug dosage or switch to medications that are less ototoxic. Telehealth technology may improve access to ototoxicity monitoring. Patients could monitor their own hearing using a device that alerts healthcare professionals in the event of a change in hearing. A portable audiometer is currently not available that is 1) capable of automatic or manual (by an audiologist) operation; 2) designed with precision pure-tone functionality up to 20 kHz; and 3) able to remotely transfer health status information to a healthcare professional. This paper describes the design of a technology, the ototoxicity identification (OtoID), that includes a portable audiometer with HF test functionality that meets ANSI/ASA S3.6-2010 standards and is capable of reliably detecting a person's drug-related hearing changes relative to a baseline period (i.e., before ototoxic drugs) using an automated test. The system includes a wireless cellular modem capable of notifying a remote healthcare professional in the event that a significant change in hearing has occurred in the patient. The system was evaluated on test subjects within a sound-proof booth, a noisy hospital ward, and within their homes. Results indicate that the OtoID system can be used by patients to effectively monitor hearing changes remotely within their home or in a hospital ward, ultimately enabling early detection of ototoxicity and potentially avoiding hearing loss. PMID:22801480

  20. Quantum dots hold promise for early cancer imaging and detection.

    PubMed

    Pericleous, Pericles; Gazouli, Maria; Lyberopoulou, Anna; Rizos, Spyros; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2012-08-01

    Despite all major breakthroughs in recent years of research concerning the complex events that lead to cancer expression and metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The various clinical phases originating from cancer diagnosis through treatment and prognosis require a comprehensive understanding of these events, to utilise pre-symptomatic, minimally invasive and targeted cancer management techniques. Current imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma scintigraphy facilitate the pre-operative study of tumours, but they have been rendered unable to visualise cancer in early stages, due to their intrinsic limitations. The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular (in vitro) and in vivo molecular imaging. However, the same unique physical and chemical properties which renowned QDs attractive may be associated with their potentially catastrophic effects on living cells and tissues. There are critical issues that need to be further examined to properly assess the risks associated with the manufacturing and use of QDs in cancer management. In this review, we aim to describe the current utilisation of QDs as well as their future prospective to decipher and confront cancer. PMID:22411309

  1. Quantum dots hold promise for early cancer imaging and detection.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Pericleous P; Gazouli M; Lyberopoulou A; Rizos S; Nikiteas N; Efstathopoulos EP

    2012-08-01

    Despite all major breakthroughs in recent years of research concerning the complex events that lead to cancer expression and metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The various clinical phases originating from cancer diagnosis through treatment and prognosis require a comprehensive understanding of these events, to utilise pre-symptomatic, minimally invasive and targeted cancer management techniques. Current imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma scintigraphy facilitate the pre-operative study of tumours, but they have been rendered unable to visualise cancer in early stages, due to their intrinsic limitations. The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular (in vitro) and in vivo molecular imaging. However, the same unique physical and chemical properties which renowned QDs attractive may be associated with their potentially catastrophic effects on living cells and tissues. There are critical issues that need to be further examined to properly assess the risks associated with the manufacturing and use of QDs in cancer management. In this review, we aim to describe the current utilisation of QDs as well as their future prospective to decipher and confront cancer.

  2. POTENTIAL NEW MARKERS IN THE EARLY DETECTION OF BLADDER CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Samir P.; Lokeshwar, Vinata B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Bladder cancer remains a highly prevalent and lethal malignancy. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment have been shown to improve survival at both initial diagnosis and recurrence. A vast number of tumor markers have been identified and rigorously evaluated in attempts to improve non-invasive diagnostic accuracy of bladder cancer. Hematuria was the first tumor marker in a field that has grown to include soluble markers, cell-surface antigens, cell-cycle related proteins, and genetic alterations. We aim to provide a critical appraisal of newer markers and the current state of research. Recent Findings The number of tumor markers identified has been exponentially increasing. For a variety of reasons, many are unsuitable for clinical practice. More promising recent markers include those discovered in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and epigenetics. Much of the recent work is focused on molecular genetic pathways in bladder cancer. Summary The field of bladder cancer tumor markers remains a rapidly evolving area in which newer markers are constantly identified, evaluated, and often discarded if they do not add significantly to the urologists’ armamentarium. Newer markers rely on genetic rearrangements, molecular changes, and cell-cycle related proteins. Work is currently being done to identify the most promising markers. PMID:19584734

  3. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  4. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  5. An Alternative Approach to Early Literacy: The Effects of ASL in Educational Media on Literacy Skills Acquisition for Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Annie M.; Golos, Debbie B.; Bennett, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood educators need access to research-based practices and materials to help all children learn to read. Some theorists have suggested that individuals learn to read through "dual coding" (i.e., a verbal code and a nonverbal code) and may benefit from more than one route to literacy (e.g., dual coding theory). Although deaf…

  6. Hearing Assistive Technology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  7. Current Approaches and Challenges in Early Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

  8. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  9. Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1.7 (HF-CVC) times less than that for the BB-triplet test. The effect on the HF-triplet test of varying presentation method (professional or cheap headphones and loudspeakers) was small for the NH group and somewhat larger, but nonsignificant for the hearing-impaired group. Test repetition produced a moderate, significant learning effect for the first and second retests, but was small and nonsignificant for further retesting. The learning effect was about two times larger for the HF-CVC test than for the HF-triplet test. The sensitivity of both new tests for high-frequency hearing loss was similar, with an 87% true-positive and 7% false-positive ratio for detecting an average high-frequency hearing loss of 20 dB or more. Conclusions: The new HF-triplet and HF-CVC tests provide a sensitive and accurate method for detecting high-frequency hearing loss. The tests may signal developing hearing impairment at an early stage. The HF-triplet is preferred over the HF-CVC test because of its smaller learning effect, smaller error rate, greater simplicity, and lower cultural dependency. PMID:25127323

  10. Do Hearing Protectors Protect Hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Groenewold, Matthew R.; Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Themann, Christa L.; Davis, Rickie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the association between self-reported hearing protection use at work and incidence of hearing shifts over a 5-year period. Methods Audiometric data from 19,911 workers were analyzed. Two hearing shift measures—OSHA standard threshold shift (OSTS) and high-frequency threshold shift (HFTS)—were used to identify incident shifts in hearing between workers’ 2005 and 2009 audiograms. Adjusted odds ratios were generated using multivariable logistic regression with multi-level modeling. Results The odds ratio for hearing shift for workers who reported never versus always wearing hearing protection was nonsignificant for OSTS (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92–1.64) and marginally significant for HFTS (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00–1.59). A significant linear trend towards increased risk of HFTS with decreased use of hearing protection was observed (P = 0.02). Conclusion The study raises concern about the effectiveness of hearing protection as a substitute for noise control to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1001–1010, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24700499

  11. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Idit; Rivkin, Ilia; Margalit, Rimona; Elkeles, Adi; Levitzki, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i) early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells), and (ii) early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events. PMID:20023366

  12. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

  13. Using Runoff Hydrograph Model for Early Detecting Landslide Dam Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chompuchan, C.; Chen, W. L.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous areas, many studies explored that during extreme rainfall event induced landslide dams failure and consequently caused the catastrophe damage of lives and infrastructures at the downstream of the watershed. The detection of initial landslide dam formation and the estimation of its occurrence position in the upstream were essential to warn the residents and evacuate in advance. The devices currently used, such as wire sensor, geophone sensor, and infrared cameras (CCD) are classified as the post-event type sensor, which only has a shorter response time, and can just hardly satisfy the requirement which people expect from precaution system. To predict disasters earlier and increase response time, this study used the change point derived from comparing theoretical and observing runoff hydrograph. Chishan River watershed was selected as a case study. Grid Rational Algorithm for Predicting Hydrograph (GRAPH), the dynamic rainfall - runoff model, was used to calibrate watershed runoff hydrograph parameter. The landslide dams were simulated at difference distances along the river, and the runoff hydrographs were compared. Then, the rainfall data and landslide dam failure during Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 was verified the model.The result showed that, during the initial landslide dam formation, the observed accumulate and peak flow hydrograph reduced significantly in comparison with theoretical flow. This model can be applied to establish an efficient warning system for debris flow occurring precaution. In addition, this study has been improved for a longer response time by integrating traditional observation system and runoff hydrograph warning systems and can provide to the references of related authorities.

  14. Interferon-Gamma Release Assay: An Effective Tool to Detect Early Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Sun, Ximeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection before the formation of tissue cysts is vital for treatment, as drugs available for toxoplasmosis cannot kill bradyzoites contained in the cysts. However, current methods, such as antibody-based ELISA, are ineffective for detection of early infection. Here, we developed an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), measuring the IFN-? released by T lymphocytes stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen peptides in vitro, for the detection of T. gondii infection in mice. Splenocytes isolated from infected mice were stimulated by peptides derived from dense granule proteins GRA4 and GRA6 and rhoptry protein ROP7, and released IFN-? was measured by ELISA. Results showed that both acute and chronic infection could be detected by IGRA. More importantly, IGRA detected infection as early as the third day post infection; while serum IgM and IgG were detected 9 days and 13 days post infection, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that an IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative sample revealed an early infection, indicating the combination of IGRA and ELISA can be employed for the early diagnosis of T. gondii infection in human beings, cats and livestock. PMID:26378802

  15. HIV-1 Tat biosensor: Current development and trends for early detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Fatin, M F; Ruslinda, A R; Md Arshad, M K; Tee, K K; Ayub, R M; Hashim, U; Kamarulzaman, A; Gopinath, Subash C B

    2016-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected almost 35 million people worldwide. Various tests have been developed to detect the presence of HIV during the early stages of the disease in order to reduce the risk of transmission to other humans. The HIV-1 Tat protein is one of the proteins present in HIV that are released abundantly approximately 2-4 weeks after infection. In this review, we have outlined various strategies for detecting the Tat protein, which helps transcribe the virus and enhances replication. Detection strategies presented include immunoassays, biosensors and gene expression, which utilize antibodies or aptamers as common probes to sense the presence of Tat. Alternatively, measuring the levels of gene transcription is a direct method of analysing the HIV gene to confirm the presence of Tat. By detection of the Tat protein, virus transmission can be detected in high-risk individuals in the early stages of the disease to reduce the risk of an HIV pandemic. PMID:26655174

  16. Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.

    PubMed

    Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics. PMID:19719886

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were calculated for assessment the differences between the spectral data of healthy and injured (stressed) plants of two cultivars. The averaged reflectance spectra for all groups were analyzed in the most informative for green plants spectral ranges: green, red, red edge, and near infrared. Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the maximums of the emitted radiation and at the forefronts and rear slopes. On the 7th day no visual changes in the leaves occurred but a decrease of spectral reflectance was established in the green and red ranges for all cases of two cultivars. On the 14th day an increase of the number of statistically significant differences between spectral reflectance of healthy and treated plants was observed. A shift of the red edge position to the blue region was observed for the case of treatment only with CMV. The growth regulator MEIA is with the best preventing action on the leaves. The correlation of the results from spectral analyses and the DAS-ELISA findings for presence of CMV demonstrates the efficiency and sensitivity of these remote sensing techniques for reliable diagnosis of viral infection and injuries of the plants.

  18. Consequences of congenital hearing loss - a longterm view.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I

    1978-12-01

    Responsibility for detection of hearing loss at the earliest possible age rests on the shoulders of the medical profession. Early detection and presentation of language through all available sensory channels, most notably the visual, are essential since deaf children of hearing parents, the vast majority of the deaf, characteristically remain grossly deficient linguistically despite years of special schooling. The deaf children of deaf parents, who are not as deprived linguistically since they learn a manual language at the normal age of language acquisition, tend to be less severely handicapped than the deaf children of hearing parents. Deafness is a hidden handicap in infancy although lack of vestibular function may delay motor milestones like sitting and walking but does not constitute a serious problem after they are achieved. The average 18 year old deaf student achieves a reading level comparable to that of a hearing fourth grader and the mathematical skills of a sixth grader. He is also deficient in science, social studies, and general information despite his average scores on nonverbal intelligence tests. Although many deaf students drop out of school before graduation and few go on to higher education, congenitally deaf adults are usually self-supporting and independent. Eighty per cent of the deaf marry hearing impaired persons. The deaf are greatly assisted by the cohesive deaf community existing in every sizable city which provides a social, recreational, and economic framework to their lives. As a result, delinquency and psychiatric illness are not higher among the deaf than the hearing, despite the difficulties they have dealing with the complexities of the hearing society. PMID:731774

  19. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  20. Early Education and Care: What Is the Federal Government's Role? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 20, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the federal role in improving the effectiveness and coordination of sixty-nine Federal programs that are designed to help parents help their young children with child care and early education. Opening statements were delivered by Subcommittee Chairman Senator Lamar Alexander, Tennessee; Ranking Member…

  1. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M P; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26628933

  2. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. P.; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B. G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26628933

  3. Detection of Early Cancer: Genetics or Immunology? Serum Autoantibody Profiles as Markers of Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Poletaev, Alexander; Pukhalenko, Alexander; Kukushkin, Andrey; Sviridov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The search for effective methods for detecting cancers at very early stages is currently a top priority of cancer research. While numerous oncogenes have been identified in and associated with human cancers, the last 50 years of molecular and genetic studies have not led to a breakthrough in either the diagnosis or the treatment of cancers. Therefore, the role of oncogenes in carcinogenesis is still unclear, as is their usefulness in the diagnosis of human cancers. In the present review, we discuss the concept of oncogenes and summarize the current approaches for the early detection of human cancers based on antibodies arrays. PMID:26179267

  4. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  5. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries. PMID:24281081

  6. Hearing Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  7. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Stephanie M.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  8. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E’, an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E’/A’ at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy. PMID:26871457

  9. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  10. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  11. TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp; Cariou, Romain; Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan; Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia; Frei, Melissa; Hanna, Chad; Kara, Erin; Keppel, Drew; Liao, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  12. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  13. Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  14. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  15. Hearing Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ... exposure to high noise levels (such as loud music) over time can cause permanent damage to the ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... case goes behind the ear that holds the electronics that make up the actual hearing aid. It's ... there's a hard plastic case that holds the electronic components, but it's joined to the earmold itself, ...

  17. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  18. Hearing voices.

    PubMed

    2015-05-27

    This free app was created to help and empower people who experience the challenge of hearing voices, and to aid their relatives, carers and health professionals in understanding this phenomenon. PMID:26015129

  19. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health care professional. Spotlight Public Workshop - Streamlining Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for Hearing Aids, April 21, 2016 ... 463-6332) Contact FDA Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook ...

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  1. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies. PMID:26117369

  2. Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Dangdang; Dong, Zhengcheng; Huang, Yunguang

    2014-03-01

    Surveillance of SF6 decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO2 is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO2 is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290-310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO2 in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO2 and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO2 is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice.

  3. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  4. Early detection of population declines: high power of genetic monitoring using effective population size estimators.

    PubMed

    Antao, Tiago; Pérez-Figueroa, Andrés; Luikart, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of population declines is essential to prevent extinctions and to ensure sustainable harvest. We evaluated the performance of two N e estimators to detect population declines: the two-sample temporal method and a one-sample method based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We used simulated data representing a wide range of population sizes, sample sizes and number of loci. Both methods usually detect a population decline only one generation after it occurs if N e drops to less than approximately 100, and 40 microsatellite loci and 50 individuals are sampled. However, the LD method often out performed the temporal method by allowing earlier detection of less severe population declines (N e approximately 200). Power for early detection increased more rapidly with the number of individuals sampled than with the number of loci genotyped, primarily for the LD method. The number of samples available is therefore an important criterion when choosing between the LD and temporal methods. We provide guidelines regarding design of studies targeted at monitoring for population declines. We also report that 40 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers give slightly lower precision than 10 microsatellite markers. Our results suggest that conservation management and monitoring strategies can reliably use genetic based methods for early detection of population declines. PMID:25567959

  5. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  6. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  7. The Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: What Will it Take to Diagnose and Treat Curable Pancreatic Neoplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Anne Marie; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Canto, Marcia Irene; Klein, Alison P.; Herman, Joseph M.; Goggins, Michael; Fishman, Elliot K.; Kamel, Ihab; Weiss, Matthew J.; Diaz, Luis A.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the deadliest of all solid malignancies. Early detection offers the best hope for a cure, but characteristics of this disease such as the lack of early clinical symptoms, make the early detection difficult. Recent genetic mapping of the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer suggests that a large window of opportunity exists for the early detection of pancreatic neoplasia, and developments in cancer genetics offer new, potentially highly specific, approaches for screening for curable pancreatic neoplasia. We review the challenges of screening for early pancreatic neoplasia, as well as opportunities presented by incorporating molecular genetics into these efforts. PMID:24924775

  8. Hearing on the Contract with America: Child Welfare and Childcare. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony on the effects of the agenda of past Congresses on child welfare and childcare, focusing on the need for welfare and social services reform, subsidized child care, and abuses of the 1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). Testimony was heard from: (1) Representatives Randy "Duke"…

  9. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  10. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  11. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  12. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  13. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  14. Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate on soybean and cotton using plant leaf hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we describe early detection of crop injury from glyphosate using traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features from leaf hyperspectral reflectance data in non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton. Spectral bands used in the new features are select...

  15. Changing Concepts of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Renaldo N.; Huston, Patricia; Davis, M. William L.

    1986-01-01

    The understanding of primary open-angle glaucoma has changed over the past 20 years and recommendations on early detection are being revised. In this paper the use of Shiotz tonometry is critically examined, and the problems encountered in instituting alternative screening techniques are reviewed. ImagesFigure 3c PMID:21267099

  16. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  17. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  18. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGIES FOR EARLY DETECTION SURVEYS IN FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL LANDSCAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In surveys designed for early detection of a pathogen it is typical for a large number of samples to be collected and brought to the laboratory for confirmatory, diagnostic testing, often with PCR or ELISA. When the incidence of the pathogen is expected to be low, group or batch testing is preferred...

  19. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  20. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  1. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  2. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys in Chequamegon Bay in support of invasive species early detection research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the impetus and approach for MED invasive species early detection research generally and presents preliminary results concerning benthic composition and non-native species found in the 2013 Chequamegon Bay survey. The audience is a group of researchers...

  3. Plasma RNA based Early Lung Cancer Detection by Tethered Cationic Lipoplex Assay | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our primary objectives are (1) to optimize the tCLN biochip and to evaluate its performance for capture and detection of 5-6 targeted miRNAs and mRNAs in lung cancer patient plasma, and (2) to conduct pilot scale test using well defined human plasma samples from early lung cancer patients and smokers.

  4. Physicians' database searches as a tool for early detection of epidemics.

    PubMed Central

    Jormanainen, V.; Jousimaa, J.; Kunnamo, I.; Ruutu, P.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed retrospectively the use of Physician Desk Reference Database searches to identify epidemics of tularemia, nephropathy, Pogosta disease, and Lyme disease and compared the searches with mandatory laboratory reports to the National Infectious Diseases Register in Finland during 1995. Continuous recording of such searches may be a tool for early detection of epidemics. PMID:11384534

  5. Assessing Component Language Deficits in the Early Detection of Reading Difficulty Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Marshall, Chloe R.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the linguistic components that underlie letter-sound decoding skills and reading comprehension: specifically phonology, morphology, and syntax. Many children who have reading difficulties had language deficits that were detectable before they began reading. Early identification of language difficulties will…

  6. Assessing Component Language Deficits in the Early Detection of Reading Difficulty Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Marshall, Chloe R.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the linguistic components that underlie letter-sound decoding skills and reading comprehension: specifically phonology, morphology, and syntax. Many children who have reading difficulties had language deficits that were detectable before they began reading. Early identification of language difficulties will…

  7. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  8. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  9. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  10. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer. PMID:25898957

  11. Road to early detection of pancreatic cancer: Attempts to utilize epigenetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira

    2014-01-28

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, mainly because of its aggressive biological behavior and late onset of symptoms for clinical diagnosis; these impose limitations on therapeutic intervention. Deeper genomic sequencing analyses of pancreatic cancers revealed 12 core pathways and a long duration, nearly 20 years from initiation to distant metastases. This evidence will offer a broader aspect and time window of opportunity for early detection, thus preventing deaths from this cruel cancer. Epigenetic biomarkers can be utilized for assessing cancer risk, early detection, and predicting prognosis and therapeutic responses. In this review, we briefly summarize relevant issues associated with pancreatic cancer progression and recent advances in epigenetic biomarkers such as DNA methylation, miRNAs, satellite repeats, and histone modifications for early diagnosis. PMID:22450751

  12. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    Background In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. Objective To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. Methods We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Results Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women’s abilities to make trade-offs. Conclusion Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting. PMID:26508842

  13. A study of the high-frequency hearing thresholds of dentistry professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Andréa Cintra; de Melo, Ana Dolores Passarelli; Santos, Cibele Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?In the dentistry practice, dentists are exposed to harmful effects caused by several factors, such as the noise produced by their work instruments. In 1959, the American Dental Association recommended periodical hearing assessments and the use of ear protectors. Aquiring more information regarding dentists', dental nurses', and prosthodontists' hearing abilities is necessary to propose prevention measures and early treatment strategies. Objective:?To investigate the auditory thresholds of dentists, dental nurses, and prosthodontists. Method:?In this clinical and experimental study, 44 dentists (Group I; GI), 36 dental nurses (Group II; GII), and 28 prosthodontists (Group III; GIII) were included, , with a total of 108 professionals. The procedures that were performed included a specific interview, ear canal inspection, conventional and high-frequency threshold audiometry, a speech reception threshold test, and an acoustic impedance test. Results:?In the 3 groups that were tested, the comparison between the mean hearing thresholds provided evidence of worsened hearing ability relative to the increase in frequency. For the tritonal mean at 500 to 2,000?Hz and 3,000 to 6,000?Hz, GIII presented the worst thresholds. For the mean of the high frequencies (9,000 and 16,000 Hz), GII presented the worst thresholds. Conclusion:?The conventional hearing threshold evaluation did not demonstrate alterations in the 3 groups that were tested; however, the complementary tests such as high-frequency audiometry provided greater efficacy in the early detection of hearing problems, since this population's hearing loss impaired hearing ability at frequencies that are not tested by the conventional tests. Therefore, we emphasize the need of utilizing high-frequency threshold audiometry in the hearing assessment routine in combination with other audiological tests. PMID:25991940

  14. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  15. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  16. Computer-assisted detection (CAD) methodology for early detection of response to pharmaceutical therapy in tuberculosis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Robert; Kwong, Heston; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    The chest x-ray radiological features of tuberculosis patients are well documented, and the radiological features that change in response to successful pharmaceutical therapy can be followed with longitudinal studies over time. The patients can also be classified as either responsive or resistant to pharmaceutical therapy based on clinical improvement. We have retrospectively collected time series chest x-ray images of 200 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis receiving the standard pharmaceutical treatment. Computer algorithms can be created to utilize image texture features to assess the temporal changes in the chest x-rays of the tuberculosis patients. This methodology provides a framework for a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system that may provide physicians with the ability to detect poor treatment response earlier in pharmaceutical therapy. Early detection allows physicians to respond with more timely treatment alternatives and improved outcomes. Such a system has the potential to increase treatment efficacy for millions of patients each year.

  17. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  18. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  19. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  20. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  1. Hear ye? Hear ye! Successful auditory aging.

    PubMed Central

    Gates, G A; Rees, T S

    1997-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is a multifactorial process that affects nearly all people in their senior years. Most cases are due to a loss of cochlear hair cell function and are well mediated by communication courtesy and modern amplification technology. Severe hearing loss is generally due to cochlear problems or age-related diseases and may require speech reading, assistive listening devices, and cochlear implants, depending on the degree of loss. Presbycusis may seriously impair communication and contribute to isolation, depression, and possibly dementia. Accurate diagnosis and prompt remediation are widely available but are frequently underused. Geriatric health care and well-being is enhanced by the detection and remediation of communication disorders. PMID:9348755

  2. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  3. Interferometric detection of early markers for epithelial ovarian cancer and prognostic markers for acute lymphocytic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, P.; Zhao, M.; Wang, X.; Nolte, D. D.

    2010-02-01

    We are developing fluorescence-free interferometric biosensors for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and prognosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). We can detect potential early markers for EOC (CA125, human epididymus protein 4, osteopontin) spiked into serum as well as elevated CA125 in EOC patient serum. For ALL prognosis we are focusing on three intracellular protein markers (p73, p57/Kip2, and p15/Ink4b), the down-regulation of any two being indicative of a more aggressive cancer. We have detected p15 and p57 spiked into buffer and are preparing to test positive and negative control lysates from bone marrow biopsies.

  4. Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

    Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

  5. Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Shan, Bohan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore L.

    2014-09-01

    Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

  6. The state of molecular biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Callison, J Clay; Callaway-Lane, Carol; Aldrich, Melinda C; Grogan, Eric L; Massion, Pierre P

    2012-08-01

    Using biomarkers to select the most at-risk population, to detect the disease while measurable and yet not clinically apparent has been the goal of many investigations. Recent advances in molecular strategies and analytic platforms, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have identified increasing numbers of potential biomarkers in the blood, urine, exhaled breath condensate, bronchial specimens, saliva, and sputum, but none have yet moved to the clinical setting. Therefore, there is a recognized gap between the promise and the product delivery in the cancer biomarker field. In this review, we define clinical contexts where risk and diagnostic biomarkers may have use in the management of lung cancer, identify the most relevant candidate biomarkers of early detection, provide their state of development, and finally discuss critical aspects of study design in molecular biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:22689914

  7. Archeological treasures protection based on early forest wildfire multi-band imaging detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouverneur, B.; Verstockt, S.; Pauwels, E.; Han, J.; de Zeeuw, P. M.; Vermeiren, J.

    2012-10-01

    Various visible and infrared cameras have been tested for the early detection of wildfires to protect archeological treasures. This analysis was possible thanks to the EU Firesense project (FP7-244088). Although visible cameras are low cost and give good results during daytime for smoke detection, they fall short under bad visibility conditions. In order to improve the fire detection probability and reduce the false alarms, several infrared bands are tested ranging from the NIR to the LWIR. The SWIR and the LWIR band are helpful to locate the fire through smoke if there is a direct Line Of Sight. The Emphasis is also put on the physical and the electro-optical system modeling for forest fire detection at short and longer ranges. The fusion in three bands (Visible, SWIR, LWIR) is discussed at the pixel level for image enhancement and for fire detection.

  8. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-12-15

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

  9. Pyruvate Kinase M2: A Novel Biomarker for the Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Son, Ji Yeon; Kang, Ye Rim; An, Ji Hye; Kwon, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Sub; Moon, Aree; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2016-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) is clinically important. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), are frequently used to diagnose AKI. However, these biomarkers increase only after significant structural damage has occurred. Recent efforts have focused on identification and validation of new noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of AKI, prior to extensive structural damage. Furthermore, AKI biomarkers can provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this complex and heterogeneous disease. Our previous study suggested that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), which is excreted in the urine, is a sensitive biomarker for nephrotoxicity. To appropriately and optimally utilize PKM2 as a biomarker for AKI requires its complete characterization. This review highlights the major studies that have addressed the diagnostic and prognostic predictive power of biomarkers for AKI and assesses the potential usage of PKM2 as an early biomarker for AKI. We summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the role of biomarkers and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AKI. This review will elucidate the biological basis of specific biomarkers that will contribute to improving the early detection and diagnosis of AKI. PMID:26977258

  10. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Hasmeena; Gesthalter, Yaron; Spira, Avrum; Brody, Jerome S.; Steiling, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24840047

  11. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  12. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced EWM invasions have negative impacts on native biodiversity, recreational boating, fishing, and other types of aquatic tourism (e.g., Eiswerth et al. 2000). On a broader scale, EWM can also be harmful to man-made aquatic infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams. If an EWM invasion can be detected in an early stage where eradication is still a possibility, many of these negative consequences can be limited or prevented altogether (e.g., Madsen et al. 2002). The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of pure and hybridized EWM DNA using both laboratory and field experiments. We performed a pilot experiment in outdoor tanks to determine the basic functionality and sensitivity of the assay. Following this initial test, we collected field samples from Michigan and Montana lakes with and without known EWM populations. Taken together, our findings suggest that eDNA techniques have potential to be a useful strategy for the early detection of EWM.

  13. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Lauren J; Panas, Michael W; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J; Binder, Steven R; Rebman, Alison W; Montoya, Jose G; Soloski, Mark J; Steere, Allen C; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M; Aucott, John N; Robinson, William H

    2015-12-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  14. Urinary Biomarkers in the Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won K.; Wagener, Gebhard; Zhu, Yanqing; Wang, Shuang; Lee, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Serum creatinine (Scr) does not allow for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). The diagnostic utility of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was evaluated for the early detection of postoperative AKI in a prospective study of 90 adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Designs, setting, participants, & measurements: Urinary KIM-1, NAG, and NGAL were measured at 5 time points for the first 24 h after operation and normalized to the urinary creatinine concentration after cardiac surgery. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were generated and the areas under the curve (AUCs) compared for performance of biomarkers in detection of postoperative AKI. Results: Thirty-six patients developed AKI, defined as an increase in Scr of ≥0.3 mg/dl within 72 h after surgery. The AUCs for KIM-1 to predict AKI immediately and 3 h after operation were 0.68 and 0.65; 0.61 and 0.63 for NAG; and 0.59 and 0.65 for NGAL, respectively. Combining the three biomarkers enhanced the sensitivity of early detection of postoperative AKI compared with individual biomarkers: the AUCs for the three biomarkers combined were 0.75 and 0.78. The performance of combining biomarkers was even better among 16 early postoperative AKI patients with AUCs of 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study support that a combination of urinary biomarkers may allow for early detection of postoperative AKI after cardiac surgery before a rise in Scr. PMID:19406962

  15. Early Detection of Human Epileptic Seizures Based on Intracortical Local Field Potentials.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun S; Hochberg, Leigh R; Eskandar, Emad N; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    The unpredictability of re-occurring seizures dramatically impacts the quality of life and autonomy of people with epilepsy. Reliable early seizure detection could open new therapeutic possibilities and thus substantially improve quality of life and autonomy. Though many seizure detection studies have shown the potential of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals, reliable early detection of human seizures remains elusive in practice. Here, we examined the use of intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from 4×4-mm(2) 96-microelectrode arrays (MEA) for early detection of human epileptic seizures. We adopted a framework consisting of (1) sampling of intracortical LFPs; (2) denoising of LFPs with the Kalman filter; (3) spectral power estimation in specific frequency bands using 1-sec moving time windows; (4) extraction of statistical features, such as the mean, variance, and Fano factor (calculated across channels) of the power in each frequency band; and (5) cost-sensitive support vector machine (SVM) classification of ictal and interictal samples. We tested the framework in one-participant dataset, including 4 seizures and corresponding interictal recordings preceding each seizure. The participant was a 52-year-old woman suffering from complex partial seizures. LFPs were recorded from an MEA implanted in the participant's left middle temporal gyrus. In this participant, spectral power in 0.3-10 Hz, 20-55 Hz, and 125-250 Hz changed significantly between ictal and interictal epochs. The examined seizure detection framework provided an event-wise sensitivity of 100% (4/4) and only one 20-sec-long false positive event in interictal recordings (likely an undetected subclinical event under further visual inspection), and a detection latency of 4.35 ± 2.21 sec (mean ± std) with respect to iEEG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate that intracortical MEA recordings may provide key signals to quickly and reliably detect human seizures. PMID:24663490

  16. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  17. A computerized scheme of SARS detection in early stage based on chest image of digital radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhong; Lan, Rihui; Lv, Guozheng

    2004-05-01

    A computerized scheme for early severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) lesion detection in digital chest radiographs is presented in this paper. The total scheme consists of two main parts: the first part is to determine suspect lesions by the theory of locally orderless images(LOI) and their spatial features; the second part is to select real lesions among these suspect ones by their frequent features. The method we used in the second part is firstly developed by Katsuragawa et al with necessary modification. Preliminary results indicate that these features are good criterions to tell early SARS lesions apart from other normal lung structures.

  18. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, C. A.; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices. PMID:26664695

  19. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools for early caries detection by field health care providers working in non-traditional settings are urgently needed to support inter-professional dental health management. Lasers Surg. PMID:26414887

  20. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Pearse A; de Salvo, Gabriella; Sim, Dawn A; Goverdhan, Srini; Agrawal, Rupesh; Tufail, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. PMID:25733802

  1. Sensitivity and accuracy of DNA based methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For biomonitoring efforts aimed at early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), the ability to detect rare individuals is key and requires accurate species level identification to maintain a low occurrence probability of non-detection errors (failure to detect a present spe...

  2. Severity of hearing impairment is positively associated with urine albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Feng-Chih; Hsieh, Ching-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To identify risk factors for hearing impairment among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Materials A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled between March and September of 2011. Pure-tone auditory tests were carried out for each patient at the following speech frequencies: 250; 500; 1,000; 2,000; 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Participants were classified as having hearing impairment if the average of the pure-tone thresholds measured at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz in either ear exceeded 25 dBHL. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory parameters and diabetes-associated complications were analyzed. Results Patients were divided into those with (n = 32) and without (n = 36) hearing impairment. Hearing impaired participants had a higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio than those without (223.1 vs 56.5 mg/g, respectively). After adjustment for age, sex and other risk factors, the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio remained significantly associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio 9.07, 95% confidence interval 1.73–47.43, P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in oxidative stress between the two groups. Conclusions The present study showed increased albuminuria was positively associated with the severity of hearing impairment among patients with type 2 diabetes. Screening for hearing impairment in diabetic patients who develop albuminuria might provide early detection of hearing impairment. PMID:25422777

  3. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  4. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  5. Early detection of bruises on apples using near-infrared hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenqian; Zhang, Baihai; Li, Jiangbo; Zhang, Chi

    Early detection of bruises on apples is important for an automatic apple sorting system. A hyperspectral imaging system with the wavelength range of 1000 to 2500nm was built for detecting bruises happened in an hour on `Fuji' apples. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on the hyperspecrtral images and the principal components images were compared. Three effective wavelengths 1060, 1329 and 1949nm were determined using the weighing coefficients plot of the best principal component (PC) image. A bruise detection algorithm based on PCA on the three effective wavelengths and a global threshold method was developed. Independent validation set of 50 intact and 50 bruised apples was used to evaluate the performance of the developed algorithm. Results show that 100% of the intact apples are correctly classified, 94% of the bruised apples are correctly recognized and the overall detection accuracy is 97%.

  6. Machine vision extracted plant movement for early detection of plant water stress.

    PubMed

    Kacira, M; Ling, P P; Short, T H

    2002-01-01

    A methodology was established for early, non-contact, and quantitative detection of plant water stress with machine vision extracted plant features. Top-projected canopy area (TPCA) of the plants was extracted from plant images using image-processing techniques. Water stress induced plant movement was decoupled from plant diurnal movement and plant growth using coefficient of relative variation of TPCA (CRV[TPCA)] and was found to be an effective marker for water stress detection. Threshold value of CRV(TPCA) as an indicator of water stress was determined by a parametric approach. The effectiveness of the sensing technique was evaluated against the timing of stress detection by an operator. Results of this study suggested that plant water stress detection using projected canopy area based features of the plants was feasible. PMID:14674430

  7. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jinsong Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  8. Early and Efficient Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum by Microscopic Observation of Broth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kidenya, Benson R.; Kabangila, Rodrick; Peck, Robert N.; Mshana, Stephen E.; Webster, Lauren E.; Koenig, Serena P.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture) in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein–Jensen (LJ) solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB) suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3%) pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3%) versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8%) (p = 0.0007). The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7–13), versus 21 days (IQR 14–28) (p<0.0001). The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive) in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture) is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings. PMID:23469014

  9. Serum-Based DNA Methylation Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer: Potential for Screening and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Thomas; Langan, Russell C.; Nissan, Aviram; Brücher, Björn L.D.M; Bilchik, Anton J.; Protic, Mladjan; Daumer, Martin; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Early identification and treatment of pre-cancerous colorectal lesions, or node-negative CRC are highly effective interventions that substantially reduce disease-specific mortality. Colonoscopy remains a highly effective primary screening tool based on its excellent diagnostic accuracy, and its ability to remove pre-cancerous lesions. However, the nature of the procedure limits compliance with colonoscopy intended for population-based CRC screening. A significant advance in the screening and care of these patients could be realized by blood-based biomarkers, which could accurately identify patients at-risk for CRC development whom might benefit from early and/or more frequent surveillance for disease. We reviewed and herein discuss the potential for serum based DNA methylation biomarkers for screening and early detection of CRC. PMID:23459561

  10. Factors influencing the detectability of early warning signals of population collapse.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Drake, John M; Griffiths, Jason I; Ozgul, Arpat

    2015-07-01

    The recent description of potentially generic early warning signals is a promising development that may help conservationists to anticipate a population's collapse prior to its occurrence. So far, the majority of such warning signals documented have been in highly controlled laboratory systems or in theoretical models. Data from wild populations, however, are typically restricted both temporally and spatially due to limited monitoring resources and intrinsic ecological heterogeneity-limitations that may affect the detectability of generic early warning signals, as they add additional stochasticity to population abundance estimates. Consequently, spatial and temporal subsampling may serve to either muffle or magnify early warning signals. Using a combination of theoretical models and analysis of experimental data, we evaluate the extent to which statistical warning signs are robust to data corruption. PMID:26098338

  11. Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  12. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  13. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  14. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  15. Early detection of cardiotoxicity by 2D and 3D deformation imaging in patients receiving chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stoebe, Stephan; Tuennemann, Jan; Baka, Zsuzsanna; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Varga, Albert; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether early cardiac changes in patients receiving chemotherapy can be detected by the conventional and deformation parameters of 2D and 3D echocardiography. Twenty-five healthy subjects with normal regional left ventricular function (group 1) and 25 patients receiving chemotherapy (group 2) underwent 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography (Toshiba Artida Medical System). All patients (group 2) were examined before and during cardiotoxic chemotherapy at a 3-month follow-up. Left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, muscle mass, global longitudinal, global radial, global circumferential strain, and rotation were analyzed with 2D and 3D echocardiography, while twist and time-to-peak-intervals were analyzed with 3D echocardiography. For left ventricular volumes and muscle mass, no significant differences were seen between the two study groups (P<0.05). According to our results, myocardial dysfunction induced by cardiotoxic chemotherapy can be detected by 2D global radial strain. Detecting myocardial dysfunction by global longitudinal and circumferential strain requires more than 3 months follow-up. Changes in rotation, twist or time-to-peak intervals could not be verified at the 3-month follow-up in the present study. 2D global radial strain seems to be the most sensitive and robust parameter to detect early myocardial damage during chemotherapy. 3D echocardiography is not yet an established method to detect myocardial damage in clinical practice due to lower spatial and temporal resolution.

  16. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using histograms in a dissimilarity-based classification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtenberg, Anne; Simões, Rita; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2014-03-01

    Classification methods have been proposed to detect early-stage Alzheimer's disease using Magnetic Resonance images. In particular, dissimilarity-based classification has been applied using a deformation-based distance measure. However, such approach is not only computationally expensive but it also considers large-scale alterations in the brain only. In this work, we propose the use of image histogram distance measures, determined both globally and locally, to detect very mild to mild Alzheimer's disease. Using an ensemble of local patches over the entire brain, we obtain an accuracy of 84% (sensitivity 80% and specificity 88%).

  17. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  18. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  19. A simple, sensitive method for detecting early peripheral nerve dysfunction in the rat following acrylamide treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Miller, M S; Burks, T F; Sipes, I G

    1984-01-01

    The "ocular zingerone test" was employed to detect early alterations in peripheral nerve function which were associated with acrylamide intoxication in the rat. Acrylamide treatment resulted in a dose-related prolongation of the behavioral response to ocular zingerone. Significant alterations in the zingerone response occurred prior to detectable alterations in peripheral sensory and motor nerve function. Acrylamide-induced prolongation of the zingerone response appears to be the result of functional alterations in cholinergic neurotransmission in the autonomic nervous system. It is concluded that the "ocular zingerone test" is a simple, sensitive technique with which the degree of acrylamide intoxication may be quantified in the rat. PMID:6095142

  20. Early video smoke detection system to improve fire protection in rolling stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Pilato, Luca; Fanucci, Luca

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a video system, operating in the visible spectrum range, for early smoke detection in passenger trains. The main idea is integrating standard smoke sensors with the results of a smoke detection processing, which exploits video surveillance cameras already available on-board the train. To this aim a novel video processing flow is proposed exploiting temporal, spatial and chromatic characteristics of the reference scenario. The proposed algorithm has been successfully verified with several video set and its implementation complexity fully characterized.

  1. Emerging Strategies for the Early Detection and Prevention of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Santanu; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K.; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapeutic protocols, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year post therapeutic survival rate is among the lowest of the major cancers with loco-regional relapse being the main cause of death. Moreover, in most instances, the quality of life of the afflicted patient is severely compromised. The poor prognosis for HNSCC is primarily due to disease detection at advanced stages. Accordingly, development of early detection and preventive strategies are essential. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and etiology of HNSCC should facilitate development of improved intervention and therapeutic approaches. The present review discusses the potential role of such factors for developing preventive and early diagnostic strategies for HNSCC management. PMID:21465466

  2. Early Detection of Severe Apnoea through Voice Analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ruben; Blanco, Jose Luis; Díaz, David; Hernández, Luis A.; López, Eduardo; Alcázar, José

    This study is part of an on-going collaborative effort between the medical and the signal processing communities to promote research on applying voice analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition techniques (ASR) for the automatic diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Early detection of severe apnoea cases is important so that patients can receive early treatment. Effective ASR-based diagnosis could dramatically cut medical testing time. Working with a carefully designed speech database of healthy and apnoea subjects, we present and discuss the possibilities of using generative Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), generally used in ASR systems, to model distinctive apnoea voice characteristics (i.e. abnormal nasalization). Finally, we present experimental findings regarding the discriminative power of speaker recognition techniques applied to severe apnoea detection. We have achieved an 81.25 % correct classification rate, which is very promising and underpins the interest in this line of inquiry.

  3. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  4. [Research on process character information in early fire based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum detection].

    PubMed

    Du, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Ren-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    CO was chosen as an early fire detection factor through analyzing all kinds of characters in the process of fires, and an experiment system was established based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Through this system, lots of early fire experiments were carried out, and the authors got the CO concentrations of all kinds of materials. Using the concentration of CO, an autoregressive integrated model was established by time series analysis, then the process characters phi1 and phi2 were extracted from them. Through analyzing the phase graph of the process characters, it was found that the real fires and the nuisance fires were distributed in different regions. Plenty of experiments indicate that this detection method can discriminate between real fire sources and nuisance sources quickly when fires occur. PMID:18536412

  5. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program partnerships in action.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Latasha D; Larkins, Teri L; Boyle, John N; George, Susan F; Triplett, Erin W; Leypoldt, Melissa D

    2014-08-15

    Since the inception of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in 1990, partnerships have played a significant role in providing breast and cervical cancer screening and early detection to uninsured and underinsured women. The state, tribal, and territorial NBCCEDP grantees have shared resources and responsibilities with a variety of partners (eg, community-based organizations, government agencies, tribes, health care systems, companies, professional organizations) to achieve common goals. National partners, such as the American Cancer Society, Susan G. Komen for the Cure, and the Avon Foundation for Women, have provided funding, lobbied for national and state funding, supported outreach and education activities, and provided treatment referral services for the programs. This article provides an overview of grantee partnerships to illustrate the effects, successes, and challenges of these partnerships and how they have affected the populations served by the program. PMID:25099905

  6. An expert system for early detection of cancer of the breast.

    PubMed

    Morio, S; Kawahara, S; Okamoto, N; Suzuki, T; Okamoto, T; Harada, M; Shimizu, A

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the relevancy of exploring complex expert systems for use by the lay public, an expert system for the early detection of cancer of the breast has been developed. The system consists of a conversion between a microcomputer and a woman who is anxious about breast cancer. The conversation is divided into two parts: one is listening to the woman's symptoms regarding the breast then giving advice, the other is an explanation of breast cancer and how to detect it in its early stages. After listening to the woman's symptoms, the computer presents its conclusion and suggests courses of action the woman should take. The system is written in Prolog. It was tried by women in a small town at a festival for health, by female patients who visit our hospital, and received a positive reaction. PMID:2598640

  7. Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening; Proceedings Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented in the conference proceedings are schedule and list of participants, seven major papers, and the newborn hearing screening recommendations of the interdisciplinary conference on newborn hearing and early identification of hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory testing is reviewed by Sanford E. Gerber, and Sheldon B. Korones gives a…

  8. An endoscopic system for the early detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckechnie, Tracy; Jahan, Ali; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Sibbett, Wilson; Padgett, Miles

    1998-06-01

    We report a compact endoscopic imaging system suitable for the early detection of cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The system incorporates a three-color camera to provide a conventional color image, a mercury lamp filtered between 360 and 450 nm to excite the photosensitizer, and an intensified camera to image the resulting fluorescence at 630 nm. Our results on over 30 resected specimens show a high optical contrast between the cancerous and healthy tissue.

  9. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  10. Circulating miRNAs revealed as surrogate molecular signatures for the early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjay; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Suman, Shankar; Kumar, Vijay; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2015-12-01

    The miRNAs have well studied roles in cancer. Here, we identified altered miRNA expression by global miRNA profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of breast cancer (n?=?15) and healthy subjects (n?=?15), and further validated the selected miRNAs in PBMCs (n?=?45), blood plasma (n?=?45) and breast tissue samples (n?=?09). The expression of altered miRNAs was also evaluated in PBMCs among early stage (n?=?32), advanced stage (n?=?13), triple positive (n?=?5) and triple negative (n?=?5) breast cancer patients. Results showed differential pattern of expressions of these miRNAs in multiple cohorts, however in early stage breast cancer, miR-106a-5p and miR-454-3p were upregulated (p?early stage breast cancer detection. In summary, the present study delineated the importance of miR-195-5p and miR-495 miRNAs as prospective circulating surrogate molecular signatures for early detection of breast cancer. PMID:26276721

  11. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

  12. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Armin; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to terrorists because animal disease agents are easily available. This review addresses the vulnerabilities of the livestock industry to agroterrorism. However, we also show that early detection systems have recently been developed for agroterrorism and deliberate spread of animal pathogens in livestock, including an agroterrorism intelligence cycle, syndromic surveillance programs, and computer-based clinical decision support systems that can be used for early detection of notifiable animal diseases. The development of DIVA-vaccines in the past 10 to 15 years has created, in principle, an excellent response instrument to counter intentional animal disease outbreaks. These developments have made our animal agriculture less vulnerable to agroterrorism. But we cannot relax; there are still many challenges, in particular with respect to integration of first line of defense, law enforcement, and early detection systems for animal diseases. PMID:23971814

  13. Recommendations for screening and early detection of common cancers in India.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Anderson, Benjamin O; Basu, Partha; Belinson, Jerome L; Cruz, Anil D'; Dhillon, Preet K; Gupta, Prakash; Jawahar, Tenkasi S; Joshi, Niranjan; Kailash, Uma; Kapambwe, Sharon; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Panda, Dharitri; Sankaranarayanan, R; Selvam, Jerard M; Shah, Keerti V; Shastri, Surendra; Shridhar, Krithiga; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Sivaram, Sudha; Seth, Tulika; Srivastava, Anurag; Trimble, Edward; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2015-07-01

    Cancers of the breast, uterine cervix, and lip or oral cavity are three of the most common malignancies in India. Together, they account for about 34% of more than 1 million individuals diagnosed with cancer in India each year. At each of these cancer sites, tumours are detectable at early stages when they are most likely to be cured with standard treatment protocols. Recognising the key role that effective early detection and screening programmes could have in reducing the cancer burden, the Indian Institute for Cytology and Preventive Oncology, in collaboration with the US National Cancer Institute Center for Global Health, held a workshop to summarise feasible options and relevant evidence for screening and early detection of common cancers in India. The evidence-based recommendations provided in this Review are intended to act as a guide for policy makers, clinicians, and public health practitioners who are developing and implementing strategies in cancer control for the three most common cancers in India. PMID:26149887

  14. Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

    2015-04-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. PMID:25688116

  15. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stan?in, Sara; Tomaži?, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  16. A rapid automatic processing platform for bead label-assisted microarray analysis: application for genetic hearing-loss mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Song, Xiumei; Xiang, Guangxin; Feng, Zhengde; Guo, Hongju; Mei, Danyang; Zhang, Guohao; Wang, Dong; Mitchelson, Keith; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required. PMID:23975388

  17. Hearing assessment of classical orchestral musicians.

    PubMed

    Kähäri, K R; Axelsson, A; Hellström, P A; Zachau, G

    2001-01-01

    Pure-tone audiometry was performed on 140 classical orchestral musicians employed at the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra and the Gothenburg Opera in Sweden. This report is based on the results from hearing threshold measurements, presented as median audiograms according to gender, age group and instrument group. The results did not show severe hearing losses that could be attributed to exposure to musical noise. However, the study reflects the subjects' present hearing ability status and does not give an answer to the question of future hearing dysfunction. Female musicians were shown to have significantly better hearing thresholds in the high-frequency area than did male musicians. Furthermore, the median pure-tone hearing thresholds for the male musicians displayed a notch configuration at 6 kHz in the left ear, similar that of to noise-induced hearing loss. A small, but in general not significant, difference was detected when comparing the median hearing thresholds between each instrument group. Percussion and woodwind players displayed slightly worse hearing thresholds than did other musicians. Players of large string instruments had the best hearing threshold values. When comparing age groups and gender it was noted that the median hearing thresholds were stable and within 20 dB HL up to the age group of 40-49 years for both females and males. PMID:11330914

  18. Early Detection of Lung Cancer with Meso Tetra (4-Carboxyphenyl) Porphyrin-Labeled Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Lara; Merrick, Daniel T.; Hill, David; Holcomb, Richard G.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Bennett, Gordon; Karia, Bijal; Rebel, Vivienne I.; Bauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early detection of lung cancer in high-risk individuals reduces mortality. Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) is the current standard but suffers from an exceedingly high false-positive rate (>96%) leading to unnecessary and potentially dangerous procedures. We, therefore, set out to develop a simple, noninvasive, and quantitative assay to detect lung cancer. Methods This proof-of-concept study evaluated the sensitivity/specificity of the CyPath Early Lung Cancer Detection Assay to correctly classify LDCT-confirmed cohorts of high-risk control (n = 102) and cancer (n = 26) subjects. Fluorescence intensity parameters of red fluorescent cells (RFCs) from tetra (4-carboxyphe-nyl) porphyrin (TCPP)-labeled lung sputum samples and subjects’ baseline characteristics were assessed for their predictive power by multivariable logistic regression. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity of the CyPath assay. Results RFCs were detectable in cancer subjects more often than in high-risk ones (p = 0.015), and their characteristics differed between cohorts. Two independent predictors of cancer were the mean of RFC average fluorescence intensity/area per subject (p < 0.001) and years smoked (p = 0.003). The CyPath-based classifier had an overall accuracy of 81% in the test population; false-positive rate of 40% and negative predictive value of 83%. Conclusions The tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin-based CyPath assay correctly classified study participants into cancer or high-risk cohorts with considerable accuracy. Optimizing sputum collection, sample reading, and refining the classifier should improve sensitivity and specificity. The CyPath assay thus has the potential to complement LDCT screening or serve as a stand-alone approach for early lung cancer detection. PMID:26200451

  19. [Mental disorders in the peripartum period--early detection and multi-professional cooperation].

    PubMed

    Nagel-Brotzler, A; Brönner, J; Hornstein, C; Albani, C

    2005-04-01

    Given the great prevalence of mood disorders in early motherhood, the danger of chronic, particularly depressive mood disorders and the negative long-term effects on the socio-emotional development of the child requires specific and individual treatment. Midwives could serve as mediators between women patients and health care professionals. Therefore the project "Early detection and care of peripartum mood disorders, increasing options for reaching affected women" was initiated by the "German chapter of the International Marce Society" in cooperation with midwives. This paper presents results of the preliminary investigation. 111 midwives were interviewed in 12 centres in Germany, Switzerland and Austria regarding their experience and knowledge of psychic disturbances in early motherhood. Psychic disturbances are seen as an essential issue by the participating midwives. In their estimation 39 % of the pregnant women they cared for are exceptionally psychically burdened. In approximately 43 % of the cases they believe that the physical complaints of pregnant women have a psychic background. In addition to "classic" mood complaints, midwives often perceive dysfunctions in the relationship between the mother and her child and that with her partner in the context of psychic disturbances during the peripartum period. In the diagnosis of psychic disturbances in early motherhood, attention should be paid to possible dysfunctional interactions between the mother and her child and that with her partner. Successful treatment of women with psychic disturbances in early motherhood requires cooperation between midwives, obstetricians and other health professionals. PMID:15852230

  20. Education Technology Programs Authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Washington, DC, May 11, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document represents the second hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, held in Washington, DC on May 11, 1999 on the education technology programs authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Michael Castle, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on…

  1. Robust regression and posterior predictive simulation increase power to detect early bursts of trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J; Pennell, Matthew W

    2014-05-01

    A central prediction of much theory on adaptive radiations is that traits should evolve rapidly during the early stages of a clade's history and subsequently slowdown in rate as niches become saturated--a so-called "Early Burst." Although a common pattern in the fossil record, evidence for early bursts of trait evolution in phylogenetic comparative data has been equivocal at best. We show here that this may not necessarily be due to the absence of this pattern in nature. Rather, commonly used methods to infer its presence perform poorly when when the strength of the burst--the rate at which phenotypic evolution declines--is small, and when some morphological convergence is present within the clade. We present two modifications to existing comparative methods that allow greater power to detect early bursts in simulated datasets. First, we develop posterior predictive simulation approaches and show that they outperform maximum likelihood approaches at identifying early bursts at moderate strength. Second, we use a robust regression procedure that allows for the identification and down-weighting of convergent taxa, leading to moderate increases in method performance. We demonstrate the utility and power of these approach by investigating the evolution of body size in cetaceans. Model fitting using maximum likelihood is equivocal with regards the mode of cetacean body size evolution. However, posterior predictive simulation combined with a robust node height test return low support for Brownian motion or rate shift models, but not the early burst model. While the jury is still out on whether early bursts are actually common in nature, our approach will hopefully facilitate more robust testing of this hypothesis. We advocate the adoption of similar posterior predictive approaches to improve the fit and to assess the adequacy of macroevolutionary models in general. PMID:24149077

  2. [Rehabilitative measures in hearing-impaired children].

    PubMed

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P

    1991-12-01

    On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child. PMID:1770955

  3. Communication Assessment and Intervention: Implications for Pediatric Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Bobsin, Lori L; Houston, K Todd

    2015-12-01

    Historically, children with hearing loss have fallen well behind their hearing peers in the areas of speech and language development, which has often limited their participation in a range of social, educational, and vocational activities. However, with early identification and appropriate intervention coupled with current hearing technology, children with hearing loss can achieve speech and language milestones at rates commensurate with hearing peers. To attain the best outcomes for these children, an early intervention system that provides thorough and unbiased information to families and allows for the efficient and coordinated efforts of qualified professionals must be present. PMID:26443489

  4. Early detection of epilepsy seizures based on a weightless neural network.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Kleber; Franca, Felipe M G; Barbosa, Valmir C; Teixeira, Cesar A D

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces a new methodology for the early detection of epileptic seizure based on the WiSARD weightless neural network model and a new approach in terms of preprocessing the electroencephalogram (EEG) data. WiSARD has, among other advantages, the capacity of perform the training phase in a very fast way. This speed in training is due to the fact that WiSARD's neurons work like Random Access Memories (RAM) addressed by input patterns. Promising results were obtained in the anticipation of seizure onsets in four representative patients from the European Database on Epilepsy (EPILEPSIAE). The proposed seizure early detection WNN architecture was explored by varying the detection anticipation (?) in the 2 to 30 seconds interval, and by adopting 2 and 3 seconds as the width of the Sliding Observation Window (SOW) input. While in the most challenging patient (A) one obtained accuracies from 99.57% (?=2s; SOW=3s) to 72.56% (?=30s; SOW=2s), patient D seizures could be detected in the 99.77% (?=2s; SOW=2s) to 99.93% (?=30s; SOW=3s) accuracy interval. PMID:26737287

  5. Pancreatic cancer early detection: expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Shiro

    2015-02-14

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters. PMID:25684935

  6. Pancreatic cancer early detection: Expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters

    PubMed Central

    Urayama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters. PMID:25684935

  7. A multispectral imaging analysis system for early detection of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiongshui; Zeng, Libo; Ke, Hengyu; Zheng, Hong; Gao, Xijian; Wang, Diancheng

    2005-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of cervical cancer is very important for successful treatment and increasing survival. Papanicolaou test is the most popular and effective screening test for cervical cancer, but it is highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. We report a multispectral imaging microscopic system for Papanicolaou smear analysis for early detection of cervical cancer. Different from traditional color imaging method, we use multispectral imaging techniques for image acquisition, which can simultaneously record spectral and spatial information of a sample. A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) is coupled in the light microscope for fast wavelength selection and a two-dimensional cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) for image capture. In this paper, the multispectral image acquisition method is introduced, including exposure control and spectral calibration, which makes the images not so dependent on imaging devices. In the image segmentation process, an effective algorithm using spectral ratio method is applied for cell nuclei detection. This segmentation method can easily detect the nuclei and diminish the influence of the cytoplasm overlap. Results show that our segmentation is more robust and precise than conventional color imaging method which is heavily dependant on sample staining and illumination conditions while with high speed. Once the nuclei have been segmented, cell features including morphological and textural features are measured. A genetic algorithm is used for feature selection and a support vector machine(SVM)is used for training and classification. This paper is focused on image acquisition and segmentation.

  8. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  9. Combined antibody and DNA detection for early diagnosis of leptospirosis after a disaster.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroko; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Leano, Prisca Susan A; Koizumi, Nobuo; Nakajima, Chie; Taurustiati, Delsi; Hanan, Firmanto; Lacuesta, Talitha Lea; Ashino, Yugo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Gloriani, Nina G; Telan, Elizabeth Freda O; Hattori, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Early diagnosis based on laboratory confirmation is essential for managing leptospirosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel method of detecting leptospirosis that combines measurement of anti-Leptospira antibodies by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunochromatographic test (ICT) and leptospiral DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and real-time PCR in plasma and 2 types of urine pellets. Of 113 suspected cases, 68.1%, 76.1%, and 60.2% were positive by MAT, ELISA, and ICT, respectively. Real-time PCR using DNA purified from urine pellets collected by low-speed centrifugation yielded positive signals for patients in late acute as well as early phase who were positive by LAMP using plasma DNA or urine pellets. Among antibody-negative patients, 9.5% were positive by DNA detection. These findings indicate that the leptospirosis detection rate is increased by combining antibody and DNA detection, providing a new tool for timely diagnosis of infection. PMID:26860351

  10. Social Network Effects of Nonlifesaving Early-Stage Breast Cancer Detection on Mammography Rates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of anecdotes of early-stage, screen-detected cancer for which screening was not lifesaving on the demand for mammography. Methods. We constructed an agent-based model of mammography decisions, in which 10?000 agents that represent women aged 40 to 100 years were linked together on a social network, which was parameterized with a survey of 716 women conducted through the RAND American Life Panel. Our model represents a population in equilibrium, with demographics reflecting the current US population based on the most recent available census data. Results. The aggregate effect of women learning about 1 category of cancers—those that would be detected but would not be lethal in the absence of screening—was a 13.8 percentage point increase in annual screening rates. Conclusions. Anecdotes of detection of early-stage cancers relayed through social networks may substantially increase demand for a screening test even when the detection through screening was nonlifesaving. PMID:25322304

  11. In situ apoptosis assay for the detection of early acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Bardales, R. H.; Hailey, L. S.; Xie, S. S.; Schaefer, R. F.; Hsu, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Detection and age determination of myocardial infarction (MI) is often necessary in both clinical and pathological settings. Conventional histopathological techniques are of limited utility in the demonstration of myocardial ischemic cell death (MICD) within the first 6 hours of MI. In this study, an in situ apoptosis assay was evaluated for the determination of early MICD or early MI. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue blocks from 80 hearts were stained for the presence of apoptotic cells by specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. Conventional hematoxylin and eosin stain showed acute MI (group A, n = 32), equivocal evidence for MICD or early infarction (group B, n = 35), or no abnormal findings (group C, n = 13). The sensitivity and specificity of the in situ apoptosis assay for MICD were confirmed in groups A and C patients. We showed that apoptosis of myocardial cells can occur after ischemic myocardial cell injury. Virtually all documented cases of acute MI (group A) revealed a sizeable distribution of apoptotic cells visible on gross examination of glass slides. Special attention was given to patients in group B, who were at high risk for MI and for suspected but not proved cardiac death. In this group, 34/35 cases (97%) showed focal or diffuse nuclear positivity of varying degrees for apoptosis, confirming the presence of MICD. A sizeable distribution of apoptotic cells, similar to that observed in group A, was noted in 13/35 cases (37%) of group B, suggesting acute MI in these cases. The in situ assay of DNA fragmentation can detect MICD while the histological diagnosis is still inconclusive. It is estimated that with this assay one can detect MICD as early as 2 to 4 hours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8780386

  12. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  13. On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Jean-François; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Fromageau, Jérémie; Cloutier, Guy; Basset, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pressure ulcers are areas of soft tissue breakdown induced by a sustained mechanical stress that damages the skin and underlying tissues. They represent a considerable burden to the society in terms of health care and cost. Yet, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article, the authors investigated the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection. Elastography is an imaging technique providing local information on biological tissue mechanical properties. It is relevant for pressure ulcer detection as this pathology is associated with a gradual stiffening of damaged tissues, beginning in the deeper tissues and progressing toward the skin surface. Methods A 2D ultrasound elastography method was proposed and its ability in terms of pressure ulcer detection was validated through numerical simulations and physical acquisitions on pressure ulcer mimicking phantoms. In vivo experiments on a rat model are also reported. A maintained pressure was applied on the animal thigh, with a view to generate a pressure ulcer, and ultrasound data were acquired and processed before and after application of this pressure. Results Numerical simulations demonstrated that a pressure ulcer can theoretically be detected at a very early stage with ultrasound elastography. Even when the ulcer region was characterized by a low stiffening (ratio of 1.8 relative to normal tissues), the corresponding elastogram clearly underlined the pathological area. This observation was confirmed by the results obtained on a physical phantom mimicking a pressure ulcer at an early stage. Computed elastograms showed strain differences between areas mimicking healthy and pathological tissues. Results corresponding to in vivo experiments revealed a difference in the way tissues behaved before and after the pressure was applied on the animal thigh, which strongly suggests the presence of a pathological area. Conclusions Experiments demonstrated that ultrasound elastography is a promising technique for pressure ulcer detection, especially at an early stage of the pathology, when the disease is still visually undetectable. In the absence of any gold standard method, this is also a first step toward the development of a quantitative technique. PMID:21626927

  14. Skin cancer education for massage therapists: a novel approach to the early detection of suspicious lesions.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Shannon C; Louie-Gao, Qiong; Hession, Meghan T; Cummins, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    Studies indicate that with training, nonmedical health professionals may be able to successfully recognize lesions suspicious for skin cancer and thereby assist with early detection of suspicious lesions. We present the results of a study aimed at assessing the efficacy of a 4-h continuing education program designed to educate massage therapists about skin cancer detection and prevention. Prior to and after the administration of the course, surveys were administered to attendees to gauge their ability to identify skin cancer and their comfort level with counseling clients with suspicious lesions. Our study suggests that while many massage therapists are educated on skin cancer and have experience referring patients for suspicious lesions, a 4-h educational session may not be sufficient to improve sensitivity of detection. PMID:24407881

  15. In vivo capture and label-free detection of early metastatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Azarin, Samira M.; Yi, Ji; Gower, Robert M.; Aguado, Brian A.; Sullivan, Megan E.; Goodman, Ashley G.; Jiang, Eric J.; Rao, Shreyas S.; Ren, Yinying; Tucker, Susan L.; Backman, Vadim; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death for women, with mortality resulting from metastasis. Metastases are often detected once tumor cells affect the function of solid organs, with a high disease burden limiting effective treatment. Here we report a method for the early detection of metastasis using an implanted scaffold to recruit and capture metastatic cells in vivo, which achieves high cell densities and reduces the tumor burden within solid organs 10-fold. Recruitment is associated with infiltration of immune cells, which include Gr1hiCD11b+ cells. We identify metastatic cells in the scaffold through a label-free detection system using inverse-spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, which identifies changes to nanoscale tissue architecture associated with the presence of tumor cells. For patients at risk of recurrence, scaffold implantation following completion of primary therapy has the potential to identify metastatic disease at the earliest stage, enabling initiation of therapy while the disease burden is low. PMID:26348915

  16. In vivo capture and label-free detection of early metastatic cells.

    PubMed

    Azarin, Samira M; Yi, Ji; Gower, Robert M; Aguado, Brian A; Sullivan, Megan E; Goodman, Ashley G; Jiang, Eric J; Rao, Shreyas S; Ren, Yinying; Tucker, Susan L; Backman, Vadim; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Shea, Lonnie D

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death for women, with mortality resulting from metastasis. Metastases are often detected once tumour cells affect the function of solid organs, with a high disease burden limiting effective treatment. Here we report a method for the early detection of metastasis using an implanted scaffold to recruit and capture metastatic cells in vivo, which achieves high cell densities and reduces the tumour burden within solid organs 10-fold. Recruitment is associated with infiltration of immune cells, which include Gr1(hi)CD11b(+) cells. We identify metastatic cells in the scaffold through a label-free detection system using inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, which identifies changes to nanoscale tissue architecture associated with the presence of tumour cells. For patients at risk of recurrence, scaffold implantation following completion of primary therapy has the potential to identify metastatic disease at the earliest stage, enabling initiation of therapy while the disease burden is low. PMID:26348915

  17. Early Venous Occlusion Detection in a Free Flap Using Real-time Laser Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alkhashnam, Héba; Sarfati, Benjamin; Kolb, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Early detection of venous occlusion in free flaps is particularly difficult to identify, and its duration is known to be directly proportional to flap mortality. Here, we report a case of deep inferior epigastric perforator based breast reconstruction in which the intraoperative use of a perfusion camera enabled identifying a venous occlusion based on microcirculatory pulsation dynamics in real time. The sensitivity of our proposed method suggests that in certain cases in which the onset of venous occlusion begins in the operating room we can detect and treat occlusion before sending the patient to recovery. Further development of this technique will allow for earlier and more objective decision making with regard to venous occlusion detection in free tissue transfer. PMID:25289200

  18. A dipstick, dot-ELISA assay for the rapid and early detection of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Attallah, A M; Helmi, H; el-Helali, E; el-Mohamadi, H

    1991-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (CK1K10) specific for keratin was developed. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were performed to detect keratin in urine samples using CK1K10 and anti-mouse IgG. A high degree of sensitivity and specificity was obtained in the detection of bladder cancer patients. A fast dot-ELISA was developed in which urine is applied onto nitrocellulose (NC) sheets or dipsticks. Dipsticks coated with urine samples can be stored at room temperature for more than 5 days and at -20 degrees C for more than 3 months without loss of efficiency. A high positive correlation was found between the fast dot-ELISA and other EIAs. The assay does not require sophisticated equipment nor highly trained technical staff and can be performed in less than 30 min. The keratin dot-ELISA could be a reliable screening test for the early detection of bladder cancer. PMID:1723657

  19. Can You Hear Me? The Right of Young Children to Participate in Decisions Affecting Them. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdown, Gerison

    2005-01-01

    "Can You Hear Me? The Right of Young Children to Participate in Decisions Affecting Them" emphasises that participation enhances children's self-esteem and confidence, promotes their overall capacities, produces better outcomes, strengthens understanding of and commitment to democratic processes and protects children more effectively.…

  20. Similarity Ratio Analysis for Early Stage Fault Detection with Optical Emission Spectrometer in Plasma Etching Process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes. PMID:24755865