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1

Early detection of hearing loss  

PubMed Central

The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement) and 2 (AABR testing) need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric) acoustician specialized on children. PMID:22073092

Schade, Götz

2010-01-01

2

Hearing screening for newborns: the midwife's role in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention.  

PubMed

Universal newborn hearing screening is becoming the standard of care in the United States. However, there has been some controversy around this pediatric preventive health care practice. In 2001, the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), the leading independent panel of experts on prevention and primary care in the United States, reviewed the scientific literature and found inconclusive evidence to recommend for or against universal newborn hearing screening. As a result of this lack of recommendation, some pediatric providers were not screening the hearing of all newborn infants. The USPSTF released an update in July 2008 concluding there is scientific evidence to recommend newborn hearing screening for all infants. Universal newborn hearing screening is the first step in the national Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program. EHDI includes not only universal newborn hearing screening but also diagnostic evaluation for any infant failing the initial hearing screen and intervention services for any infant diagnosed with hearing loss. During the prenatal and postnatal periods, obstetric care providers can play a vital role in the EHDI process through education, screening, referral, and assistance with follow-up. Through these services, clinicians can work with parents and pediatric care providers to help newborns and infants develop communication and language skills that will last a lifetime. PMID:19114235

Biernath, Krista; Holstrum, W June; Eichwald, John

2009-01-01

3

Hearing of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) suggests underwater pressure detection and rudimentary aerial hearing in early tetrapods.  

PubMed

In the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle, vertebrate auditory systems have undergone major changes while adapting to aerial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods and their auditory system may therefore be a suitable model of the auditory systems of early tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Therefore, experimental studies on the hearing capabilities of lungfish may shed light on the possible hearing capabilities of early tetrapods and broaden our understanding of hearing across the water-to-land transition. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (i) lungfish are sensitive to underwater pressure using their lungs as pressure-to-particle motion transducers and (ii) lungfish can detect airborne sound. To do so, we used neurophysiological recordings to estimate the vibration and pressure sensitivity of African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) in both water and air. We show that lungfish detect underwater sound pressure via pressure-to-particle motion transduction by air volumes in their lungs. The morphology of lungfish shows no specialized connection between these air volumes and the inner ears, and so our results imply that air breathing may have enabled rudimentary pressure detection as early as the Devonian era. Additionally, we demonstrate that lungfish in spite of their atympanic middle ear can detect airborne sound through detection of sound-induced head vibrations. This strongly suggests that even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing that may have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears in recent tetrapods. PMID:25653420

Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

2015-02-01

4

Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

Corwin, Joanne

2011-01-01

5

Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2004-01-01

6

Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

Marchbank, Alison Margaret

2011-01-01

7

Auditory Screening in Infants for Early Detection of Permanent Hearing Loss in Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Undiagnosed hearing loss can cause disorders in speech and language and delay in social and emotional development. Aim: This study aimed to screen for hearing loss in all newborns born in Babol city during 2009-2011. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen thousand one hundred and sixty-five newborns (49% [7430/15165] male and 51% [7735/15165] female) born during a 30-month period in Babol, underwent hearing screening by the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test at the age of 15 days. In infants referred at this stage, an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was the next investigation. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA, 16) through descriptive statistic method. Results: In the first screening stage, 10.8% (1648/15165) cases were referred to the second stage for further investigation. 9.4% (154/1648) were lost to follow-up from among the referred cases despite continuous contact and education about the importance of the problem. Among the participants in the second stage, 6.2% (92/1494) were referred to the third stage and underwent ABR and OAE testing. 14.1% (13/92) were lost at this stage. Of the remaining participants, 34.2% (27/79) were diagnosed with a hearing loss. Therefore, the incidence of hearing loss in this study was 1.8/1,000 newborns. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of hearing loss in this study, implementation of a universal newborn hearing screening program is recommended. PMID:24971205

Haghshenas, M; Zadeh, PY; Javadian, Y; Fard, HA; Delavari, K; Panjaki, HSA; Gorji, HAMH

2014-01-01

8

Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

2011-01-01

9

Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development Among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an \\

Daniel I. Choo; Jareen Meinzen-Derr; Susan Wiley

2011-01-01

10

Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development Among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an \\

Daniel I. Choo; Jareen Meinzen-Derr; Susan Wiley

2011-01-01

11

Early Vocal Patterns in Infants with Varied Hearing Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate the relative contributions of auditory perceptual access and production system characteristics to early vocalization patterns, three infants identified with hearing loss at birth were followed longitudinally for 11 months beginning at 4 to 6 months hearing age (i.e. time of post-hearing instrument fitting). The infant with…

Davis, Barbara L.; Morrison, Helen M.; von Hapsburg, Deborah; Warner, Andrea D.

2005-01-01

12

How do we identify hearing impairment in early childhood?  

PubMed

This review discusses the need for universal neonatal hearing screening. Historical background is given concerning conventional childhood hearing screening programmes in western countries. Direct studies on the effects of very early habilitation programmes on speech and language development are cited. Measurement of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) as a tool for neonatal hearing screening is presented. The state of neonatal hearing screening programmes in the US and in Europe, particularly in Sweden, is discussed. PMID:11055312

Hergils, L

2000-09-01

13

Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

2011-01-01

14

Early Detection  

Cancer.gov

This group identifies and ascertains the effectiveness of both the operating characteristics and the impacts on mortality, and immediate and downstream risks of molecular and imaging cancer detection technologies and practices. It systematically assesses

15

Early development of hearing in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a valuable vertebrate model for human hearing and balance disorders because it combines powerful genetics, excellent embryology, and exceptional in vivo visualization in one organism. In this study, we investigated auditory function of zebrafish at early developmental stages using the microphonic potential method. This is the first study to report ontogeny of response of hair cells in any fish during the first week post fertilization. The right ear of each zebrafish embedded in agarose was linearly stimulated with a glass probe that was driven by a calibrated piezoelectric actuator. Using beveled micropipettes filled with standard fish saline, extracellular microphonic potentials were recorded from hair cells in the inner ear of zebrafish embryos or larvae in response to 20, 50, 100, and 200-Hz stimulation. Saccular hair cells expressing green fluorescent protein of the transgenic zebrafish from 2 to 7 days post fertilization (dpf) were visualized and quantified using confocal microscopy. The otic vesicles' areas, otoliths' areas, and saccular hair cell count and density increased linearly with age and standard body length. Microphonic responses increased monotonically with stimulus intensity, stimulus frequency, and age of zebrafish. Microphonic threshold at 200 Hz gradually decreased with zebrafish age. The increases in microphonic response and sensitivity correlate with the increases in number and density of hair cells in the saccule. These results enhance our knowledge of early development of auditory function in zebrafish and provide the control data that can be used to evaluate hearing of young zebrafish morphants or mutants. PMID:23575600

Lu, Zhongmin; DeSmidt, Alexandra A

2013-08-01

16

The Need for Improved Detection and Management of Adult-Onset Hearing Loss in Australia  

PubMed Central

Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older adults and poor use of prescribed hearing aids, often leading to their abandonment. In Australia, the largest component of financial cost of hearing loss (excluding the loss of well-being) is due to lost workplace productivity. Nonetheless, the Australian public health system does not have an effective and sustainable hearing screening strategy to tackle the problem of poor detection of adult-onset hearing loss. Given the increasing prevalence and disease burden of hearing impairment in adults, two key areas are not adequately met in the Australian healthcare system: (1) early identification of persons with chronic hearing impairment; (2) appropriate and targeted referral of these patients to hearing health service providers. This paper reviews the current literature, including population-based data from the Blue Mountains Hearing Study, and suggests different models for early detection of adult-onset hearing loss. PMID:23710184

McMahon, Catherine M.; Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Reath, Jennifer; Hickson, Louise; Leeder, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Paul; Cowan, Robert

2013-01-01

17

Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

2007-01-01

18

Early identification of hearing loss: screening and surveillance methods.  

PubMed Central

Service monitoring data on the outcomes of health visitors' screening for hearing loss at 8 months in West Berkshire indicate low sensitivity and low positive predictive value, despite efforts to improve the conduct of the screen. Nevertheless, data on a recent series of severely hearing impaired children indicate significantly earlier diagnosis than previously, due in part in the introduction of other service changes including neonatal 'at risk' screening and surveillance using parental observation. For a trial period the traditional screening method for the detection of hearing loss in babies will be discontinued and effort concentrated on these alternative procedures. PMID:2357083

Scanlon, P E; Bamford, J M

1990-01-01

19

Narrative Skills Following Early Confirmation of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare spoken language production in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) whose PCHI was confirmed either early or late. Method: Audio-taped spoken narrative was assessed for syntax, phonology, morphology, and narrative in transcripts from a population-based sample of 89 children (49 males,…

Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin

2010-01-01

20

Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

2005-01-01

21

Early Detection Research Worldwide  

Cancer.gov

Genetic research on cancer has grown tremendously in the last decade, and the increase in the number of published research articles has been truly phenomenal. However, molecular and genetic research focusing on the early detection of cancer is still lagging.

22

Targeted massive parallel sequencing: the effective detection of novel causative mutations associated with hearing loss in small families  

PubMed Central

Background Hereditary hearing loss is one of the most common heterogeneous disorders, and genetic variants that can cause hearing loss have been identified in over sixty genes. Most of these hearing loss genes have been detected using classical genetic methods, typically starting with linkage analysis in large families with hereditary hearing loss. However, these classical strategies are not well suited for mutation analysis in smaller families who have insufficient genetic information. Methods Eighty known hearing loss genes were selected and simultaneously sequenced by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 8 Korean families with autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Results Five mutations in known hearing loss genes, including 1 nonsense and 4 missense mutations, were identified in 5 different genes (ACTG1, MYO1F, DIAPH1, POU4F3 and EYA4), and the genotypes for these mutations were consistent with the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of hearing loss in each family. No mutational hot-spots were revealed in these Korean families. Conclusion Targeted NGS allowed for the detection of pathogenic mutations in affected individuals who were not candidates for classical genetic studies. This report is the first documenting the effective use of an NGS technique to detect pathogenic mutations that underlie hearing loss in an East Asian population. Using this NGS technique to establish a database of common mutations in Korean patients with hearing loss and further data accumulation will contribute to the early diagnosis and fundamental therapies for hereditary hearing loss. PMID:22938506

2012-01-01

23

Early Detection Research Network  

Cancer.gov

This initiative supports the creation of a national Network for early cancer detection with resources for translational research that will include laboratory science, clinical science, public health, biostatistics, informatics, and computer science. The goals of the Network are to discover and coordinate the evaluation of biomarkers and reagents for the earlier detection of cancer and for the assessment of risk.

24

Developmental hearing loss impairs signal detection in noise: putative central mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Listeners with hearing loss have difficulty processing sounds in noisy environments. This is most noticeable for speech perception, but is reflected in a basic auditory processing task: detecting a tonal signal in a noise background, i.e., simultaneous masking. It is unresolved whether the mechanisms underlying simultaneous masking arise from the auditory periphery or from the central auditory system. Poor detection in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is attributed to cochlear hair cell damage. However, hearing loss alters neural processing in the central auditory system. Additionally, both psychophysical and neurophysiological data from normally hearing and impaired listeners suggest that there are additional contributions to simultaneous masking that arise centrally. With SNHL, it is difficult to separate peripheral from central contributions to signal detection deficits. We have thus excluded peripheral contributions by using an animal model of early conductive hearing loss (CHL) that provides auditory deprivation but does not induce cochlear damage. When tested as adults, animals raised with CHL had increased thresholds for detecting tones in simultaneous noise. Furthermore, intracellular in vivo recordings in control animals revealed a cortical correlate of simultaneous masking: local cortical processing reduced tone-evoked responses in the presence of noise. This raises the possibility that altered cortical responses which occur with early CHL can influence even simple signal detection in noise. PMID:25249949

Gay, Jennifer D.; Voytenko, Sergiy V.; Galazyuk, Alexander V.; Rosen, Merri J.

2014-01-01

25

Newborn hearing screening in the Campania region (Italy): early language and perceptual outcomes of infants with permanent hearing loss.  

PubMed

Hearing loss in children causes a deficit in early perceptive and language skills. The objective of this study was to evaluate early receptive and expressive language outcomes in children with hearing loss, identified by hearing screening, compared to the time of diagnosis. We studied 18 severely hearing impaired children who were divided into two groups according to the time of diagnosis. Evaluation of communicative language ability was carried out at 18 month of age using the "MacArthur Child Development Inventory" questionnaire, while evaluation of acoustic-perceptual abilities was assessed with the Genovese-Arslan protocol every three months following diagnosis. The linguistic communicative and acoustic-perceptual outcomes of hearing impaired children diagnosed before 6 months of age followed those expected for normally hearing children, with a trend of temporal progression of skills that were faster than those of children diagnosed after 6 months of age. PMID:24376298

Marciano, E; Laria, C; Malesci, R; Iadicicco, P; Landolfi, E; Niri, C; Papa, C; Franzè, A; Auletta, G

2013-12-01

26

Program of early identification of hearing loss in newborns in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 12 years, the team of the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing has been conducting a program of early identification of hearing impairments in newborns and infants, as well as investigations concerning epidemiology and etiology of hearing loss. The authors present the program conducted in Poland based on many years of experience of the Institute including the most

H Skar?y?ski; A Senderski; M Mueller-Malesi?ska; K Kochanek; J Raty?ska

2003-01-01

27

Infants and Children with Hearing Loss Need Early Language Access  

PubMed Central

Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing,1 who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the toss of a normally hearing child).2 Clinical research indicates that a deaf child’s poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression.3 Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents’ decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child.4 In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880.5 While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet,6 the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly.7 The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for improved research studies in these areas. PMID:20866021

Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J.; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

2010-01-01

28

New feedback detection method for performance evaluation of hearing aids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New objective and accurate feedback detection method, transfer function variation criterion (TVC), has been developed for evaluating the performance of feedback cancellation techniques. The proposed method is able to classify stable, unstable, and sub-oscillatory stages of feedback in hearing aids. The sub-oscillatory stage is defined as a state where the hearing aid user may perceive distortion of sound quality without the occurrence of oscillation. This detection algorithm focuses on the transfer function variation of hearing aids and the relationship between system stability and feedback oscillation. The transfer functions are obtained using the FIR Wiener filtering algorithm off-line. An anechoic test box is used for the exact and reliable evaluation of different hearing aids. The results are listed and compared with the conventional power concentration ratio (PCR), which has been generally adopted as a feedback detection method for the performance evaluation of hearing aids. The possibility of real-time implementation is discussed in terms of a more convenient and exact performance evaluation of feedback cancellation techniques.

Shin, Mincheol; Wang, Semyung; Bentler, Ruth A.; He, Shuman

2007-04-01

29

Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

2010-01-01

30

Early Intervention and Management of Hearing in Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses principles for intervention with young children who have hearing impairments. It covers the nature of hearing loss; diagnosis and types of hearing impairments; sensory aids; and benefits and limitations of different approaches including the auditory-verbal, auditory-oral, cued speech, total communication, American Sign…

Gatty, Janice C.

1996-01-01

31

"Foundations for Literacy": An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…

Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

2014-01-01

32

The Role of Educators of the Deaf in the Early Identification of Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that, as identification of hearing loss in infancy becomes increasingly common due to universal newborn screening, early interventionists will need to forge links to health-care providers, to have specialized training in deafness and hearing loss, and to have expertise in providing services to very young children and to children with mild…

Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

1999-01-01

33

The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

2011-01-01

34

Brief hearing loss disrupts binaural integration during two early critical periods of auditory cortex development  

PubMed Central

Early binaural experience can recalibrate central auditory circuits that support spatial hearing. However, it is not known how binaural integration matures shortly after hearing onset or whether various developmental stages are differentially impacted by disruptions of normal binaural experience. Here we induce a brief, reversible unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) at several experimentally determined milestones in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) development and characterize its effects approximately one week after normal hearing is restored. We find that experience shapes A1 binaural selectivity during two early critical periods. CHL before P16 disrupts the normal co-registration of interaural frequency tuning, whereas CHL on P16, but not before or after, disrupts interaural level difference (ILD) sensitivity contained in long-latency spikes. These data highlight an evolving plasticity in the developing auditory cortex that may relate to the etiology of amblyaudia, a binaural hearing impairment associated with bouts of otitis media during human infancy. PMID:24077484

Polley, Daniel B.; Thompson, John H.; Guo, Wei

2013-01-01

35

Breast Cancer: Early Detection  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope ...

36

Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

2013-01-01

37

Evaluation of early hearing damage in personal listening device users using extended high-frequency audiometry and otoacoustic emissions.  

PubMed

Although sound exposure from personal listening devices (PLDs) could potentially lead to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the actual hearing risk associated with the use of these devices is still unclear. In this study, early hearing effects related to PLD usage were evaluated in 35 young adult PLD users (listening for >1 h/day, at >50% of the maximum volume setting of their devices) and their age- and sex-matched controls using a combination of conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry as well as transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product of otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements. The mean listening duration of the PLD users was 2.7 ± 1.0 h/day while their estimated average listening volume was 81.3 ± 9.0 dBA (free-field corrected). Typical signs of NIHL were not detected in the audiogram of PLD users and their audiometric thresholds at most of the conventional test frequencies (0.25-8 kHz) were comparable with those obtained from controls. However, compared with the controls, mean hearing thresholds of PLD users at many of the extended high-frequencies (9-16 kHz) were significantly higher. In addition, TEOAE and DPOAE amplitudes in users were reduced compared with controls. The deterioration of extended high-frequency thresholds and the decrease in DPOAE amplitudes were more evident in the users' right ears. These results indicate the presence of an early stage of hearing damage in the PLD user group. Preventive steps should be taken as the initial hearing damage in these users could eventually progress into permanent NIHL after many years of PLD use. PMID:23812554

Sulaiman, A H; Husain, R; Seluakumaran, K

2014-06-01

38

Training Needs of Early Intervention Personnel Working with Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of newborn hearing screenings, infants with hearing loss are identified earlier than ever before. Each state is responsible for providing trained personnel and delivery of early intervention services to families with newly identified infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing. Consequently, the role of each state's Part C…

Proctor, Rosalyn; Niemeyer, Judith A.; Compton, Mary V.

2005-01-01

39

Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Adults with Early Stage Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2’) following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

2014-01-01

40

Newborn Hearing Screening and Early Diagnostic in the NICU  

PubMed Central

The aim was to describe the outcome of neonatal hearing screening (NHS) and audiological diagnosis in neonates in the NICU. The sample was divided into Group I: neonates who underwent NHS in one step and Group II: neonates who underwent a test and retest NHS. NHS procedure was automated auditory brainstem response. NHS was performed in 82.1% of surviving neonates. For GI, referral rate was 18.6% and false-positive was 62.2% (normal hearing in the diagnostic stage). In GII, with retest, referral rate dropped to 4.1% and false-positive to 12.5%. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in 13.2% of infants and conductive in 26.4% of cases. There was one case of auditory neuropathy spectrum (1.9%). Dropout rate in whole process was 21.7% for GI and 24.03% for GII. We concluded that it was not possible to perform universal NHS in the studied sample or, in many cases, to apply it within the first month of life. Retest reduced failure and false-positive rate and did not increase evasion, indicating that it is a recommendable step in NHS programs in the NICU. The incidence of hearing loss was 2.9%, considering sensorineural hearing loss (0.91%), conductive (1.83%) and auditory neuropathy spectrum (0.19%). PMID:24999481

Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca; Hein, Thaís Antonelli Diniz; de Souza, Gabriele Libano; do Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos; Casali, Raquel Leme

2014-01-01

41

Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

2011-01-01

42

Auditory Detection of Spondaic Words in Wide-Band Noise by Adults with Normal Hearing and by Children with Profound Hearing Losses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deaf subjects required about 9 dB greater speech-to-noise ratio for 75 percent correct detection of words than did normal-hearing subjects, suggesting that maximum communication effectiveness may occur for hearing impaired children only at higher speech-to-noise ratios than that required by normal-hearing persons. (Author/KW)

Erber, Norman P.

1971-01-01

43

AT NORTHWESTERN EARLY CANCER DETECTION  

E-print Network

--including lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer-- there is simply no screening option available, such as pancreatic, ovarian, and lung cancer. · Improve existing screening techniques, such as those for colon cancer, with the THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE EARLY CANCER DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE

Engman, David M.

44

Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.  

PubMed

Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners. PMID:25190410

Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

2014-09-01

45

NCI Sponsored Early Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Over an eight-year period (1992-1999), the funding for molecular cancer research has risen from 330 million in 1992 to 820 million in 1999. During this period, the number of funded grants in molecular disease (contracts not included) rose to 2957 in 1999 from 1622 in 1992. The grants addressing the area of early detection also grew in number and funded amount; 206 ($36 million) in 1992 to 455 ($94 million) in 2000.

46

Early Transtympanic Steroid Injection in Patients with ‘Poor Prognosis’ Idiopathic Sensorineural Sudden Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present trial is aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of early transtympanic steroid injection in patients with ‘poor prognosis’ idiopathic sensorineural sudden hearing loss (ISSHL). Methods: Seventy-six patients, diagnosed as having ISSHL with ‘poor prognosis’, were randomized into a transtympanic group and a control group. Thirty-nine patients received conventional steroid treatment and 37 patients received 4 courses of additional

Yide Zhou; Hongliang Zheng; Qing Zhang; Peter A. Campione

2011-01-01

47

An Early Natural Auditory-Oral Intervention Approach for Children with Hearing Loss: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the session goals and their realization during the session flow for a child with a hearing loss and his mother in an early intervention program. The study was designed as a case study. Video recordings of the intervention sessions, reflective journals, session plans, and the plan evaluations were used to collect and…

Turan, Zerrin

2010-01-01

48

A Model of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss Provided through Telepractice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families need access to appropriate early intervention services that are delivered by professionals who are well trained and experienced using their chosen communication approach. Unfortunately, a lack of qualified practitioners, especially in remote and rural communities, and limited funding can…

Houston, K. Todd; Stredler-Brown, Arlene

2012-01-01

49

Foundations for literacy: An early literacy intervention for deaf and hard-of-hearing children.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A "business as usual" comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children's hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

Lederberg, Amy R; Miller, Elizabeth M; Easterbrooks, Susan R; Connor, Carol McDonald

2014-10-01

50

Progress in the early identification of hearing impaired infants in Mississippi.  

PubMed

The prevalence of permanent congenital hearing loss is three to four infants per thousand live births. Because early intervention is effective in preventing speech and language delay, the NIH has recommended universal newborn hearing screening. Prior to this recommendation, several states, including Mississippi which had one of the first hospital based screening programs, had statewide programs. In 1981 the Lions Clubs of Mississippi and the University of Mississippi Medical Center began an infant hearing screening program, which was described in Volume XXX of The Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association. This program was recognized in 1986 with an award from the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, and by 1989, the Lions Club had persuaded twenty-two hospitals that this was a needed service. Twelve years after the start of the program in Mississippi, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommended universal newborn hearing screening. This article reviews Mississippi's efforts toward early identification of hearing loss and provides an update on the current screening program. PMID:25771621

Malphurs, Ojus; Mustain, William D

2014-08-01

51

Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

2014-01-01

52

The Experiences and Involvement of Grandparents in Hearing Detection and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of grandparents during hearing detection and intervention. Data were collected and analyzed from survey responses of 50 parents and 35 grandparents of children of varying ages who have hearing loss. Parents described important types of support that grandparents provided including frequent…

McNee, Chelsea M.; Jackson, Carla W.

2012-01-01

53

Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection

Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

2004-01-01

54

Extraordinary Opportunities in Early Cancer Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Although a primary tumor can usually be successfully controlled with local therapy, most cancer deaths are caused by metastatic disease. Therefore, the goal of screening and early detection is to identify tumors at early stages of development. Unfortunately, clinically available screening and early detection modalities detect many tumors at a relatively late stage in their development.

55

Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

2012-01-01

56

Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2011-01-01

57

Long-term outcome of early childhood hearing impairments in northern Finland.  

PubMed

Early childhood hearing impairment (HI) may have a marked negative effect on educational outcome and employment status in adulthood. The late outcome of 51 Finnish mildly to profoundly HId children born in the period 1965-1979 was studied using a questionnaire posted to the subjects. Subjects included in the study had an early childhood sensorineural, non-syndromal hearing impairment with no known associated handicaps. The response rate to the inquiry was as high as 88% (45/51). The subjects had qualified educationally at a somewhat lower level than their age peers according to nationwide statistics; 48% of the respondents belonging to the labour force were currently unemployed (versus 15% of all the 25-to 29-year-olds in Finland in 1997), but their employment status was not associated with the HI grade. In particular, the severely and profoundly HId often had needed special support from the employment authorities to find work. PMID:11318436

Huttunen, K H; Sorri, M J

2001-01-01

58

Review on automatic early skin cancer detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin cancer is increasing in different countries especially in Australia. Early detection of skin cancer can treat melanoma successfully, therefore, curability and survival depends directly on removing melanoma in its early stages. Since clinical observations face to different fault for melanoma detection, the automatic diagnosis can help to increase the accuracy of detection. Reviewing the researches have done in skin

Azadeh Noori Hoshyar; Adel Al-Jumaily; Riza Sulaiman

2011-01-01

59

First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.  

PubMed

One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. PMID:25138156

Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

2014-11-01

60

Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... at a smaller size. The risk of aneurysm detection in these family members is increased in women, ... CTA when you are in your twenties. Early detection saves lives as aneurysms most often times can ...

61

Can Baby Hear?  

MedlinePLUS

... born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early intervention with hearing devices ... to this, the average age of identification for deaf and hearing impaired children was close to three ...

62

Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism, Progressive Early-Onset Spinocerebellar Ataxia, and Late-Onset Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

The association of ataxia, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hearing loss is extremely rare. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature of the neurological manifestations, age of onset, clinical severity and associated abnormalities. We describe a 24-year-old woman with secondary hypergonadotropic amenorrhea, early-onset progressive spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), late-onset sensorineural hearing loss and normal intelligence and compare it with reported cases. PMID:24052715

Sarikaya, E; Ensert, CG; Gulerman, HC

2011-01-01

63

Reorganization of auditory cortex in early-deaf people: functional connectivity and relationship to hearing aid use.  

PubMed

Cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation is a model for understanding brain plasticity. Although it is a well-documented phenomenon, we still know little of the mechanisms underlying it or the factors that constrain and promote it. Using fMRI, we identified visual motion-related activity in 17 early-deaf and 17 hearing adults. We found that, in the deaf, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) was responsive to visual motion. We compared functional connectivity of this reorganized cortex between groups to identify differences in functional networks associated with reorganization. In the deaf more than the hearing, the STG displayed increased functional connectivity with a region in the calcarine fissure. We also explored the role of hearing aid use, a factor that may contribute to variability in cross-modal reorganization. We found that both the cross-modal activity in STG and the functional connectivity between STG and calcarine cortex correlated with duration of hearing aid use, supporting the hypothesis that residual hearing affects cross-modal reorganization. We conclude that early auditory deprivation alters not only the organization of auditory regions but also the interactions between auditory and primary visual cortex and that auditory input, as indexed by hearing aid use, may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early-deaf people. PMID:25000527

Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

2015-01-01

64

Diverse spectrum of rare deafness genes underlies early-childhood hearing loss in Japanese patients: a cross-sectional, multi-center next-generation sequencing study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic tests for hereditary hearing loss inform clinical management of patients and can provide the first step in the development of therapeutics. However, comprehensive genetic tests for deafness genes by Sanger sequencing is extremely expensive and time-consuming. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is advantageous for genetic diagnosis of heterogeneous diseases that involve numerous causative genes. Methods Genomic DNA samples from 58 subjects with hearing loss from 15 unrelated Japanese families were subjected to NGS to identify the genetic causes of hearing loss. Subjects did not have pathogenic GJB2 mutations (the gene most often associated with inherited hearing loss), mitochondrial m.1555A>G or 3243A>G mutations, enlarged vestibular aqueduct, or auditory neuropathy. Clinical features of subjects were obtained from medical records. Genomic DNA was subjected to a custom-designed SureSelect Target Enrichment System to capture coding exons and proximal flanking intronic sequences of 84 genes responsible for nonsyndromic or syndromic hearing loss, and DNA was sequenced by Illumina GAIIx (paired-end read). The sequences were mapped and quality-checked using the programs BWA, Novoalign, Picard, and GATK, and analyzed by Avadis NGS. Results Candidate genes were identified in 7 of the 15 families. These genes were ACTG1, DFNA5, POU4F3, SLC26A5, SIX1, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH2A, suggesting that a variety of genes underlie early-childhood hearing loss in Japanese patients. Mutations in Usher syndrome-related genes were detected in three families, including one double heterozygous mutation of CDH23 and PCDH15. Conclusion Targeted NGS analysis revealed a diverse spectrum of rare deafness genes in Japanese subjects and underscores implications for efficient genetic testing. PMID:24164807

2013-01-01

65

Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

66

Nanotechnology in Early Detection of Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Nanotechnology in Early Detection of Cancer August 30-31, 2001 Meeting Summary Nanotechnology is defined as the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter at the scale of 1 to 100 nanometers, and exploitation

67

Early detection of contagious diseases  

DOEpatents

This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

Colston, Jr., Billy W. (San Ramon, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Estacio, Pedro (Mission San Jose, CA); Chang, John (Walnut Creek, CA)

2011-08-09

68

Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

69

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research  

Cancer.gov

Publications and Presentations Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research Table of Contents Overview Introduction CBRG Mission Trends in Early Detection Research Early Detection Research Worldwide NCI Sponsored

70

The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN)  

Cancer.gov

This initiative supports the creation of a national Network for early cancer detection with resources for translational research that will include laboratory science, clinical science, public health, biostatistics, informatics, and computer science. The goals of the Network are to discover and coordinate the evaluation of biomarkers and reagents for the earlier detection of cancer and for the assessment of risk.

71

Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

2014-01-01

72

Technology--and Colorado Early Education Staff--Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The youngest deaf and hard of hearing children with disabilities in Colorado can now participate more fully in the world around them thanks to funding from grants solicited through the Early Education Department at the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind. The grants enable the children, from birth to age 3, to overcome their physical…

Shuler-Woodard, Dee

2009-01-01

73

Mothers' Involvement in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: The Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers' involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers' involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables…

Ingber, Sara; Al-Yagon, Michal; Dromi, Esther

2010-01-01

74

Principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing.  

PubMed

This document is a supplement to the year 2007 position statement of the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and provides comprehensive guidelines for establishing strong early intervention (EI) systems with appropriate expertise to meet the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Optimal outcomes can only be achieved when there is high quality to the universal newborn hearing screening programs, the audiologic diagnostic process of confirmation that a child is D/HH and fitting of amplification, and the provision of appropriate, individualized, targeted, and high-quality EI services. There are 12 best practice guidelines for EI programs that include the provision of timely referral to EI services with providers who have knowledge and skills in early childhood deafness and hearing loss, infusion within the system of partnerships with parents as well as professionals who are D/HH, longitudinal developmental assessments for monitoring the child's development, data management systems that include developmental outcomes, a process to monitor the fidelity of the intervention, and appropriate services for children with additional disabilities, those from non-English speaking families, and those from special populations, including unilateral hearing loss and auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony. PMID:24131505

Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2014-04-01

75

Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

2012-01-01

76

On the detection of early cochlear damage by otoacoustic emission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence suggest that otoacoustic emission parameters may be used to reveal early cochlear damage, even before it can be diagnosed by standard audiometric techniques. In this work, the statistical distributions of a set of otoacoustic emission parameters chosen as candidates for the early detection of cochlear damage (global and band reproducibility, response level, signal-to-noise ratio, spectral latency, and long-lasting otoacoustic emission presence) were analyzed in a population of 138 ears. These ears have been divided, according to a standard audiometric test, in three classes: (1) ears of nonexposed bilaterally normal subjects, (2) normal ears of subjects with unilateral noise-induced high-frequency hearing loss, and (3) their hearing impaired ears. For all analyzed parameters, a statistically significant difference was found between classes 1 and 2. This difference largely exceeds the difference observed between classes 2 and 3. This fact suggests that the noise exposure, which was responsible for the unilateral hearing loss, also caused subclinical damage in the contralateral, audiometrically normal, ear. This is a clear indication that otoacoustic emission techniques may be able to early detect subclinical damages.

Lucertini, M.; Moleti, A.; Sisto, R.

2002-02-01

77

Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments  

PubMed Central

It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

2014-01-01

78

Detection of coproantigen in early trichinellosis.  

PubMed

Trichinellosis has become undoubtedly worldwide in distribution. Its diagnosis relies largely on the serodiagnostic procedures which are of great value but unfortunately miss the enteric phase. This could be a serious diagnostic problem in the absence of corresponding epidemiological data and typical symptoms and signs of the disease. In this study the possibility of coproantigen detection, as an early diagnostic aid in trichinellosis, was investigated in mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis. A modified double sandwich ELISA was developed using polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits and guinea pigs against larval somatic antigens. The first detection of coproantigen was as early as the first day post infection, gradually increasing to reach its peak on the seventh day and then decreasing to disappear completely on the third week post infection. Another test, the coagglutination test (Co-A) was used, and this test confirmed the previous results. The finding of this study suggest that the coproantigen detection could be exploited to confirm ongoing early Trichinella spiralis infection. This fast and easy to use diagnostic method should improve the early infection in human. PMID:11484337

Boulos, L M; Ibrahim, I R; Negm, A Y; Aly, S M

2001-06-01

79

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Early Detection Research Worldwide  

Cancer.gov

Genetic research on cancer has grown tremendously in the last decade, and the increase in the number of published research articles has been truly phenomenal. However, molecular and genetic research focusing on the early detection of cancer is still lagging.

80

Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5?-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W; Brown, Powel H; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ford, Leslie G; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L; Minasian, Lori M; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J; Schröder, Fritz H; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

2014-10-01

81

Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.  

PubMed

Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

2014-11-01

82

Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

2014-01-01

83

Detection and rate discrimination of amplitude modulation in electrical hearing  

PubMed Central

Three experiments were designed to examine temporal envelope processing by cochlear implant (CI) listeners. In experiment 1, the hypothesis that listeners’ modulation sensitivity would in part determine their ability to discriminate between temporal modulation rates was examined. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) obtained in an amplitude modulation detection (AMD) task were compared to threshold functions obtained in an amplitude modulation rate discrimination (AMRD) task. Statistically significant nonlinear correlations were observed between the two measures. In experiment 2, results of loudness-balancing showed small increases in the loudness of modulated over unmodulated stimuli beyond a modulation depth of 16%. Results of experiment 3 indicated small but statistically significant effects of level-roving on the overall gain of the TMTF, but no impact of level-roving on the average shape of the TMTF across subjects. This suggested that level-roving simply increased the task difficulty for most listeners, but did not indicate increased use of intensity cues under more challenging conditions. Data obtained with one subject, however, suggested that the most sensitive listeners may derive some benefit from intensity cues in these tasks. Overall, results indicated that intensity cues did not play an important role in temporal envelope processing by the average CI listener. PMID:21895095

Chatterjee, Monita; Oberzut, Cherish

2011-01-01

84

Automated Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, (‘Challenge2009’) against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Fundus photographic sets, consisting of two fundus images from each eye, were evaluated from 16,670 patient visits of 16,670 people with diabetes who had not previously been diagnosed with DR. Methods The fundus photographic set from each visit was analyzed by a single retinal expert; 793 of the 16,770 sets were classified as containing more than minimal DR (threshold for referral). The outcomes of the two algorithmic detectors were applied separately to the dataset and compared by standard statistical measures. Main Outcome Measures The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of DR detection. Results Agreement was high, and exams containing more than minimal DR were detected with an AUC of 0.839 by the ‘Eyecheck’ algorithm and an AUC of 0.821 for ‘Challenge2009’, a statistically non-significant difference (z-score 1.91). If either of the algorithms detected DR in combination, AUC for detection was 0.86, the same as the theoretically expected maximum. At 90% sensitivity, the specificity of the ‘EyeCheck’ algorithm was 47.7% and the ‘Challenge2009’ algorithm, 43.6%. Conclusions DR detection algorithms appear to be maturing, and further improvements in detection performance cannot be differentiated from best clinical practices, because the performance of competitive algorithm development has now reached the human intra-reader variability limit. Additional validation studies on larger, well-defined, but more diverse populations of patients with diabetes are urgently needed, anticipating cost-effective early detection of DR in millions of people with diabetes to triage those patients who need further care at a time when they have early rather than advanced DR. PMID:20399502

Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Russell, Stephen R.; Folk, James C.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Quellec, Gwénolé

2010-01-01

85

Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language  

PubMed Central

This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

2013-01-01

86

Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.  

PubMed

This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

2014-01-01

87

Controversies in the Field of Hearing Impairment: Early Identification, Educational Methods, and Cochlear Implants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the incidence of infant hearing impairments, auditory screening tests, and available intervention choices for infants with severe to profound congenital hearing loss, including methods for communication and cochlear implantation. American Sign language, manually coded English, fingerspelling, total communication, and…

Samson-Fang, Lisa; Simons-McCandless, Marsha; Shelton, Clough

2000-01-01

88

Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

2014-01-01

89

Early Intervention and Language Development in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age of enrollment in intervention and language outcomes at 5 years of age in a group of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Method. Vocabulary skills at 5 years of age were ex- amined in a group of 112 children with hearing loss who were enrolled at various

M. P. Moeller

2000-01-01

90

It Is Important to Have Your Baby's Hearing Screened  

MedlinePLUS

... as early as possible. For this reason, universal newborn hearing screening programs currently operate in all U.S. ... printed or electronic information on infant hearing screening: Newborn hearing screening Early identification of hearing loss in ...

91

8th Early Detection Research Network Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events 8th Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop: Promises and Challenges in Cancer Screening, Early Detection and Biomarkers Abstracts for Poster Presentations are Welcome! Meeting Dates March 13-15, 2013 Meeting Location Doubletree

92

Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

2011-01-01

93

The Master Hearing Aid  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R.

2013-01-01

94

Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis  

DOEpatents

Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

Willard, K.E.

1982-08-10

95

Life Detection on the Early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

Runnegar, B.

2004-01-01

96

Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

1984-02-01

97

Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 4. Song, Y. T. (2007) Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681.

Song, Y.

2013-12-01

98

Early detection of acute renal failure by serum cystatin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of acute renal failure by serum cystatin C.BackgroundAcute renal failure (ARF) is associated with high mortality. Presently, no specific therapy for ARF exists. Therefore, early detection of ARF is critical to prevent its progression. However, serum creatinine, the standard marker to detect ARF, demonstrates major limitations. We prospectively evaluated whether serum cystatin C detected ARF earlier than serum

STEFAN HERGET-ROSENTHAL; GÜNTER MARGGRAF; JOHANNES HÜSING; FRAUKE GÖRING; FRANK PIETRUCK; ONNO JANSSEN; THOMAS PHILIPP; ANDREAS KRIBBEN

2004-01-01

99

A Team Approach to Quality Programming for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this issue of "Odyssey," Joanne Corwin describes New Mexico's statewide partnership among several agencies for the provision of early intervention services to infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families (Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks, p. 20). A…

Gutierrez, Priscilla Shannon

2011-01-01

100

Salicylate-Induced Hearing Loss and Gap Detection Deficits in Rats  

PubMed Central

To test the “tinnitus gap-filling” hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200?mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30–60?dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10?ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60?dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible.

Radziwon, Kelly E.; Stolzberg, Daniel J.; Urban, Maxwell E.; Bowler, Rachael A.; Salvi, Richard J.

2015-01-01

101

Mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour: early detection of recurrence.  

PubMed

The case of a recurrent phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of the maxillary sinus 10 years after the first surgical excision is reported. The neoplasm first presented with paraneoplastic osteomalacia causing a pathological femur fracture. A right maxillary sinus tumour was identified and treated thereafter. The patient had no local symptoms and serum electrolytes returned to normal after surgical removal of the tumour. However, 10 years later, the patient's urine Ca and P levels increased and an octreoscan detected a new tumour in the right maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis prevented the effects of the paraneoplastic activity of the neoplasm. This case emphasises the importance of specific, close follow-up, because the neoplasm rarely produces local signs indicating its position. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a late relapse presenting without relevant symptoms (local pain or swelling or pathological fractures). PMID:24827649

Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

2014-01-01

102

Non-Invasive Mobility Monitoring for Early Detection of Dementia  

E-print Network

Non-Invasive Mobility Monitoring for Early Detection of Dementia Rachelle Goll Adviser: Dr. Diane for multiple residents simultaneously? · Changes in mobility can be an early sign of dementia in the elderly. · A system to monitor and detect changes in mobility can allow for early dementia diagnoses and treatment

Collins, Gary S.

103

Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Cochleae Contributes to the Early Onset of Hearing Loss in A/J Mice  

PubMed Central

A/J and C57BL/6?J (B6) mice share a mutation in Cdh23 (ahl allele) and are characterized by age-related hearing loss. However, hearing loss occurs much earlier in A/J mice at about four weeks of age. Recent study has revealed that a mutation in citrate synthase (Cs) is one of the main contributors, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that A/J mice displayed more severe degeneration of hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in the cochleae compared with B6 mice. Moreover, messenger RNA accumulation levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the inner ears of A/J mice were significantly higher than those in B6 mice at 2 and 8 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry localized caspase-3 expression mainly to the hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in cochleae. In vitro transfection with Cs short hairpin RNA (shRNA) alone or cotransfection with Cs shRNA and Cdh23 shRNA significantly increased the levels of caspase-3 in an inner ear cell line (HEI-OC1). Finally, a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK could preserve the hearing of A/J mice by lowering about 15 decibels of the sound pressure level for the auditory-evoked brainstem response thresholds. In conclusion, our results suggest that caspase-mediated apoptosis in the cochleae, which may be related to a Cs mutation, contributes to the early onset of hearing loss in A/J mice. PMID:25732708

Han, Xu; Ge, Ruli; Xie, Gang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Xin; Gao, Lixiang; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Oumei; Huang, Fei; Han, Fengchan

2015-01-01

104

TEOS 06 Early Detection of Wildfires Team Members  

E-print Network

TEOS 06 Early Detection of Wildfires Team Members · Deborah Estrin, Faculty · Avinash Ravichandran, Post Doc* · Stefano Soatto, Faculty* * Primary Contact Overview Early detection of wildfires can-time/time-lapse video data and detecting the presence of wildfires. Figure 1 shows a typical example of a wildfire

California at Los Angeles, University of

105

Multilingual Children with Hearing Loss: Factors Contributing to Language Use at Home and in Early Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed…

Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

2013-01-01

106

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: NCI Sponsored Early Detection Research  

Cancer.gov

Over an eight-year period (1992-1999), the funding for molecular cancer research has risen from 330 million in 1992 to 820 million in 1999. During this period, the number of funded grants in molecular disease (contracts not included) rose to 2957 in 1999 from 1622 in 1992. The grants addressing the area of early detection also grew in number and funded amount; 206 ($36 million) in 1992 to 455 ($94 million) in 2000.

107

Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System  

PubMed Central

Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

2009-01-01

108

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? How can hearing aids help? How can I find ... ear through a speaker. Top How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

109

Neuropsychological strategies for detecting early dementia  

PubMed Central

As new and more effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) emerge, the development of efficient screening strategies in educationally and racially diverse primary care settings has increased in importance. A set of candidate screening tests and an independent diagnostic assessment were administered to a sample of 318 patients treated at a geriatric primary care center. Fifty-six subjects met criteria for dementia. Exploratory analysis led to the development of three two-stage screening strategies that differed in the composition of the first stage or Rapid Dementia Screen, which is applied to all patients over the age of 65. The second stage, applied to those patients who screen positively for dementia, is accomplished with the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test to detect memory impairment. Using clinical diagnosis as a gold standard, the strategies had high sensitivity and specificity for identifying dementia and performed better for identifying AD than non-AD dementias. Sensitivity and specificity did not differ by race or education. The strategies provide an efficient approach to screening for early dementia. PMID:18078539

GROBER, ELLEN; HALL, CHARLES; MCGINN, MARYANNE; NICHOLLS, TONI; STANFORD, STEPHANIE; EHRLICH, AMY; JACOBS, LAURIE G.; KENNEDY, GARY; SANDERS, AMY; LIPTON, RICHARD B.

2009-01-01

110

[Ethics and clinical practice guidelines: newborn hearing screening and early deaf childcare].  

PubMed

A national program for newborn hearing screening is gradually spreading throughout France, coming at a specific historical time: French sign language was recognized as a French language only in 2005, after almost a century of this language being banned in French educational institutions. Therefore, social views on deafness vary considerably depending on hearing status--deaf or hearing--and on the language used: spoken language, sign language, or bilingual. To help professionals take these different perspectives into account, the ethical questions raised during the French Authority for Health clinical practice guidelines development on deaf child care were retrospectively analyzed based on the Childress and Beauchamp principles: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This analysis showed that the steps followed during the guideline development were very similar to those devised by J.M. Gomas's model for ethical decision making and were respectful of R. Ogien's minimal ethics principles: equal consideration for everyone, neutrality toward conceptions of what is good for oneself, and interventions limited to cases of obvious harm caused to others. PMID:25001434

André-Vert, J; Laurence, M

2014-08-01

111

Hearing Aids and Hearing Impaired Students in Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes functions of the components of hearing aids and provides a detailed procedure to detect hearing aid dysfunctions. The most common type of hearing aids for school children are the behind the ear type. Various hearing aid components change sound into an electrical signal, which is amplified and adjusted by a volume control. The…

Woodford, Charles

112

Does early detection of otitis media with effusion prevent delayed language development?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To consider whether earlier detection of otitis media with effusion (OME) in asymptomatic children in the first 4 years of life prevents delayed language development.?METHODS—MEDLINE and other databases were searched and relevant references from articles reviewed. Critical appraisal and consensus development were in accordance with the methods of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.?RESULTS—No randomised controlled trials assessing the overall screening for OME and early intervention to prevent delay in acquiring language were identified, although one trial evaluated treatment in a screened population and found no benefit. The "analytic pathway" approach was therefore used, where evidence is evaluated for individual steps in a screening process. The evidence supporting the use of tools for early detection such as tympanometry, microtympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy in the first 4years of life is unclear. Some treatments (mucolytics, antibiotics, steroids) resulted in the short term resolution of effusions as measured by tympanometry. Ventilation tubes resolved effusions and improved hearing. Ventilation tubes in children with hearing loss associated with OME benefited children in the short term, but after 18 months there was no difference in comparison with those assigned to watchful waiting. Most prospective cohort studies that evaluated the association between OME and language development lacked adequate measurement of exposure or outcome, or suffered from attrition bias. Findings with regard to the association were inconsistent.?CONCLUSIONS—There is insufficient evidence to support attempts at early detection of OME in the first 4 years of life in the asymptomatic child to prevent delayed language development.?? PMID:11466181

Butler, C; MacMillan, H

2001-01-01

113

Evidence of hearing loss in a “normally-hearing” college-student population  

PubMed Central

We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25–8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ?25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ?20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for “notched” audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students’ hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects. PMID:21288064

Le Prell, C. G.; Hensley, B.N.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Hall, J. W.; Guire, K.

2011-01-01

114

Genetics of early cancer detection behaviours in Australian female twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of cervical and breast cancers is an important component of women's health strategy. Screening programmes, health professional interventions and preventive behaviours such as breast self-examination provide the means to this end. Our twin study sought to identify the relative influence of environmental and genetic factors on liability to early cancer detection behaviours, including use of cervical smear tests,

Susan A Treloar; Christine A McDonald; Nicholas G Martin

1999-01-01

115

Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

116

Early detection of liver cancer based on bioluminescence tomography  

E-print Network

Early detection of liver cancer based on bioluminescence tomography Xibo Ma1 , Jie Tian1 *, Chenghu on the bioluminescent intensity attenuation calibration and applied it to the early detection of liver cancer in situ. However, BLI cannot present the depth of information for internal diseases such as a liver tumor in situ

Tian, Jie

117

[Early detection of mental disorders in infants or children].  

PubMed

Early detection of babies or children mental disorders enables specific diagnosis and care in the very early life of the distressed children. It is critical to make all physicians able to identify early signs. Autism, depression, anguage and learning disorders are pathologies whose early diagnosis enables early care thus limiting the negative impact on child and family lives. In the specific context of child abuse, it is our duty to detect alarming signs as soon as possible to fully protect the abused baby or child. PMID:24855781

Touati-Pellegrin, Marie; Golse, Bernard

2014-04-01

118

First Information Parents Receive after UNHS Detection of Their Baby's Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover…

Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

2012-01-01

119

Spinster Homolog 2 (Spns2) Deficiency Causes Early Onset Progressive Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J.; White, Jacqueline K.; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P.

2014-01-01

120

Outcome of early detected and early treated phenylketonuria patients.  

PubMed

Data from the US PKU Collaborative Study are reviewed and compared with data from UK and the rest of Europe in order to assess the outcome of dietary management. Early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children have a good outcome. However, to achieve this the diet needs to be fairly strict for at least the first 10 years of life and perhaps should be maintained for a long period subsequently. Lifelong dietary management may be beneficial. PKU individuals in general have slightly lower IQ than their normal siblings and there is a greater tendency to display difficulty in mathematics and conceptual thinking. PMID:2622815

Rylance, G

1989-01-01

121

Early lung cancer - detection, treatment outcome  

SciTech Connect

The advantages in early diagnosis of lung cancer are discussed. Diagnosis by sputum cytology, localization of the lesion by fluorescence bronchoscopy, and treatment by photoradiation therapy are described. 17 references. (ACR)

Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

1984-01-01

122

Inner ear malformations in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: detection with gradient-echo (3DFT-CISS) MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of different MRI sequences in the detection of inner ear malformations in patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and\\/or vertigo was evaluated. We studied 650 patients presenting with SNHL and\\/or vertigo, clinically not suspected of having inner ear malformations. The sensitivity of T1-weighted, Gd-enhanced T1-weighted and (when available) T2-weighted spin-echo images, and three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in

J. W. Casselman; R. Kuhweide; W. Ampe; G. D'Hont; E. F. Offeciers; W. K. Faes; G. Pattyn

1996-01-01

123

Hearing and Hearing Loss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How the ear works, and how you can prevent hearing loss! Turn em Down iPod's Popular Earbuds: Hip Or Harmful? How the ear works Common Indoor and Outdoor Noise Levels Article with Decibel Chart for Common Sounds How the ear works How the ear works with images and graphics What is noise-induced hearing loss? ======================== Hearing Loss Simulation Hearing Loss Demo # 1 So, how do you know if LOUD is TOO LOUD? How Loud is Too Loud? Noise Induced Hearing Loss ...

Mr. Engelman

2009-05-27

124

Whole-Exome Sequencing Efficiently Detects Rare Mutations in Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Identification of the pathogenic mutations underlying autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is difficult, since causative mutations in 39 different genes have so far been reported. After excluding mutations in the most common ARNSHL gene, GJB2, via Sanger sequencing, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 30 individuals from 20 unrelated multiplex consanguineous families with ARNSHL. Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon 50 Mb kits and an Illumina Hiseq2000 instrument were used. An average of 93%, 84% and 73% of bases were covered to 1X, 10X and 20X within the ARNSHL-related coding RefSeq exons, respectively. Uncovered regions with WES included those that are not targeted by the exome capture kit and regions with high GC content. Twelve homozygous mutations in known deafness genes, of which eight are novel, were identified in 12 families: MYO15A-p.Q1425X, -p.S1481P, -p.A1551D; LOXHD1-p.R1494X, -p.E955X; GIPC3-p.H170N; ILDR1-p.Q274X; MYO7A-p.G2163S; TECTA-p.Y1737C; TMC1-p.S530X; TMPRSS3-p.F13Lfs*10; TRIOBP-p.R785Sfs*50. Each mutation was within a homozygous run documented via WES. Sanger sequencing confirmed co-segregation of the mutation with deafness in each family. Four rare heterozygous variants, predicted to be pathogenic, in known deafness genes were detected in 12 families where homozygous causative variants were already identified. Six heterozygous variants that had similar characteristics to those abovementioned variants were present in 15 ethnically-matched individuals with normal hearing. Our results show that rare causative mutations in known ARNSHL genes can be reliably identified via WES. The excess of heterozygous variants should be considered during search for causative mutations in ARNSHL genes, especially in small-sized families. PMID:23226338

Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Duman, Duygu; Foster, Joseph; S?rmac?, Asl?; Gonzalez, Michael; Mahdieh, Nejat; Fotouhi, Nikou; Bonyadi, Mortaza; Cengiz, Filiz Ba?ak; Menendez, Ibis; Ulloa, Rick H.; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.; Züchner, Stephan; Blanton, Susan; Tekin, Mustafa

2012-01-01

125

Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5 percent incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology

Gowra Balachandar; Eugene A. Trowers

1999-01-01

126

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to the audiologist and ... aid is turned on. Continue Types of Hearing Aids There are several hearing aid styles. Some are ...

127

Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders.  

PubMed

Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early 'lepospondyl' microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

2015-03-01

128

[Detection of hearing loss in dementia patients : pilot study and literature survey].  

PubMed

There is a higher incidence of dementia among people with hearing loss, although the complex interrelation is not yet understood. The potential influence of hearing rehabilitation is also unclear. A previously published retrospective study on this topic throws doubt on the ability of dementia patients to accomplish audiometric tests. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to analyse the feasibility of applying conventional speech and pure tone audiometry in patients with dementia. In contrast to previously published data, we were able to achieve reproducible results in almost all patients. The difficulty associated with audiometric testing in dementia patients does thus not seem to lie in the application of pure tone and speech audiometry. On the basis of evidence indicating the importance of central hearing loss in the elderly, these tests alone do not appear sufficient. It is of greater interest to ascertain whether central hearing loss is relevant in patients suffering from dementia and whether corresponding audiometric tests are feasible. PMID:25270835

Eichhorn, S; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

2014-11-01

129

Early Detection Research Network Report 2000  

Cancer.gov

Many of the clinical tests currently in use are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to detect all cancers at a curable stage or to evaluate risk accurately enough to guide effective prevention interventions.

130

Effective Practices in Early Intervention: Infants Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Both Vision & Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual documents key program development strategies and inservice training topics provided by the Model Demonstration Early Intervention Network Project. This project focused on building the capacity of early intervention programs to serve infants who are deaf-blind and their families. The first section covers program development and includes…

Chen, Deborah; And Others

131

ALERT Tahoe: Early Detection and Monitoring of Wildfires  

E-print Network

ALERT Tahoe: Early Detection and Monitoring of Wildfires What is the most cost effective way-hazard tracking system that includes smoke investigation, prescribed fire oversight, wildfire tracking, Earthquake

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

132

Innovative design for early detection of invasive species  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

133

Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23?1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. Conclusions/Significance Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that proved advanced sensory perception to be of notable adaptive significance. PMID:17849018

Müller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A.

2007-01-01

134

School Safety, Discipline, and IDEA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Waynesboro, Georgia, August 13, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on August 13, 1999, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed school safety, discipline, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the report includes…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

135

Ritalin Use among Youth: Examining the Issues and Concerns. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on May 16, 2000, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed issues and concerns on the use of ritalin among youth with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

136

Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

2011-11-01

137

Embedded Assessment: Overcoming Barriers to Early Detection  

E-print Network

base- lines against which later indices of health status can be compared. Our ethno- graphic providers. Many diseases that severely limit quality of life are difficult to manage in their later stages detection of #12;disease states. We believe this highly integrated approach will greatly increase adop- tion

138

Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

1993-01-01

139

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research Table of Contents Overview Introduction CBRG Mission Trends in Early Detection Research Early Detection Research Worldwide

140

The monitoring and early detection of internet worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet and cause severe damage to our society. Facing this great security threat, we need to build an early detection system that can detect the presence of a worm in the Internet as quickly as possible in order to

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley; Lixin Gao

2005-01-01

141

Elasticity imaging for early detection of renal pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of renal pathology may be possible with elasticity imaging. This hypothesis was experimentally tested by quantitatively imaging internal mechanical strain due to surface deformations in an in vitro animal model of nephritis. Preliminary data support the hypothesis that kidney elasticity changes with renal damage and concomitant scarring before problems are detectable by traditional diagnostic techniques such as laboratory

S. Y. Emelianov; M. A. Lubinski; W. F. Weitzel; R. C. Wiggins; A. R. Skovoroda; M. O'Donnell

1995-01-01

142

Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

Sutedja, Thomas G.

2013-01-01

143

Screening and Early Detection Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Choose one of the following cancer types to view the clinical trials actively enrolling participants in studies to detect or screen for that type of cancer. All studies are supported by NCI, but not all originate from the Division of Cancer Prevention. Not every cancer type will have active trials at all times. For cancer types not listed here, visit NCI's Clinical Trials information webpage.

144

Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

1999-06-01

145

Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology  

PubMed Central

Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

2010-01-01

146

Prognostic value of automatically detected early repolarization.  

PubMed

Early repolarization associated with sudden cardiac death is based on the presence of >1-mm J-point elevations in inferior and/or lateral leads with horizontal and/or downsloping ST segments. Automated electrocardiographic readings of early repolarization (AER) obtained in clinical practice, in contrast, are defined by ST-segment elevation in addition to J-point elevation. Nonetheless, such automated readings may cause alarm. We therefore assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of AER in 211,920 patients aged 18 to 75 years. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center serving a racially diverse urban population with a large proportion of Hispanics (43%). The first recorded electrocardiogram of each individual from 2000 to 2012 was included. Patients with ventricular paced rhythm or acute coronary syndrome at the time of acquisition were excluded from the analysis. All automated electrocardiographic interpretations were reviewed for accuracy by a board-certified cardiologist. The primary end point was death during a median follow-up of 8.0 ± 2.6 years. AER was present in 3,450 subjects (1.6%). The prevalence varied significantly with race (African-Americans 2.2%, Hispanics 1.5%, and non-Hispanic whites 0.9%, p <0.01) and gender (male 2.4% vs female 0.6%, p <0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for age, smoking status, heart rate, QTc, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant difference in mortality regardless of race or gender (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.07). This was true even if J waves were present. In conclusion, AER was not associated with an increased risk of death, regardless of race or gender, and should not trigger additional diagnostic testing. PMID:25306428

Aagaard, Philip; Shulman, Eric; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John D; Gross, Jay N; Kargoli, Faraj; Kim, Soo G; Palma, Eugen C; Ferrick, Kevin J; Krumerman, Andrew

2014-11-01

147

Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient occlusal and proximal caries. This technique may ultimately allow for continuous monitoring of caries before and during treatment.

Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

2006-02-01

148

From Screening to Early Identification and Intervention: Discovering Predictors to Successful Outcomes for Children With Significant Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the research findings from a longitu- dinal study of the language, speech, and social-emotional de- velopment of children who are deaf and hard of hearing, all of whom have hearing parents. This series of studies, from 1994 to the present, investigated predictors of successful develop- mental outcomes. The article provides information about how the findings of these

Christine Yoshinaga-Itano

2003-01-01

149

Infant Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... there can be significant impact on speech and language development. Early fitting of hearing or other prosthetic aids, ... will get a head start on speech and language development. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and ...

150

Functional and structural changes throughout the auditory system following congenital and early-onset deafness: implications for hearing restoration  

PubMed Central

The absence of auditory input, particularly during development, causes widespread changes in the structure and function of the auditory system, extending from peripheral structures into auditory cortex. In humans, the consequences of these changes are far-reaching and often include detriments to language acquisition, and associated psychosocial issues. Much of what is currently known about the nature of deafness-related changes to auditory structures comes from studies of congenitally deaf or early-deafened animal models. Fortunately, the mammalian auditory system shows a high degree of preservation among species, allowing for generalization from these models to the human auditory system. This review begins with a comparison of common methods used to obtain deaf animal models, highlighting the specific advantages and anatomical consequences of each. Some consideration is also given to the effectiveness of methods used to measure hearing loss during and following deafening procedures. The structural and functional consequences of congenital and early-onset deafness have been examined across a variety of mammals. This review attempts to summarize these changes, which often involve alteration of hair cells and supporting cells in the cochleae, and anatomical and physiological changes that extend through subcortical structures and into cortex. The nature of these changes is discussed, and the impacts to neural processing are addressed. Finally, long-term changes in cortical structures are discussed, with a focus on the presence or absence of cross-modal plasticity. In addition to being of interest to our understanding of multisensory processing, these changes also have important implications for the use of assistive devices such as cochlear implants. PMID:24324409

Butler, Blake E.; Lomber, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

151

Advances in pancreatic cancer research: Moving towards early detection  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application. PMID:25170208

He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

2014-01-01

152

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

153

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing aids. A hearing aid is a small electronic device that your baby wears in or behind ... hearing loss. Cochlear implant . This is a small electronic device that can help some babies with severe ...

154

Hearing Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... participate in activities with their hearing peers. These technologies include programmable hearing aids, which teens can adjust for different environments; FM systems, which include a microphone/ transmitter worn ...

155

Auditory nerve synapses persist in ventral cochlear nucleus long after loss of acoustic input in mice with early-onset progressive hearing loss.  

PubMed

Perceptual performance in persons with hearing loss, especially those using devices to restore hearing, is not fully predicted by traditional audiometric measurements designed to evaluate the status of peripheral function. The integrity of auditory brainstem synapses may vary with different forms of hearing loss, and differential effects on the auditory nerve-brain interface may have particularly profound consequences for the transfer of sound from ear to brain. Loss of auditory nerve synapses in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) has been reported after acoustic trauma, ablation of the organ of Corti, and administration of ototoxic compounds. The effects of gradually acquired forms deafness on these synapses are less well understood. We investigated VCN gross morphology and auditory nerve synapse integrity in DBA/2J mice with early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing status was confirmed using auditory brainstem response audiometry and acoustic startle responses. We found no change in VCN volume, number of macroneurons, or number of VGLUT1-positive auditory nerve terminals between young adult and older, deaf DBA/2J. Cell-type specific analysis revealed no difference in the number of VGLUT1 puncta contacting bushy and multipolar cell body profiles, but the terminals were smaller in deaf DBA/2J mice. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of numerous healthy, vesicle-filled auditory nerve synapses in older, deaf DBA/2J mice. The present results suggest that synapses can be preserved over a relatively long time-course in gradually acquired deafness. Elucidating the mechanisms supporting survival of central auditory nerve synapses in models of acquired deafness may reveal new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25686750

McGuire, Brian; Fiorillo, Benjamin; Ryugo, David K; Lauer, Amanda M

2015-04-24

156

Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2014-01-01

157

Hearing loss is an early consequence of Npc1 gene deletion in the mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease, type C.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a rare lysosomal lipidosis that is most often the result of biallelic mutations in NPC1, and is characterized by a fatal neurological degeneration. The pathophysiology is complex, and the natural history of the disease is poorly understood. Recent findings from patients with NPC1 and hearing loss suggest that multiple steps along the auditory pathway are affected. The current study was undertaken to determine the auditory phenotype in the Npc1 (nih) mutant mouse model, to extend analyses to histologic evaluation of the inner ear, and to compare our findings to those reported from human patients. Auditory testing revealed a progressive high-frequency hearing loss in Npc1 (-/-) mice that is present as early as postnatal day 20 (P20), well before the onset of overt neurological symptoms, with evidence of abnormalities involving the cochlea, auditory nerve, and brainstem auditory centers. Distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude and auditory brainstem response latency data provided evidence for a disruption in maturational development of the auditory system in Npc1 (-/-) mice. Anatomical study demonstrated accumulation of lysosomes in neurons, hair cells, and supporting cells of the inner ear in P30 Npc1 (-/-) mice, as well as increased numbers of inclusion bodies, myelin figures, and swollen nerve endings in older (P50-P70) mutant animals. These findings add unique perspective to the pathophysiology of NPC disease and suggest that hearing loss is an early and sensitive marker of disease progression. PMID:24839095

King, Kelly A; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Pawlowski, Karen S; Taylor, Anna M; Griffith, Andrew J; Houser, Ari; Kurima, Kiyoto; Wassif, Christopher A; Wright, Charles G; Porter, Forbes D; Repa, Joyce J; Brewer, Carmen C

2014-08-01

158

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Detection, Intervention, Education, and Psychopharmacological Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological manage- ment of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, \\

Susan E Bryson; Sally J Rogers; Eric Fombonne

2003-01-01

159

EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

160

Prevention of hemodialysis fistula thrombosis. Early detection of venous stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of hemodialysis fistula thrombosis. Early detection of venous stenoses. Venous dialysis pressures were measured consecutively in 168 chronic hemodialysis patients for 265 patient-years of monitored dialysis. Venous dialysis pressure > 150 mm Hg measured by the protocol were considered elevated. Seventy-three patients had elevated venous dialysis pressures and 58 agreed to undergo elective venography (fistulogram). Fifty of 58 patients

Steve J Schwab; John R Raymond; Moshin Saeed; Glenn E Newman; Patricia A Dennis; R Randal Bollinger

1989-01-01

161

Application of orthogonal wavelets to early gear damage detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the orthogonal wavelet transform to detect abnormal transients generated by early gear damage from the gearbox casing vibration signal is discussed. Orthogonal wavelets, such as Daubechies 4 and harmonic wavelets, are used to transform the time domain synchronous vibration signal into the time-scale domain. The orthogonal wavelet transform uses fast algorithms and decomposes the signal onto the minimum

W. J. Wang; P. D. McFadden

1995-01-01

162

Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

2009-01-01

163

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER  

E-print Network

AN ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION APPROACH FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER Marius George LINGURARU, Oxford OX2 7BZ, United Kingdom mglin@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract: The prevalence of breast cancer with a very low number of false positives per image. Key words: digital mammography, breast cancer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Prospective study of early detection for primary liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether repeated screening can lead to early detection of primary liver cancer (PLC) and in turn to an improved clinical result.Methods: In this randomized controlled study, Shanghai urban residents aged 35–55 years and with serum evidence of HBV infection or chronic liver disease were eligible for recruitment. Using cluster sampling, these subjects were allocated into two groups

Binghui Yang; Boheng Zhang; Yaochao Xu; Wenping Wang; Yuefang Shen; Anru Zhang; Zhong Xu

1997-01-01

165

[Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].  

PubMed

The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics. PMID:23842872

Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

2013-10-01

166

[From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment. PMID:25726819

Canal-Bedia, R; Garcia-Primo, P; Hernandez-Fabian, A; Magan-Maganto, M; Sanchez, A B; Posada-De la Paz, M

2015-02-25

167

A new mouse mutant of the Cdh23 gene with early-onset hearing loss facilitates evaluation of otoprotection drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a novel mutation (erlong, erl) of the cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene in a mouse model for DFNB12 characterized by progressive hearing loss beginning from postnatal day 27 (P27). Genetic and sequencing analysis revealed a 208 T >C transition causing an amino-acid substitution (70S–P). Caspase expression was upregulated in mutant inner ears. Hearing was preserved (up to 35-dB improvement)

F Han; H Yu; C Tian; H E Chen; C Benedict-Alderfer; Y Zheng; Q Wang; X Han; Q Y Zheng

2012-01-01

168

77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

2012-11-05

169

A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

Ivanov, K. N.

2005-11-27

170

PAX3 gene deletion detected by microarray analysis in a girl with hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Deletions of the PAX3 gene have been rarely reported in the literature. Mutations of this gene are a common cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and 3. We report a 16?year old female presenting hearing loss and normal intellectual development, without major features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1, and without family history of the syndrome. Her phenotype, however, overlaps with features of craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. Microarray analysis showed ~862?kb de novo deletion at 2q36.1 including PAX3. The above findings suggest that the rearrangement found in our patient appeared de novo and with high probability is a cause of her phenotype. PMID:24839464

2014-01-01

171

Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of individual chapters. It may also be approached in a linear fashion, as a sequence of steps leading to a comprehensive approach to early-detection. Our primary audience comprises resource professionals within the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program’s networks of parks, but we think that the knowledge and experience captured in this document is more broadly applicable to include other natural areas professionals. We have chosen to emphasize the technical side of invasive species early-detection because this is the arena in which most professionals need more guidance. This approach includes but is not limited to complex techniques that may seem to be just beyond the budgetary and (or) time-bound grasps of some resource professionals. Nonetheless, we have provided low-cost options.

Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

2014-01-01

172

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Computer-Aided Detection  

Cancer.gov

New development in computer hardware and software, informatics, methodology and technology can assist physicians in early detection, interpretation of laboratory tests, automation of laboratory tests, and estimating prognosis and staging of cancer. Virtual colonoscopy, for example, can provide a three-dimensional image of colon, help surgeons pinpoint abnormality for surgical removal, and enhance the detection ability of colonoscopy.

173

A new mouse mutant of the Cdh23 gene with early-onset hearing loss facilitates evaluation of otoprotection drugs.  

PubMed

We report a novel mutation (erlong, erl) of the cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene in a mouse model for DFNB12 characterized by progressive hearing loss beginning from postnatal day 27 (P27). Genetic and sequencing analysis revealed a 208?T >C transition causing an amino-acid substitution (70S-P). Caspase expression was upregulated in mutant inner ears. Hearing was preserved (up to 35-dB improvement) in pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK-treated mutants compared with untreated mutants (P<0.05). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss in the cochleae of Z-VAD-FMK-treated mutants was significantly reduced compared with those of untreated mice. Thus, the erl mutation can lead to hearing loss through apoptosis. This is the first genetic mouse model of hearing loss shown to respond to otoprotective drug therapy. The short interval from initial hearing loss to deafness (P27-P90) makes this model ideal for screening and validating otoprotective drugs. PMID:20644563

Han, F; Yu, H; Tian, C; Chen, H E; Benedict-Alderfer, C; Zheng, Y; Wang, Q; Han, X; Zheng, Q Y

2012-02-01

174

A new mouse mutant of the Cdh23 gene with early-onset hearing loss facilitates evaluation of otoprotection drugs  

PubMed Central

We report a novel mutation (erlong, erl) of the cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene in a mouse model for DFNB12 characterized by progressive hearing loss beginning from post-natal day 27 (P27). Genetic and sequencing analysis revealed a 208T>C transition causing an amino acid substitution (70S-P). Caspase expression was up-regulated in mutant inner ears. Hearing was preserved (up to 35-dB improvement) in pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK-treated mutants compared to untreated mutants (P < 0.05). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss in the cochleae of Z-VAD-FMK-treated mutants was significantly reduced compared to those of untreated mice. Thus, the erl mutation can lead to hearing loss through apoptosis. This is the first genetic mouse model of hearing loss shown to respond to otoprotective drug therapy. The short interval from initial hearing loss to deafness (P27-P90) makes this model ideal for screening and validating otoprotective drugs. PMID:20644563

Han, Fengchan; Yu, Heping; Tian, Cong; Chen, Hui E; Benedict-Alderfer, Cindy; Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Qiuju; Han, Xu; Zheng, Qing Y

2010-01-01

175

Middle ear and hearing disorders of schoolchildren aged 7-10 years in South Sinai, Egypt.  

PubMed

Hearing loss among schoolchildren in developing countries is reported to be a significant health problem. Data on child hearing loss in South Sinai, a remote governorate of Egypt, are lacking. Middle ear diseases and hearing impairment were assessed among 453 primary-school children aged 7-10 years in South Sinai (906 ears). Otoscopic examination, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA) were done. Ear disease was found in 27.5% of the ears examined. The commonest cause was secretory otitis media (10.8%), followed by occluded earwax (9.5%). Mild and moderate hearing loss affected 8.5% of the sample, while sensorineural hearing loss affected 2.4%; only 0.4% had moderate and severe hearing loss. Hearing impairment affects 19.3% of this age group in South Sinai. None of the children with hearing impairment had been previously diagnosed or was receiving treatment and support. Hearing and middle ear screening at schools is recommended for early detection and management of middle ear and hearing problems. PMID:22574480

Yamamah, G; Mabrouk, A; Ghorab, E; Ahmady, M; Abdulsalam, H

2012-03-01

176

A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

2003-01-01

177

Future Directions for the Early Detection of Recurrent Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

2014-01-01

178

Nephrotoxicity of organic solvents: biomarkers for early detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Evidence for a relationship between chronic kidney diseases or progression of already existing diseases (glomerulonephritides) and occupational solvent exposure has been found in case reports, in case-control studies and also in cross-sectional studies. An analysis of the available literature was performed with respect to markers measured in cross-sectional studies that might be useful for an early detection of solvent-induced

Jens-Uwe Voss; Markus Roller; Elke Brinkmann; Inge Mangelsdorf

2005-01-01

179

Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

180

The Federal Role in K-12 Mathematics Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (February 2, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: Michael N. Castle, Chairman, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Howard P. "Buck" Mckeon, Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

181

Are Our Children Ready To Learn? Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session on Examining Early Childhood Education and Related Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearing transcripts present testimony before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the 105th Congress on early childhood education and related services. Participants provided different perspectives on early education, focusing on the academic achievement of American students, especially in comparison to students in other countries;…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

182

Early Childhood Interventions: Public-Private Partnerships. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings transcripts recount testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives concerning early childhood development programs. Testimony addressed the questions of how public and private investments in early childhood programs contribute to successful outcomes for infants and mothers, and how these successes can be measured and replicated…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Human Resources.

183

Study of the Knowledge of Pediatricians and Senior Residents Relating to the Importance of Hearing Impairment and Deafness Screening Among Newborns  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Newborn hearing screening leads to the early detection of hearing impairment. The aim of screening is to decrease or remove the effect of hearing impairment on development of speech and language by timely diagnosis and effective treatment. A number of risk factors lead to delayed start of decreased hearing ability including: 1. Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) virus, 2. Meningitis, 3. Mumps, 4. Positive family history, 5. Head trauma, 6. Chemotherapy,7. Syndrome pertaining to delayed start of decreased hearing. Unfortunately, lack of attention to early diagnosis of hearing impairment is becoming a general health problem. No research has yet been carried out relating to the knowledge of pediatricians on this issue, particularly the importance of hearing impairment and hearing screening. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude to newborn hearing screening among pediatricians. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was conducted in Isfahan in 2012 among 300 pediatricians and final-year pediatric residents. An adjusted 22-question version of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) questionnaire was used to collect data. The validity and reliability of the EHDI questionnaire was previously demonstrated by Boys Town National Research Hospital and its Farsi translated version was validated by the EDC Center at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Results: In our study, 83% of pediatricians agreed on the importance of hearing impairment screening for all infants. However 65% were not aware of special needs for hearing-impaired patients. Conclusion: Newborn hearing impairment and deafness screening is important, irrespective of the costs, and lack of timely diagnosis results in both individual and social consequences. The majority of physicians use textbooks to gain information about hearing screening, but recognize that this is insufficient. Although it is now one of the most useful tools for gathering and applying new information, the physicians in our study rely very little on the Internet as a source of information. PMID:24744993

Rogha, Mehrdad; Mokhtari, Elham

2014-01-01

184

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-357  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen…

Scott, George A.

2011-01-01

185

Theoretical Prediction of Ultrasound Elastography for Detection of Early Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound elastography could be used as a new noninvasive technique for detecting early osteoarthritis. As the first critical step, this study theoretically predicted the excitation power and the measurement errors in detecting cartilage detect. A finite element model was used to simulate wave propagation of elastography in the cartilage. The wave was produced by a force F, and the wave speed C was calculated. The normal cartilage model was used to define the relationship between the wave speed and elastic modulus. Various stiffness values were simulated. F = 10?N with a duration of 0.5?ms was required for having measurable deformation (10??m) at the distal site. The deformation had a significant rise when the wave crossed the defect. The relationship between the wave speed and elastic parameters was found as C = 1.57 × (E)/(2 × ?(1+?)))1/2, where E was the elastic modulus, ? was Poisson's ratio, and ? was the density. For the simulated defect with an elastic modulus of 7?MPa which was slightly stiffer than the normal cartilage, the measurement error was 0.1?MPa. The results suggested that, given the simulated conditions, this new technique could be used to detect the defect in early osteoarthritis. PMID:24307873

Chen, Shigao; An, Kai-Nan; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

2013-01-01

186

Hearing Mothers and Their Deaf Children: The Relationship between Early, Ongoing Mode Match and Subsequent Mental Health Functioning in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the few studies that have been conducted, researchers have typically found that deaf adolescents have more mental health difficulties than their hearing peers and that, within the deaf groups, those who use spoken language have better mental health functioning than those who use sign language. This study investigated the hypotheses that mental health functioning in adolescence is related to

Delia Wallis

2004-01-01

187

Cisplatin and Cranial Irradiation-Related Hearing Loss in Children  

PubMed Central

Background: High doses of cisplatin and cranial radiotherapy (CRT) have been reported to cause irreversible hearing loss. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cranial irradiation on cisplatin-associated ototoxicity in children with pediatric malignancies. Methods: Serial audiograms were obtained for 33 children, age <16 years, treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (90-120 mg/m2 per cycle) with or without CRT. Eligible patients included those with normal baseline audiometric evaluations and without significant exposure to other ototoxic drugs. We defined significant hearing loss as a hearing threshold ?30 dB at 2,000-8,000 Hz frequencies. Results: The median age of our study population was 4.9 years (range 6 weeks to 16 years), and the male to female ratio was 0.8:1. The study population consisted of 15 Caucasians, 17 African-Americans, and 1 Hispanic. Fourteen patients had brain tumors, and 19 had other solid tumors. Thirteen patients were exposed to CRT, and 20 were not. Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 24/33 (73%) patients, with severe/profound (?70 dB) impairment in 10/33 (30%) of all patients. Young age (<5 years), CRT, and brain tumors were independent prognostic factors predicting hearing loss. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a high incidence of hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin and CRT. Consequently, we recommend monitoring these children for the early detection of hearing loss. PMID:23049454

Warrier, Rajasekharan; Chauhan, Aman; Davluri, Murali; Tedesco, Sonya L.; Nadell, Joseph; Craver, Randall

2012-01-01

188

Early detection of radioactive fallout by gamma spectrometry.  

PubMed

Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rates of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for 137Cs and even lower for 131I. For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components produced by NASVD. Stripping is not used and false alarms due to washout of atmospheric radon progeny are almost eliminated. Detection levels and the criteria for setting warning and alarm levels are discussed. The method may also be useful in other situations, for example where low-level signals from radioactive sources need to be detected. PMID:14653336

Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K

2003-01-01

189

Early detection of COPD is important for lung cancer surveillance.  

PubMed

It is well known that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant risk factor for lung cancer. Approximately 1% of COPD patients develop lung cancer every year, which may be associated with genetic susceptibility to cigarette smoke. Chronic inflammation caused by toxic gases can induce COPD and lung cancer. Inflammatory mediators may promote the growth of bronchioalveolar stem cells, and activation of nuclear factor-?B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 play crucial roles in the development of lung cancer from COPD. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is an effective procedure for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk patients. However, determining which patients should be screened for lung cancer in a primary care setting is difficult. In this article, we review the epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer associated with COPD, verify the efficacy of lung cancer screening by LDCT, and discuss the importance of early detection of COPD for lung cancer surveillance. We propose that, for the prevention of both diseases, COPD screening in smokers should be initiated as early as possible, so they can stop smoking and so that candidates for an efficient lung cancer screening programme can be identified. PMID:22088970

Sekine, Yasuo; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Fujisawa, Takehiko

2012-05-01

190

Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

Khochikar, Makarand V.

2011-01-01

191

Types of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids What are hearing aids? What are the different ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

192

Hearing loss  

MedlinePLUS

... or dizzy (more common with Ménière's disease and acoustic neuroma ) Feeling of pressure in the ear (in ... reversed. Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by: Acoustic neuroma Age-related hearing loss Childhood infections, such ...

193

On early detection of strong infections in complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

2014-02-01

194

Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

Navarro, Jaume

2006-03-01

195

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Detection Technology  

Cancer.gov

Our ability to detect, diagnose and treat cancer will most likely be based on the molecular changes that distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterpart. Having reliable detection technologies to identify tumors early is therefore crucial before they become invasive. Development of technologies to quantitate molecular changes at all levels of gene expression, and to integrate the information is needed to identify molecular alterations that are selectively expressed in pre-invasive lesions, and correlated with tumor aggression.

196

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... interpret those sounds, including the sounds of speech. Factors that determine how much hearing loss will negatively affect a person’s quality of life include the degree of the hearing loss the pattern of hearing loss across different frequencies (pitches) whether ...

197

The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient  

SciTech Connect

A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease.

Som, P.M. (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York); Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

1982-05-01

198

Head and neck skin cancer: dentists' responsibility in early detection.  

PubMed

While there are 35,000 diagnosed oral cancers per year and 7,500 deaths, there are 30 times this amount when it comes to cases of skin cancer, the majority of which are found on the head and neck. Because many patients see their dentist more frequently than their medical doctor, dentistry is in an advantageous position to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this most common malignancy. This article discusses various types of head and neck skin cancer and how dental practitioners can perform clinical examinations to provide early detection for patients. PMID:23931264

Corcoran, Paul; Depaola, Louis; Nern, Karen; Urquhart, Jean

2013-03-01

199

Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s normal operation. This technique eliminates the probing problem of a gain/phase margin method by connecting the power input to a spectral analyzer. Therefore, it is able to evaluate stability for all kinds of hybrid DC/DC converters with or without remote sense pins, and is suitable for real-time and in-circuit testing. This frequency-domain technique is more sensitive to detect oscillation at early stage than the time-domain method using an oscilloscope.

Wang, Bright L.

2011-01-01

200

Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

2014-01-01

201

Early Detection and Treatment of Hemodialysis Access Dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a program for the early detection of hemodialysis graft dysfunction and the impact on graft survival of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent implantation to correct venous stenosis.Methods: A program for the early detection of hemodialysis access graft dysfunction was carried out in 110 patients over a period of 80 months. Detection was based on physical examination, flow rate measurements, venous pressure, and analytical determinations performed at dialysis. The stenoses detected were treated by PTA or PTA plus stent deployment. Survival curves compared primary and assisted patency rates for the different graft types.Results: The most important indicators of dysfunction were increased venous pressure and difficulty in cannulation of the graft. Significant stenoses were revealed by 227 (92.2%) of the 246 fistulography procedures performed. PTA results were satisfactory in 100% of the Thomas grafts, 74% of the Brescia-Cimino (BC) grafts, and 53% of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Technical success rates for stent deployment were 92% for BC grafts and 100% for PTFE grafts, while functional success rates were 96% and 97%, respectively. The difference in the primary patency (P1) and assisted patency (AP) values was statistically significant for all three graft types. There was no significant difference in the patency rates for grafts treated by PTA alone or by PTA and stent deployment.Conclusion: A surveillance program helped prevent graft thrombosis, and intervention as required achieved excellent primary and assisted patency rates. Stent deployment salvaged a considerable number of accesses but did not significantly extend access survival time.

Gallego Beuter, Juan Jose; Hernandez Lezana, Antonio [Department of Radiology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrero Calvo, Jose [Department of Nephrology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno Carriles, Rosa [Department of Vascular Surgery, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2000-01-15

202

A Fresh Start for New Orleans' Children: Improving Education after Katrina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Education System of New Orleans (July 14, 2006, New Orleans, LA). Senate Hearing 109-626  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this hearing was to examine the education system of New Orleans. Statements were presented by: Honorable Lamar Alexander, Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Honorable Mary L. Landrieu, U.S. Senator from Louisiana; Honorable Richard Burr, U.S. Senator from North Carolina; Linda Johnson, President,…

US Senate, 2007

2007-01-01

203

Field Hearing on Technology in Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Petaluma, California, August 30, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met, pursuant to call, on August 30, 1999 in the Petaluma Community Center, Petaluma, California, with Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presiding. This document represents the field hearing on how educational…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

204

Field Hearing on Education Technology and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Newark, Delaware, April 12, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing before the House Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce on Educational Technology and the Elementary Secondary Education Act contains statements by: Michael Castle, Subcommittee Chairman; Dale Kildee, Subcommittee member; Thomas Carper, Governor of Delaware, accompanied by…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

205

Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry  

PubMed Central

The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

Johns, David P.

2014-01-01

206

Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry.  

PubMed

The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

Johns, David P; Walters, Julia A E; Walters, E Haydn

2014-11-01

207

The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

2011-01-01

208

Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... early intervention services may include the use of sign language and/or hearing aids. Studies show that children ... total communication, oral communication, cued speech, and American Sign Language. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires ...

209

Examining the National Environmental Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (June 27, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: William F. Goodling, Committee on Education and Workforce; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; John Kasper, Acting Deputy Associate Administrator Office of Communications, Education, and Media…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

210

Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

211

The Role of Character Education in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 1, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication covers the hearing held on March 1, 2000, in Washington, DC, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives on the role of character education in U.S. schools. The publication contains the following: "Statement of Mr. Michael N. Castle,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

212

Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (McAllen, Texas, July 7, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Congressional hearing on the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act, held in McAllen Texas, focuses on issues to consider in the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. After opening statements by Chairman Michael Castle and Representative Ruben Hinojosa, both of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

213

Precordial vibrations provide noninvasive detection of early-stage hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Graded lower-body negative pressure was used to create a hemodynamic response similar to hemorrhage. Echocardiogram measurements showed a maximal reduction of 32.4% in stroke volume. Analysis of systolic time intervals, such as pre-ejection period and left ventricular ejection time (LVET), derived from a seismocardiogram (SCG), were demonstrated to be more sensitive in detection of early-stage hemorrhage compared with pulse pressure, heart rate, and the amplitude features extracted from SCG. In particular, the LVET and pre-ejection period/LVET features, extracted from SCG, were significantly different between, and correlated with, the different stages of lower-body negative pressure (r = 0.9 and 0.88, P < 0.05), for 32 subjects. These results suggest a portable, cost-effective solution for identification of mild or moderate hemorrhage using accelerometers. PMID:24434413

Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Dumont, Guy A; Houlton, Geoffrey; Blaber, Andrew P

2014-02-01

214

Rethinking Positron Emission Technology for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current PET technology, which detects cancer indirectly by measuring the size of tumors, is contrasted with a new technology that emphasizes measuring directly the abnormal metabolic activity characteristic of the very first cancerous cells by improving the efficiency of the medical imaging device hundreds of times. Rather than maximizing spatial resolution, this approach minimizes the abnormal metabolic threshold needed for early cancer diagnosis. A redesigned detector assembly takes full advantage of innovations in electronics to implement real-time algorithms that allow the use of economical crystal detectors. The tradeoffs inherent in choosing components, such as crystals, sensors, and electronics, for achieving the largest reduction in cancer deaths is discussed and justified. Theoretical calculations and prototype data are provided in references that demonstrate that all this can be achieved at a significantly lower radiation dosage and per exam cost to the patient.

Crosetto, D. B.

2006-04-01

215

[Visual analysis for an early detection of diabetic neuropathy].  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. It comes along with significant nerve dysfunction, which is not reversible. Hence, it is essential to detect nerve fibre abnormalities as early as possible. In this paper, we investigate markers describing degradation of corneal nerves. We apply statistical computations and visual analysis to identify those variables of two clinical studies that separate DN patients from a control group. In this way, the diagnosis of DN patients is supported. The visual analysis is based on different representations visualizing both the statistical results and the gathered multi-variate data. The user can interactively manipulate the views, or select data that will be shown by further displays. In this way, the understanding of the data and its classification is supported. Ambiguous categorisations can be identified and grouped into a so-called "fuzzy group". For this group, further investigations are needed to decide about diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25519502

Röhlig, M; Luboschik, M; Kundt, G; Stachs, O; Peschel, S; Zhivov, A; Guthoff, R F; Winter, K; Schumann, H

2014-12-01

216

Early Detection of Recurrent Breast Cancer Using Metabolite Profiling  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of a monitoring test for recurrent breast cancer using metabolite profiling methods. Using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) methods, we analyzed the metabolite profiles of 257 retrospective serial serum samples from 56 previously diagnosed and surgically treated breast cancer patients. 116 of the serial samples were from 20 patients with recurrent breast cancer and 141 samples were from 36 patients with no clinical evidence of the disease during the approximately 6-year sample collection period. NMR and GCxGC-MS data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods to compare identified metabolite signals between the recurrence and no evidence of disease samples. Eleven metabolite markers (7 from NMR and 4 from GCxGC-MS) were shortlisted from an analysis of all patient samples using logistic regression and 5-fold cross validation. A PLS-DA model built using these markers with leave one out cross validation provided a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 84% (AUROC =0.88). Strikingly, 55% of the patients could be correctly predicted to have recurrence 13 months (on average) before the recurrence was diagnosed clinically, representing a large improvement over the current breast cancer monitoring assay CA 27.29. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to develop and pre-validate a prediction model for early detection of recurrent breast cancer based on a metabolic profile. In particular, the combination of two advanced analytical methods, NMR and MS, provides a powerful approach for the early detection of recurrent breast cancer. PMID:20959483

Asiago, Vincent M.; Alvarado, Leiddy Z.; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; Owusu-Sarfo, Kwadwo; Ballas, Robert; Raftery, Daniel

2010-01-01

217

Autoantibody signatures: progress and perspectives for early cancer detection  

PubMed Central

Abstract Becoming invasive is a crucial step in cancer development, and the early spread of tumour cells is usually undetected by current imaging technologies. In patients with cancer and no signs of overt metastases, sensitive methods have been developed to identify circulating autoantibodies and their antigen counterparts in several cancers. These technologies are often based on proteomic approaches, and recent advances in protein and antibody microarrays have greatly facilitated the discovery of new antibody biomarkers in sera from cancer patients. Interestingly, in a clinical application setting, combinations of multiple autoantibody reactivities into panel assays have recently been proposed as relevant screening tests and validated in several independent trials. In addition, autoantibody signatures seem to be particularly relevant for early detection of cancer in high-risk cancer patients. In this review, we highlight the concept that immunogenic epitopes associated with the humoural response and key pathogenic pathways elicit serum autoantibodies that can be considered as relevant cancer biomarkers. We outline the proteomic strategies employed to identify and validate their use in clinical practice for cancer screening and diagnosis. We particularly emphasize the clinical utility of autoantibody signatures in several cancers. Finally, we discuss the challenges remaining for clinical validation. PMID:21651719

Desmetz, C; Mange, A; Maudelonde, T; Solassol, J

2011-01-01

218

Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

1999-04-01

219

Urinary protein biomarkers in the early detection of lung cancer.  

PubMed

The early detection of lung cancer has the potential to greatly impact disease burden through the timely identification and treatment of affected individuals at a manageable stage of development. The insufficient specificity demonstrated by currently used screening and diagnostic techniques has led to intense investigation into biomarkers as diagnostic tools. Urine may represent a noninvasive alternative matrix for diagnostic biomarker development. We performed an analysis of 242 biomarkers in urines obtained from 83 patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), 74 patients diagnosed with benign pulmonary conditions, and 77 healthy donors. A large number of significant alterations were observed between the NSCLC and control groups. A multivariate analysis identified a three-biomarker panel consisting of IGFBP-1, sIL-1Ra, CEACAM-1, which discriminated NSCLC from healthy controls with a sensitivity/specificity of 84/95 in an initial training set and 72/100 in an independent validation set. This panel performed well among multiple subtypes of NSCLC and early-stage disease but demonstrated only limited efficacy for the discrimination of NSCLC from benign controls and limited specificity for patients with several other cancers and tuberculosis. These findings demonstrate that urine biomarkers may provide screening and diagnostic properties which exceed those reported for serum biomarkers and approach a level necessary for further clinical development. PMID:25416410

Nolen, Brian M; Lomakin, Aleksey; Marrangoni, Adele; Velikokhatnaya, Liudmila; Prosser, Denise; Lokshin, Anna E

2015-02-01

220

Early detection of severe cholestatic hepatopathy in COACH syndrome.  

PubMed

COACH syndrome is a disorder with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, oligophrenia, ataxia, coloboma, and hepatic fibrosis. Sixteen cases with certain COACH diagnosis have been reported so far. Neurologic abnormalities are the first symptoms in most cases. The majority of cases were diagnosed late in childhood or adolescence. Complications of the hepatopathy contribute extensively to the morbidity and lethality in the course of the disease. Major complications are portal hypertension, esophageal varices, and gastrointestinal bleeding. We report of a child with only mild neurologic symptoms, but severe hepatic fibrosis with cholangiopathy, and review the literature. This is the first description of profound cholestatic hepatopathy in a very young child with COACH syndrome. The patient was found to have cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, unilateral optical nerve coloboma, mild dysmorphic signs, and a ventricular septum defect. Routine laboratory investigations eventually revealed elevated liver enzymes. Prothrombin time was abnormal. Ultrasound scan of the liver was normal. Hepatotropic viral infections were excluded. We performed a liver biopsy at the age of 16 months, confirming an early stage of cirrhosis with septal fibrosis and pseudolobules, inflammatory infiltrates, signs of cholestasis, and reduced numbers of intrahepatic bile ducts. Early detection and differentiation of liver pathology are important in COACH syndrome. Progressive destructive cholangiopathy may contribute to hepatic fibrosis in COACH syndrome. Liver disease can be severe even in cases with mild neurologic deficits. PMID:12210305

Foell, Dirk; August, Christian; Frosch, Michael; Harms, Erik; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter

2002-09-01

221

A Rapid Method for Simultaneous Screening of Multi-Gene Mutations Associated with Hearing Loss in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses. PMID:23469187

Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

2013-01-01

222

How We Hear  

MedlinePLUS

... as the hearing nerve) to the brain. The brain then interprets these electrical signals as sound. How We Hear Hearing Loss Hearing Screening and Testing Treatment, Technology and Rehabilitation Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Patient ...

223

Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

Wang, Bright L.

2011-01-01

224

Quantitative optical imaging for the detection of early cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this thesis are to provide insight of fundamental mechanisms of acetowhitening effect, upon which the colposcopic diagnosis of human cervical cancer is based and to develop novel quantitative optical imaging technologies supplementing colposcopy to improve its performance in detecting early cancer. Firstly, the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process are studied on monolayer cell cultures. It is found that the dynamic acetowhitening processes in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. Secondly, the changes in light scattering induced by acetic acid in intact cells and isolated cellular fractions are investigated by using confocal microscopy and light scattering spectroscopy. The results provide evidence that the small-sized components in the cytoplasm are the major contributors to the acetowhitening effect. Thirdly, a unified Mie and fractal model is proposed to interpret light scattering by biological cells. It is found that light scattering in forward directions is dominated by Mie scattering by bare cells and nuclei, whereas light scattering at large angles is determined by fractal scattering by subcellular structures. Fourthly, an optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is built to measure the 3-D surface topology of cervix and track the motion of patient. The information of motion tracking is used to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during colposcopic examination. The imaging system is evaluated by tracking the movements of cervix models. The results demonstrate that the imaging technique holds the promise to enable the quantitative mapping of the acetowhitening kinetics over cervical surface for more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer. At last, a calibrated autofluorescence imaging system is instrumented for detecting neoplasia in vivo. It is found that the calibrated autofluorescence signals from neoplasia are generally lower than signals from normal cervical tissue. The imaging system can be used to quantitatively detect abnormal tissue.

Wu, Tao

225

Rope can help with early detection of zebra mussels  

SciTech Connect

Many of the waters in the western US meet all the ecological requirements of suitable habitat for zebra mussels, which can spread to new bodies of water by attaching to boats. With that in mind, Reclamation has launched Zebra Mussel Watch, a program aimed at early detection of the mussel in western waters. As part of the watch program, Reclamation suggests attaching one end of a rope to a weight such as a brock, rick, or cinder block, and placing the weight in shallow water to detect the arrival of zebra mussels. Any kind of rope will do, but nylon is preferred because small mussels are easier to distinguish on nylon's smooth surface than on ropes with rough surfaces. Young mussels smaller than the head of a common straight pin are transparent when they first settle and probably will not be visible to the naked eye for several weeks, when they are larger and they take on the appearance of small, dark-colored clams. [Note: over time, algae, bacteria, and debris will cause the rope to darken. So the color of the rope used doesn't make much difference.] Hang a rope in 8 feet or less of well-oxygenated water where wave action will not move the bottom of the rope to any great degree. (Zebra mussels like slow currents and will not attach where the current is moving 4 to 5 feet per second or faster.) Leave the rope in the water two or three weeks to allow microorganisms to grow on it. Young mussels will settle on surfaces that are coated with algae and other microscopic organisms. Then, at two- to three-week intervals, lift the rope and examine it for young mussels. If adults are around, the young eventually will show up. Reclamation believes that by detecting the first arrival of the mussels, it can implement plans to control the spread of the mussels and alert nearby projects to the approaching menace.

McNabb, C.

1993-06-01

226

Development and evaluation of a portable audiometer for high-frequency screening of hearing loss from ototoxicity in homes/clinics.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment often requires patients to be exposed to drugs that can damage hearing. Drugs such as cisplatin can cause permanent damage to hearing if not detected early. Damage typically occurs first in the more basal regions of the cochlea which are specific for high-frequency (HF) hearing and progresses to more apical regions that are relevant to speech understanding. Monitoring of HF hearing loss can be an effective means for early detection of ototoxicity caused by chemotherapy. Once ototoxicity is detected, the oncology medical team could adjust the drug dosage or switch to medications that are less ototoxic. Telehealth technology may improve access to ototoxicity monitoring. Patients could monitor their own hearing using a device that alerts healthcare professionals in the event of a change in hearing. A portable audiometer is currently not available that is 1) capable of automatic or manual (by an audiologist) operation; 2) designed with precision pure-tone functionality up to 20 kHz; and 3) able to remotely transfer health status information to a healthcare professional. This paper describes the design of a technology, the ototoxicity identification (OtoID), that includes a portable audiometer with HF test functionality that meets ANSI/ASA S3.6-2010 standards and is capable of reliably detecting a person's drug-related hearing changes relative to a baseline period (i.e., before ototoxic drugs) using an automated test. The system includes a wireless cellular modem capable of notifying a remote healthcare professional in the event that a significant change in hearing has occurred in the patient. The system was evaluated on test subjects within a sound-proof booth, a noisy hospital ward, and within their homes. Results indicate that the OtoID system can be used by patients to effectively monitor hearing changes remotely within their home or in a hospital ward, ultimately enabling early detection of ototoxicity and potentially avoiding hearing loss. PMID:22801480

Jacobs, Peter G; Silaski, Grayson; Wilmington, Debra; Gordon, Samuel; Helt, Wendy; McMillan, Garnett; Fausti, Stephen A; Dille, Marilyn

2012-11-01

227

Beast carcinoma detection at early stage by FIR radiation of microwave heated breast tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is the uncontrolled division of mutated cells. Breast cancer ranks second of all forms of cancer which becomes fatal I not treated at an early stage. The earlier the detection of this disease the higher the survival rate of the patients; early detection also avoids disfigurement. In this paper a novel method is proposed to detect breast carcinoma at

P. M. Arabi; S. Muttan

2008-01-01

228

The Detection and Classification of Non-Functional Requirements with Application to Early Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an information retrieval based approach for automating the detection and classification of non-functional requirements (NFRs). Early detection of NFRs is useful because it enables system level constraints to be considered and incorporated into early architectural designs as opposed to being refactored in at a later time. Candidate NFRs can be detected in both structured and unstructured documents,

Jane Cleland-Huang; Raffaella Settimi; Xuchang Zou; Peter Solc

2006-01-01

229

Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1.7 (HF-CVC) times less than that for the BB-triplet test. The effect on the HF-triplet test of varying presentation method (professional or cheap headphones and loudspeakers) was small for the NH group and somewhat larger, but nonsignificant for the hearing-impaired group. Test repetition produced a moderate, significant learning effect for the first and second retests, but was small and nonsignificant for further retesting. The learning effect was about two times larger for the HF-CVC test than for the HF-triplet test. The sensitivity of both new tests for high-frequency hearing loss was similar, with an 87% true-positive and 7% false-positive ratio for detecting an average high-frequency hearing loss of 20 dB or more. Conclusions: The new HF-triplet and HF-CVC tests provide a sensitive and accurate method for detecting high-frequency hearing loss. The tests may signal developing hearing impairment at an early stage. The HF-triplet is preferred over the HF-CVC test because of its smaller learning effect, smaller error rate, greater simplicity, and lower cultural dependency. PMID:25127323

MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

2014-01-01

230

Hearings & Testimonies  

Cancer.gov

Occasionally, NCI subject matter experts are asked to testify before Congress on a wide range of topics. From this page you will be able to link to previous NCI-specific appropriations hearings or previous hearings that focused on a particular cancer

231

"It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

2010-01-01

232

Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-08-01

233

Mobile Technologies in the Early Detection of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The identification of biological and pathophysiological processes implicated in different forms of dementia is itself dependent on reliable descriptions of cognitive performance and capacities. However, traditional instruments are often unable to detect subtle declines in cognitive functions due to natural variation at the time of testing. Mobile technologies permit the repeated assessment of cognitive functions and may thereby provide more reliable descriptions of early cognitive difficulties that are inaccessible to clinic or hospital-based instruments. This assessment strategy is also able to characterize in real-time the dynamic associations between cognitive performance and specific daily life behaviors or activities. In a cohort of elderly rural residents, 60 individuals were administered neuropsychological and neuroimaging exams as well as a one-week period of electronic ambulatory monitoring of behavior, semantic memory performance, and daily life experiences. Whereas imaging markers were unrelated to traditional neuropsychological test scores, they were significantly associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory performance. Moreover, certain daily life activities such as reading or completing crossword puzzles were associated with increases in semantic memory performance over the subsequent hours of the same day. The revolution in mobile technologies provides unprecedented opportunities to overcome the barriers of time and context that characterize traditional hospital and clinical-based assessments. The combination of both novel and traditional methods should provide the best opportunity for identifying the earliest risk factors and biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. PMID:25536290

Allard, Michèle; Husky, Mathilde; Catheline, Gwénaëlle; Pelletier, Amandine; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

2014-01-01

234

A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

2003-01-01

235

Fundus Image Processing System For Early Detection Of Glaucoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image processing system based on a MC 68000 microprocessor has been developed for analysis of fundus photographs. This personal computer based system has specific image enhancement capabilities comparable to existing large scale systems. Basic enhancement of fundus images consists of histogram modification or kernel convolution techniques to determine regions of specific interest such as textural difference in the nerve fiber layer or cupping of the optic nerve head. Fast Fourier transforms and filtering techniques are then utilized for specific regions of the original image. Textural difference in the nerve fiber layers are further highlighted using either interactive histogram modification or pseudocolor mappings. Menu driven software allows review of the steps applied, creating a feedback mechanism for optimum display of the fundus image. A wider noise margin than that of digitized fundus photographs can be obtained by direct fundus imaging. The present fundus image processing system clearly provides us with quantitative and detailed techniques of assessing textural changes in the fundus photographs of glaucoma patients and suspects for better classification and early detection of glaucoma. The versatility and computing capability of the system make it also suitable for other applications such as multidimensional image processing and image analysis.

Whiteside, S.; Mitra, S.; Krile, T. F.; Shihab, Z.

1986-12-01

236

Child Care and Child Welfare. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines the joint hearing before the House of Representatives, between the Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Human Resources and the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families. The hearing was scheduled out of concern by Congress members over the proliferation…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

237

Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for the detection of early stage neoplastic pathologies  

E-print Network

Identification of changes associated with early stage disease remains a critical objective of clinical detection and treatment. Effective screening and detection is important for improving outcome because advanced disease, ...

Hsiung, Pei-Lin, 1975-

2005-01-01

238

76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

2011-05-26

239

75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

2010-02-18

240

Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

... old child she was involved in a motor vehicle accident where we, among other injuries, lost her ... both to determine the thresholds, or point of detection for speech, their ability to hear words with ...

241

Hearing Impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

242

Statistica Sinica 21 (2011), 597-624 EARLY DETECTION OF A CHANGE IN POISSON RATE  

E-print Network

systems, edge detection in images, monitoring a noisy environment for target tracking or threat-point detection, or simply change-point detection theory, which builds on the sequential analysis theory deStatistica Sinica 21 (2011), 597-624 EARLY DETECTION OF A CHANGE IN POISSON RATE AFTER ACCOUNTING

Mei, Yajun

243

The Detection and Classification of Non-Functional Requirements with Application to Early Aspects  

E-print Network

The Detection and Classification of Non-Functional Requirements with Application to Early Aspects and classification of non-functional requirements (NFRs). Early detection of NFRs is useful because it enables system Organization. 1. Introduction Non-functional requirements (NFRs) describe important constraints upon

Mirbel, Isabelle

244

Evaluation of the American Academy of Dermatology's National Skin Cancer Early Detection and Screening Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing incidence and mortality rates from cutaneous melanoma are a major public health concern. As part of a national effort to enhance early detection of melanoma\\/skin cancer, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has sponsored an annual education and early detection program that couples provision of skin cancer information to the general public with almost 750,000 free skin cancer

Howard K Koh; Lawrence A Norton; Alan C Geller; Ting Sun; Darrell S Rigel; Donald R Miller; Ruth G Sikes; Karen Vigeland; Earl U Bachenberg; Padman A Menon; Sharon F Billon; Gerald Goldberg; Dwight A Scarborough; William M Ramsdell; Vincent A Muscarella; Robert A Lew

1996-01-01

245

ORAL PRESENTATION Open Access Early detection of myocardial fibrosis in type II  

E-print Network

ORAL PRESENTATION Open Access Early detection of myocardial fibrosis in type II diabetic patients or hypertension. This so called "diabetic cardio- myopathy" is associated with myocardial fibrosis in systolic strain. Recently, myocardial T1 mapping has been proposed to detect interstitial fibrosis early

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Exploring the applicability of MIR spectroscopy to detect early indications of wine fermentation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explore the applicability of MIR technology to detect early indications of wine fermentation problems. An oenologist could improve the chances of a vinification process finishing optimally if anomalies are detected early. A comparative analysis of three fermentations with artificial musts was performed; one of normal behaviour, one subject to a temperature gradient, and the third deficient

Alejandra Urtubia; J. Ricardo Pérez-correa; Francisco Pizarro; Eduardo Agosin

2008-01-01

247

Cancer in global health: How do prevention and early detection strategies relate?  

PubMed

National cancer control plans are needed to stem the rapidly rising global cancer burden. Prevention and early detection are complementary but distinct strategies for cancer control. Some cancers are prevented through behavior and/or environmental modifications that reduce cancer risk, whereas other cancers are more amenable to treatment when they are successfully diagnosed at early stages. Prevention and early detection strategies should be prioritized on the basis of country-specific cancer demographics, modifiable risk factor distribution, and existing treatment resource availability. Following an individualized plan integrating prevention and early detection strategies, deficits can be targeted to strengthen national health systems for cancer control. PMID:25761886

Ilbawi, André M; Anderson, Benjamin O

2015-03-11

248

Congenital sensorineural hearing loss  

SciTech Connect

The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

1984-02-01

249

Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... relieving the depression often associated with hearing loss. Sound and the Ear We define sound in two ways: Frequency (pitch), which is measured ... in decibels. The lowest intensity at which a sound must be generated to be heard is called ...

250

Hearing Disorders and Deafness  

MedlinePLUS

... enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to hear. They can often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some ...

251

The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timi?oara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

2014-03-01

252

Early Education and Care: What Is the Federal Government's Role? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 20, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-116  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this hearing was to examine the federal role in improving the effectiveness and coordination of sixty-nine Federal programs that are designed to help parents help their young children with child care and early education. Opening statements were delivered by Subcommittee Chairman Senator Lamar Alexander, Tennessee; Ranking Member…

US Senate, 2005

2005-01-01

253

Hearing Loss in Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

House, John W.

1997-01-01

254

Hearing Loss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program promotes better understanding of hearing loss by reviewing the causes of hearing loss, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options, as well as tips for coping with hearing impairment. It also describes the anatomy of the outer, middle, and inner ear. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

255

76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC is to provide...

2011-09-09

256

77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory...

2012-10-04

257

November 3-4, 2004: The Pre-Submission Meeting for the Early Detection Research Network: Biomarker Development Laboratories  

Cancer.gov

Meeting Date November 03, 2004 Meeting Location 6130 Executive Boulevard (Executive Plaza North) Conference Room H Rockville, MD 20852 Meeting Materials The Early Detection Network Pre-submission Meeting November 3rd, 2004 (ppt, 515kb) The Early Detection

258

Amplification Considerations for Children With Minimal or Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss and Unilateral Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

2008-01-01

259

The Monitoring and Early Detection of Internet Worms  

E-print Network

and cause severe damage to our society. Facing this great security threat, we need to build an early], the security threat posed by worms has steadily increased, especially in the last several years. Code Red US Depart- ment of Homeland Security has launched a "Cybersecurity Monitoring Project" in October

Shenoy, Prashant

260

Design of early warning flood detection systems for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, flooding due to natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes results in massive loss of life and property. Warning communities of the incoming flood provides an effective solution to this by giving people sufficient time to evacuate and protect their property. However, the range of early warning system solutions introduces a tangle of conflicting requirements including cost

E. Basha; D. Rus

2007-01-01

261

Promoting Early Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

W hile a significant and increasing number of adolescents are infected with the hu- man immunodeficiency virus (HIV), few youth are identified as seropositive and even fewer are linked to medical care and social services. If more youth were identified, transmission to sexual partners and offspring would be reduced and individuals could benefit from treatment. Prior to initiating wide-scale early

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Donna Futterman

2000-01-01

262

Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

263

Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

264

Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique  

E-print Network

This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation of the tumor area. (c) The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d) The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include,...

Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

2009-01-01

265

Transgene detection during early murine embryonic development after pronuclear microinjection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect a whey acidic protein (WAP) gene and transgene presence in mouse ova cultured to various stages of development after pronuclear microinjection at the one-cell stage. The PCR technique detected an endogenous 442 bp WAP DNA sequence in 78% of one-cell, 88% of two-cell and 94% of four-cell ova, and in

R. L. Page; R. S. Canseco; C. G. Russell; J. L. Johnson; W. H. Velander; F. C. Gwazdauskas

1995-01-01

266

Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

267

December 3-4, 2001: Epigenetics in Cancer Prevention: Early Detection and Risk Assessment Workshop  

Cancer.gov

The goal of the Workshop is to evaluate the state of science and determine the future research needs to stimulate research on implications of epigenetics in early detection, risk assessment and prevention of cancer.

268

75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice...

2010-09-21

269

77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

2012-11-29

270

Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

271

A Novel Imaging Approach for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Based on Endogenous Zinc Sensing  

E-print Network

The early detection of prostate cancer is a life-saving event in patients harboring potentially aggressive disease. With the development of malignancy, there is a dramatic reduction in the zinc content of prostate tissue ...

Ghosh, Subrata K.

272

Hearing Aids and Hearing Brent Edwards  

E-print Network

users have mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss resulting from damage to the outer hair cells in the United States have some form of hearing loss, yet less than 25% of them wear a hearing aid. Several an aid, 2. the perception that one's hearing loss is milder than it really is, 3. speech understanding

Allen, Jont

273

Long-Term Functional and Anatomical Follow-Up of Early Detected Spondylolysis in Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spondylolysis defects detected by nuclear scintigraphy but not by plain radiographs represent early lesions. Functional outcome and eventual bony union of these defects are unknown.Hypothesis: Defects with greater degree of healing shortly after treatment will proceed to full bony union and better long-term functional outcome.Study Design: Longitudinal cohort study.Methods: Forty young athletes with early detected spondylolysis (radiograph negative, nuclear

Stephen F. Miller; Joseph Congeni; Kenneth Swanson

2004-01-01

274

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Conclusions  

Cancer.gov

An integrated, multidisciplinary approach to early detection and risk assessment is likely to be more successful in cancer prevention than any other approach. For example, the linkage of early detection research to active screening trials or to prevention studies would accelerate the validation of biomarkers. Both molecular markers and interventions may be evaluated in the same study or trial, a potential saving in time and resources.

275

Early Detection of the First Episode of Schizophrenia and Suicidal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The suicide rate in schizo- phrenia is high, with the risk being high- est early in the course. The rate of suicide attempts before treatment onset is also high and is often the event leading up to first treatment contact. A previous report showed that the duration of untreated psychosis can be reduced through an early detection program, and

Ingrid Melle; Jan Olav Johannesen; Svein Friis; Ulrik Haahr; Inge Joa; T. K. Larsen; S. Opjordsmoen; Bjørn R. Rund; E. Simonsen; P. Vaglum; T. McGlashan

2006-01-01

276

Clinical application of urine antigen detection in early onset group B streptococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of antigen detection for group B streptococcus (GBS) from the urine of neonates with early onset GBS sepsis. GBS sepsis was defined as early (< 48 hours) signs of sepsis in a neonate colonised with GBS. Neonates of 26 weeks' gestation or more, considered at risk for sepsis,

E D McIntosh; H E Jeffery

1992-01-01

277

Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

2004-01-01

278

Speckle reduction and lesion segmentation of OCT tooth images for early caries detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of identifying early non-cavitated carious lesions and monitoring the lesion extent has led to increasing prospects for prevention, early diagnosis, and implementation of conservative treatments. This paper emphasizes the importance of speckle reduction and possible lesion segmentation options of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images prior to caries detection. First, a comparison of popular speckle reduction filters is presented.

Jialin Li; Christopher Bowman; Reza Fazel-Rezai; Mark Hewko; Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith

2009-01-01

279

Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Current state-of-the-art diagnostic measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are invasive (cerebrospinal fluid analysis), expensive (neuroimaging) and time-consuming (neuropsychological assessment) and thus have limited accessibility as frontline screening and diagnostic tools for AD. Thus, there is an increasing need for additional noninvasive and/or cost-effective tools, allowing identification of subjects in the preclinical or early clinical stages of AD who could be suitable for further cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnostics. Implementation of such tests may facilitate early and potentially more effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for AD. Before applying them in clinical practice, these tools should be examined in ongoing large clinical trials. This review will summarize and highlight the most promising screening tools including neuropsychometric, clinical, blood, and neurophysiological tests. PMID:25443858

Laske, Christoph; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Frost, Shaun M; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Garrard, Peter; Buscema, Massimo; Dauwels, Justin; Soekadar, Surjo R; Mueller, Stephan; Linnemann, Christoph; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Martins, Ralph N; O'Bryant, Sid E

2014-11-15

280

Hearing Voices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment is described in which people with auditory hallucinations were brought into contact with each other. On an evening television talk show, a patient—diagnosed several times as having schizophrenia—talked about her voices. Four hundred and fifty people who also were hearing voices reacted to the program by telephone. A questionnaire was sent to those who responded to the television

Marius A. J. Romme; Alexandre D. M. A. C. Escher

1989-01-01

281

Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

2009-02-01

282

[Rehabilitative measures in hearing-impaired children].  

PubMed

On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child. PMID:1770955

von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P

1991-12-01

283

Detecting the Ambiguity of Sentences: Relationship to Early Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article report on a preliminary study of 18, 4- and 5-year-old children, followed by a longitudinal study of 44 children, who were tested in the first, second, and third grades. The children's ability to detect the ambiguity of lexically ambiguous sentences (e. g., "The children saw the bat lying by the fence") and structurally…

Cairns, Helen Smith; Waltzman, Dava; Schlisselberg, Gloria

2004-01-01

284

Early detection network design and search strategy issues  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

285

Influences of Working Memory and Audibility on Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with hearing loss demonstrate delays in language development relative to their peers with normal hearing. Early intervention has a profound impact on language outcomes in children with hearing loss. Data examining the relationship between degree of hearing loss and language outcomes are variable. Two approaches are used in the…

Stiles, Derek Jason

2010-01-01

286

Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

2009-01-01

287

The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

2013-01-01

288

Symbolic time series analysis of ultrasonic data for early detection of fatigue damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel analytical tool for early detection of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys that are commonly used in mechanical structures. Time series data of ultrasonic sensors have been used for anomaly detection in the statistical behaviour of structural materials, where the analysis is based on the principles of symbolic dynamics and automata theory. The performance of the

Shalabh Gupta; Asok Ray; Eric Keller

2007-01-01

289

Oral cancer prevention and early detection : Knowledge and practice among Saudi Arabian healthcare practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the crucial role that healthcare practitioners (HCPs) have in preventing and detecting oral cancer (OC), studies suggest that dentists and physicians do not adequately detect early stage OC which is attributed to their attitude and knowledge. This Saudi Arabian study aims to assess HCP's knowledge and practice vis-à-vis OC's risk factors and patient evaluation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Louay Jaber; Sami Shaban; Deema Hariri

2012-01-01

290

June 14-16 2004: NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop  

Cancer.gov

NCI's 3rd Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop Meeting Dates June 14-16 2004 Meeting Site One Bethesda Metro Center Bethesda, Maryland 20814 This workshop addressed the biology and the methods of pre-clinical cancer detection.

291

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE  

E-print Network

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS and population distribution within the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS) is examined to help define the optimal location of this study is to identify the minimum number of sea level gauge locations to aid in tsunami detection

Meyers, Steven D.

292

The Temporal Mechanics of Queue Size Estimation in Random Early Detection (RED) Queues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random Early Detection (RED) queues are becom- ing ubiquitous as they offer higher throughput, lower latency and more fairness than FIFO drop tail queues with a relatively low implementation cost. By increasing the probability of dropping a packet as the queue size increases, RED queues attempt to detect imminent con- gestion and avoid it by informing flows about it (by

Sharad Agarwal; Shawn M. Ledbetter

293

Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

294

Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network  

EPA Science Inventory

The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

295

On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection  

E-print Network

On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection Jean January 2011; accepted for publication 6 February 2011; published xx xx xxxx Purpose: Pressure ulcers, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

[Research on early fire detection with CO-CO2 FTIR-spectroscopy].  

PubMed

A new fire detection method is put forward based on the theory of FTIR spectroscopy through analyzing all kinds of detection methods, in which CO and CO2 are chosen as early fire detection objects, and an early fire experiment system has been set up. The concentration characters of CO and CO2 were obtained through early fire experiments including real alarm sources and nuisance alarm sources. In real alarm sources there are abundant CO and CO2 which change regularly. In nuisance alarm sources there is almost no CO. So it's feasible to reduce the false alarms and increase the sensitivity of early fire detectors through analyzing the concentration characters of CO and CO2. PMID:17655099

Du, Jian-hua; Zhang, Ren-cheng; Huang, Xiang-ying; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Xiao-hua

2007-05-01

297

Hearing Matters 36 tHe Hearing Journal Hearing Matters JulY 2013 Vol. 66 no. 7  

E-print Network

is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (www.mocatest.org), which is designed to assist in the detection of mild. For example, cognitive skills, such as memory, have been shown to be important in investigations of hearing that cognitive skills should be taken into account in the hearing aid fitting. Cognitive function also appears

Kraus, Nina

298

Current Approaches and Challenges in Early Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

2014-01-01

299

Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... by Adults with Hearing Loss Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss Percent of Persons with Hearing Loss[*] Who Have Ever Used Hearing Aids [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ...

300

Early Detection of and Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

There are approximately one million new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) per year worldwide, with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. The long natural history of colorectal neoplasia affords the opportunity to use preventive measures to improve survival in this disease. Currently screening for adenomatous polyps and early-stage cancers is the best methodology for improving survival. The increasing knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and its natural history is allowing the development of new tools to identify patients who will benefit most from colon cancer screening and the defining of appropriate surveillance intervals. The guidelines for screening for colorectal neoplasia have recently been substantially revised by several organizations based on developing technologies and a growing body of data on the efficacy of CRC screening. PMID:20431727

2009-01-01

301

Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers  

PubMed Central

The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

2011-01-01

302

Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

1975-01-01

303

Hearing voices.  

PubMed

An experiment is described in which people with auditory hallucinations were brought into contact with each other. On an evening television talk show, a patient--diagnosed several times as having schizophrenia--talked about her voices. Four hundred and fifty people who also were hearing voices reacted to the program by telephone. A questionnaire was sent to those who responded to the television program in order to get more information about their way of coping with the voices. From those who filled out the questionnaire, 20 people were selected who explained their experiences in a clear way. A meeting for people hearing voices was organized, and the 20 persons were invited to become the speakers. In this article the experiences described by the participants are reported as well as the many ways in which they coped with these experiences. PMID:2749184

Romme, M A; Escher, A D

1989-01-01

304

Detection of unknown early pregnancy. A matter of safety.  

PubMed

Almost 2% of females admitted as accident victims to a general hospital-teaching facility were pregnant without their physicians knowing it. Emergency treatment of such patients may overshadow other aspects of holistic care and have adverse consequences when a pregnancy is unrecognized. These cases illustrate the importance of always performing a complete physical examination and obtaining a good history that includes menstrual data. When appropriate, we recommend routine use of the serum human chorionic gonadotropin test for pregnancy. It is a simple and reliable means of detecting pregnancy by ten days after nidation, and its use protects the patient, physician, and unborn child. Safer health service is the result. PMID:3375148

Lippmann, S; Bordador, B; Shaltout, T

1988-06-01

305

Hearing Aids for Children  

MedlinePLUS

Hearing Aids for Children What do I need to know about hearing aids for my child? To achieve the best results ... it. It is important to understand how hearing aids work and how to select, operate, and care ...

306

DETECTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE USING A ROUTINE TEST PANEL: THE EARLY DETECTION OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION (EDAC) TEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study describes the derivation and validation of the early detection of alcohol consumption (EDAC) test, which uses linear discriminant function (LDF) analysis for the identification of alcohol misuse. This form of LDF aims to predict a categorical dependent variable (alcohol misuse) on the basis of several independent, predictor variables (routine laboratory te sts). Methods: EDAC was developed to

JIM HARASYMIW; JULIE SEABERG; PAMELA BEAN

307

Education Technology Programs Authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Washington, DC, May 11, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document represents the second hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, held in Washington, DC on May 11, 1999 on the education technology programs authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Michael Castle, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

308

Economic evaluation of newborn hearing screening: modelling costs and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The prevalence of newborn hearing disorders is 1-3 per 1,000. Crucial for later outcome are correct diagnosis and effective treatment as soon as possible. With BERA and TEOAE low-risk techniques for early detection are available. Universal screening is recommended but not realised in most European health care systems. Aim of the study was to examine the scientific evidence of newborn hearing screening and a comparison of medical outcome and costs of different programmes, differentiated by type of strategy (risk screening, universal screening, no systematical screening). Methods: In an interdisciplinary health technology assessment project all studies on newborn hearing screening detected in a standardized comprehensive literature search were identified and data on medical outcome, costs, and cost-effectiveness extracted. A Markov model was designed to calculate cost-effectiveness ratios. Results: Economic data were extracted from 20 relevant publications out of 39 publications found. In the model total costs for screening of 100,000 newborns with a time horizon of ten years were calculated: 2.0 Mio.€ for universal screening (U), 1.0 Mio.€ for risk screening (R), and 0.6 Mio.€ for no screening (N). The costs per child detected: 13,395€ (U) respectively 6,715€ (R), and 4,125€ (N). At 6 months of life the following percentages of cases are detected: U 72%, R 43%, N 13%. Conclusions: A remarkable small number of economic publications mainly of low methodological quality was found. In our own model we found reasonable cost-effectiveness ratios also for universal screening. Considering the outcome advantages of higher numbers of detected cases a universal newborn hearing screening is recommended. PMID:19675707

Hessel, Franz; Grill, Eva; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Siebert, Uwe; Kunze, Silke; Nickisch, Andreas; von Voß, Hubertus; Wasem, Jürgen

2003-01-01

309

Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a human malignancy that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Early diagnosis of NPC will greatly improve the overall survival. However, current EBV DNA marker detection still lacks the predictive value to perform well in high-risk populations for early detection of NPC. Since aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is widely considered to be an important epigenetic change in early carcinogenesis, this study identified a panel of methylation markers for early detection of NPC and also assessed the clinical usefulness of these markers with noninvasive plasma specimens instead of biopsies. MS-HRM assays were carried out to assess the methylation status of a selected panel of four TSGs (RASSF1A, WIF1, DAPK1 and RAR?2) in biopsies, NP brushings and cell-free plasma from NPC patients. High-risk and cancer-free groups were used as controls. DNA methylation panel showed higher sensitivity and specificity than EBV DNA marker in cell-free plasma from NPC patients at early Stages (I and II) and in addition to the EBV DNA marker, MS-HRM test for plasma and NP brushing DNA methylation significantly increased the detection rate at all NPC stages as well as local recurrence, using this selected four-gene panel (p<0.05). MS-HRM assay on a selected gene panel has great potential to become a noninvasive and complementary test for NPC early and recurrent detection in combination with the EBV DNA test to increase the sensitivity for NPC detection at an early stage. PMID:25196065

Yang, Xuesong; Dai, Wei; Kwong, Dora Lai-wan; Szeto, Carol Y Y; Wong, Elibe Hiu-wun; Ng, Wai Tong; Lee, Anne W M; Ngan, Roger K C; Yau, Chun Chung; Tung, Stewart Y; Lung, Maria Li

2015-02-15

310

Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender. Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=?2/90, P<0/05) and “grammatical completion” (t=?3/39, P<0/05) subtests, with no significant difference in the “grammatical understanding” subtest (t=1/67, P>0/05). Moreover, there was no significant difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in terms of syntactic skills development. Conclusion: With early diagnosis and timely rehabilitating intervention, children with hearing loss can perform in a similar way to children of their age with normal hearing in some syntactical areas. Furthermore, the gender factor in the present study had no effect on the development of syntactical skills of children with hearing loss. PMID:24744994

PahlavanNezhad, Mohammad Reza; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid

2014-01-01

311

A frameshift mutation in GRXCR2 causes recessively inherited hearing loss.  

PubMed

More than 360 million humans are affected with some degree of hearing loss, either early or later in life. A genetic cause for the disorder is present in a majority of the cases. We mapped a locus (DFNB101) for hearing loss in humans to chromosome 5q in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Exome sequencing revealed an insertion mutation in GRXCR2 as the cause of moderate-to-severe and likely progressive hearing loss in the affected individuals of the family. The frameshift mutation is predicted to affect a conserved, cysteine-rich region of GRXCR2, and to result in an abnormal extension of the C-terminus. Functional studies by cell transfections demonstrated that the mutant protein is unstable and mislocalized relative to wild-type GRXCR2, consistent with a loss-of-function mutation. Targeted disruption of Grxcr2 is concurrently reported to cause hearing loss in mice. The structural abnormalities in this animal model suggest a role for GRXCR2 in the development of stereocilia bundles, specialized structures on the apical surface of sensory cells in the cochlea that are critical for sound detection. Our results indicate that GRXCR2 should be considered in differential genetic diagnosis for individuals with early onset, moderate-to-severe and progressive hearing loss. PMID:24619944

Imtiaz, Ayesha; Kohrman, David C; Naz, Sadaf

2014-05-01

312

A frameshift mutation in GRXCR2 causes recessively inherited hearing loss  

PubMed Central

More than 360 million humans are affected with some degree of hearing loss, either early or later in life. A genetic cause for the disorder is present in a majority of the cases. We mapped a locus (DFNB101) for hearing loss in humans to chromosome 5q in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Exome sequencing revealed an insertion mutation in GRXCR2 as the cause of moderate to severe and likely progressive hearing loss in the affected individuals of the family. The frameshift mutation is predicted to affect a conserved, cysteine-rich region of GRXCR2, and to result in an abnormal extension of the C-terminus. Functional studies by cell transfections demonstrated that the mutant protein is unstable and mislocalized relative to wild type GRXCR2, consistent with a loss of function mutation. Targeted disruption of Grxcr2 is concurrently reported to cause hearing loss in mice. The structural abnormalities in this animal model suggest a role for GRXCR2 in the development of stereocilia bundles, specialized structures on the apical surface of sensory cells in the cochlea that are critical for sound detection. Our results indicate that GRXCR2 should be considered in differential genetic diagnosis for individuals with early onset, moderate to severe and progressive hearing loss. PMID:24619944

Imtiaz, Ayesha; Kohrman, David C.; Naz, Sadaf

2014-01-01

313

The Importance of Distinguishing Propensity Versus Ability to Imitate in ASD Research and Early Detection.  

PubMed

Imitation abnormalities are often documented in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), however the relevance of imitation to early development and early detection of ASD remains unclear. Recent studies that investigated whether imitation at 12 months distinguishes children who will subsequently receive an ASD diagnosis from other high-risk groups have reported conflicting results. The purpose of this note is to provide a framework to interpret these conflicting findings, which is based on the often-overlooked distinction between the propensity to imitate and the ability to imitate. We argue that this distinction can critically inform understanding of early imitative behaviour in ASD and the development of early detection procedures. PMID:25239177

Vivanti, Giacomo

2015-04-01

314

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

2014-01-01

315

Enhanced visualization of oral cavity for early inflamed tissue detection.  

PubMed

We describe a color image reconstruction method that enables both direct visualization and direct digital image acquisition from one oral tissue by using various light sources and color compensating filters. In this method, the image of the oral tissue with white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue color compensating filter has a larger color difference between the normal and inflamed tissues. The enhanced visualization comes from the white light color mixing between the red normal tissue and bluish white light from the LEDs. With our method, we evaluate the perceived tissue reflectance in each pixel of the image and color reproduction with different illuminated spectra. Our approach to enhancement of visually perceived color difference between normal and inflamed oral tissue involves optimization of illumination and observation conditions by allowing a significant optical contrast of illuminated spectrum to reach the observer's eyes. In comparison with a conventional daylight LED flashlight, a LED with blue filter as the illuminant for oral cavity detection enhances the color difference between normal and inflamed tissues by 32%. PMID:20589041

Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Lin, Jui-Teng; Chiang, Chun-Ping; Cheng, Fang-Hsuan

2010-05-24

316

Early detection of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Bosanska Posavina.  

PubMed

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic tubulointersticial nephropathy that is diagnosed in a few agrarian regions of Balkan. Even tough numerous dilemmas and conflicting opinions regarding BEN etiology are encountered in literature, prevailing theory is that BEN is caused by chronic poisoning with aristolochic acid ingested by food in people with genetic predisposition to this disease. BEN is categorized as a toxic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, with clinical picture and disease progression not differing from other tubulointerstitial nephropathies, but with insidious and gradual progression to end stage renal disease. There is no specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for BEN and we use epidemiological and functional diagnostic criteria. It is considered that BEN affects up to 10% of population in endemic region. According to Renal Register of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there are around 15% of BEN patients on chronic dialysis program, but no official data on the number of predialysis BEN patients, because of lack of adequate demographic data and screening or systematic examinations of the population living in the affected region since 1991. The members of the Society of nephrology, dialysis and transplantation of Bosnia and Herzegovina organized screening in two villages of Bosanska Posavina, as a part of the "Program Program of detection of chronic kidney diseases in high-risk population in Bosnia and Herzegovina", project which was approved from International Society of nephrology. In this paper we analyze preliminary results of that Program and discuss previous studies about BEN in Bosnia and Herzegovina, particularly diagnostic criteria and biomarkers of BEN. PMID:20433439

Mesi?, Enisa

2010-04-01

317

Early pregnancy detection by real-time ultrasonography in Boer goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early pregnancy detection in goats was not practicable until recently. The present investigation evaluated the use of transrectal and transabdominal real-time ultrasonography for this purpose in a flock of Boer goats. Measurements were conducted by both the transrectal and transabdominal routes. A rectal 7.5MHz linear array transducer enabled the reliable recognition of uterine fluid accumulation, indicating early pregnancy, from day

G. R. Padilla-Rivas; B. Sohnrey; W. Holtz

2005-01-01

318

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: CBRG Mission  

Cancer.gov

The mission of the CBRG is to engage basic and clinical scientists as well as epidemiologists and statisticians in a search for and validation of promising early cancer biomarkers. To do so, the CBRG supports and facilitates a broad spectrum of national and international research activities in molecular biology and genetics, particularly for the discovery of biomarkers for risk prediction and early detection of cancer.

319

Clinical Significance of Early Detection of Esophageal Cancer in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The efficacy of surveillance for esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains controversial. Our study aimed to provide clinical data concerning the necessity of surveillance for detecting early ESCN in patients with HNSCC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data from 714 patients who were pathologically confirmed as having HNSCC (n=236 oral cavity cancers, 137 oropharyngeal cancers, 87 hypopharyngeal cancers, and 254 laryngeal cancers). Results Of 714 patients, during a median follow-up of 31 months, 48 ESCNs (37 synchronous and 11 metachronous) were detected in 36 patients (5%). Fifteen synchronous lesions (40.3%) were early ESCN, whereas nine metachronous lesions (81.8%) were early ESCN. The 3-year survival rates of HNSCC only and HNSCC combined with ESCN were 71.2% and 48.2%, respectively (p<0.001). Among 36 patients with ESCN, the 3-year survival rates for early and advanced ESCN were 77.7% and 21.7%, respectively (p=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption and hypopharyngeal cancer were significant factors associated with the development of ESCN. Conclusions HN-SCC patients with early ESCN were similar in prognosis with patients without ESCN, in contrast to patients with advanced ESCN. Therefore, surveillance for the early detection of ESCN in patients with HNSCC, especially in alcohol drinkers and those with hypopharyngeal cancer, is warranted. PMID:25167869

Lim, Hyun; Kim, Do Hoon; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Gong, Eun Jeong; Na, Hee Kyong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Kim, Mi-Young; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

2015-01-01

320

Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

2005-04-01

321

Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ??? (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were calculated for assessment the differences between the spectral data of healthy and injured (stressed) plants of two cultivars. The averaged reflectance spectra for all groups were analyzed in the most informative for green plants spectral ranges: green, red, red edge, and near infrared. Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the maximums of the emitted radiation and at the forefronts and rear slopes. On the 7th day no visual changes in the leaves occurred but a decrease of spectral reflectance was established in the green and red ranges for all cases of two cultivars. On the 14th day an increase of the number of statistically significant differences between spectral reflectance of healthy and treated plants was observed. A shift of the red edge position to the blue region was observed for the case of treatment only with CMV. The growth regulator MEIA is with the best preventing action on the leaves. The correlation of the results from spectral analyses and the DAS-ELISA findings for presence of CMV demonstrates the efficiency and sensitivity of these remote sensing techniques for reliable diagnosis of viral infection and injuries of the plants.

Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

322

Hearing and music in dementia.  

PubMed

Music is a complex acoustic signal that relies on a number of different brain and cognitive processes to create the sensation of hearing. Changes in hearing function are generally not a major focus of concern for persons with a majority of neurodegenerative diseases associated with dementia, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, changes in the processing of sounds may be an early, and possibly preclinical, feature of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of knowledge concerning hearing and music perception in persons who have a dementia as a result of a neurodegenerative disease. The review focuses on both peripheral and central auditory processing in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on the processing of music and other non-verbal sounds. The chapter also reviews music interventions used for persons with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25726296

Johnson, Julene K; Chow, Maggie L

2015-01-01

323

Sudden hearing loss after dental treatment.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man presented with impaired balance, tinnitus, sensation of blockage, and hearing loss in his left ear, which developed after dental treatment for dental pain 4 days previously. Treatment of the carious left upper second molar tooth had included pulp extirpation, canal expansion, and tooth filling under local anesthesia with articaine and epinephrine. Impaired balance decreased spontaneously within 3 days of dental treatment, but tinnitus and hearing loss persisted. Pure tone audiogram showed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear, with a downslope from 40 to 100 dB, and an abnormal speech discrimination score (50%). Treatment included intravenous prednisolone, intratympanic dexamethasone, and oral betahistine and trimetazidine. The patient had improved hearing and resolution of tinnitus. Sudden hearing loss is rare after dental treatment, and awareness of this complication may prompt early referral for treatment and may improve recovery and prognosis. PMID:23642550

Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail

2013-08-01

324

Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

1976-01-01

325

TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

Cannon, Kipp [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cariou, Romain [Departement de physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan (France); Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-36, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA (United States); Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Frei, Melissa [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hanna, Chad [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Kara, Erin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Keppel, Drew [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationphysik, Hannover (Germany); Liao, Laura, E-mail: leo.singer@ligo.org [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2012-04-01

326

Partial discharge early-warning through ultraviolet spectroscopic detection of SO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveillance of SF6 decomposition products is significant for detection of partial discharge (PD) in gas insulation switchgear (GIS). As a basis in on-site detection and diagnosis, PD early-warning aims to quickly find the abnormalities using a simple and cheap device. In this paper, SO2 is chosen as a feature product and detected through ultraviolet spectroscopy. The derivative method is employed for baseline correction and spectral enhancement. The standard gases of the main decomposition products are qualitatively and quantitatively detected. Then decomposition experiments with different defects are designed to further verify the feasibility. As a stable decomposition product under PD, SO2 is proved to be applicable for PD early-warning in the field. By selecting the appropriate wavelength range, namely 290-310 nm, ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy is sensitive enough to the trace SO2 in the decomposed gas and the interference of other products can be avoided. Fast Fourier transform could be used for feature extraction in qualitative detection. Concentrations of SO2 and other by-products increase with increasing discharge time and could be affected by the discharge energy and PD type. Ultraviolet detection based on SO2 is effective for PD early-warning but the threshold should still be carefully selected in practice.

Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Dangdang; Dong, Zhengcheng; Huang, Yunguang

2014-03-01

327

Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

2013-01-01

328

Pacific herring hearing does not include ultrasound.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that some clupeid fishes, including shad and menhaden, can detect ultrasound (sound with frequencies higher than 20 kHz) and actively avoid it. However, other clupeids, including sardines and anchovies, do not detect ultrasound. The hearing abilities of herring are of particular interest because of their commercial importance, our reliance on acoustics to monitor their populations and behavioural evidence of responses to high-frequency sound by some clupeid species. We measured the hearing sensitivity of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) using the auditory brainstem response and found that they were unable to detect ultrasonic signals at received levels up to 185 dB re 1 microPa. Herring had hearing thresholds at lower frequencies (100-5000 Hz) that were typical of other non-ultrasound-detecting clupeids. This lower-frequency hearing sensitivity could explain the results of several earlier studies showing responses to broadband sounds. PMID:17148154

Mann, David A; Popper, Arthur N; Wilson, Ben

2005-06-22

329

[Early detection on the onset of scarlet fever epidemics in Beijing, using the Cumulative Sum].  

PubMed

Based on data related to scarlet fever which was collected from the Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System in Beijing from 2005 to 2011, to explore the efficiency of Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) in detecting the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. Models as C1-MILD (C1), C2-MEDIUM (C2) and C3-ULTRA (C3) were used. Tools for evaluation as Youden's index and detection time were calculated to optimize the parameters and optimal model. Data on 2011 scarlet fever surveillance was used to verify the efficacy of these models. C1 (k = 0.5, H = 2?), C2 (k = 0.7, H = 2?), C3 (k = 1.1, H = 2?) appeared to be the optimal parameters among these models. Youden's index of C1 was 83.0% and detection time being 0.64 weeks, Youden's index of C2 was 85.4% and detection time being 1.27 weeks, Youden's index of C1 was 85.1% and detection time being 1.36 weeks. Among the three early warning detection models, C1 had the highest efficacy. Three models all triggered the signals within 4 weeks after the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. The early warning detection model of CUSUM could be used to detect the onset of scarlet fever epidemics, with good efficacy. PMID:24016449

Li, Jing; Yang, Peng; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Wang, Xiao-li; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Quan-yi

2013-05-01

330

Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia  

PubMed Central

The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

2014-01-01

331

Early detection method of corrosion on buried steel gas pipeline using wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection on any abnormality on the pipeline such as leakage is essential for efficient management. As to date, wireless sensors have been widely used to gather information in monitoring reliability of the pipeline. The commonly used sensors are temperature and pressure sensors. One of the issues that relate to pipeline monitoring is the reactive rather than proactive maintenance approach

Mohd Saiful Abdul Rahman; Halabi Hasbullah

2010-01-01

332

Early detection and the course of glomerular injury in patients with sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection and the course of glomerular injury in patients with sickle cell anemia. We performed a cross sectional analysis of glomerular function in 34 adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SSA). Patients were divided according to GFR and albumin excretion rate (AER): SSA controls (normal GFR and AER, N = 10), albuminuria (increased AER, but normal GFR, N =

Antonio Guasch; Millicent Cua; William E Mitch

1996-01-01

333

Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

2010-01-01

334

Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

335

Early Detection of Parkinson's Disease: The Challenges and Potential of New Biomarkers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webinar will explain the need for biomarkers for detecting early PD and how these biomarkers can be used in drug development and clinical trials, provide an overview of promising new biological and neuroimaging markers, and discuss the challenges and bottlenecks in the development of new biomarkers for PD and the role of the Parkinsonâ??s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI).

n/a n/a (AAAS; )

2011-04-27

336

BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)  

EPA Science Inventory

To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

337

Framework for using grocery data for early detection of bio-terrorism attacks  

E-print Network

treatment of symptoms before they reach a doctor or a hospital. Second, grocery data are much richer based on non-speci#12;c syndrome data, i.e. data collected for purposes other than medical analysis. There is a hope that this work will have signi#12;cant impact on the evolution of early detection and consequently

Goldenberg, Anna

338

Ns Simulator Tests for Random Early Detection (RED) Queue Sally Floyd and Kevin Fall \\Lambda  

E-print Network

be run in our new simulator ns with the command ``test­all­red'', and the input files are availableNs Simulator Tests for Random Early Detection (RED) Queue Management Sally Floyd and Kevin Fall The input files in this document are in the format used by our old simulator, tcpsim. All of these tests can

Floyd, Sally

339

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods  

E-print Network

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods William decision rules to distinguish normal brain aging from the earliest stages of dementia using subsamples of 198 normal and 244 cognitively impaired or very mildly demented (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale=0

Pazzani, Michael J.

340

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods  

E-print Network

Detecting Very Early Stages of Dementia from Normal Aging with Machine Learning Methods William to learn the best decision rules to distinguish normal brain aging from the earliest stages of dementia using subsamples of 198 normal and 244 cognitively impaired or very mildly demented (Clinical Dementia

Pazzani, Michael J.

341

Early detection of human immunodeficiency virus on dried blood spot specimens: Sensitivity across serial specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens and the early diagnostic value of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in DBS specimens collected at predefined age intervals from a large cohort of U.S. infants at risk of congenital or perinatal HIV infection. DESIGN: We assayed available DBS specimens (n

Anne Marie Comeau; Jane Pitt; George V. Hillyer; Sheldon Landesman; James Bremer; Bei-Hung Chang; Judy Lew; John Moye; George F. Grady; Kenneth McIntosh

1996-01-01

342

Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression

Martin Stolz; Riccardo Gottardi; Roberto Raiteri; Sylvie Miot; Ivan Martin; Raphaël Imer; Urs Staufer; Aurelia Raducanu; Marcel Düggelin; Werner Baschong; A. U. Daniels; Niklaus F. Friederich; Attila Aszodi; Ueli Aebi

2009-01-01

343

Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

344

March 20 - 22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop - Agenda  

Cancer.gov

4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA Agenda Monday, March 20, 2006 7:00-8:00 a.m. Registration (Continental Breakfast) 7:30-8:00 a.m. Welcome Sudhir Srivastava, Ph.D., National Cancer Institute

345

Aerosol Monitoring and Early Detection of Pre-Accident and Accident Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using the instrumentation methods and methodological approachs, developed for clean-room technology, in systems for early detection of accidents and for diagnostics of pre-accident situations by monitoring the aerosol composition of room air is analyzed. The results of experimental investigations of the dynamics of the variation of the number density and dispersion composition of aerosol particles, produced during

P. A. Aleksandrov; V. I. Kalechits; O. Yu. Maslakov

2000-01-01

346

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue  

E-print Network

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue Rita Chattopadhyay the characterization of muscle fatigue through noninvasive sensing mechanism such as surface electromyo- graphy (SEMG). While changes in the properties of SEMG signals with respect to muscle fatigue have been reported

Ye, Jieping

347

Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue  

E-print Network

A Multi-Source Domain Adaptation and Its Application to Early Detection of Fatigue RITA of California We consider the characterization of muscle fatigue through noninvasive sensing mechanism fatigue have been reported in the literature, the large variation in these signals across different

Davidson, Ian

348

Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

349

Early drought stress detection in cereals: simplex volume maximisation for hyperspectral image analysis  

E-print Network

Early drought stress detection in cereals: simplex volume maximisation for hyperspectral image. The method was tested for drought stress, applied to potted barley plants in a controlled rain-out shelter research in the understanding of plant adaptation under drought to improve management practices

Kersting, Kristian

350

Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

351

Autoregressive Hidden Markov Models for the Early Detection of Neonatal Sepsis  

E-print Network

1 Autoregressive Hidden Markov Models for the Early Detection of Neonatal Sepsis Ioan Stanculescu. In this work, we exclusively rely on the information contained in these traces for building Ioan Stanculescu and Christopher K.I. Williams are with the School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK, (e-mail: i.a.stanculescu

Edinburgh, University of

352

Hierarchical Bayesian Detection Algorithm for Early-Universe Relics in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

.peiris@ucl.ac.uk #12;2 I. INTRODUCTION The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides our best pictureHierarchical Bayesian Detection Algorithm for Early-Universe Relics in the Cosmic Microwave sources embedded in the cosmic microwave back- ground (CMB) fluctuations. We present a hierarchical

McEwen, Jason

353

A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Biomarkers  

E-print Network

A Distributed Biomarker Atlas for Lung Research aiding the Discovery and Early Detection of Cancer Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA The EDRN Biomarker Atlas Working Group recently has developed a Biomarker Atlas software system that allows a researcher to correlate lung cancer patients with similar

Mattmann, Chris

354

Exciting new advances in oral cancer diagnosis: avenues to early detection  

PubMed Central

The prognosis for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma remains poor in spite of advances in therapy of many other malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment remains the key to improved patient survival. Because the scalpel biopsy for diagnosis is invasive and has potential morbidity, it is reserved for evaluating highly suspicious lesions and not for the majority of oral lesions which are clinically not suspicious. Furthermore, scalpel biopsy has significant interobserver and intraobserver variability in the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia. There is an urgent need to devise critical diagnostic tools for early detection of oral dysplasia and malignancy that are practical, noninvasive and can be easily performed in an out-patient set-up. Diagnostic tests for early detection include brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, autofluorescence, salivary proteomics, DNA analysis, biomarkers and spectroscopy. This state of the art review critically examines these tests and assesses their value in identifying oral squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions. PMID:21798030

2011-01-01

355

Factors Influencing Follow-up to Newborn Hearing Screening for Infants who are Hard-of-Hearing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To document the epidemiological characteristics of a group of hard-of-hearing children, to identify individual predictor variables for timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screen, and to identify barriers to follow-up encountered by families. Method An accelerated longitudinal design was used to investigate outcomes for children who are hard-of-hearing in a large multicenter study. The current study involves a subgroup of 193 of children with hearing loss who did not pass the newborn hearing screen. Available records were used to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark. Results Of several predictor variables, only higher levels of maternal education were significantly associated with earlier confirmation of hearing loss and fitting of hearing aids. Severity of hearing loss was not. No variables were significantly associated with age of entry into early intervention. Each recommended benchmark was met by a majority of children, but only one-third met all of the benchmarks within the recommended time frame. Conclusions Results suggest that underserved communities need extra support in navigating steps that follow failed newborn hearing screening. PMID:22585937

Holte, Lenore; Walker, Elizabeth; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Roush, Patricia; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ou, Hua

2012-01-01

356

On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil  

PubMed Central

During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

2013-01-01

357

Efficient approach to early detection of lithographic hotspots using machine learning systems and pattern matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early lithographic hotspot detection has become increasingly important in achieving lithography-friendly designs and manufacturability closure. Fast physical verification tools employing pattern matching or machine learning techniques have emerged as great options for detecting hotspots in the early design stages. In this work, we propose a characterization methodology that provides measurable quantification of a given hotspot detection tool's capability to capture a previously seen or unseen hotspot pattern. Using this methodology, we conduct a side-by-side comparison of two hotspot detection methods-one using pattern matching and the other based on machine learning. The experimental results reveal that machine learning classifiers are capable of predicting unseen samples but may mispredict some of its training samples. On the other hand, pattern matching-based tools exhibit poorer predictive capability but guarantee full and fast detection on all their training samples. Based on these observations, we propose a hybrid detection solution that utilizes both pattern matching and machine learning techniques. Experimental results show that the hybrid solution combines the strengths of both algorithms and delivers improved detection accuracy while sacrificing little runtime efficiency.

Wuu, Jen-Yi; Pikus, Fedor G.; Marek-Sadowska, Malgorzata

2011-04-01

358

Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.  

PubMed

Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

2014-11-01

359

Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

2014-01-01

360

Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

361

Head and neck cancer disparities in South Carolina: descriptive epidemiology, early detection, and special programs.  

PubMed

Recognizing that relatively easily detected precancerous lesions precede many cancers, there is a need to investigate the effectiveness of early interventions on the reduction of incidence rates in well-designed large randomized control trials. If early detection can reduce mortality rates of OPCA, evaluation of the capacity of dentists and physicians to screen or detect precancerous lesions related to oral cancers may have merit. Presently, there is a paucity of research regarding ecological barriers in the healthcare system, and improving access to adequate dental and medical care among the rural minority population in South Carolina certainly deserves emphasis. Additional research, specific to South Carolina, which includes comprehensive assessment of multiple social, behavioral, and biological factors, is needed. Interdisciplinary collaboration will be particularly important to dissect key factors contributing to the racial disparities observed in South Carolina. These differences should be taken into account while recommending and implementing public health strategies for the control of these cancers. PMID:17319230

Yen, K Lawrence; Horner, Marie-Josephe D; Reed, Susan G; Daguise, Virginie G; Bolick-Aldrich, Susan W; Young, M Rita I; Day, Terry A; Wood, Patricia A; Hebert, James R

2006-08-01

362

Detecting early aftershocks in California and Japan based on a matched filter technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large shallow earthquake is immediately followed by numerous aftershocks with a significant portion missing in existing earthquake catalogs, mainly due to masking of the mainshock coda and overlapping arrivals. Recovering these missing early aftershocks is important for understanding the physical mechanisms of earthquake triggering, and tracking post-seismic deformation around the mainshock rupture zone. An effective way of detecting and locating those missing early aftershocks is the matched filter technique. It utilizes waveforms or travel time information of existing events as a template, or “matched filter”, to search for similar patterns in the continuous recordings as a suggestive of an event. Here we apply this technique to systematically detect early aftershocks of moderate-size events in California and Japan. In the first study, we use waveforms of relocated events along the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) as templates, and scan through continuous waveforms for 3 days around the 2004 Mw6.0 Parkfield earthquake to detect missing aftershocks. We identify 11 times more aftershocks than reported in the standard Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) catalog. The newly detected aftershocks show clear migration in both along-strike and down-dip directions with logarithmic time since the mainshock, consistent with the numerical simulations on expansions of aftershocks caused by propagating afterslip. The cumulative number of early aftershocks increases linearly with postseismic deformation in the first 2 days, suggesting that early aftershocks could be driven by significant afterslip along the SAF induced by the Parkfield mainshock. In the second study, we apply the same technique to detect and locate early aftershocks of the 2008 Mw6.9 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake in northeastern Honshu, Japan. The existing aftershock locations show complex spatial distributions with many occurring away from the mainshock fault plane. Well-resolved focal mechanism solutions of aftershocks show considerable variations compared to the mainshock focal mechanism. However, most of the off-fault events occur in areas of positive Coulomb stress changes. A small coefficient of friction (~0.2) provides in general a better consistency between stress changes and aftershock locations. After detecting the missing events, our next step is to examine the spatio-temporal migration patterns to quantify whether early aftershocks were driven by coseismic stress changes, afterslip, fluid migration, or a combination of these factors.

Peng, Z.; Enescu, B.; Zhao, P.; Hainzl, S.

2009-12-01

363

Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: An Otologic Emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of steroids, volume expanders and antivirals in the management of idiopathic\\u000a sudden sensory neural hearing loss and to establish importance of early medical intervention. In this prospective study, thirty-four\\u000a patients presenting with idiopathic sudden hearing loss of 30 db or more were enrolled in study group between 2005 and 2009.\\u000a Patient variables as

H. Vijayendra; Greeshma Buggaveeti; Bhavin Parikh; R. Sangitha

364

Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: Diagnostics and genetics  

PubMed Central

This overview study provides information on important phoniatric and audiological aspects of early childhood hearing and language development with the aim of presenting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The article first addresses the universal newborn hearing screening that has been implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The process of newborn hearing screening from the maternity ward to confirmation diagnostics is presented in accordance with a decision by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). The second topic is pediatric audiology diagnostics. Following confirmation of a permanent early childhood hearing disorder, the search for the cause plays an important role. Hereditary hearing disorders and intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, probably the most common cause of an acquired hearing disorder, are discussed and compared with the most common temporary hearing disorder, otitis media with effusion, which in some cases is severe enough to be relevant for hearing and language development and therefore requires treatment. The third topic covered in this article is speech and language development in the first 3 years of life, which is known today to be crucial for later language development and learning to read and write. There is a short overview and introduction to modern terminology, followed by the abnormalities and diagnostics of early speech and language development. Only some aspects of early hearing and language development are addressed here. Important areas such as the indication for a cochlear implant in the first year of life or because of unilateral deafness are not included due to their complexity. PMID:25587365

Lang-Roth, Ruth

2014-01-01

365

Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24840047

Kathuria, Hasmeena; Gesthalter, Yaron; Spira, Avrum; Brody, Jerome S.; Steiling, Katrina

2014-01-01

366

Early Detection of Human Epileptic Seizures Based on Intracortical Local Field Potentials  

PubMed Central

The unpredictability of re-occurring seizures dramatically impacts the quality of life and autonomy of people with epilepsy. Reliable early seizure detection could open new therapeutic possibilities and thus substantially improve quality of life and autonomy. Though many seizure detection studies have shown the potential of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals, reliable early detection of human seizures remains elusive in practice. Here, we examined the use of intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from 4×4-mm2 96-microelectrode arrays (MEA) for early detection of human epileptic seizures. We adopted a framework consisting of (1) sampling of intracortical LFPs; (2) denoising of LFPs with the Kalman filter; (3) spectral power estimation in specific frequency bands using 1-sec moving time windows; (4) extraction of statistical features, such as the mean, variance, and Fano factor (calculated across channels) of the power in each frequency band; and (5) cost-sensitive support vector machine (SVM) classification of ictal and interictal samples. We tested the framework in one-participant dataset, including 4 seizures and corresponding interictal recordings preceding each seizure. The participant was a 52-year-old woman suffering from complex partial seizures. LFPs were recorded from an MEA implanted in the participant’s left middle temporal gyrus. In this participant, spectral power in 0.3–10 Hz, 20–55 Hz, and 125–250 Hz changed significantly between ictal and interictal epochs. The examined seizure detection framework provided an event-wise sensitivity of 100% (4/4) and only one 20-sec-long false positive event in interictal recordings (likely an undetected subclinical event under further visual inspection), and a detection latency of 4.35 ± 2.21 sec (mean ± std) with respect to iEEG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate that intracortical MEA recordings may provide key signals to quickly and reliably detect human seizures. PMID:24663490

Park, Yun S.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cash, Sydney S.; Truccolo, Wilson

2014-01-01

367

Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2006-12-15

368

Noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment. PMID:23257577

Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

2012-01-01

369

CA-125 change over time shows promise as screening tool for early detection of ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Evaluating its change over time, CA-125, the protein long-recognized for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, now shows promise as a screening tool for early-stage disease, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The updated findings are published in Cancer; preliminary data were first presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. If a larger study shows survival benefit, the simple blood test could offer a much-needed screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages – even in the most aggressive forms – in post-menopausal women at average risk for the disease.

370

Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness DefaultPage Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Processing Disorder Do You Need a Hearing Test? Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts (EVA) Hearing ...

371

Hearing Aids and Cell Phones  

MedlinePLUS

... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids and Cell Phones What is that buzzing noise ... in my cell phone? People who wear hearing aids or have implanted hearing devices may experience some ...

372

ITIH3 Is a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:20515073

Chong, Poh Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Shia Loh, Marie Chiew; Wang, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yan So, Jimmy Bok; Lim, Khong Hee; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

2013-01-01

373

Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. PMID:25733802

Keane, Pearse A; de Salvo, Gabriella; Sim, Dawn A; Goverdhan, Srini; Agrawal, Rupesh; Tufail, Adnan

2015-01-01

374

Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and "real-world" outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. PMID:25733802

Keane, Pearse A; de Salvo, Gabriella; Sim, Dawn A; Goverdhan, Srini; Agrawal, Rupesh; Tufail, Adnan

2015-01-01

375

Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

2001-10-01

376

Strategies for improving early detection of glaucoma: the combined structure–function index  

PubMed Central

The early detection of glaucoma is important in order to enable appropriate monitoring and treatment, and to minimize the risk of irreversible visual field loss. Although advances in ocular imaging offer the potential for earlier diagnosis, the best method is likely to involve a combination of information from structural and functional tests. Recent studies have shown it is possible to estimate the number of retinal ganglion cells from optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry, and to then pool the results to produce a combined structure–function index (CSFI). The CSFI represents the estimated percentage of retinal ganglion cells lost compared to an age-matched healthy eye. Previous studies have suggested that the CSFI is better able to detect glaucoma than isolated measures of structure and function, and that it performs well even in preperimetric glaucoma. The purpose of this review is to describe new strategies, such as the CSFI, that have the potential to improve the early detection of glaucoma. We also describe how our ability to detect early glaucoma may be further enhanced by incorporating demographic risk factors, clinical examination findings, and imaging and functional test results into intuitive models that provide estimates of disease probability. PMID:24707166

Tatham, Andrew J; Weinreb, Robert N; Medeiros, Felipe A

2014-01-01

377

Compound heterozygosity of the functionally null Cdh23(v-ngt) and hypomorphic Cdh23(ahl) alleles leads to early-onset progressive hearing loss in mice.  

PubMed

The waltzer (v) mouse mutant harbors a mutation in Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) and is a model for Usher syndrome type 1D, which is characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and prepubertal onset of progressive retinitis pigmentosa. In mice, functionally null Cdh23 mutations affect stereociliary morphogenesis and the polarity of both cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In contrast, the murine Cdh23(ahl) allele, which harbors a hypomorphic mutation, causes an increase in susceptibility to age-related hearing loss in many inbred strains. We produced congenic mice by crossing mice carrying the v niigata (Cdh23(v-ngt)) null allele with mice carrying the hypomorphic Cdh23(ahl) allele on the C57BL/6J background, and we then analyzed the animals' balance and hearing phenotypes. Although the Cdh23(v-ngt/ahl) compound heterozygous mice exhibited normal vestibular function, their hearing ability was abnormal: the mice exhibited higher thresholds of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and rapid age-dependent elevation of ABR thresholds compared with Cdh23(ahl/ahl) homozygous mice. We found that the stereocilia developed normally but were progressively disrupted in Cdh23(v-ngt/ahl) mice. In hair cells, CDH23 localizes to the tip links of stereocilia, which are thought to gate the mechanoelectrical transduction channels in hair cells. We hypothesize that the reduction of Cdh23 gene dosage in Cdh23(v-ngt/ahl) mice leads to the degeneration of stereocilia, which consequently reduces tip link tension. These findings indicate that CDH23 plays an important role in the maintenance of tip links during the aging process. PMID:24172198

Miyasaka, Yuki; Suzuki, Sari; Ohshiba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kei; Sagara, Yoshihiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Kominami, Ryo; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki

2013-01-01

378

On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators.  

PubMed

A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI. PMID:18255276

Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jianchao; Sun, Wei

2008-11-01

379

A Sensitive Period for the Impact of Hearing Loss on Auditory Perception  

PubMed Central

Manipulations of the sensory environment typically induce greater changes to the developing nervous system than they do in adulthood. The relevance of these neural changes can be evaluated by examining the age-dependent effects of sensory experience on quantitative measures of perception. Here, we measured frequency modulation (FM) detection thresholds in adult gerbils and investigated whether diminished auditory experience during development or in adulthood influenced perceptual performance. Bilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) of ?30 dB was induced either at postnatal day 10 or after sexual maturation. All animals were then trained as adults to detect a 5 Hz FM embedded in a continuous 4 kHz tone. FM detection thresholds were defined as the minimum deviation from the carrier frequency that the animal could reliably detect. Normal-hearing animals displayed FM thresholds of 25 Hz. Inducing CHL, either in juvenile or adult animals, led to a deficit in FM detection. However, this deficit was greater for juvenile onset hearing loss (89 Hz) relative to adult onset hearing loss (64 Hz). The effects could not be attributed to sensation level, nor were they correlated with proxies for attention. The thresholds displayed by CHL animals were correlated with shallower psychometric function slopes, suggesting that hearing loss was associated with greater variance of the decision variable, consistent with increased internal noise. The results show that decreased auditory experience has a greater impact on perceptual skills when initiated at an early age and raises the possibility that altered development of CNS synapses may play a causative role. PMID:24501366

Buran, Bradley N.; Sarro, Emma C.; Manno, Francis A. M.; Kang, Ramanjot; Caras, Melissa L.

2014-01-01

380

[Early detection to prevent mental illness during adolescence: ethical and theoretical considerations].  

PubMed

In the face of changes that characterise adolescence, a number of youth experience ill-being, as part of a normal developmental process. For some of them, however, this ill-being may represent early signs of a psychopathological process. Regarding depression and psychosis, such early signs are non-specific, which complicates and delays treatment. In addition, issues such as stigmatization and unfamiliarity with these psychopathologies represent major obstacles to treatment access. Attempts to early detection, which involves identifying risk factors in order to provide support and follow-up, making an effort to take these clinical signs seriously, while at the same time avoiding to mistake a normal developmental process for a pathological condition. PMID:25796777

Malchair, A; Maertens, M A; Gosset, C; Renard, F; Larøi, F; Mourad, H; Pitchot, W; Domken, M A

2014-11-01

381

Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: The potential role of auditory Gestalt perception  

PubMed Central

To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian–German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

2012-01-01

382

Simulating ultra-wideband imaging for the early detection of tissue injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various medical imaging techniques exist to detect the early development of tissue damage. However, a widely commercialized device that can be easily used and is cost effective is still needed. Through a literature review, we examined ultrasound, microwave tomography, and ultra-wideband (UWB) technology. Out of these techniques, UWB is the most promising since it has the capability to detect small adjustments in dielectric properties, which can change with minor alterations in perfusion and internal pressure. These minor alterations are vital in detecting the onset of ischemia, which precedes many serious conditions affecting tissue health. In addition to its ability in detection, UWB also has the potential to become a widely accessible technology to hospitals. Using software called XFdtd, we simulated ultrawideband pulses propagating through planes designed to resemble tissue in its dielectric properties. After testing several sizes of the horn antenna and configurations for the wire and port, the antenna's near field was finally able to reach the distance necessary to penetrate the tissue model. The resulting graph of voltage versus time was generated from the received antenna signal and it will be compared to the graphs that result after the dielectric properties of the model have been changed to simulate tissue injury. Through this manipulation of the tissue model, the sensitivity and selectivity of UWB in measuring small fluctuations in perfusion can be determined. In this future work with XFdtd, we want to show that UWB is a novel and viable technique in detecting early tissue injury.

Niu, Weihong; Hlavaty, Kelan; Tanska, Daria; Tseng, Nancy; Li, Jia; Penprase, Barbara

2009-02-01

383

Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

2014-09-01

384

Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

2012-09-01

385

Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

2013-10-01

386

Early video smoke detection system to improve fire protection in rolling stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a video system, operating in the visible spectrum range, for early smoke detection in passenger trains. The main idea is integrating standard smoke sensors with the results of a smoke detection processing, which exploits video surveillance cameras already available on-board the train. To this aim a novel video processing flow is proposed exploiting temporal, spatial and chromatic characteristics of the reference scenario. The proposed algorithm has been successfully verified with several video set and its implementation complexity fully characterized.

Saponara, Sergio; Pilato, Luca; Fanucci, Luca

2014-05-01

387

Impedance sensing device enables early detection of pressure ulcers in vivo.  

PubMed

When pressure is applied to a localized area of the body for an extended time, the resulting loss of blood flow and subsequent reperfusion to the tissue causes cell death and a pressure ulcer develops. Preventing pressure ulcers is challenging because the combination of pressure and time that results in tissue damage varies widely between patients, and the underlying damage is often severe by the time a surface wound becomes visible. Currently, no method exists to detect early tissue damage and enable intervention. Here we demonstrate a flexible, electronic device that non-invasively maps pressure-induced tissue damage, even when such damage cannot be visually observed. Using impedance spectroscopy across flexible electrode arrays in vivo on a rat model, we find that impedance is robustly correlated with tissue health across multiple animals and wound types. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an automated, non-invasive 'smart bandage' for early detection of pressure ulcers. PMID:25779688

Swisher, Sarah L; Lin, Monica C; Liao, Amy; Leeflang, Elisabeth J; Khan, Yasser; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Mann, Kaylee; Naujokas, Agne; Young, David; Roy, Shuvo; Harrison, Michael R; Arias, Ana Claudia; Subramanian, Vivek; Maharbiz, Michel M

2015-01-01

388

Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

2001-01-01

389

Recent advances in targeted endoscopic imaging: Early detection of gastrointestinal neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging has emerged as a new discipline in gastrointestinal endoscopy. This technology encompasses modalities that can visualize disease-specific morphological or functional tissue changes based on the molecular signature of individual cells. Molecular imaging has several advantages including minimal damage to tissues, repetitive visualization, and utility for conducting quantitative analyses. Advancements in basic science coupled with endoscopy have made early detection of gastrointestinal cancer possible. Molecular imaging during gastrointestinal endoscopy requires the development of safe biomarkers and exogenous probes to detect molecular changes in cells with high specificity anda high signal-to-background ratio. Additionally, a high-resolution endoscope with an accurate wide-field viewing capability must be developed. Targeted endoscopic imaging is expected to improve early diagnosis and individual therapy of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:22442742

Kwon, Yong-Soo; Cho, Young-Seok; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Ho-Shik; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2012-01-01

390

Current status of circulating protein biomarkers to aid the early detection of lung cancer.  

PubMed

Considerable efforts have been undertaken to produce an effective screening method to reduce lung cancer mortality. Imaging tools such as low-dose computed tomography has shown an increase in the detection of early disease and a reduction in the rate of death. This screening modality has, however, several limitations, such as overdiagnosis and a high rate of false positives. Therefore, new screening methods, such as the use of circulating protein biomarkers, have emerged as an option that could complement imaging studies. In this review, current imaging techniques applied to lung cancer screening protocols are presented, as well as up-to-date status of circulating protein biomarker panels that may improve lung cancer diagnosis. Additionally, diverse statistical and artificial intelligence tools applied to the design and optimization of these panels are discussed along with the presentation of two commercially available blood tests recently developed to help detect lung cancer early. PMID:25052758

Hirales Casillas, Carlos Enrique; Flores Fernández, José Miguel; Padilla Camberos, Eduardo; Herrera López, Enrique J; Leal Pacheco, Gisela; Martínez Velázquez, Moisés

2014-06-01

391

Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

2013-07-01

392

Ethical issues in early detection of HIV infection to reduce vertical transmission.  

PubMed

Proposals to make prenatal HIV testing routine and universal dramatize ethical issues regarding early detection of HIV. These proposals would abolish pretest counseling and written informed consent for prenatal HIV testing. Ethical concerns include whether pregnant women are adequately informed that they may refuse such testing and whether patients have an opportunity to obtain more detailed information about the benefits and risks of HIV testing in this context. Several pertinent research questions need to be studied, including whether pregnant women find routine universal HIV testing acceptable and whether safeguards adequately protect women who receive testing. If analogous policies to enhance early detection of HIV are considered in other clinical contexts, the important clinical and ethical differences between vertical transmission and other situations of HIV transmission must be kept clearly in mind. PMID:11256734

Lo, B; Wolf, L; Sengupta, S

2000-12-15

393

The molecular cloud content of early type galaxies. I - Detections and global properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and mapping of molecular gas in elliptical and lenticular galaxies using the CO(J = 1-0) and (J = 2-1) emission lines as tracers of the gas is discussed. Particular attention is given to the global properties of the molecular content of early-type galaxies as compared to a sample of spiral galaxies compiled from published data. The first results

T. Wiklind; C. Henkel

1989-01-01

394

Occurrence and detection of early sex-related differences in Telfairia occidentalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to assess the occurrence and early detection of sex-related differences for yielding ability inTelfairia occidentalis, using half-sib progenies from six diverse sources. Male plants flowered at 86 days after planting, 32 days earlier than females. Sex-related differences explained 12–43% of observed phenotypic variation for the measures of vegetable yielding ability. The strongest linkage with sex was

L. C. Emebiri; M. I. Nwufo

1996-01-01

395

Extraordinary Opportunities for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment Research 2000: Population-based Research  

Cancer.gov

A requirement for developing screening tools is to measure the frequency and prevalence of alterations in genes and proteins. This helps determine the required sensitivity and specificity of some potential early detection marker for its use in screening. The initiative facilitates molecular analyses at the population level, possibly through linkage to established cancer registries, such as SEER (Surveillance, Evaluation and End Results) and the Colon Cancer Registry.

396

May 14-15, 2007: Cancer Stem Cells as Targets for Cancer Prevention and Early Detection  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Stem cells represent a small population within a tumor, driving growth and metastasis. Whereas expansion of normal stem cells is under genetic and epigenetic constraints, cancer stem cells have escaped these controls. The goal of this workshop is to evaluate current research on cancer stem cells and the potential benefits to cancer prevention and early detection. Keynote speakers include Michael Clarke from Stanford University and Stewart Sell from the Wadsworth Center and Ordway Research Institute.

397

Application of PVDF Film Sensor to Detect Early Damage in Wind Turbine Blade Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring technique for detection of early damage in the wind turbine blade has been investigated using PVDF film sensor and strain gages. The trailing edge component with shear web was prepared by sectioning the full-scale blade with a box spa. Several PVDF film sensors with dimension of 10x10x0.054 mm3 and strain gages were installed on shear web and skin of

Y.-H. Huh; J. I. Kim; J. H. Lee; S. G. Hong; J. H. Park

2011-01-01

398

Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

2010-01-01

399

Emerging Roles for Multimodal Optical Imaging in Early Cancer Detection: A Global Challenge  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging technologies have become increasingly important in the clinical management of cancer, and now play key roles in cancer screening, diagnosis, staging, and monitoring response to treatment. Standard imaging modalities such as MRI, PET, and CT require significant financial resources and infrastructure, which limits access to these modalities to those patients in high-resource settings. In contrast, optical imaging strategies, with the potential for reduced cost and enhanced portability, are emerging as additional tools to facilitate the early detection and diagnosis of cancer. This article presents a vision for an expanding role for optical imaging in global cancer management, including screening, early detection at the point-of-care, biopsy guidance, and real-time histology. Multi-modal optical imaging – the combination of widefield and high resolution imaging - has the potential to aid in the detection and management of precancer and early cancer for traditionally underserved populations. Several recent widefield and high-resolution optical imaging technologies are described, along with requirements for implementing such devices into lower-resource settings. PMID:20218743

Bedard, Noah; Pierce, Mark; El-Naggar, Adel; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2010-01-01

400

Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.  

PubMed

Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. PMID:25688116

Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

2015-04-01

401

March 20-22, 2006: 4th Annual Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Scientific Workshop, Philadelphia, PA  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) is a consortium of scientists committed to the task of translating cancer biomarker in to clinical application and for creating the needed infrastructure for validating biomarkers for clinical application. Their main objective is to detect cancers at an early stage when therapeutic options work best. They are constantly looking for ways to improve existing, identify novel biomarkers and develop methods to detect pre-malignant lesions in clinical scenarios.

402

Getting Your Hearing Tested  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... it once was. Physician: Is there a family history of hearing loss? Your parents? Brothers or sisters? ... ear, nose and throat specialist, will include a history to determine the cause of the hearing loss. ...

403

Hearing loss - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... the cause of hearing loss. Treatment may include: Speech therapy Learning sign language Cochlear implant (for those with ... hearing aids and other devices, as well as speech therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills ...

404

Occupational hearing loss  

MedlinePLUS

Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Occupational hearing loss is ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., the maximum job ...

405

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... better for your needs. What Is a Personal Sound Amplification Product? A personal sound amplification product (PSAP) is a device used by ... with normal hearing to amplify hard-to-hear sounds. For example, if you are sitting at the ...

406

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

407

Robust regression and posterior predictive simulation increase power to detect early bursts of trait evolution.  

PubMed

A central prediction of much theory on adaptive radiations is that traits should evolve rapidly during the early stages of a clade's history and subsequently slowdown in rate as niches become saturated--a so-called "Early Burst." Although a common pattern in the fossil record, evidence for early bursts of trait evolution in phylogenetic comparative data has been equivocal at best. We show here that this may not necessarily be due to the absence of this pattern in nature. Rather, commonly used methods to infer its presence perform poorly when when the strength of the burst--the rate at which phenotypic evolution declines--is small, and when some morphological convergence is present within the clade. We present two modifications to existing comparative methods that allow greater power to detect early bursts in simulated datasets. First, we develop posterior predictive simulation approaches and show that they outperform maximum likelihood approaches at identifying early bursts at moderate strength. Second, we use a robust regression procedure that allows for the identification and down-weighting of convergent taxa, leading to moderate increases in method performance. We demonstrate the utility and power of these approach by investigating the evolution of body size in cetaceans. Model fitting using maximum likelihood is equivocal with regards the mode of cetacean body size evolution. However, posterior predictive simulation combined with a robust node height test return low support for Brownian motion or rate shift models, but not the early burst model. While the jury is still out on whether early bursts are actually common in nature, our approach will hopefully facilitate more robust testing of this hypothesis. We advocate the adoption of similar posterior predictive approaches to improve the fit and to assess the adequacy of macroevolutionary models in general. PMID:24149077

Slater, Graham J; Pennell, Matthew W

2014-05-01

408

Hearing Aid Device  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Links Animation: Hearing Aid Device This is an animation showing how the hearing aid works. First, the ... off button, battery compartment, and volume control. The animation next shows what you would see if you ...

409

Hearing Problems in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... communication options by age 6 months. That's because children start learning speech and language long before they talk. Hearing problems can be temporary or permanent. Sometimes, ear infections, injuries or diseases affect hearing. If your child does not hear well, get help. NIH: National ...

410

Deafness and Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

411

Introduction How We Hear  

E-print Network

Introduction How We Hear Cochlear Mechanics Cochlear Implants Conclusion Can You Hear Me Now Cochlear Implants Conclusion Some Questions How does hearing work? What are the important structures is a cochlear implant and what role can mathematical modeling play in improving implant performance? Joshua

Chinburg, Ted

412

Rehabilitation of Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rehabilitation of hearing is considered in five conference papers. Two papers come from Poland: "Rehabilitation of Hearing in Children 'Deaf' in First 5 Years of Age" by D. Borkowska-Gaertig and others and "Possibilities of Hearing Improvement in Adults with Conservative Methods" by T. Bystrzanowska. Also included are "Re-Education and…

World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

413

Hearing Conservation Medical Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

1993-01-01

414

Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

2011-02-01

415

Systematic review: Serum autoantibodies in the early detection of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Antibodies against tumor-associated antigens have been found in serum of patients with various types of cancers and may serve as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer as well. This systematic review aims to give an overview about known autoantibodies and their diagnostic value in gastric cancer. We conducted a systematic literature search in two databases to identify studies which performed serological testing for autoantibodies in gastric cancer patients and controls. Data on study characteristics and results were extracted independently by two reviewers. Overall, 39 articles reporting the detection of 34 different autoantibodies met the inclusion criteria for this review. The most common antibody detection method was enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the most frequently assessed autoantibody was anti-p53, which was tested in 13 studies. Most antibodies were assessed in only one study and only few authors have evaluated the diagnostic value of combinations of multiple autoantibodies. For single autoantibodies, specificity was generally very high (median: 99.15%), but sensitivity was mostly rather low (median: 12.35%). For some autoantibody combinations, substantially higher sensitivity at reasonably high levels of specificity could be achieved. Development of extended and optimized multimarker panels of autoantibodies might be a promising approach for gastric cancer early detection. PMID:24615018

Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Tao, Sha; Brenner, Hermann

2015-05-15

416

Pancreatic cancer early detection: Expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters. PMID:25684935

Urayama, Shiro

2015-01-01

417

Early detection of liver fibrosis in rats using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging: a feasibility evaluation.  

PubMed

We investigated the feasibility of using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging to detect the early stages of liver fibrosis in rats. Fibrosis was induced in livers of rats (n = 60) by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Group 1 was the control group, and rats in groups 2-6 received DMN injections for 1-5 weeks, respectively. Each rat was sacrificed to perform 3-D ultrasound scanning of the liver in vitro using a single-element transducer of 6.5 MHz. The 3-D raw data acquired at a sampling rate of 50 MHz were used to construct 3-D Nakagami images. The liver specimen was further used for histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining to score the degree of liver fibrosis. The results indicate that the Metavir scores of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections in Groups 1-4 were 0 (defined as early liver fibrosis in this study), and those in groups 5 and 6 ranged from 1 to 2 and 2 to 3, respectively. To quantify the degree of early liver fibrosis, the histologic sections with Masson stain were analyzed to calculate the number of fiber-related blue pixels. The number of blue pixels increased from (2.36 ± 0.79) × 10(4) (group 1) to (7.68 ± 2.62) × 10(4) (group 4) after DMN injections for 3 weeks, indicating that early stages of liver fibrosis were successfully induced in rats. The Nakagami parameter increased from 0.36 ± 0.02 (group 1) to 0.55 ± 0.03 (group 4), with increasing numbers of blue pixels in the Masson-stained sections (p-value < 0.05, t-test). We concluded that 3-D Nakagami imaging has potential in the early detection of liver fibrosis in rats and may serve as an image-based pathologic model to visually track fibrosis formation and growth. PMID:25023115

Ho, Ming-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lee, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng

2014-09-01

418

Skin cancer education for massage therapists: a novel approach to the early detection of suspicious lesions.  

PubMed

Studies indicate that with training, nonmedical health professionals may be able to successfully recognize lesions suspicious for skin cancer and thereby assist with early detection of suspicious lesions. We present the results of a study aimed at assessing the efficacy of a 4-h continuing education program designed to educate massage therapists about skin cancer detection and prevention. Prior to and after the administration of the course, surveys were administered to attendees to gauge their ability to identify skin cancer and their comfort level with counseling clients with suspicious lesions. Our study suggests that while many massage therapists are educated on skin cancer and have experience referring patients for suspicious lesions, a 4-h educational session may not be sufficient to improve sensitivity of detection. PMID:24407881

Trotter, Shannon C; Louie-Gao, Qiong; Hession, Meghan T; Cummins, Deborah

2014-06-01

419

Autoregressive hidden Markov models for the early detection of neonatal sepsis.  

PubMed

Late onset neonatal sepsis is one of the major clinical concerns when premature babies receive intensive care. Current practice relies on slow laboratory testing of blood cultures for diagnosis. A valuable research question is whether sepsis can be reliably detected before the blood sample is taken. This paper investigates the extent to which physiological events observed in the patient's monitoring traces could be used for the early detection of neonatal sepsis. We model the distribution of these events with an autoregressive hidden Markov model (AR-HMM). Both learning and inference carefully use domain knowledge to extract the baby's true physiology from the monitoring data. Our model can produce real-time predictions about the onset of the infection and also handles missing data. We evaluate the effectiveness of the AR-HMM for sepsis detection on a dataset collected from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. PMID:25192568

Stanculescu, Ioan; Williams, Christopher K I; Freer, Yvonne

2014-09-01

420

Heritage of army audiology and the road ahead: the Army Hearing Program.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss has been documented as early as the 16th century, when a French surgeon, Ambroise Paré, wrote of the treatment of injuries sustained by firearms and described acoustic trauma in great detail. Even so, the protection of hearing would not be addressed for three more centuries, when the jet engine was invented and resulted in a long overdue whirlwind of policy development addressing the prevention of hearing loss. We present a synopsis of hearing loss prevention in the US Army and describe the current Army Hearing Program, which aims to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in soldiers and to ensure their maximum combat effectiveness. PMID:18923117

McIlwain, D Scott; Gates, Kathy; Ciliax, Donald

2008-12-01

421

Hearing Voices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the influence of conversations in the shaping of a person's life. He shares how some of the voices he heard early in his life, specifically those of his mother and his local pastor, had a profound impact on his life. These were conversations that taught him the value of doing the best that he could and of the…

Blount, Reginald

2007-01-01

422

Assessing Speech Intelligibility in Children with Hearing Loss: Toward Revitalizing a Valuable Clinical Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Newborn hearing screening, early intervention programs, and advancements in cochlear implant and hearing aid technology have greatly increased opportunities for children with hearing loss to become intelligible talkers. Optimizing speech intelligibility requires that progress be monitored closely. Although direct assessment of…

Ertmer, David J.

2011-01-01

423

Similarity Ratio Analysis for Early Stage Fault Detection with Optical Emission Spectrometer in Plasma Etching Process  

PubMed Central

A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes. PMID:24755865

Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

2014-01-01

424

Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task. PMID:22073093

Gerstner, Andreas O. H.

2010-01-01

425

Non-Invasive Detection of Early Retinal Neuronal Degeneration by Ultrahigh Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionises the diagnosis of retinal disease based on the detection of microscopic rather than subcellular changes in retinal anatomy. However, currently the technique is limited to the detection of microscopic rather than subcellular changes in retinal anatomy. However, coherence based imaging is extremely sensitive to both changes in optical contrast and cellular events at the micrometer scale, and can generate subtle changes in the spectral content of the OCT image. Here we test the hypothesis that OCT image speckle (image texture) contains information regarding otherwise unresolvable features such as organelle changes arising in the early stages of neuronal degeneration. Using ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT imaging at 800 nm (spectral width 140 nm) we developed a robust method of OCT image analyses, based on spatial wavelet and texture-based parameterisation of the image speckle pattern. For the first time we show that this approach allows the non-invasive detection and quantification of early apoptotic changes in neurons within 30 min of neuronal trauma sufficient to result in apoptosis. We show a positive correlation between immunofluorescent labelling of mitochondria (a potential source of changes in cellular optical contrast) with changes in the texture of the OCT images of cultured neurons. Moreover, similar changes in optical contrast were also seen in the retinal ganglion cell- inner plexiform layer in retinal explants following optic nerve transection. The optical clarity of the explants was maintained throughout in the absence of histologically detectable change. Our data suggest that UHR OCT can be used for the non-invasive quantitative assessment of neuronal health, with a particular application to the assessment of early retinal disease. PMID:24776961

Tudor, Debbie; Kaji?, Vedran; Rey, Sara; Erchova, Irina; Považay, Boris; Hofer, Bernd; Powell, Kate A.; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Morgan, James E.

2014-01-01

426

Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

2010-01-01

427

Early detection of graft incompatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) using in vitro techniques.  

PubMed

Graft compatibility has been studied in vitro using callus tissues of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and different Prunus rootstocks to form scion/rootstock combinations with different degrees of graft compatibility. In these species, incompatibility is manifested by a breakdown of the trees at the union area that can occur some years after grafting. Here, the possibility of obtaining an early detection method to determine graft incompatibility is explored by callus fusion in vitro. The adhesion of the two callus partners, the development of the cells at the contact surface (cell arrangement, intensity of cell-wall staining), and the presence of lipid and phenolic compounds have been studied during the first 3 weeks after grafting in both compatible and incompatible combinations. Differences were observed at the second and the third week of callus co-culture in most of the characters determined, although these differences were present as early as the first week in the case of phenolic compounds. The behaviour of the grafts grown in vitro was correlated to that of the same combinations in the field, suggesting that callus fusion in vitro could be a possible and reliable method for an early detection of graft incompatibility in different Prunus combinations. PMID:11319025

Errea, Pilar; Garay, Lilibeth; Marín, Juan Antonio

2001-05-01

428

Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of osteoarthritis are therefore important for developing effective therapies. Here, we show that indentation-type atomic force microscopy can monitor age-related morphological and biomechanical changes in the hips of normal and osteoarthritic mice. Early damage in the cartilage of osteoarthritic patients undergoing hip or knee replacements could similarly be detected using this method. Changes due to aging and osteoarthritis are clearly depicted at the nanometre scale well before morphological changes can be observed using current diagnostic methods. Indentation-type atomic force microscopy may potentially be developed into a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool to diagnose the early onset of osteoarthritis in situ.

Stolz, Martin; Gottardi, Riccardo; Raiteri, Roberto; Miot, Sylvie; Martin, Ivan; Imer, Raphaël; Staufer, Urs; Raducanu, Aurelia; Düggelin, Marcel; Baschong, Werner; Daniels, A. U.; Friederich, Niklaus F.; Aszodi, Attila; Aebi, Ueli

2009-03-01

429

Toward an anemia early detection device based on 50-?L whole blood sample.  

PubMed

A first approach to a portable and compact device for point-of-care (PoC) early instantaneous detection of anemia is described. This device works directly with whole blood samples relying on hematocrit analysis by means of impedance analysis. This device consists of a custom electronic instrumentation, postprocessing software and plug-and-play disposable sensor. The designed electronics are connected to a remote computer, which allows control of the instrumentation and results displaying with a user friendly software panel. The disposable sensor is based on a low-cost label-free three gold electrode commercial sensor for 50-?L volume samples. Forty-eight whole blood samples, randomly collected from hospitalized patients in Hospital Clínic, were used to validate the device capability for anemia detection. Whole blood samples were distributed in two groups: 10 samples for system calibration, and 38 samples for system validation. To calibrate the device, a complete EIS experiment has been performed to get a full impedance spectrum analysis, defining an accurate frequency working range for hematocrit detection. Afterward, we developed a protocol for instant impedance detection to determine the system detection accuracy, sensitivity, and coefficient of variation. As a result, impedance variations between different samples have been detected with less than 2% accuracy error for both impedance magnitude and phase. A hematocrit detection algorithm, relying on impedance analysis, has been developed based on the previous studies. The response, effectiveness, and robustness of the portable PoC device to detect anemia have been proved with an accuracy error of 1.75% and a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. PMID:25347870

Punter-Villagrasa, Jaime; Cid, Joan; Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi; Rodríguez-Villarreal, Ivón; Miribel-Catala, Pere Ll

2015-02-01

430

Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing  

MedlinePLUS

... award-winning quarterly print and online magazine covering a variety of topics, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, early intervention and education, professional guidance, legislative updates ...

431

Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

2007-07-01

432

Clinical utility of the Xpert MRSA assay for early detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for many nosocomial and community-acquired infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A practical way to limit the spread of MRSA is early detection and proper treatment. However, screening culture for MRSA typically requires 2–3 days. The Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay developed for screening an MRSA-specific DNA sequence within the staphylococcal cassette chromosome in 2 h. Lower respiratory tract specimens, such as transtracheal aspirates (TTAs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), are commonly obtained from intubated patients. Therefore, using the lower respiratory tract specimens with the Xpert MRSA assay may be a practical tool for patient care. We performed the Xpert MRSA assay on 108 TTA and 21 BALF specimens from 92 patients and compared the results to those obtained by culture. The two assays showed concordant results in 120 (93.0%) cases and discordant results in 9 (7.0%) cases, which were culture-negative and Xpert MRSA-positive. Among the discordant cases, 5 patients developed culture-positive samples 2–15 days after the Xpert MRSA detected MRSA. We conclude that the Xpert MRSA assay is a rapid, sensitive and clinically useful test, particularly for the early detection of MRSA. PMID:23064681

OH, AE-CHIN; LEE, JIN KYUNG; LEE, HA NA; HONG, YOUNG JUN; CHANG, YOON HWAN; HONG, SEOK-IL; KIM, DONG HO

2013-01-01

433

Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Background There is an important global need to improve early detection of oral cancer. Recent reports suggest that optical imaging technologies can aid in the identification of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity; however, there is little data evaluating the use of optical imaging modalities in resource limited settings where oral cancer impacts patients disproportionately. In this article, we evaluate a simple, low-cost optical imaging system that is designed for early detection of oral cancer in resource limited settings. We report results of a clinical study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) in Mumbai, India using this system as a tool to improve detection of oral cancer and its precursors. Methods Reflectance images with white light illumination and fluorescence images with 455 nm excitation were obtained from 261 sites in the oral cavity from 76 patients and 90 sites in the oral cavity from 33 normal volunteers. Quantitative image features were used to develop classification algorithms to identify neoplastic tissue, using clinical diagnosis of expert observers as the gold standard. Results Using the ratio of red to green autofluorescence, the algorithm identified tissues judged clinically to be cancer or clinically suspicious for neoplasia with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 87%. Conclusions Results suggest that the performance of this simple, objective low-cost system has potential to improve oral screening efforts, especially in low-resource settings. PMID:20409347

2010-01-01

434

Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100?m) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

2015-01-01

435

Adenosine stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease at an early stage.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of adenosine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and to compare it with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) at an early stage. Forty-one patients suspected with CAD were randomly divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n=21) adenosine stress was undertaken; the exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in Group 2 (n=20). Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed in each patient within 2 weeks before or after single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Adenosine stress group vs. exercise stress group, the sensitivity was 92.86% vs. 100.0%, specificity 57.14% vs. 60.0%, positive predictive value 81.25% vs. 71.43%, negative predictive value 80.0% vs. 100.0%, accuracy 80.95% vs. 80.0% respectively. Detection rates of vessels of coronary artery lesions were 66.67% in Group 1 and 72.22% in Group 2 (P> 0.05). The side effects were mild and transient. Our results demonstrated that adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and reliable diagnostic method for an early stage of CAD. As a comparative sensitivity and accuracy with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, adenosine stress testing may provide a feasible alternative pharmacological stress method in myocardial SPECT for detection of CAD. PMID:23694919

Chen, Gui-Bing; Wu, Hua; He, Xiao-Jiang; Huang, Jin-Xiong; Yu, Dan; Xu, Wei-Yi; Yu, Hao

2013-01-01

436

Early detection of cardiac involvement in thalassemia: From bench to bedside perspective.  

PubMed

Myocardial siderosis is known as the major cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients since it can lead to iron overload cardiomyopathy. Although this condition can be prevented if timely effective intensive chelation is given to patients, the mortality rate of iron overload cardiomyopathy still remains high due to late detection of this condition. Various direct and indirect methods of iron assessment, including serum ferritin level, echocardiogram, non-transferrin-bound iron, cardiac magnetic resonance T2*, heart rate variability, and liver biopsy and myocardial biopsy, have been proposed for early detection of cardiac iron overload in TM patients. However, controversial evidence and limitations of their use in clinical practice exist. In this review article, all of these iron assessment methods that have been proposed or used to directly or indirectly determine the cardiac iron status in TM reported from both basic and clinical studies are comprehensively summarized and presented. Since there has been growing evidence in the past decades that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as cardiac autonomic status known as the heart rate variability can provide early detection of cardiac involvement in TM patients, these two methods are also presented and discussed. The existing controversy regarding the assessment of cardiac involvement in thalassemia is also discussed. PMID:24009816

Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chattipakorn, Nipon

2013-08-26

437

Preliminary comparison of infants speech with and without hearing loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speech of ten children with hearing loss and ten children without hearing loss aged 12 months is examined. All the children with hearing loss were identified before six months of age, and all have parents who wish them to become oral communicators. The data are from twenty minute sessions with the caregiver and child, with their normal prostheses in place, in semi-structured settings. These data are part of a larger test battery applied to both caregiver and child that is part of a project comparing the development of children with hearing loss to those without hearing loss, known as the Early Development of Children with Hearing Loss. The speech comparisons are in terms of number of utterances, syllable shapes, and segment type. A subset of the data was given a detailed acoustic analysis, including formant frequencies and voice quality measures. [Work supported by NIDCD R01 006237 to Susan Nittrouer.

McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

2005-04-01

438

Auditory Evoked Potential Response and Hearing Loss: A Review  

PubMed Central

Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research.

Paulraj, M. P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H. Bin; Hema, C. R

2015-01-01

439

A 99mTc-Labeled Triphenylphosphonium Derivative for the Early Detection of Breast Tumors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction A greater mitochondrial membrane potential in tumor cells has been shown to enhance the accumulation of triphenyl phosphonium derivatives. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize 99mTc-labeled alkyl triphenyl phosphonium (99mTc-Mito10-MAG3) for the early detection of breast tumors. Methods Mito10-MAG3 was synthesized by coupling (10-aminodecyl)triphenyl phosphonium bromide with NHS-MAG3 and radiolabeled with 99mTc. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Mito10-MAG3 was investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Initially, 99mTc-Mito10-MAG3 was tested in animals with established breast tumors. In a subsequent longitudinal study, the imaging efficacy of 99mTc10-Mito-MAG3 for detecting small, nonpalpable breast tumors was assessed after chemically inducting breast carcinoma. Tumors detected by imaging were allowed to grow to palpable size and confirmed by histology. The results were compared with 99mTc-MIBI. Results The synthesis of Mito10-MAG3 was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The compound was radiolabeled with 99mTc to >?92% in a single step. The radiopharmaceutical exhibited fast blood clearance and low cardiac uptake. In the initial study, using animals with established breast tumors, 99mTc-Mito10-MAG3 imaging detected small lesions that were missed by palpation. In the longitudinal study, 99mTc-Mito10-MAG3 exhibited focal uptake in small breast tumors, which were confirmed by histology. Conclusions Imaging, using 99mTc-Mito10-MAG3, allowed the early detection of small neoplastic lesions in the mammary glands. The agent significantly reduced cardiac uptake, compared with 99mTc-MBIB. The phosphonium-based derivatives warrant further characterization and development as imaging agents for scintimammography. PMID:19877888

Li, Zhixin; Lopez, Marcos; Hardy, Micaël; McAllister, Donna M.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

2009-01-01

440

Heidelberg Edge Perimetry for the Detection of Early Glaucomatous Damage: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To illustrate the potential role for Heidelberg edge perimetry (HEP) in the assessment of early functional loss in glaucoma. Case Report A 46-year-old male presented with raised intraocular pressure but healthy optic discs and normal standard automated perimetry (SAP). He was diagnosed with ocular hypertension, but after 16 years, he developed glaucomatous changes to the right optic disc and inferior retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. Despite the evidence of progressive structural damage, functional testing using SAP was repeatedly normal, based on conventional criteria. HEP, on the other hand, revealed an extensive superior visual field damage in agreement with the structural changes. Additionally, and in contrast to SAP, the HEP indices of Glaucoma Hemifield Test, mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were all outside normal limits. Conclusion This case illustrates that HEP may have an important role in the early detection of functional damage in glaucoma, with potential advantages over SAP. PMID:24163683

Marvasti, Amir H.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

2013-01-01

441

Reversal of rejection-induced coronary vasculitis detected early after heart transplantation with increased immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Four patients who underwent heart transplantation, in whom coronary obstruction was seen early after transplantation, are described. Repeated acute rejection episodes were detected within the first 2 months in each patient. Coronary obstruction or ischemia was shown through a combination of T1-201 isotopic study findings, evidence of vasculitis of a small coronary arteriole seen at endomyocardial biopsy, or coronary angiographic results. Vigorous treatment for rejection (antithymocyte globulin and bolus methylprednisolone) was given, and coronary artery lesions or myocardial ischemia resolved after treatment. Rejection-induced coronary obstruction should be considered in patients with repeated acute rejection episodes who are predisposed to the development of vascular rejection. Early after transplantation such obstruction is caused by diffuse vasculitis of small and medium-sized vessels and may be reversed with increased immunosuppression. PMID:2795284

Ballester, M; Obrador, D; Carrió, I; Bordes, R; Augé, J M; Crexells, C; Oriol, A; Padró, J M; Arís, A; Caralps, J M

1989-01-01

442

Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

2009-05-01

443

Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with 99 NFLDs, were used. After major blood vessels were removed, the images were transformed so that the curved paths of retinal nerves become approximately straight on the basis of ellipses, and the Gabor filters were applied for enhancement of NFLDs. Bandlike regions darker than the surrounding pixels were detected as candidates of NFLDs. For each candidate, image features were determined and the likelihood of a true NFLD was determined by using the linear discriminant analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN). The sensitivity for detecting the NFLDs was 91% at 1.0 false positive per image by using the ANN. The proposed computerized system for the detection of NFLDs can be useful to physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in a mass screening.

Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

444

Significance of background coloration in endoscopic detection of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Endoscopic diagnostics of early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the laryngo-esophageal region have dramatically improved together with development of less invasive endoscopic treatment. It is essential for gastrointestinal endoscopists to detect lesions when they are still endoscopically treatable, especially in this region since surgical approach can still be extremely invasive. Pioneers have found some notable fundamental alterations in early SCC and created several classifications. Inoue [Dig Endosc 2001;13(suppl): 40-41] proposed the intrapapillary capillary (IPCL) classification, which focused on the microvascular change of the mucosal surface. One of the significances of this classification is that it clearly distinguished the lesions that require further pathological evaluation by categorizing the diameter change of the IPCLs. On the other hand, Arima et al. [Esophagus 2005;2:191-197] advocated the alteration of microvessels as well as change of the vascular arrangement in the area. Most recently, the Japan Esophageal Society constructed a new classification uniting these two exemplary classifications as the 'Japanese Classification of Magnifying Endoscopy for Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma'. This classification was intended to be simple and easily applicable in general clinical practice. Brownish color change between the IPCLs has reported to be one of the useful findings in distinguishing early SCC from benign changes such as inflammatory change and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Nevertheless, the exact cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. We recently examined the association of color change with hemoglobin (Hb) in cancer tissue, since NBI exclusively detects the wavelength of Hb in superficial vessels in the gastrointestinal tract. This review article also describes our examination of a distinct finding in esophageal cancer, namely, 'background coloration'. PMID:24458106

Minami, H; Isomoto, H; Inoue, H; Akazawa, Y; Yamaguchi, N; Ohnita, K; Takeshima, F; Hayashi, T; Nakayama, T; Nakao, K

2014-01-01

445

Difficulties in Early Ice Detection with the Small Ice Detector-2 HIAPER (SID-2H) in Maritime Cumuli  

E-print Network

The Small Ice Detector, version 2 (SID-2), High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER; SID-2H) was used to detect small ice particles in the early stages of ice formation in the high ...

Lasher-Trapp, Sonia

446

March 15, 2004: NCI's Early Detection Research Network: Clinical Epidemiology and Validation Centers Pre-submission Meeting; Rockville, MD  

Cancer.gov

Meeting Date March 15, 2004 Meeting Site Neuroscience Conference Center Room A1/A2 6001 Executive Blvd Rockville, MD 20852 Meeting Materials The Early Detection Research Network presented by Dr. Srivastava (ppt, 416kb) Clinical Epidemiology and Validation

447

A quarter century of progress on the early detection and treatment of autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

The last 25 years have witnessed tremendous changes in our ability to detect autism very early in life and provide interventions that can significantly influence children's outcomes. It was once questioned whether autism could be recognized before children had developed language and symbolic play skills; now changes in early behaviors, as well as structural brain changes, have been documented in infants 6-12 months of age who later develop autism. Advances in brain imaging and genetics offer the possibility of detecting autism before the syndrome is fully manifest, thereby reducing or preventing symptoms from developing. Whereas the primary mode of behavioral intervention a few decades ago relied on operant conditioning, recent approaches integrate the methods of applied behavioral analysis within a developmental, relationship-focused intervention model that are implemented by both parents and clinicians. These interventions have been found to have positive effects on children's developmental trajectory, as measured by both behavioral and neurophysiological assessments. Future approaches will likely combine both behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children who have less robust responses to behavioral interventions. There has been a paradigm shift in the way that autism is viewed, evolving from a lifelong condition with a very poor prognosis to one in which significant gains and neuroplasticity is expected, especially when the condition is detected early and appropriate interventions are provided. The grand challenge for the future is to bridge the tremendous gap between research and the implementation of evidence-based practices in the broader community, both in the United States and worldwide. Significant disparities in access to appropriate health care for children with autism exist that urgently require advocacy and more resources. PMID:24342850

Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael

2013-11-01

448

Hybrid light transport model based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for early gastric cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it remains difficult to cure because it has been in late-stage once that is found. Early gastric cancer detection becomes an effective approach to decrease the gastric cancer mortality. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been applied to detect early liver cancer and prostate cancer metastasis. However, the gastric cancer commonly originates from the gastric mucosa and grows outwards. The bioluminescent light will pass through a non-scattering region constructed by gastric pouch when it transports in tissues. Thus, the current BLT reconstruction algorithms based on the approximation model of radiative transfer equation are not optimal to handle this problem. To address the gastric cancer specific problem, this paper presents a novel reconstruction algorithm that uses a hybrid light transport model to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues. The radiosity theory integrated with the diffusion equation to form the hybrid light transport model is utilized to describe light propagation in the non-scattering region. After the finite element discretization, the hybrid light transport model is converted into a minimization problem which fuses an l1 norm based regularization term to reveal the sparsity of bioluminescent source distribution. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm is first demonstrated with a digital mouse based simulation with the reconstruction error less than 1mm. An in situ gastric cancer-bearing nude mouse based experiment is then conducted. The primary result reveals the ability of the novel BLT reconstruction algorithm in early gastric cancer detection.

Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Defu; Chen, Duofang; Zhu, Shouping; Tian, Jie

2012-03-01

449

Retinal vascular biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The earliest detectable change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the buildup of amyloid plaque in the brain. Early detection of AD, prior to irreversible neurological damage, is important for the efficacy of current interventions as well as for the development of new treatments. Although PiB-PET imaging and CSF amyloid are the gold standards for early AD diagnosis, there are practical limitations for population screening. AD-related pathology occurs primarily in the brain, but some of the hallmarks of the disease have also been shown to occur in other tissues, including the retina, which is more accessible for imaging. Retinal vascular changes and degeneration have previously been reported in AD using optical coherence tomography and laser Doppler techniques. This report presents results from analysis of retinal photographs from AD and healthy control participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing. This is the first study to investigate retinal blood vessel changes with respect to amyloid plaque burden in the brain. We demonstrate relationships between retinal vascular parameters, neocortical brain amyloid plaque burden and AD. A number of RVPs were found to be different in AD. Two of these RVPs, venular branching asymmetry factor and arteriolar length-to-diameter ratio, were also higher in healthy individuals with high plaque burden (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02 respectively, after false discovery rate adjustment). Retinal photographic analysis shows potential as an adjunct for early detection of AD or monitoring of AD-progression or response to treatments. PMID:23443359

Frost, S; Kanagasingam, Y; Sohrabi, H; Vignarajan, J; Bourgeat, P; Salvado, O; Villemagne, V; Rowe, C C; Macaulay, S Lance; Szoeke, C; Ellis, K A; Ames, D; Masters, C L; Rainey-Smith, S; Martins, R N; AIBL Research Group

2013-01-01

450

Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-? estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

2011-02-01

451

Nonlinearity and Intermodulation Phenomena Tracking as a Method for Detecting Early Stages of Gear Failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of vibroacoustic signal is required for the robust and more effective detection of early stage gear failure. In the paper the possibility and method of time varying vibration decomposition are discussed. It is shown that analysing the coupling between the structure's components changes from linear to nonlinear or to other kind of nonlinearity together with intermodulation phenomena can be used as measure in structural health monitoring. In addition on an analytical connection is investigated between the tracking method and the physics of the gear contact process based on the idea of higher-order spectra analysis, bispectral analysis specially.

Radkowski, Stanis?aw; Jasi?ski, Marcin

2010-01-01

452

NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

Schmidt, Gregory; Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

453

Challenges in the early detection and intervention of the psychosis-risk syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary The concept of a clinical high-risk state for psychosis has been used to describe individuals who have prodromal symptoms of psychosis and, thus, are at high-risk of developing psychosis. This high-risk concept promotes a more detailed developmental understanding of the evolution of psychosis and provides a theoretical basis for providing necessary mental health services to people at clinically high-risk of developing psychosis. Early detection and intervention can potentially change the course of psychotic conditions and, thus, prevent or minimize the associated disability. This is a relatively new area of interest, so more studies are needed to fully understand this high-risk condition.

LV, Hailong; ZHOU, Xin; ZHAO, Jingping

2015-01-01

454

Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins  

DOEpatents

Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

Willard, Karen E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01

455

THE EARLY DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF SKIN CANCER BY COMPLEMENTARY HEALTH PROFESSIONALS  

PubMed Central

The potential for opportunistic screening for skin cancer by certain groups of health professionals is examined. The groups targeted are chiropractors, dentists, nurses, osteopaths, pharmacists, physiotherapists and podiatrists. Current course content for the early detection of skin cancers in these groups was examined and found inadequate. It is believed these undergraduate courses could be complemented by a short course providing the necessary sills to screen for pre-malignant and malignant skin lesions. Strategies and implications for the implementation of a proposed course are discussed.

O'Connor, Lera; Walker, Bruce F.; Watts, Caroline

1994-01-01

456

Early detection of dengue virus by use of reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

A method for the rapid diagnosis of early dengue virus (DENV) infection is highly needed. Here, a prototype reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was developed. The assay detected DENV RNA in <20 min without the need for thermocycling amplification. The assay enabled the detection of as few as 10 copies of DENV RNA. The designed RT-RPA primers and exo probe detected the DENV genome of at least 12 genotypes of DENV circulating globally without cross-reacting with other arboviruses. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the RT-RPA assay for the detection of DENV RNA in 203 serum samples of patients with clinically suspected dengue. The sera were simultaneously tested for DENV using a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and IgM- and IgG-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 130 samples and 61 of the samples (46.9%) were classified as viremic with qRT-PCR. The RT-RPA assay showed good concordance (? of ?0.723) with the RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR assays in detecting the dengue viremic samples. When used in combination with ELISA, both the RT-RPA and RT-LAMP assays increased the detection of acute DENV infection to ?95.7% (?45/47) in samples obtained within 5 days of illness. The results from the study suggest that the RT-RPA assay is the most rapid molecular diagnostic tool available for the detection of DENV. Hence, it is possible to use the RT-RPA assay in a laboratory to complement routine serology testing for dengue. PMID:25568438

Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Tan, Kim-Kee; Danlami, Mohammed Bashar; Shu, Meng-Hooi; Johari, Jefree; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Brooks, David; Piepenburg, Olaf; Nentwich, Oliver; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Franco, Leticia; Tenorio, Antonio; AbuBakar, Sazaly

2015-03-01

457

DESI-Detection of early-season invasives (software-installation manual and user's guide version 1.0)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a software system for detecting early-season invasive plant species, such as cheatgrass. The report includes instructions for installing the software and serves as a user's guide in processing Landsat satellite remote sensing data to map the distributions of cheatgrass and other early-season invasive plants. The software was developed for application to the semi-arid regions of southern Utah; however, the detection parameters can be altered by the user for application to other areas.

Kokaly, Raymond F.

2011-01-01

458

Development of a Multimarker Assay for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Early detection of ovarian cancer has great promise to improve clinical outcome. Patients and Methods Ninety-six serum biomarkers were analyzed in sera from healthy women and from patients with ovarian cancer, benign pelvic tumors, and breast, colorectal, and lung cancers, using multiplex xMAP bead-based immunoassays. A Metropolis algorithm with Monte Carlo simulation (MMC) was used for analysis of the data. Results A training set, including sera from 139 patients with early-stage ovarian cancer, 149 patients with late-stage ovarian cancer, and 1,102 healthy women, was analyzed with MMC algorithm and cross validation to identify an optimal biomarker panel discriminating early-stage cancer from healthy controls. The four-biomarker panel providing the highest diagnostic power of 86% sensitivity (SN) for early-stage and 93% SN for late-stage ovarian cancer at 98% specificity (SP) was comprised of CA-125, HE4, CEA, and VCAM-1. This model was applied to an independent blinded validation set consisting of sera from 44 patients with early-stage ovarian cancer, 124 patients with late-stage ovarian cancer, and 929 healthy women, providing unbiased estimates of 86% SN for stage I and II and 95% SN for stage III and IV disease at 98% SP. This panel was selective for ovarian cancer showing SN of 33% for benign pelvic disease, SN of 6% for breast cancer, SN of 0% for colorectal cancer, and SN of 36% for lung cancer. Conclusion A panel of CA-125, HE4, CEA, and VCAM-1, after additional validation, could serve as an initial stage in a screening strategy for epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:20368574

Yurkovetsky, Zoya; Skates, Steven; Lomakin, Aleksey; Nolen, Brian; Pulsipher, Trenton; Modugno, Francesmary; Marks, Jeffrey; Godwin, Andrew; Gorelik, Elieser; Jacobs, Ian; Menon, Usha; Lu, Karen; Badgwell, Donna; Bast, Robert C.; Lokshin, Anna E.

2010-01-01

459

CVPR 2009 Submission #****. CONFIDENTIAL REVIEW COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Automated Feature Extraction for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in  

E-print Network

COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Automated Feature Extraction for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy images can as- sist in early diagnosis and screening of a common dis- ease:Diabetic Retinopathy. A robust Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common retinal compli- cation associated with diabetes. It is a major cause

Mittal, Anurag

460

Proactive, Early Screening to Detect Behaviorally At-Risk Students: Issues, Approaches, Emerging Innovations, and Professional Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a review of current practices and tools used in the proactive screening of behaviorally at-risk students within the context of schooling. While there are many obstacles to the early detection of vulnerable students, some recent developments have helped make educators more receptive to early identification and prevention…

Severson, Herbert H.; Walker, Hill M.; Hope-Doolittle, Jennifer; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Gresham, Frank M.

2007-01-01

461

News Note: Multi-center Study Validates ProPSA Test for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Past studies have found a form of free PSA, called proenzyme PSA (pro-PSA), to be elevated in cancerous prostate tissue. Results from a multi-center study, supported by the NCI Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), have validated proPSA as a detector of early stage prostate cancer.

462

Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies in the Perth Abyssal Plain  

E-print Network

Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies the early spreading history between India and Australia during the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana. However from Australia with Greater India during initial breakup at ~130 Ma, then rifted from India following

Granot, Roi

463

A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine  

PubMed Central

Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance. PMID:22303139

Ramasubramanian, Melur K.; Tiruthani, Karthik

2009-01-01

464

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator.  

PubMed

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety. PMID:25308055

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

465

Detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by silicon nanowire transistors.  

PubMed

A silicon nanowire-based biosensor has been designed and applied for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by RecA protein. Silicon nanowires transistors were fabricated by atomic force microscopy nanolithography