Sample records for early hearing detection

  1. Hearing Loss: Detect It Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Caregivers need to be alert to signs that a child is not hearing well so that children with hearing problems will receive prompt treatment. Explains the hearing process, what causes hearing loss, how to identify hearing loss at various stages of a child's development, and what caregivers can do if they suspect that a child has a hearing problem.…

  2. Early hearing detection and intervention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Störbeck, Claudine; Friedland, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention programs have become the standard of care to ensure optimal outcomes for infants with hearing loss, their families and society at large. The overwhelming majority of infants with congenital or early-onset permanent bilateral hearing loss are however born in developing countries like South Africa where services are scarce and awareness poor. Despite its comparatively well-developed economic and reasonably developed health care infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa, limited information on infant hearing loss and the status of early hearing detection and intervention has been available for South Africa. Recently however, an increasing number of initiatives and reports have highlighted the extent of infant hearing loss and the status of identification and intervention services offered in the country. This report provides a review of the available evidence on infant hearing loss and the status of current early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa. PMID:19187975

  3. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bolajoko O Olusanya; De Wet Swanepoel; Mônica J Chapchap; Salvador Castillo; Hamed Habib; Siti Z Mukari; Norberto V Martinez; Hung-Ching Lin; Bradley McPherson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. METHODS:

  4. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  5. Towards Integrated Practices in Early Detection of and Intervention for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storbeck, Claudine; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that undetected hearing loss can have a profound effect on a child's holistic development, including communicative, language and cognitive development. It is crucial therefore that deaf and hard of hearing infants are detected as early as possible so that appropriate intervention services and support can be initiated. To…

  6. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement current voluntary initiatives through systematic scaling-up of public awareness and requisite manpower development towards sustainable service capacities at all levels of healthcare delivery. PMID:17266763

  7. Early hearing detection and intervention services in the public health sector in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Marianne; Swanepoel, DeWet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of newborn/infant hearing screening programs in public sector hospitals in South Africa by means of a descriptive survey. Data was gathered using a self-administered postal questionnaire, which included questions on screening resources and protocols, follow-up, diagnostic, and information management procedures as well as timing of intervention. The questionnaire was sent to 86 speech therapy and audiology departments within public sector hospitals throughout South Africa and 44 questionnaires were returned. The findings indicated that 27% (n=12) of respondents were conducting some form of hearing screening. The most frequently reported reasons for the absence of a screening program were a lack of appropriate equipment and a shortage of staff. Institutions with active screening programs face many challenges and programs are mostly unsystematic. Reported findings make a valuable contribution to the field of early hearing detection and intervention by providing a baseline for the development and structuring of early hearing detection and intervention services as a priority in the public healthcare sector of South Africa. PMID:18781510

  8. Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchbank, Alison Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

  9. Auditory Screening in Infants for Early Detection of Permanent Hearing Loss in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, M; Zadeh, PY; Javadian, Y; Fard, HA; Delavari, K; Panjaki, HSA; Gorji, HAMH

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undiagnosed hearing loss can cause disorders in speech and language and delay in social and emotional development. Aim: This study aimed to screen for hearing loss in all newborns born in Babol city during 2009-2011. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen thousand one hundred and sixty-five newborns (49% [7430/15165] male and 51% [7735/15165] female) born during a 30-month period in Babol, underwent hearing screening by the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test at the age of 15 days. In infants referred at this stage, an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was the next investigation. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA, 16) through descriptive statistic method. Results: In the first screening stage, 10.8% (1648/15165) cases were referred to the second stage for further investigation. 9.4% (154/1648) were lost to follow-up from among the referred cases despite continuous contact and education about the importance of the problem. Among the participants in the second stage, 6.2% (92/1494) were referred to the third stage and underwent ABR and OAE testing. 14.1% (13/92) were lost at this stage. Of the remaining participants, 34.2% (27/79) were diagnosed with a hearing loss. Therefore, the incidence of hearing loss in this study was 1.8/1,000 newborns. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of hearing loss in this study, implementation of a universal newborn hearing screening program is recommended. PMID:24971205

  10. Decision-Making in Families Engaged in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainscott, Sarah Dawson

    2010-01-01

    Families are faced with numerous decisions shortly after their infants are identified with a hearing loss. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the family decision-making process including how families receive and respond to information and how family priorities and concerns for their child's future relate to the decisions they make. Of…

  11. The Early Years: Hear That?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peggy Ashbrook

    2009-04-01

    Like breathing, the ability to hear sound is often taken for granted unless it becomes impaired. Children may not wonder about how sound is generated or detected until introduced to an inquiry activity about sound. Therefore, to heighten students' appreciation of sound, this month's column features an activity in which they use their senses to understand this abstract concept. In addition, students construct a kazoo out of simple materials in order to feel vibrations that create sound.

  12. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  13. Identification of impaired hearing in early childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, D; Shah, C P

    1979-01-01

    Although the incidence of congenital deafness is high, routine neonatal screening for this problem is not practised, and early identification of congenital or early acquired deafness is relatively rare. Delaying therapy until a child is 3 or more years old severely limits speech development, language acquisition and learning. The commonest causes of delay in diagnosis are the refusal of physicians to listen to the parents' observations, their failure to screen children for hearing and speech problems, and their reluctance to arrange prompt referral for audiologic assessment. Diagnostic delay occurs even though half the children who have impaired hearing are known to be at increased risk. A plea is made for the setting up of a register of infants known to be at risk for impaired hearing. First-contact physicians should be alert to the possibility of hearing problems, particularly in children at high risk. Screening methods for use by nonspecialist practitioners are outlined. Images p535-a p536-a p540-a PMID:387194

  14. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  15. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  16. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  17. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  18. Maternal views on infant hearing loss and early intervention in a South African community.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Almec, Nizha

    2008-01-01

    Parental knowledge and attitudes regarding infant hearing loss are crucial to the successful implementation of EHDI programs, especially in developing countries where concerns have been raised of cultural-based ignorance and resistance towards childhood disabilities. This study investigated maternal knowledge and attitudes amongst 100 South African mothers accessing the public healthcare system using a face-to-face survey. The questionnaire (16 items) probed knowledge of infant hearing loss, superstitious cultural beliefs, and attitude towards early detection and intervention for hearing loss. Results indicate that more than 50% of the sample correctly identified three common etiological factors (ear discharge, medication, congenital) for infant hearing loss. At least one superstitious cultural belief regarding a possible cause of hearing loss was held by 57%. Maternal attitude was overwhelmingly positive with 99% indicating the desire to have their baby's hearing screened after birth and a high acceptance of hearing aids. The study demonstrates a need for increased maternal awareness regarding infant hearing loss but also a readiness for implementation of EHDI programs. PMID:18781513

  19. Screening for hearing loss in early childhood programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Eiserman; Lenore Shisler; Terry Foust; Jan Buhrmann; Randi Winston; Karl R. White

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0–3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children screened as a part of the study, 77% passed an OAE

  20. Breast Cancer: Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  1. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  2. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  3. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  4. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs. PMID:25790949

  5. Improving Early Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

  6. Early Literacy in Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparison between Two Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Aram, Dorit; Andorn, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the early literacy skills of kindergartners with hearing loss who were enrolled in individual inclusion or group inclusion programs as well as those of children with typical hearing. We also examined the relationship between early literacy skills and background variables such as degree of hearing loss, type of sensory…

  7. Early Identification of Hearing Loss: Listen to Parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie D. Thompson; Gary Thompson

    1991-01-01

    Families of 49 hearing-impaired children responded to a questionnaire requesting information about the identification of their child's hearing loss. Parents were the first to suspect the hearing loss in 48 cases but more often than not were told that the child would outgrow it or was too young to test. When professionals agreed with the parents and attended to their

  8. Seizing the Moment, Setting the Stage, and Serving the Future: Toward Collaborative Models of Early Identification and Early Intervention Services for Children Born with Hearing Loss and Their Families. Part I: Early Identification of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauk, Gary W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The importance of early identification of hearing loss in children and progress toward newborn screening is discussed, along with consequences of delayed identification. The history and status of early screening at national and state levels and specific types of screening methods for bilateral and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss are…

  9. The Early Educational Programme at the Fujimidai Auditory Centre for Hearing Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokumitsu, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    This transcript of a videotaped presentation introduces the early education program at the Fujimidai Auditory Centre for hearing-impaired children. The center serves children from birth until their enrollment in elementary school, and its activities include audiological assessment; hearing aid selection, check, and maintenance; individualized,…

  10. "Foundations for Literacy": An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…

  11. Enhanced Visual Speech Perception in Individuals with Early-Onset Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Edward T., Jr.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: L. E. Bernstein, M. E. Demorest, and P. E. Tucker (2000) demonstrated enhanced speechreading accuracy in participants with early-onset hearing loss compared with hearing participants. Here, the authors test the generalization of Bernstein et al.'s (2000) result by testing 2 new large samples of participants. The authors also investigated…

  12. The efficacy of early identification and intervention for children with hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Downs, M P; Yoshinaga-Itano, C

    1999-02-01

    From these findings, the inevitable conclusion is that identification of hearing loss by 6 months of age, followed by appropriate intervention, is the most effective strategy for the normal development of language in infants and toddlers with hearing loss. Identification of hearing loss by 6 months can only be accomplished through universal newborn hearing screening. Some questions that arise as a result of these studies include: What can one conclude from the finding that the language skills of children with mild hearing losses are no better than those with greater losses? If the finding holds up, it indicates a great need for investigations into biobehavior theories of language acquisition and into the part played by the prenatal 4 months of hearing. And it also shows a need for answering the question, When does a hearing loss begin?, because it certainly seems that all hearing losses are similar in their outcomes. Can the findings from these studies be used to benefit normally hearing children who are at risk for language delays as a result of limited language environments? Such children suffer from auditory deprivation just as surely as those with hearing losses. If the language skills of the latter children can be brought to normal range by early intervention, the same strategy may help high-risk populations. The efficacy of early intervention is just as valid for these children as it is for the children with hearing impairment. Now that the benefits of early identification of children with congenital hearing loss have been demonstrated, these benefits should be extended to all children who are at risk for language delays, with appropriate interventions applied immediately. PMID:10079791

  13. Hearing Organ Evolution and Specialization: Early and Later Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Vater; Jin Meng; Richard C. Fox

    \\u000a An enormous amount of data is available on the structure and function of the mammalian cochlea and mammalian hearing characteristics.\\u000a Most of this knowledge is derived from studies of placental mammals, which is only one of the three groups of mammals that\\u000a exist today. There are only a few studies on the ears and hearing characteristics of the other two

  14. Dynamics of Random Early Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Lin; Robert Morris

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of Random Early Detection (RED) over traffic types categorized as non-adaptive, fragile and robust, according to their responses to congestion. We point out that RED allows unfair bandwidth sharing when a mixture of the three traffic types shares a link. This unfairness is caused by the fact that at any given time RED

  15. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons. PMID:26161524

  16. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  17. Hearing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-30

    Humans are able to hear through their ears. Sounds are made and travel through the air as vibration waves. These waves reach the human ear and go through a series of routes before the brain interprets them as sounds.

  18. Childhood infections, but not early life growth, influence hearing in the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort at age 14 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While current research priorities include investigations of age-related hearing loss, there are concerns regarding effects on childhood hearing, for example through increased personal headphone use. By utilising historical data, it is possible to assess what factors may have increased hearing problems in children in the past, and this may be used to inform current public health policies to protect children against hearing loss and in turn reduce the long-term burden on individuals and services that may possible evolve. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors in early life significantly impacted on hearing level in childhood using existing data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a 1947 birth cohort. Methods Data on early life factors, including growth, socio-economic status and illness, and hearing at age 14 years were collated for a representative subset of individuals from the cohort (n?=?147). Factors were assessed using linear regression analysis to identify associations with hearing thresholds. Results Males were found to have lower hearing thresholds at 250 Hz, 500 Hz and 1 kHz. Main analyses showed no associations between hearing thresholds and early life growth or socio-economic indicators. An increasing number of ear infections from birth to age 13 years was associated with hearing thresholds at 250Hz (p?=?0.04) and 500Hz (p?=?0.03), which remained true for females (p?=?0.050), but not males (p?=?0.213) in sex-specific analysis. Scarlet fever and bronchitis were associated with hearing thresholds at 8 kHz. After adjustment for all significant predictors at each frequency, results remained unchanged. Conclusions We found no associations between childhood hearing thresholds and early life growth and socio-economic status. Consistent with other studies, we found associations between childhood infections and hearing thresholds. Current public health strategies aimed at reducing childhood infections may also have a beneficial effect upon childhood hearing. PMID:23895514

  19. Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Ibekwe; P. O. Okokhere; D. Asogun; F. F. Blackie; M. M. Nwegbu; K. W. Wahab; S. A. Omilabu; G. O. Akpede

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease which affects one-fourth to two million people annually with the fatality\\u000a rate of about 10,000. It is associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) usually at the convalescent stage. Recently,\\u000a cases of SNHL at the acute phase have been reported. This study was done to further investigate the incidence and features\\u000a of SNHL

  20. Early Intervention for Children with Permanent Hearing Loss: Finishing the EHDI Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.

    2006-01-01

    The value of identifying permanent hearing loss during the first few months of life and providing effective treatment to ameliorate or even eliminate the negative consequences has been recognized for many decades. Unfortunately, improvements in achieving this goal were very gradual until the early 1990s. At that time, the combination of…

  1. Foundations for literacy: An early literacy intervention for deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Lederberg, Amy R; Miller, Elizabeth M; Easterbrooks, Susan R; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A "business as usual" comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children's hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  2. Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  3. The Experiences and Involvement of Grandparents in Hearing Detection and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNee, Chelsea M.; Jackson, Carla W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of grandparents during hearing detection and intervention. Data were collected and analyzed from survey responses of 50 parents and 35 grandparents of children of varying ages who have hearing loss. Parents described important types of support that grandparents provided including frequent…

  4. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection

  5. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

  6. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  7. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  8. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  9. Early Detection | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The use of screening tests to detect cancers early provides better opportunities for patients to obtain more effective treatment with fewer side effects. Patients whose cancers are found early and treated in a timely manner are more likely to survive these cancers than are those whose cancers are not found until symptoms appear.

  10. Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism, Progressive Early-Onset Spinocerebellar Ataxia, and Late-Onset Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, E; Ensert, CG; Gulerman, HC

    2011-01-01

    The association of ataxia, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hearing loss is extremely rare. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature of the neurological manifestations, age of onset, clinical severity and associated abnormalities. We describe a 24-year-old woman with secondary hypergonadotropic amenorrhea, early-onset progressive spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), late-onset sensorineural hearing loss and normal intelligence and compare it with reported cases. PMID:24052715

  11. Testimony of Gina Adams, Senior Fellow, Urban Institute. Before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the testimony of Gina Adams before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices." This testimony was presented to the House Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives last March 19, 2009. She talks about how…

  12. Random early detection gateways for congestion avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Floyd; Van Jacobson

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Random Early Detection (RED) gateways for congestion avoidance in packet-switched networks. The gateway detects incipient congestion by computing the av- erage queue size. The gateway could notify connections of con- gestion either by dropping packets arriving at the gateway or by setting a bit in packet headers. When the average queue size exceeds a preset threshold, the

  13. Timing Discrepancies of Early Intervention Hearing Services in Urban and Rural Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Burton, Mary; Loan, Ashley; Shinn, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the timing of early intervention diagnostic and therapeutic services in cochlear implant recipients from rural and urban areas. Study design Retrospective case series review Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Cochlear implant recipients from a single comprehensive hearing institute born with severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined. Timing of diagnostic and therapeutic services was examined. Intervention(s) Diagnosis, amplification, and eventual cochlear implantation for all patients in the study Main outcome measure(s) Time points of definitive diagnosis, amplification, and cochlear implantation for children from urban and rural regions were examined. Correlation analysis of distance to testing center and timing of services was also assessed. Results 40 children born with congenital hearing loss were included in the study and were diagnosed at a median age of 13 weeks after birth. Children from rural regions obtained amplification at a median age of 47.7 weeks after birth, while urban children were amplified at 26 weeks after birth. Cochlear implantation was performed at a median age of 182 weeks after birth in those from rural areas and at 104 weeks after birth in urban-dwelling patients. A linear relationship was identified between distance to the implant center and timing of hearing aid amplification (r=0.5, p=0.033) and cochlear implantation (r=0.5, p=0.016). Conclusions Children residing outside of metro areas may be at higher risk of delayed rehabilitative services and cochlear implantation than those residing in urban areas that may be closer in proximity to tertiary care centers. PMID:24136305

  14. Genetic investigation of autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis: evidence for early sensorineural hearing loss associated with mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Houillier, Pascal; Le Pottier, Nelly; Strompf, Laurence; Loirat, Chantal; Baudouin, Véronique; Macher, Marie-Alice; Déchaux, Michèle; Ulinski, Tim; Nobili, François; Eckart, Philippe; Novo, Robert; Cailliez, Mathilde; Salomon, Rémi; Nivet, Hubert; Cochat, Pierre; Tack, Ivan; Fargeot, Anne; Bouissou, François; Kesler, Gwenaelle Roussey; Lorotte, Stéphanie; Godefroid, Nathalie; Layet, Valérie; Morin, Gilles; Jeunemaître, Xavier; Blanchard, Anne

    2006-05-01

    Mutations in the ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes, encoding subunits B1 and 4 of apical H(+) ATPase, cause recessive forms of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). ATP6V1B mutations have been associated with early sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), whereas ATP6V0A4 mutations are classically associated with either late-onset SNHL or normal hearing. The phenotype and genotype of 39 new kindreds with recessive dRTA, 18 of whom were consanguineous, were assessed. Novel and known loss-of-function mutations were identified in 31 kindreds. Fourteen new and five recurrent mutations of the ATP6V0A4 gene were identified in 21 families. For the ATP6V1B1 gene, two new and two previously described mutations were identified in 10 families. Surprisingly, seven probands with ATP6V0A4 gene mutations developed severe early SNHL between the ages of 2 mo and 10 yr. No mutation was detected in eight families. These data extend the spectrum of disease-causing mutations and provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity in SNHL. The data also demonstrate that mutations in either of these genes may cause early deafness, and they highlight the importance of genetic screening for recessive forms of dRTA independent of hearing status. PMID:16611712

  15. Diverse spectrum of rare deafness genes underlies early-childhood hearing loss in Japanese patients: a cross-sectional, multi-center next-generation sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic tests for hereditary hearing loss inform clinical management of patients and can provide the first step in the development of therapeutics. However, comprehensive genetic tests for deafness genes by Sanger sequencing is extremely expensive and time-consuming. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is advantageous for genetic diagnosis of heterogeneous diseases that involve numerous causative genes. Methods Genomic DNA samples from 58 subjects with hearing loss from 15 unrelated Japanese families were subjected to NGS to identify the genetic causes of hearing loss. Subjects did not have pathogenic GJB2 mutations (the gene most often associated with inherited hearing loss), mitochondrial m.1555A>G or 3243A>G mutations, enlarged vestibular aqueduct, or auditory neuropathy. Clinical features of subjects were obtained from medical records. Genomic DNA was subjected to a custom-designed SureSelect Target Enrichment System to capture coding exons and proximal flanking intronic sequences of 84 genes responsible for nonsyndromic or syndromic hearing loss, and DNA was sequenced by Illumina GAIIx (paired-end read). The sequences were mapped and quality-checked using the programs BWA, Novoalign, Picard, and GATK, and analyzed by Avadis NGS. Results Candidate genes were identified in 7 of the 15 families. These genes were ACTG1, DFNA5, POU4F3, SLC26A5, SIX1, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, and USH2A, suggesting that a variety of genes underlie early-childhood hearing loss in Japanese patients. Mutations in Usher syndrome-related genes were detected in three families, including one double heterozygous mutation of CDH23 and PCDH15. Conclusion Targeted NGS analysis revealed a diverse spectrum of rare deafness genes in Japanese subjects and underscores implications for efficient genetic testing. PMID:24164807

  16. Predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss in malnourished infants in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the criteria for undernutrition by the Growth Standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) based on weight-for-age, weight-for-length and body-mass-index-for-age were enlisted. EPHL was determined after two-stage screening with transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, automated auditory brainstem response and diagnostic evaluation. Factors predictive of EPHL were explored with multivariable logistic regression analysis. Some 39 (1.7%) infants from 2254 undernourished infants were confirmed with hearing loss (>30 dB HL). Bilateral EPHL was mild in 7 (17.9%) and moderate-to-profound in 26 (66.7%). EPHL was unilateral in 6 (15.4%). Multiparity, chronological age of more than 30 days, the absence of skilled attendant at birth and severe neonatal jaundice were associated with an increased risk of EPHL while having a Christian mother and exclusive breast feeding had protective effect against EPHL. EPHL is highly prevalent among undernourished infants and associated with modifiable risk factors that can be addressed at the community-level and used as a basis for targeted intervention in resource-poor countries. PMID:20952158

  17. Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

  18. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  19. Acceleration of Age-Related Hearing Loss by Early Noise Exposure: Evidence of a Misspent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Sharon G.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2007-01-01

    Age-related and noise-induced hearing losses in humans are multifactorial, with contributions from, and potential interactions among, numerous variables that can shape final outcome. A recent retrospective clinical study suggests an age-noise interaction that exacerbates age-related hearing loss in previously noise-damaged ears (Gates et al., 2000). Here, we address the issue in an animal model by comparing noise-induced and age-related hearing loss (NIHL; AHL) in groups of CBA/CaJ mice exposed identically (8-16 kHz noise band at 100 dB sound pressure level for 2 h) but at different ages (4-124 weeks) and held with unexposed cohorts for different postexposure times (2-96 weeks). When evaluated 2 weeks after exposure, maximum threshold shifts in young-exposed animals (4-8 weeks) were 40-50 dB; older-exposed animals (? 16 weeks) showed essentially no shift at the same postexposure time. However, when held for long postexposure times, animals with previous exposure demonstrated AHL and histopathology fundamentally unlike unexposed, aging animals or old-exposed animals held for 2 weeks only. Specifically, they showed substantial, ongoing deterioration of cochlear neural responses, without additional change in preneural responses, and corresponding histologic evidence of primary neural degeneration throughout the cochlea. This was true particularly for young-exposed animals; however, delayed neuropathy was observed in all noise-exposed animals held 96 weeks after exposure, even those that showed no NIHL 2 weeks after exposure. Data suggest that pathologic but sublethal changes initiated by early noise exposure render the inner ears significantly more vulnerable to aging. PMID:16481444

  20. Refined design of random early detection gateways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haining Wang; Kang G. Shin

    1999-01-01

    Random early detection (RED) was proposed as an active gateway queue-management mechanism. This paper proposes to alter the RED design guideline that unconditionally allows transient congestion, and evaluates its impacts. This unconditional allowance of transient congestion is shown to be harmful when the queue is near full, because it causes buffer overflow at a gateway. Buffer overflow at a gateway

  1. Nuclear imaging and early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Laura; Cervino, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses about the most important roles of nuclear medicine related to the early detection of breast cancer. We summarily describe the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications and clinical impact for planar and tomographic breast scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission mammography (PEM). PMID:24836945

  2. Friend to Friend Cancer Early Detection

    E-print Network

    Friend to Friend Cancer Early Detection Relevance Women living in rural areas of Texas are less areas tend to be diagnosed in later stages of breast or cervical cancer, making treatment more difficult and impairing their future quality of life. Response Funding was sought and obtained from the Cancer Prevention

  3. Technology--and Colorado Early Education Staff--Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler-Woodard, Dee

    2009-01-01

    The youngest deaf and hard of hearing children with disabilities in Colorado can now participate more fully in the world around them thanks to funding from grants solicited through the Early Education Department at the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind. The grants enable the children, from birth to age 3, to overcome their physical…

  4. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  5. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation. PMID:24636881

  6. Cues for Diotic and Dichotic Detection of a 500-Hz Tone in Noise Vary with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mao, Junwen; Koch, Kelly-Jo; Doherty, Karen A; Carney, Laurel H

    2015-08-01

    Hearing in noise is a challenge for all listeners, especially for those with hearing loss. This study compares cues used for detection of a low-frequency tone in noise by older listeners with and without hearing loss to those of younger listeners with normal hearing. Performance varies significantly across different reproducible, or "frozen," masker waveforms. Analysis of these waveforms allows identification of the cues that are used for detection. This study included diotic (N0S0) and dichotic (N0S?) detection of a 500-Hz tone, with either narrowband or wideband masker waveforms. Both diotic and dichotic detection patterns (hit and false alarm rates) across the ensembles of noise maskers were predicted by envelope-slope cues, and diotic results were also predicted by energy cues. The relative importance of energy and envelope cues for diotic detection was explored with a roving-level paradigm that made energy cues unreliable. Most older listeners with normal hearing or mild hearing loss depended on envelope-related temporal cues, even for this low-frequency target. As hearing threshold at 500 Hz increased, the cues for diotic detection transitioned from envelope to energy cues. Diotic detection patterns for young listeners with normal hearing are best predicted by a model that combines temporal- and energy-related cues; in contrast, combining cues did not improve predictions for older listeners with or without hearing loss. Dichotic detection results for all groups of listeners were best predicted by interaural envelope cues, which significantly outperformed the classic cues based on interaural time and level differences or their optimal combination. PMID:25976088

  7. Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

  8. Early Fatigue Damage Detection in Composite Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Nevadunsky; J. J. Lucas; M. J. Salkind

    1975-01-01

    Detection of early fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for ±45° Glass\\/Epoxy, and ±45°\\/0° Graphite\\/Glass\\/Epoxy. Dynamic axial modulus and temperature were monitored continuously with a correlation between temperature rise and modulus decrease observed. The modulus decrease and temperature rise are indicative of irreversible damage in these materials.Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests

  9. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    1993-01-01

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  10. Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

    2014-01-01

    It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

  11. Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

  12. Telomerase in the early detection of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shay, J W; Gazdar, A F

    1997-01-01

    Although there is justifiable optimism regarding telomerase activity and early detection of cancer, it is important to point out that there is much that remains to be understood and additional validation studies will be required before knowledge of telomerase activity will be useful in decisions regarding patient management. A key question is whether we will be able to distinguish those cancers that are going to progress from those cancers that are not by detecting telomerase activity. Molecular staging using markers such as telomerase activity in combination with other molecular markers may be particularly useful in this regard. Basic scientists and clinicians must work together if this strategy is to mature. Telomerase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer are awaited with great anticipation. PMID:9155689

  13. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  14. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  15. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  16. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  17. Controversies in the Field of Hearing Impairment: Early Identification, Educational Methods, and Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson-Fang, Lisa; Simons-McCandless, Marsha; Shelton, Clough

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the incidence of infant hearing impairments, auditory screening tests, and available intervention choices for infants with severe to profound congenital hearing loss, including methods for communication and cochlear implantation. American Sign language, manually coded English, fingerspelling, total communication, and…

  18. Emergent Literacy Skills during Early Childhood in Children with Hearing Loss: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Bergeron, Jessica P.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The difficulties for students with hearing loss in gaining proficient literacy skills are well documented. However, studies describing the nature and variability of emergent literacy skills for students with hearing loss or the rate at which progress occurs at young ages are limited. We assessed emergent literacy skills and outcomes at the…

  19. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  20. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 4. Song, Y. T. (2007) Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681.

  1. The future role of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the future potential of genetic screening to detect newborns at risk of childhood-onset hearing loss. Design: An expert led discussion of current and future developments in genetic technology and the knowledge base of genetic hearing loss to determine the viability of genetic screening and the implications for screening policy. Results and Discussion: Despite increasing pressure to adopt genetic technologies, a major barrier for genetic screening in hearing loss is the uncertain clinical significance of the identified mutations and their interactions. Only when a reliable estimate of the future risk of hearing loss can be made at a reasonable cost, will genetic screening become viable. Given the speed of technological advancement this may be within the next 10 years. Decision-makers should start to consider how genetic screening could augment current screening programmes as well as the associated data processing and storage requirements. Conclusion: In the interim, we suggest that decision makers consider the benefits of (1) genetically testing all newborns and children with hearing loss, to determine aetiology and to increase knowledge of the genetic causes of hearing loss, and (2) consider screening pregnant women for the m.1555A> G mutation to reduce the risk of aminoglycoside antibiotic-associated hearing loss. PMID:23131088

  2. Mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour: early detection of recurrence.

    PubMed

    Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The case of a recurrent phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of the maxillary sinus 10 years after the first surgical excision is reported. The neoplasm first presented with paraneoplastic osteomalacia causing a pathological femur fracture. A right maxillary sinus tumour was identified and treated thereafter. The patient had no local symptoms and serum electrolytes returned to normal after surgical removal of the tumour. However, 10 years later, the patient's urine Ca and P levels increased and an octreoscan detected a new tumour in the right maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis prevented the effects of the paraneoplastic activity of the neoplasm. This case emphasises the importance of specific, close follow-up, because the neoplasm rarely produces local signs indicating its position. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a late relapse presenting without relevant symptoms (local pain or swelling or pathological fractures). PMID:24827649

  3. Detection probability of early warning radar against hypersonic cruise missile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao Yongjie; Liu Jinrong; Bai Liping; Ding Hong; Li Xiangru

    2011-01-01

    Detection probability against hypersonic cruise missile is a key factor to assess early warning radar performance. Based on the search theory, detection probability models of early warning radar for hypersonic cruise missile are set up respectively in the case of no target indication, missile azimuth and motion state indication. Take PAVE PAWS radar for example, detection probability of the three

  4. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

  5. Early Detection of Malicious Behavior in JavaScript Code

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    is critical for effective protec- tion. In this paper, we introduce EarlyBird: a detection method optimized of real attacks, EarlyBird precisely identifies malicious behavior while limiting the amount of malicious

  6. Newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D L; Pearlman, A

    1994-11-01

    Congenital deafness is a relatively common problem with an incidence of 1/300 to 1/1000. Most states have no mass screening program for hearing loss, but the state of Kentucky compiles a High Risk Registry which is a historical survey of parents relating to risk factors for hearing loss. Unfortunately this survey can miss 50% of those who have a hearing deficit. If not detected prior to discharge, there is often a delay in diagnosis of deafness which prevents early intervention. We report 2 years' experience at Kosair Children's Hospital where 1,987 infants admitted to well baby, intermediate, or intensive care nurseries were screened using the ALGO-1 screener (Natus Medical Inc, Foster City, CA) which is a modified auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR). Our screening of this population led to an 11% incidence of referral for complete audiological evaluation. There were no significant complications. Forty-eight infants were found to have nonspecified, sensorineural, or conductive hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the test was 96%. Therefore, we feel that the use of the modified ABR in the newborn is a timely, cost efficient method of screening for hearing loss and should be used for mass screening of all newborns. PMID:7806952

  7. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  8. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  9. [Universal screening program and early intervention (USPEI) in congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in Chile].

    PubMed

    Albertz, Nicolás; Cardemil, Felipe; Rahal, Maritza; Mansilla, Francisca; Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Zitko, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    Congenital hearing loss is the total or partial inability to hear sounds through the ears. It is the most common disability in newborns in Chile and worldwide, and is a permanent condition. The direct impact on children who are not adequately diagnosed is the alteration in acquisition of language and cognitive skills and a decline in their social and school insertion, jeopardizing their professional and potentially productive life. Universal screening programs for hearing loss are essential for the diagnosis, since 50% of infants with hearing loss have no known risk factor. Screening before one month of age, confirmation before 3 months, and effective intervention before 6 months, allows the development of these children as if they had normal hearing. In Chile there is a selective program of screening for infants aged less than 32 weeks or 1,500 grams, as part of Explicit Health Guarantees, but it covers only 0.9% of newborns per year. Therefore, a large majority of children remain without diagnosis. The aim of this review is to compare the situation in Chile with other countries, raising the need to move towards a universal neonatal hearing loss screening program, and propose necessary conditions in terms of justification and implementation of a universal screening public policy. PMID:24448863

  10. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  11. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  12. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  13. Latino Legislative Hearing on Pre-K & the Early Grades: NALEO Education Leadership Initiative. A Report of the NALEO Educational Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NALEO Educational Fund, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On September 23, 2008, Latino state legislators from throughout the United States participated in a Legislative Hearing on Pre-K and the Early Grades on Capitol Hill. The nation's leading experts on Latinos and early childhood education presented new research and information on programs and policies that work. Their testimony provided an in-depth…

  14. Mechanism study of laser cochleostomy-induced early hearing loss in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Geng, Yang; Zhang, Xian-Zeng; Chen, Wen-Lie; Tian, Tian-Jie; Xie, Shu-Sen; Huang, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    Hearing loss following laser-assisted ear surgery has been reported. However, the mechanism responsible for the hearing loss remains largely speculative. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between laser-induced hearing loss and changes in the number of hair cell ribbon synapses and ultrastructure in the cochlea. Laser cochleostomy was performed with a superpulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) laser at 2 and 5 W in Sprague-Dawley rats. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured preoperatively and 2 days after surgery. The synapse numbers in apical and middle cochlear turns were quantified. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to further examine the subcellular changes in the cochlea. Click and tonal ABR threshold shifts in both 2 and 5-W groups displayed a frequency-dependent loss within the frequency range measured. Laser cochleostomy induced a significant decrease of synapse numbers in the middle turn in both groups (p?hearing loss even under low-energy laser cochleostomy. The high-energy laser-induced hearing loss was associated with more reduction of synapse number. PMID:23912777

  15. Salicylate-induced hearing loss and gap detection deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Radziwon, Kelly E; Stolzberg, Daniel J; Urban, Maxwell E; Bowler, Rachael A; Salvi, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    To test the "tinnitus gap-filling" hypothesis in an animal psychoacoustic paradigm, rats were tested using a go/no-go operant gap detection task in which silent intervals of various durations were embedded within a continuous noise. Gap detection thresholds were measured before and after treatment with a dose of sodium salicylate (200?mg/kg) that reliably induces tinnitus in rats. Noise-burst detection thresholds were also measured to document the amount of hearing loss and aid in interpreting the gap detection results. As in the previous human psychophysical experiments, salicylate had little or no effect on gap thresholds measured in broadband noise presented at high-stimulus levels (30-60?dB SPL); gap detection thresholds were always 10?ms or less. Salicylate also did not affect gap thresholds presented in narrowband noise at 60?dB SPL. Therefore, rats treated with a dose of salicylate that reliably induces tinnitus have no difficulty detecting silent gaps as long as the noise in which they are embedded is clearly audible. PMID:25750635

  16. Impulse noise exposure in early adulthood accelerates age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Wang, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of impulse noise on age-related hearing loss. The study consisted of two groups. Each group contained 109 men. Group I comprised veterans with normal hearing at the end of 1979 sino-vietnamese war. All these veterans were randomly selected from Guangzhou Military Command. Group II were men with no military experience randomly chosen from the health examination center of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. Pure-tone thresholds of these two groups were measured and compared. The pure-tone thresholds of Group I were poorer than those of Group II at the frequencies of 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Thus, impulse noise accelerates age-related hearing loss. PMID:23842602

  17. Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Hefeeda; M. Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of forest fires is the primary way of minimizing their dam- ages. We present the design of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires according to the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System which is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems in

  18. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  19. Children and Hearing Loss Hearing loss can cause longlasting problems

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    , or getting along with other children. Early identification of hearing loss can prevent someChildren and Hearing Loss Hearing loss can cause longlasting problems for young children. Children with hearing loss can have trouble learning speech and language, doing well in school

  20. Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission

    E-print Network

    Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Alan D. Zdunek and David Prine BIRL Industrial Research, Evanston, IL 60201 Paper No. 547 presented at CORROSION95, the NACE International Annual Conference

  1. Negative consequences of uncorrected hearing loss--a review.

    PubMed

    Arlinger, Stig

    2003-07-01

    Hearing loss gives rise to a number of disabilities. Problems in recognizing speech, especially in difficult environments, give rise to the largest number of complaints. Other kinds of disabilities may concern the reduced ability to detect, identify and localize sounds quickly and reliably. Such sounds may be warning or alarm signals, as well as music and birds singing. The communicative disability affects both hearing-impaired people and other people in their environment--family members, fellow workers, etc. Hearing-impaired people are not always aware of all the consequences of the impairment; they do not always know what they are missing. Several studies have shown that uncorrected hearing loss gives rise to poorer quality of life, related to isolation, reduced social activity, and a feeling of being excluded, leading to an increased prevalence of symptoms of depression. These findings indicate the importance of early identification of hearing loss and offers of rehabilitative support, where the fitting of hearing aids is usually an important component. Several studies also point to a significant correlation between hearing loss and loss of cognitive functions. Most of these studies show such a correlation without being able to show whether the hearing loss caused the reduction in cognitive performance or if both the hearing loss and the cognitive decline are parts of a common, general age-related degeneration. A couple of these studies, however, indicate that the uncorrected hearing loss may be the cause of cognitive decline. Whichever alternative is true, the correlation should be seen as a clear indication for early hearing aid fitting for those needing it. Monaural hearing aid fitting in subjects with bilateral hearing loss may give rise to a reduced ability to recognize speech presented to the unaided ear, the so-called late-onset auditory deprivation effect. This functional decline is reversible in some but not all subjects after fitting of a hearing aid also on the previously unaided ear. PMID:12918624

  2. Specific synaptopathies diversify brain responses and hearing disorders: you lose the gain from early life.

    PubMed

    Knipper, Marlies; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Singer, Wibke; Rüttiger, Lukas; Zimmermann, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    Before hearing onset, inner hair cell (IHC) maturation proceeds under the influence of spontaneous Ca(2+) action potentials (APs). The temporal signature of the IHC Ca(2+) AP is modified through an efferent cholinergic feedback from the medial olivocochlear bundle (MOC) and drives the IHC pre- and post-synapse phenotype towards low spontaneous (spike) rate (SR), high-threshold characteristics. With sensory experience, the IHC pre- and post-synapse phenotype matures towards the instruction of low-SR, high-threshold and of high-SR, low-threshold auditory fiber characteristics. Corticosteroid feedback together with local brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters (dopamine) might be essential for this developmental step. In this review, we address the question of whether the control of low-SR and high-SR fiber characteristics is linked to various degrees of vulnerability of auditory fibers in the mature system. In particular, we examine several IHC synaptopathies in the context of various hearing disorders and exemplified shortfalls before and after hearing onset. PMID:25843689

  3. Early combination treatment with intratympanic steroid injection in severe to profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss improves speech discrimination performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kyung Tae; Choi, Byung Yoon; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung-Ha; Chang, Sun O

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of early combined treatment with intratympanic steroid injection (ITSI) in patients with severe to profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), who did not respond to initial systemic steroid treatment (SST). The study design included historical controlled trials (retrospective analysis for the SST group). Patients (n = 73; 38 women and 35 men) diagnosed with severe to profound SSNHL at the time of their first visit in tertiary referral centers were recruited. Among these 73 patients, 30 patients who showed no early response within a week after the start of initial SST were prospectively included as the ITSI group. ITSI was performed twice a week for two consecutive weeks. In contrast, 43 patients with the same condition who did not receive ITSI were retrospectively included as the SST group. For each group, pure-tone audiogram (PTA) and speech discrimination score (SDS) tests were performed before SST and more than 2 months after termination of treatment in each group. After termination of each treatment, the final average gain on PTA showed no significant difference between the two groups; however, the final average gain of SDS demonstrated a significantly better recovery in the ITSI group. ITSI as part of an early combined therapy represents an effective treatment in terms of the improvement of SDS in severe to profound SSNHL showing no early response to initial SST. PMID:22160102

  4. Evidence of hearing loss in a “normally-hearing” college-student population

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Hensley, B.N.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Hall, J. W.; Guire, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25–8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ?25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ?20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for “notched” audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students’ hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects. PMID:21288064

  5. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer: Summative Review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  6. On Being Hearing Impaired in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Describes the author's experience with the loss of hearing in early adulthood. The use of hearing aids, the situations in which hearing is easier or more difficult, and discrimination faced by people with hearing disabilities are discussed. A vision of a future that enables hearing-impaired persons to participate is described. (Contains three…

  7. Immediate early gene response to hearing song correlates with receptive behavior and depends on dialect in a female songbird.

    PubMed

    Maney, D L; MacDougall-Shackleton, E A; MacDougall-Shackleton, S A; Ball, G F; Hahn, T P

    2003-09-01

    Stimulus-induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK (egr-1) in the songbird's auditory forebrain presumably depends on the behavioral significance of the stimulus. Few studies, however, have quantified both the ZENK and behavioral responses to a stimulus in the same individuals. We played conspecific male song of either hatch (local) or foreign dialect to female white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) and quantified both the auditory ZENK response and their behavioral response, which is known to depend on dialect. Birds hearing hatch dialect showed greater ZENK induction in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale and the dorsal portion of the caudomedial neostriatum than birds hearing foreign dialect, supporting previous work showing a relationship between ZENK and salience of the stimulus. In the dorsal portion of the caudomedial neostriatum, ZENK induction was correlated with the amount of non-vocal courtship behavior; however, in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale, ZENK induction was more highly correlated with the females' own vocal behavior and thus may have been partly self-induced. Some females sang and showed a male-like pattern of ZENK induction in their song systems. This study provides the first evidence that the ZENK response in a sensory area to a social stimulus is proportional to the animal's preference for the stimulus. PMID:12879354

  8. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  9. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » More Information » Prostate Cancer Early Detection » American ... Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News ...

  10. Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for noninvasive early cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; O’Donoghue, Geoff; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Galindo, Luis; Elackattu, Alphi; Stier, Elizabeth; Grillone, Gregory; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    We report a fully quantitative spectroscopy imaging instrument for wide area detection of early cancer (dysplasia). This instrument provides quantitative maps of tissue biochemistry and morphology, making it a potentially powerful surveillance tool for objective early cancer detection. We describe the design, construction, calibration, and first clinical application of this new system. We demonstrate its accuracy using physical tissue models. We validate its diagnostic ability on a resected colon adenoma, and demonstrate feasibility of in vivo imaging in the oral cavity. PMID:18825262

  11. Early genetic sonogram for down syndrome detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray O. Bahado-Singh; Inanc Mendilcioglu; Minu Rowther; Sang-Joon Choi; Utku Oz; Nastaran Foyouzi Yousefi; Maurice J. Mahoney

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the Down syndrome sensitivity of early genetic sonography (14-<16 weeks of gestation) and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that later in the mid trimester (16-24 weeks of gestation). Study Design: Nuchal thickness, humerus and femur lengths, hyperechoic bowel, hypoplastic fifth digit (clinodactyly), and any gross anatomic defects were measured or

  12. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: an otologic emergency.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, H; Buggaveeti, Greeshma; Parikh, Bhavin; Sangitha, R

    2012-03-01

    The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of steroids, volume expanders and antivirals in the management of idiopathic sudden sensory neural hearing loss and to establish importance of early medical intervention. In this prospective study, thirty-four patients presenting with idiopathic sudden hearing loss of 30 db or more were enrolled in study group between 2005 and 2009. Patient variables as they related to recovery were studied and include patient age, time to onset of therapy, status of contralateral ear, presence of diabetes, severity of hearing loss, pattern of hearing loss in audiogram and presence of associated symptoms, (tinnitus, vertigo). Treatment protocol with intravenous hydrocortisone, intravenous dextran and oral anti-viral agent was followed. Pre-treatment and post-treatment pure tone average was analyzed. With combination therapy the overall improvement in pure tone threshold was seen in 27 patients (79.4%). A statistically significant association was found between the time at which medical intervention was started and hearing improvement. Early intervention in patients presenting before 3 days has given 77.8% complete type 1 recovery Idiopathic sudden sensory neural hearing loss is a medical emergency. It should not be misdiagnosed. Early detection and management with volume expanders, steroids and antivirals will improve the chances of complete recovery. PMID:23448732

  13. Spinster homolog 2 (spns2) deficiency causes early onset progressive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J; White, Jacqueline K; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P

    2014-10-01

    Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

  14. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  15. Software for Early Cancer Detection Using Microwave Breast Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Costin; O. Baltag; S. Bejinariu

    2008-01-01

    Microwave detection of the abnormally developing tissue structure is a new noninvasive technique, using human body emission radiometry. The research is discussing practical aspects of implementing this type of early breast cancer detection. A special software have been implemented in order to map the measured values and to constitute a microwave image data base. The patient anamnesis is stored together

  16. Bilateral asymmetry identification for the early detection of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mencattini; M. Salmeri; P. Casti

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer overall and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Mammography is, at present, the only viable method for detecting most of tumors early enough for effective treatment. The secret of setting up the accurate diagnosis is to detect and understand the most subtle signs of breast lesions. Analysis of asymmetry between

  17. The monitoring and early detection of internet worms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley; Lixin Gao

    2005-01-01

    After many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet and cause severe damage to our society. Facing this great security threat, we need to build an early detection system that can detect the presence of a worm in the Internet as quickly as possible in order to

  18. Detection and early identification in bioterrorism events.

    PubMed

    Persell, Deborah J; Robinson, Carolyn H

    2008-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance, collecting and analyzing symptoms before diagnosis, has the potential to identify bioterrorist attacks in a timely, flexible, and specific manner. Nurses are important resources in collecting and interpreting surveillance data. Clinical skills in early diagnosis may identify a bioterrorist attack before surveillance systems and independently trigger investigations. Computerized syndromic surveillance systems are difficult to sustain and are not in use nationwide. Traditional public health surveillance is not replaced by syndromic surveillance. Weaknesses remain in surveillance related to bioterrorism preparedness. Bioterrorist events must be recognized in a timely manner, but this is dependent on sufficient funding for training, equipment, and personnel. PMID:18091080

  19. Early Detection of Active Internet Worms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent H. Berk; George V. Cybenko; Robert S. Gray

    An active Internet worm is malicious software that autonomously searches for and infects vulnerable hosts, copying itself from one host to another and spreading through the susceptible population. Most recent worms find vulnerable hosts by generating random IP addresses and then probing those addresses to see which are running the desired vulnerable services. Detection of such worms is a manual

  20. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lindgren; D. Bank; L. Carlsson; R. Dulski; Y. Duval; G. Fournier; R. Grasser; H. Habberstad; C. Jacquelard; M. Kastek; R. Otterlei; G.-P. Piau; F. Pierre; I. Renhorn; L. Sjöqvist; O. Steinvall; P. Trzaskawka

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as

  1. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  2. Pressure point analysis for early detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nordin bin Saad; Vijanth Asirvadam

    2011-01-01

    Pressure point analysis detection method is based upon the statistical properties of a series of pressure or velocity pipeline measurements at one point being different before and after a leak occurs. Usually the data is collected from various types of sensors over certain period of time and analysis is carried. However, this method required a lot of time for the

  3. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-03-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early 'lepospondyl' microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  4. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 ?Ci source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  5. Whole-Exome Sequencing Efficiently Detects Rare Mutations in Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Duman, Duygu; Foster, Joseph; S?rmac?, Asl?; Gonzalez, Michael; Mahdieh, Nejat; Fotouhi, Nikou; Bonyadi, Mortaza; Cengiz, Filiz Ba?ak; Menendez, Ibis; Ulloa, Rick H.; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.; Züchner, Stephan; Blanton, Susan; Tekin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the pathogenic mutations underlying autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is difficult, since causative mutations in 39 different genes have so far been reported. After excluding mutations in the most common ARNSHL gene, GJB2, via Sanger sequencing, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 30 individuals from 20 unrelated multiplex consanguineous families with ARNSHL. Agilent SureSelect Human All Exon 50 Mb kits and an Illumina Hiseq2000 instrument were used. An average of 93%, 84% and 73% of bases were covered to 1X, 10X and 20X within the ARNSHL-related coding RefSeq exons, respectively. Uncovered regions with WES included those that are not targeted by the exome capture kit and regions with high GC content. Twelve homozygous mutations in known deafness genes, of which eight are novel, were identified in 12 families: MYO15A-p.Q1425X, -p.S1481P, -p.A1551D; LOXHD1-p.R1494X, -p.E955X; GIPC3-p.H170N; ILDR1-p.Q274X; MYO7A-p.G2163S; TECTA-p.Y1737C; TMC1-p.S530X; TMPRSS3-p.F13Lfs*10; TRIOBP-p.R785Sfs*50. Each mutation was within a homozygous run documented via WES. Sanger sequencing confirmed co-segregation of the mutation with deafness in each family. Four rare heterozygous variants, predicted to be pathogenic, in known deafness genes were detected in 12 families where homozygous causative variants were already identified. Six heterozygous variants that had similar characteristics to those abovementioned variants were present in 15 ethnically-matched individuals with normal hearing. Our results show that rare causative mutations in known ARNSHL genes can be reliably identified via WES. The excess of heterozygous variants should be considered during search for causative mutations in ARNSHL genes, especially in small-sized families. PMID:23226338

  6. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  7. A locus on distal Chromosome 11 (ahl8) and its interaction with Cdh23ahl underlie the early onset, age-related hearing loss of DBA/2J mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Gagnon, Leona H.; Yu, Heping; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2010-01-01

    The DBA/2J inbred strain of mice is used extensively in hearing research, yet little is known about the genetic basis for its early onset, progressive hearing loss. To map underlying genetic factors we analyzed recombinant inbred strains and linkage backcrosses. Analysis of 213 mice from 31 BXD recombinant inbred strains detected linkage of auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds with a locus on distal Chromosome 11, which we designate ahl8. Analysis of 225 N2 mice from a backcross of (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J) F1 hybrids to DBA/2J mice confirmed this linkage (LOD>50) and refined the ahl8 candidate gene interval. Analysis of 214 mice from a backcross of (B6.CAST-Cdh23Ahl+ × DBA/2J) F1 hybrids to DBA/2J mice demonstrated a genetic interaction of Cdh23 with ahl8. We conclude that ahl8 is a major contributor to the hearing loss of DBA/2J and that its effects are dependent on the predisposing Cdh23ahl genotype of this strain. PMID:18662770

  8. Ritalin Use among Youth: Examining the Issues and Concerns. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on May 16, 2000, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed issues and concerns on the use of ritalin among youth with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the…

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to the audiologist and ... aid is turned on. Continue Types of Hearing Aids There are several hearing aid styles. Some are ...

  10. Advances in pancreatic cancer research: Moving towards early detection

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application. PMID:25170208

  11. [Early detection of prostate cancer: harm verified, benefit not verifiable].

    PubMed

    Dubben, H-H

    2014-03-01

    The results of randomized studies on the early detection of prostate cancer and those of a systematic Cochrane review are compiled and interpreted. Some fundamental and inherent weaknesses of screening studies are pointed out and discussed. The meta-analysis of studies involving a total of 321,594 participants shows no reduction in prostate cancer mortality or all-cause mortality, but describes disadvantages such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment. A relevant increase in overall mortality cannot be excluded. Even in future trials, the possible reduction of prostate cancer mortality or all-cause mortality by prostate cancer screening will not be detectable because of inherent methodological problems, e.g., an extremely high number of participants are needed. Furthermore, by nature, studies on the early detection of cancer last very long, such that the results are inevitably outdated at the end of the study. There is a risk that studies on the early detection of cancer suggest an advantage and at the same time overlook a relevant increase in overall mortality. Prostate cancer screening also ignores important WHO criteria for screening programs: There is evidence that early treatment of prostate cancer is not better than late treatment. There is no suitable or reliable test to identify the early stages of the disease. The benefit-risk ratio is not clearly favorable, and there is doubt whether the costs and the benefits are in an acceptable balance. There are valid reasons to advise against population-based prostate cancer screening. PMID:24562707

  12. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25507059

  13. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25417331

  14. Practical Considerations for Early Detection Monitoring of Plant Invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Brooks; Robert C. Klinger

    Invasions by multiple nonnative species into wildland areas require that decisions be made on which species and sites to target\\u000a for early detection monitoring efforts and ultimately management actions. Efficient allocation of resources to detect invasions\\u000a from outside of a management unit, and to monitor their spread within a management unit, leaves more resources available for\\u000a control efforts and other

  15. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  16. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

  17. The detection of differences in the cues to distance by elderly hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Akeroyd, Michael A.; Blaschke, Julia; Gatehouse, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This experiment measured the capability of hearing-impaired individuals to discriminate differences in the cues to the distance of spoken sentences. The stimuli were generated synthetically, using a room-image procedure to calculate the direct sound and first 74 reflections for a source placed in a 7 × 9 m room, and then presenting each of those sounds individually through a circular array of 24 loudspeakers. Seventy-seven listeners participated, aged 22-83 years and with hearing levels from ?5 to 59 dB HL. In conditions where a substantial change in overall level due to the inverse-square law was available as a cue, the elderly-hearing-impaired listeners did not perform any different from control groups. In other conditions where that cue was unavailable (so leaving the direct-to-reverberant relationship as a cue), either because the reverberant field dominated the direct sound or because the overall level had been artificially equalized, hearing-impaired listeners performed worse than controls. There were significant correlations with listeners’ self-reported distance capabilities as measured by the “SSQ” questionnaire [S. Gatehouse and W. Noble, Int. J. Audiol. 43, 85-99 (2004)]. The results demonstrate that hearing-impaired listeners show deficits in the ability to use some of the cues which signal auditory distance. PMID:17348530

  18. The Use of Wavelet Transforms in Cruise Missile Early Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MITRE PAPER; Carol T. Christou

    The present study examines the utility of a wavelet based scheme for cruise missile earlydetection by a submarine-towed sonar array. The physics of shock system interactions predictsa precursor underwater wave which may be exploited in early detection. An in-house fronttrackingcode provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory was used to simulate the flight of asupersonic projectile over water and the interaction

  19. Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance Reviewer: Sayandeep Sen

    E-print Network

    Akella, Aditya

    - agation delays). Hence they can trigger congestion avoidance mechanisms when the delays are conges- tion-to-end delays. Also, congestion control at gateways could potentially be part of an architecture to enforce difRandom Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance Reviewer: Sayandeep Sen February 20, 2008

  20. Early Detection of Reliability Problems Using Information From Warranty Databases

    E-print Network

    operating environment, an unknown change in raw material properties or supplier quality, an improperly Introduction 1.1 Motivation for early detection The modern philosophy of manufacturing quality and reliability #12;2 This focus on quality and reliability and the effective use of statistical methods have done

  1. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    PubMed

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. PMID:23182787

  2. Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shigang

    1 Detecting Internet Worms at Early Stage Shigang Chen Sanjay Ranka Department of Computer of Internet economy. Arising as a leading threat, worms repetitively caused enormous damage to the Internet community during the past years. A new security service that monitors the ongoing worm activities

  3. Early Detection of BGP Instabilities Resulting from Internet Worm Attacks

    E-print Network

    Sikdar, Biplab

    Early Detection of BGP Instabilities Resulting from Internet Worm Attacks S. Deshpande ECSE Abstract-- The increasing incidences of worm attacks in the Internet and the resulting instabilities strategies in order to minimize the damage caused by the worm. Our technique is based on online statistical

  4. EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

  5. Computed tomography in the early detection of asbestosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Bégin; G Ostiguy; R Filion; N Colman; P Bertrand

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT; both conventional (CCT) and high resolution (HRCT)) scans of the thorax were evaluated to detect early asbestosis in 61 subjects exposed to asbestos dust in Québec for an average of 22(3) years and in five controls. The study was limited to consecutive cases with chest radiographs of the International Labour Organisation categories 0 or 1 determined independently.

  6. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  7. Purpose and Benefits of Early Phase Cancer Trials: What Do Oncologists Say? What Do Patients Hear?

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Nancy; Taylor, Holly; Fogarty, Linda; Sugarman, Jeremy; Goodman, Steven N.; Goodwin-Landher, Annallys; Carducci, Michael; Hurwitz, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients overestimate benefits of early phase trials but studies have not reported what oncologists say to patients about trials. We audiotaped oncologists talking to cancer patients about Phase I or II trials and interviewed patients about the purpose and expected outcomes of trials presented to them. Oncologists gave mixed messages, saying Phase I trials measure safety and dosing, yet referring to trials as treatment with uncertain therapeutic effects. Seventeen percent of Phase I respondents said the trial’s purpose related to safety/dosing (p = 0.017); 17% of Phase I respondents said the purpose was “to cure my cancer.” Patients may find it important to believe trials offer significant benefit. Oncologists, while respecting patients’ hopes, should be precise in their language, particularly regarding Phase I trials, distinguishing early stages of research from treatment. PMID:19385771

  8. Early detection of occult atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Keach, Joseph Walker; Bradley, Steven M; Turakhia, Mintu P; Maddox, Thomas M

    2015-07-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common arrhythmia and significantly increases stroke risk. This risk can be mitigated with oral anticoagulation, but AF is often asymptomatic, or occult, preventing timely detection and treatment. Accordingly, occult AF may cause stroke before it is clinically diagnosed. Currently, guidelines for the early detection and treatment of occult AF are limited. This review addresses recent advancements in occult AF detection methods, identification of populations at high risk for occult AF, the treatment of occult AF with oral anticoagulation, as well as ongoing trials that may answer critically important questions regarding occult AF screening. PMID:25935765

  9. Infant Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... there can be significant impact on speech and language development. Early fitting of hearing or other prosthetic aids, ... will get a head start on speech and language development. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and ...

  10. Malaria epidemic early warning and detection in African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Abeku, Tarekegn A.; Hay, Simon I.; Ochola, Samuel; Langi, Peter; Beard, Brian; de Vlas, Sake J.; Cox, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Malaria epidemics have long been known to recur in the African highlands. Efforts to develop systems of early warning and detection for epidemics are outlined here with special emphasis on the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL). This project has been conducting research on the operational implementation of a district-based surveillance and epidemic-monitoring system using a network of sentinel sites in four pilot districts of Kenya and Uganda. The potential use of weather monitoring as well as disease surveillance for effective early warning is being investigated. PMID:15324728

  11. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A; Carbonell, W Shawn; Robson, Matthew D; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Muschel, Ruth J; Sibson, Nicola R

    2012-04-24

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1-targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1-targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3-3 × 10(5) cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (10(7)-10(8) cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  12. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 ?m. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  13. [Screening studies with the BOEL test for the early diagnosis of hearing loss in infants. Experiences with 4,622 cases].

    PubMed

    Fior, R; Tamburini, P

    1985-05-01

    Hearing screening with reactometry in the newborn is now being considered too expensive and fails to detect quite a number of deaf children. Conversely, experiences at the age of 8 months with BOEL-Test (a distraction test, which yields further information on visual and neurological deficiencies) have shown that it becomes possible to detect the majority of hearing defects. As this age level is quite adequate for diagnosis even of defects arising in the first year (progressive genetic deafness, deafness due to infections etc.) and considering that rehabilitation can start only after this term, the authors suggest to reserve neonatal screening only for risk cases and to retest all children with the BOEL-Test. PMID:4021676

  14. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  15. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  16. The Role of Fucose in Early Cancer Detection

    E-print Network

    Heinzman, Jeff; McKenzie, David; Melrose, Scott; Selley, Patrick; Wenke, Jamie

    2009-10-01

    to cystic fibrosis.5 For 64 example, elevated fucose levels on glycoproteins is linked to human hepatocellular carcinoma and even breast cancer.6,7 Measuring changes in fucosylation is a vital diagnostic tool for early cancer detection; changes... rather than blood or serum samples, the fucose solutions were prepared based on characteristic fucose levels in the body. The group designated three classes based on fucose levels typical of oral cancer development. A normal, or cancer- free...

  17. Associative Memory for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Javier López Aligué; Isabel Acevedo; Carlos J. García Orellana; Miguel Macías Macías; Horacio M. González Velasco

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a We present a new associative neural network design especially indicated for the early detection of malignant lesions in breast\\u000a cancer screening. It is a BAM in which we have made some changes to the functioning of its neurons, and for which we have\\u000a developed an automatic selection algorithm for the prototypes used to calculate the thresholds of the neurons conforming

  18. Maryland dentists' knowledge of oral cancer prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Maybury, Catherine; Horowitz, Alice M; Yan, Alice F; Green, Kerry M; Wang, Min Qi

    2012-04-01

    To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with oral cancers, dentists must have accurate knowledge and skills to detect and diagnose oral cancers at early stages. The authors' study found gaps in dentists' knowledge of risk factors and procedures for diagnosing oral cancers. Increasing health literacy for oral cancers among dental professionals may lead to increased health literacy for oral cancers among the public because dental professionals are a key source of oral health information for the public. PMID:22679674

  19. Future Directions for the Early Detection of Recurrent Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

  20. Future directions for the early detection of recurrent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneble, Erika J; Graham, Lindsey J; Shupe, Matthew P; Flynt, Frederick L; Banks, Kevin P; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E; Setlik, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

  1. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  3. First information parents receive after UNHS detection of their baby's hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover (a) the content of the information provided to parents and (b) the service providers' assumptions and beliefs concerning deafness and care. To do this, we conducted an interpretative phenomenological analysis, followed by a discourse analysis. Results showed that parents receive diverse information, depending on the reference center to which they are referred. Moreover, all service providers used a medical discourse. We suggest that there is value to be gained from closer consideration of the nature of follow-up services provided in response to UNHS in Flanders and from auditing the professional preparation of service providers that are involved in providing information to parents. PMID:22960753

  4. Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Melo, Sonia A; Luecke, Linda B; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F; Gammon, Seth T; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2015-07-01

    Exosomes are lipid-bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in the circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identify a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer-cell-derived exosomes. GPC1(+) circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of patients and mice with cancer. GPC1(+) crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreatic cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreatic disease from patients with early- and late-stage pancreatic cancer. Levels of GPC1(+) crExos correlate with tumour burden and the survival of pre- and post-surgical patients. GPC1(+) crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreatic tumours carry specific KRAS mutations, and reliably detect pancreatic intraepithelial lesions in mice despite negative signals by magnetic resonance imaging. GPC1(+) crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreatic cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  5. The Federal Role in K-12 Mathematics Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (February 2, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: Michael N. Castle, Chairman, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Howard P. "Buck" Mckeon, Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary…

  6. [Hearing impairment and dementia].

    PubMed

    Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia. PMID:25217286

  7. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  8. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-357

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen…

  9. Development of Mechanochemically Active Polymers for Early Damage Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin

    Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in which mechanical energy is translated to activate a chemical transformation, have received increasing attention. More specifically, the damage can be made detectable by mechanochromic polymers, which provide a visible color change upon the scission of covalent bonds under stress. This dissertation focuses on the study of a novel self-sensing framework for identifying early and in-situ damage by employing unique stress-sensing mechanophores. Two types of mechanophores, cyclobutane and cyclooctane, were utilized, and the former formed from cinnamoyl moeities and the latter formed from anthracene upon photodimerization. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of the cyclobutane-based polymers into epoxy matrices were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescent signals at a strain level right after the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with the accumulation of strain. Similar to the mechanism of fluorescence emission from the cleavage of cyclobutane, the cyclooctane moiety generated fluorescent emission with a higher quantum yield upon cleavage. The experimental results also demonstrated the success of employing the cyclooctane type mechanophore as a potential force sensor, as the fluorescence intensification was correlated with the strain increase.

  10. Age-related hearing loss and the ahl locus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Elizabeth M.; Canto, Cecilia; Zheng, Qing Yin; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice experience hearing loss and cochlear degeneration beginning about mid-life, whereas CAST/Ei (CAST) mice retain normal hearing until old age. A locus contributing to the hearing loss of B6 mice, named age-related hearing loss (ahl), was mapped to Chromosome 10. A homozygous, congenic strain of mice (B6.CAST-+ahl), generated by crossing B6 (ahl/ahl) and CAST (+ahl/+ahl) mice has the same genomic material as the B6 mice except in the region of the ahl locus, which is derived from CAST. In this study, we have determined the extent of the CAST-derived region of Chromosome 10 in the congenic strain and have examined mice of all three strains for hearing loss and cochlear morphology between 9 and 25 months of age. Results for B6 mice were similar to those described previously. CAST mice showed no detectable hearing loss even at 24 months of age; however, they had a small amount of ganglion cell degeneration. B6.CAST-+ahl mice were protected from early onset hearing loss and basal turn degeneration, but older animals did show some hearing loss and ganglion cell degeneration. We conclude that loci in addition to ahl contribute to the differences in hearing loss between B6 and CAST mice. These results illustrate the complex inheritance of age-related hearing loss in mice and may have implications for the study of human presbycusis. PMID:14759567

  11. Community-based infant hearing screening in a developing country: parental uptake of follow-up services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bolajoko O Olusanya; Oladele O Akinyemi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal newborn hearing screening is now considered an essential public health care for the early detection of disabling life-long childhood hearing impairment globally. However, like any health interventions in early childhood, parental support and participation is essential for achieving satisfactory uptake of services. This study set out to determine maternal\\/infant socio-demographic factors associated with follow-up compliance in community-based infant

  12. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s normal operation. This technique eliminates the probing problem of a gain/phase margin method by connecting the power input to a spectral analyzer. Therefore, it is able to evaluate stability for all kinds of hybrid DC/DC converters with or without remote sense pins, and is suitable for real-time and in-circuit testing. This frequency-domain technique is more sensitive to detect oscillation at early stage than the time-domain method using an oscilloscope.

  13. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  14. [Hearing disorders with glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Kremmer, S; Anastassiou, G; Selbach, J M

    2014-02-01

    One of the most common sensory impairments of elderly people is hearing loss. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Hearing and vision loss typically increase with older age. There is scientific evidence that the coincidence of hearing and vision loss is more frequent than expected by the prevalence of individual disorders. With regards to demographic changes and an aging population, in future, it is probable that the incidence of combined hearing and vision impairments will increase, representing a particular challenge not only for doctors and nurses but also a high burden for the private environment of the patients. Therefore, it is of particular importance to diagnose and to treat hearing and vision loss (dual sensory loss) as early as possible. The treatment of hearing disorders and glaucoma as well as possibly underlying systemic diseases such as circulatory disturbances is as important as responsible rehabilitation measures and the supply of hearing and low vision aids. During the last years, knowledge about the molecular biological background of hearing loss and glaucoma has continuously increased but it is currently still at the level of laboratory and animal experiments. Therefore, it remains to be seen whether and to what extent a real therapy for the underlying genetic, immunological and in particular mitochondrial disorders may be accessible in the future. PMID:24532402

  15. [Early detection and cognitive rescue of abused children].

    PubMed

    Mirabal, B; De Jesús, H

    1990-05-01

    The abused child may manifest deficiencies in his cognitive development as a result of the abuse. In this study, 22 children with a confirmed diagnosis of physical abuse and/or negligence were evaluated with the Mental Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and reevaluated subsequently. The mean age of the children in the initial phase was 8.4 months. The initial mental development index (MDI) was 98.6 +/- 22.8. The reevaluation was performed within a mean period of 10.8 months. The MDI at reevaluation was 97.9 +/- 23.8. The study did not detect significant cognitive deficiencies in these children. We conclude that early detection and intervention in the abused child favors an adequate cognitive development. PMID:2375809

  16. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  17. Early Detection and Treatment of Hemodialysis Access Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego Beuter, Juan Jose; Hernandez Lezana, Antonio [Department of Radiology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrero Calvo, Jose [Department of Nephrology, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno Carriles, Rosa [Department of Vascular Surgery, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Professor Martin Lagos s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a program for the early detection of hemodialysis graft dysfunction and the impact on graft survival of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent implantation to correct venous stenosis.Methods: A program for the early detection of hemodialysis access graft dysfunction was carried out in 110 patients over a period of 80 months. Detection was based on physical examination, flow rate measurements, venous pressure, and analytical determinations performed at dialysis. The stenoses detected were treated by PTA or PTA plus stent deployment. Survival curves compared primary and assisted patency rates for the different graft types.Results: The most important indicators of dysfunction were increased venous pressure and difficulty in cannulation of the graft. Significant stenoses were revealed by 227 (92.2%) of the 246 fistulography procedures performed. PTA results were satisfactory in 100% of the Thomas grafts, 74% of the Brescia-Cimino (BC) grafts, and 53% of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Technical success rates for stent deployment were 92% for BC grafts and 100% for PTFE grafts, while functional success rates were 96% and 97%, respectively. The difference in the primary patency (P1) and assisted patency (AP) values was statistically significant for all three graft types. There was no significant difference in the patency rates for grafts treated by PTA alone or by PTA and stent deployment.Conclusion: A surveillance program helped prevent graft thrombosis, and intervention as required achieved excellent primary and assisted patency rates. Stent deployment salvaged a considerable number of accesses but did not significantly extend access survival time.

  18. Quantifying limits to detection of early warning for critical transitions

    PubMed Central

    Boettiger, Carl; Hastings, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Catastrophic regime shifts in complex natural systems may be averted through advanced detection. Recent work has provided a proof-of-principle that many systems approaching a catastrophic transition may be identified through the lens of early warning indicators such as rising variance or increased return times. Despite widespread appreciation of the difficulties and uncertainty involved in such forecasts, proposed methods hardly ever characterize their expected error rates. Without the benefits of replicates, controls or hindsight, applications of these approaches must quantify how reliable different indicators are in avoiding false alarms, and how sensitive they are to missing subtle warning signs. We propose a model-based approach to quantify this trade-off between reliability and sensitivity and allow comparisons between different indicators. We show these error rates can be quite severe for common indicators even under favourable assumptions, and also illustrate how a model-based indicator can improve this performance. We demonstrate how the performance of an early warning indicator varies in different datasets, and suggest that uncertainty quantification become a more central part of early warning predictions. PMID:22593100

  19. Using Structured Games to Teach Early Fraction Concepts to Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Carmel; Power, Des; Booker, George

    2003-01-01

    The study focused on the development of the concept of fractions in a group of 11- and 12-year-old students who were deaf or hard of hearing. The approach implemented in the study relied extensively on the use of games with very little formal instruction. It emphasized the development of appropriate language to facilitate an understanding of the…

  20. Early Social-Emotional, Language, and Academic Development in Children with Hearing Loss: Families with and without Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Rosemary; Low, Sabina

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of paternal presence or absence on the social-emotional, language, and academic outcomes of 22 children with hearing impairments (ages 43 to 83 months). Children whose fathers were present had significantly better academic and language outcomes than those without a father present. (Author/CR)

  1. Course of hearing recovery according to frequency in patients with acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hirofumi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Imamura, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    Through pure-tone audiometry, we studied the course of hearing recovery in 24 ears of 20 men (ages 18-48 years) who had acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). All subjects were members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force. The hearing level in 5 ears returned to normal, the hearing level of 13 ears recovered but was not within the normal range, and the hearing level of 6 ears was unchanged. The time from noise exposure to presentation was longer in patients with unchanged hearing than in other patients. Recovery of hearing was poorest at 4,000 Hz, followed by 8,000 and 2,000 Hz. We concluded that hearing in patients with acute ASHL is likely to return to normal when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz recovers gradually; partial recovery of hearing is expected when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz reaches an early plateau. PMID:18616091

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  3. Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Early Identification of Deafness: Parents' Responses to Knowing Early and Their Expectations of Child Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from an interview study of 45 parents/caregivers (representing 27 families) whose infants were correctly identified as deaf during the first phase of the implementation of the national universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programme in England. Average age of children when parents were interviewed was 25 weeks. Two…

  4. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    PubMed

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range <20->80 ?m in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were <10 cells ml(-1) for both "large" and "small" model grazers, Euplotes vannus (80 × 45 ?m) and an unidentified holotrichous ciliate (~18 × 8 ?m) respectively. Furthermore, the system can distinguish the presence of ciliates in N. oculata cultures with biotechnologically relevant cell densities; i.e. >1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). PMID:22464416

  5. Early detection of RFI in SMOS radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anterrieu, Eric

    2011-10-01

    The SMOS mission is a European Space Agency (ESA) project aimed at global monitoring of surface Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity from radiometric L-band observations. The single payload of the mission is MIRAS, the very first Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis ever launched into space. This work is concerned with the contamination of the data collected by MIRAS by radio frequency interferences (RFI) which degrade the performance of the mission. RFI events are evidenced and it is explained why well-known standard RFI detection methods cannot be used. Accounting for specificities of MIRAS, an early detection method tailored to SMOS measurements is presented and illustrated with data acquired with the reference radiometers during the first year of the mission. The aim of this method is not to localize nor to quantify the RFI sources but only to detect, to quantify and possibly to mitigate the corresponding RFI effects in the signals measured by these radiometers. This is done as soon as possible in the processing pipeline so that the propagation of such undesirable effects is known and under control from measurements to final products.

  6. Early detection of severe cholestatic hepatopathy in COACH syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foell, Dirk; August, Christian; Frosch, Michael; Harms, Erik; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter

    2002-09-01

    COACH syndrome is a disorder with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, oligophrenia, ataxia, coloboma, and hepatic fibrosis. Sixteen cases with certain COACH diagnosis have been reported so far. Neurologic abnormalities are the first symptoms in most cases. The majority of cases were diagnosed late in childhood or adolescence. Complications of the hepatopathy contribute extensively to the morbidity and lethality in the course of the disease. Major complications are portal hypertension, esophageal varices, and gastrointestinal bleeding. We report of a child with only mild neurologic symptoms, but severe hepatic fibrosis with cholangiopathy, and review the literature. This is the first description of profound cholestatic hepatopathy in a very young child with COACH syndrome. The patient was found to have cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, unilateral optical nerve coloboma, mild dysmorphic signs, and a ventricular septum defect. Routine laboratory investigations eventually revealed elevated liver enzymes. Prothrombin time was abnormal. Ultrasound scan of the liver was normal. Hepatotropic viral infections were excluded. We performed a liver biopsy at the age of 16 months, confirming an early stage of cirrhosis with septal fibrosis and pseudolobules, inflammatory infiltrates, signs of cholestasis, and reduced numbers of intrahepatic bile ducts. Early detection and differentiation of liver pathology are important in COACH syndrome. Progressive destructive cholangiopathy may contribute to hepatic fibrosis in COACH syndrome. Liver disease can be severe even in cases with mild neurologic deficits. PMID:12210305

  7. DNA methylation biomarker candidates for early detection of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Joo Mi; Dhir, Mashaal; Guzzetta, Angela A; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwang Mo; Suzuki, Hiromu; Toyota, Minoru; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Ahuja, Nita

    2012-04-01

    Promoter CpG island hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of all human cancers. Many researchers have been looking for potential epigenetic therapeutic targets in cancer using gene expression profiling with DNA microarray approaches. Our recent genome-wide platform of CpG island hypermethylation and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines revealed that FBN2 and TCERG1L gene silencing is associated with DNA hypermethylation of a CpG island in the promoter region. In this study, promoter DNA hypermethylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L in CRC occurs as an early and cancer-specific event in colorectal cancer. Both genes showed high frequency of methylation in colon cancer cell lines (>80% for both of genes), adenomas (77% for FBN2, 90% for TCERG1L, n = 39), and carcinomas (86% for FBN2, 99% for TCERG1L, n = 124). Bisulfite sequencing confirmed cancer-specific methylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L of promoters in colon cancer cell line and cancers but not in normal colon. Methylation of FBN2 and TCERG1L is accompanied by downregulation in cell lines and in primary tumors as described in the Oncomine™ website. Together, our results suggest that gene silencing of FBN2 and TCERG1L is associated with promoter DNA hypermethylation in CRC tumors and may be excellent biomarkers for the early detection of CRC. PMID:22238052

  8. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids What are hearing aids? What are the different ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  9. Framework for using grocery data for early detection of bio-terrorism attacks

    E-print Network

    Goldenberg, Anna

    Framework for using grocery data for early detection of bio-terrorism attacks #3; Anna Goldenberg 15213 anya@cmu.edu October 16, 2001 Abstract Early detection of epidemics and bio-terrorism attacks. The main goal of this project is to investigate the possibility of detecting epidemics and bio-terrorism

  10. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  11. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... music for long periods of time? Yes Loud noises that result from certain types of work or entertainment may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by wearing protective ear ...

  12. Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future. PMID:19824562

  13. Field Hearing on Education Technology and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Newark, Delaware, April 12, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the House Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce on Educational Technology and the Elementary Secondary Education Act contains statements by: Michael Castle, Subcommittee Chairman; Dale Kildee, Subcommittee member; Thomas Carper, Governor of Delaware, accompanied by…

  14. A Fresh Start for New Orleans' Children: Improving Education after Katrina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Education System of New Orleans (July 14, 2006, New Orleans, LA). Senate Hearing 109-626

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the education system of New Orleans. Statements were presented by: Honorable Lamar Alexander, Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Honorable Mary L. Landrieu, U.S. Senator from Louisiana; Honorable Richard Burr, U.S. Senator from North Carolina; Linda Johnson, President,…

  15. Field Hearing on Technology in Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Petaluma, California, August 30, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met, pursuant to call, on August 30, 1999 in the Petaluma Community Center, Petaluma, California, with Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presiding. This document represents the field hearing on how educational…

  16. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  17. Comprehensive School Reform Program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce was held on June 23, 1998. Statements are presented by various educators in public education and in charter schools, U.S. Representatives, the assistant secretary of Elementary and Secondary Education, and members of his…

  18. Examining the National Environmental Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (June 27, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: William F. Goodling, Committee on Education and Workforce; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; John Kasper, Acting Deputy Associate Administrator Office of Communications, Education, and Media…

  19. Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (McAllen, Texas, July 7, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This Congressional hearing on the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act, held in McAllen Texas, focuses on issues to consider in the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act. After opening statements by Chairman Michael Castle and Representative Ruben Hinojosa, both of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the…

  20. The Economic and Social Benefits of Early Childhood Education. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Health of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Testimony on economic and social benefits of early childhood education, and on legislation to amend the Head Start Act and provide funds to increase the number of spaces in Head Start was offered at a hearing in New York City. Testimony concerned: (1) the successes of Head Start, the unmet needs of disadvantaged youth, and the need to expand the…

  1. The Role of Character Education in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 1, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This publication covers the hearing held on March 1, 2000, in Washington, DC, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives on the role of character education in U.S. schools. The publication contains the following: "Statement of Mr. Michael N. Castle,…

  2. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

  3. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

  4. Fundus Image Processing System For Early Detection Of Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, S.; Mitra, S.; Krile, T. F.; Shihab, Z.

    1986-12-01

    An image processing system based on a MC 68000 microprocessor has been developed for analysis of fundus photographs. This personal computer based system has specific image enhancement capabilities comparable to existing large scale systems. Basic enhancement of fundus images consists of histogram modification or kernel convolution techniques to determine regions of specific interest such as textural difference in the nerve fiber layer or cupping of the optic nerve head. Fast Fourier transforms and filtering techniques are then utilized for specific regions of the original image. Textural difference in the nerve fiber layers are further highlighted using either interactive histogram modification or pseudocolor mappings. Menu driven software allows review of the steps applied, creating a feedback mechanism for optimum display of the fundus image. A wider noise margin than that of digitized fundus photographs can be obtained by direct fundus imaging. The present fundus image processing system clearly provides us with quantitative and detailed techniques of assessing textural changes in the fundus photographs of glaucoma patients and suspects for better classification and early detection of glaucoma. The versatility and computing capability of the system make it also suitable for other applications such as multidimensional image processing and image analysis.

  5. Prevention and early detection of cervical cancer in the UK.

    PubMed

    Foran, Claire; Brennan, Arthur

    2015-05-27

    This literature review explores the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer in the UK. Current findings indicate that there is a risk for women under the age of 25 years, who may develop cervical cancer. There appears to be a gap in UK policy that may overlook these women, who are beneath the age for initial screening but exceed the age for vaccination. Despite the inextricable link between sexual activity and cervical cancer, cervical screening and sexual health promotion still appear to be disjointed, and the role of a sexually transmitted infection leading to the development of cervical cancer has not been emphasised enough in public health messages. Further training should be provided and its impact monitored, designed to address this anomaly in health promotion. There are many barriers to health promotion including, those of a societal, cultural and religious nature. Additional research is required to ascertain the types of educational and awareness interventions that would be most effective in promoting and encouraging positive sexual behaviours among young people, and to explore how these might be successfully implemented. PMID:26018178

  6. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  7. A Cognitive Vision Approach to Early Pest Detection in Greenhouse Crops

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Cognitive Vision Approach to Early Pest Detection in Greenhouse Crops Paul Boissard a,, Vincent in the context of ornamental crops in greenhouses because of the high level of control needed in such agrosystems are crucial to agronomic decisions. Key words: IPM, greenhouse crops, pest early detection, cognitive vision

  8. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  9. The Cost-Effectiveness of Universal Newborn Screening for Bilateral Permanent Congenital Hearing Impairment: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Stephen; Gold, Lisa; Wirth, Karen; Ching, Teresa; Poulakis, Zeffie; Rickards, Field; Wake, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objective Universal newborn hearing screening for bilateral permanent congenital hearing impairment is standard practice in many developed economies, but until there is clear evidence of cost-effectiveness, it remains a controversial use of limited health care resources. We conducted a formal systematic review of studies of newborn hearing screening that considered both costs and outcomes to produce a summary of the available evidence and to determine whether there was a need for further research. Methods A search was conducted of medical and nursing databases and gray literature websites by the use of multiple keywords. The titles and abstracts of studies were examined for preliminary inclusion if reference was made to newborn hearing screening, and to both costs and outcomes. Studies of potential relevance were independently assessed by 2 health economists for final inclusion in the review. Studies that met inclusion criteria were appraised by the use of existing guidelines for observational studies, economic evaluations and decision analytic models, and reported in a narrative literature review. Results There were 22 distinct observational or modeled evaluations of which only 2 clearly compared universal newborn hearing screening to risk factor screening for bilateral permanent congenital hearing impairment. Of these, the single evaluation that examined long-term costs and outcomes found that universal newborn hearing screening could be cost-saving if early intervention led to a substantial reduction in future treatment costs and productivity losses. Conclusions There are only a small number of economic evaluations that have examined the long-term cost-effectiveness of universal newborn hearing screening. This is partly attributable to ongoing uncertainty about the benefits gained from the early detection and treatment of bilateral permanent congenital hearing impairment. There is a clear need for further research on long-term costs and outcomes to establish the cost-effectiveness of universal newborn hearing screening in relation to other approaches to screening, and to establish whether it is a good long term investment. PMID:22583631

  10. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to control measures that limit its impact and help prevent future outbreaks. PMID:20092624

  11. Electrical measurement for detecting early postmortem changes in porcine muscle.

    PubMed

    Whitman, T A; Forrest, J C; Morgan, M T; Okos, M R

    1996-01-01

    Use of electrical measurements to detect quality defects in porcine muscle in the early postmortem period was evaluated. Justification for use of a tetrapolar, constant current electrode configuration instead of bipolar electrodes was provided for measurements at low frequencies. Interrelationships among electrical properties, pH values, ATP decline, temperature, time postmortem, and final water-holding capacity (WHC) of porcine muscle were quantified using 25 hogs. Immediately after exsanguination, a section of the left longissimus muscle (LM) was excised to obtain rigor shortening patterns and complex impedance measurements over a 10-h period at 37 degrees C. Complex impedance measurements were taken using a tetrapolar electrode configuration at 1 kHz and .156 mA. At 15, 45, and 90 min postmortem, pH, ATP/IMP absorbance (R), and conductivity measured by the Tecpro Pork Quality Meter (PQM) were measured on the right side LM. At 24 h postmortem, WHC, pH, R, PQM, Hunter Color Lab values, and subjective quality scores were evaluated on the left LM. The WHC measurements were used to group carcasses into normal (n = 17) and abnormal (n = 8) categories. Mean pH and R at 45 and 90 min were different (P < .05) but pH at 24 h was not different between the normal and abnormal groups. Onset and completion of rigor were more rapid in carcasses with low WHC (P < .05). The PQM values were greater (P < .05) in the abnormal group at 90 min and 24 h postmortem. Excised muscle measurements of relative impedance (Z*) and phase (theta*) showed Z* and theta* increased more rapidly within the first 15 min postmortem (P < .1) for samples with abnormal WHC. However, one PSE carcass showed an immediate rapid decrease in Z* and theta*. Results suggest measurement of rate of change of impedance and phase angle before 90 min postmortem would be a better prediction of ultimate quality than absolute magnitude of impedance. PMID:8778115

  12. Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    in designing efficient fire detection systems. The FWI System is one of the most comprehensive forest fire of their products to better fit forest fire detection systems. Then, we model the forest fire detection problem Modeling, Forest Fire Detection Systems, Wireless Sensor Networks, Coverage Protocols 1. INTRODUCTION

  13. The Monitoring and Early Detection of Internet Worms

    E-print Network

    Shenoy, Prashant

    in recent years, it is clear that a simple self-propagating worm can quickly spread across the Internet to give people accurate early warning information and possible reaction time for counteractions at its early propagation stage by using Kalman filter estimation, which is robust to background noise

  14. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timi?oara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  15. Early Warning Fire Detection System Using a Probabilistic Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Rose-Pehrsson; Sean J. Hart; Frederick W. Williams; Mark H. Hammond; Daniel T. Gottuk; Mark T. Wright; Jennifer T. Wong

    2003-01-01

    The Navy program, Damage Control-Automation for Reduced Manning is focused on enhancing automation of ship functions and damage control systems. A key element to this objective is the improvement of current fire detection systems. As in many applications, it is desired to increase detection sensitivity and,more importantly increase the reliability of the detection system through improved nuisance alarm immunity. Improved

  16. Worm Detection, Early Warning and Response Based on Local Victim Information

    E-print Network

    Lee, Wenke

    Worm Detection, Early Warning and Response Based on Local Victim Information Guofei Gu, Monirul 30332 {guofei, msharif, xinzhou, dagon, wenke}@cc.gatech.edu, riley@ece.gatech.edu Abstract Worm detection systems have traditionally focused on global strategies. In the absence of a global worm detection

  17. Early Failure Detection of Bearing Based on Probabilistic Matching Pursuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Zhang; Zhongsheng Wang; Jiancang Ma

    2007-01-01

    A signal adaptive time-frequency decomposition to extend matching pursuit algorithm-probabilistic matching pursuit is studied. This method is firstly introduced into early fault diagnosis of rolling bearing. It adopts Gaussian wavelet to construct the time-frequency atoms dictionary. Applying probabilistic matching pursuit, we can accurately extract the early defect features by computing coherence between vibration signals of rolling bearing with inner or

  18. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC is to provide...

  19. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee...L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory...

  20. Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    HÄFNER, HEINZ; MAURER, KURT

    2006-01-01

    Research into the early course of schizophrenia has identified a prepsychotic prodromal stage (mean duration: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

  1. Newborn hearing screening: Tobramycin and vancomycin are not risk factors for hearing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthijs de Hoog; Bert A. van Zanten; Wim C. Hop; Ellen Overbosch; Nynke Weisglas-Kuperus; John N. van den Anker

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chance of detecting hearing loss with neonatal hearing screening in relation to exposure to tobramycin and vancomycin. Study design Automated auditory brainstem response (A-ABR) hearing screening was performed in all neonates with at least one risk factor. Data on drug administration were abstracted from patient files. Exposure to these drugs was related to the result of

  2. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  3. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice...

  4. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  5. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research.

  6. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  7. Hearing Loss and Incident Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Context Earlier studies have suggested that hearing loss, which is prevalent in more than 30% of adults >60 years, may be a risk factor for dementia, but this hypothesis has never been investigated prospectively. Objective To determine if hearing loss is associated with incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 639 participants (age 36 – 90 y) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who had audiometric testing and who were dementia-free in 1990-1994. Hearing loss was defined by a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear (normal <25 dB [n = 455], mild loss 25-40 dB [n = 125], moderate loss 41-70 dB [n = 53], severe loss >70 dB [n = 6]). Diagnosis of incident dementia was made by consensus diagnostic conference. Cox proportional hazard models were used to model time to incident dementia according to severity of hearing loss and were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, diabetes, smoking, and hypertension. Main Outcome Measure Incidence of all-cause dementia and AD until May 31, 2008. Results During a median follow-up of 11.9 years, 58 cases of incident all-cause dementia were diagnosed of which 37 cases were AD. The risk of incident all-cause dementia increased log-linearly with the severity of baseline hearing loss (1.27 per 10 db loss, 95% CI: 1.06 – 1.50). Compared to normal hearing, the hazard ratio for incident all-cause dementia was 1.89 for mild hearing loss (95% CI: 1.00 – 3.58), 3.00 for moderate hearing loss (95% CI: 1.43 – 6.30), and 4.94 for severe hearing loss (95% CI: 1.09 – 22.4). The risk of incident AD also increased with baseline hearing loss but with a wider confidence interval (1.20 per 10 dB of hearing loss, 95% CI: 0.94 – 1.53). Conclusions Hearing loss is independently associated with incident all-cause dementia. Whether hearing loss is a marker for early stage dementia or is actually a modifiable risk factor for dementia deserves further study. PMID:21320988

  8. Stories about breast cancer in Australian women's magazines: information sources for risk, early detection and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Wilkes; Janice Withnall; Rebecca Harris; Kate White; Barbara Beale; Jane Hobson; Marsha Durham; Linda Kristjanson

    2001-01-01

    Sixty articles in five Australian women's magazines were analyzed for journalistic qualities, metaphors, narrative features and accuracy of clinical facts related to risk, early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The stories were features, news features or soft news stories. The stories reflected the ‘good news’ editorial style of women's magazines. A dominant theme in the stories was that early

  9. SHAPE STATISTICS FOR CELL DIVISION DETECTION IN TIME-LAPSE VIDEOS OF EARLY MOUSE EMBRYO

    E-print Network

    Werman, Michael

    SHAPE STATISTICS FOR CELL DIVISION DETECTION IN TIME-LAPSE VIDEOS OF EARLY MOUSE EMBRYO M. Cicconet to the problem of estimat- ing the times of cell-division cycles in time-lapse movies of early mouse embryos. Our, mouse embryo 1. INTRODUCTION Several papers have been published in recent years on the topic of time

  10. Three Biomarkers Identified from Serum Proteomic Analysis for the Detection of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Zhang; Robert C. Bast; Yinhua Yu; Jinong Li; Lori J. Sokoll; Alex J. Rai; Jason M. Rosenzweig; Bonnie Cameron; Young Y. Wang; Xiao-Ying Meng; Andrew Berchuck; Carolien van Haaften-Day; Neville F. Hacker; Henk W. A. de Bruijn; Ian J. Jacobs; Eric T. Fung; Daniel W. Chan

    2004-01-01

    Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of patients with ovarian cancer. In a five-center case- control study, serum proteomic expressions were analyzed on 153 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 42 with other ovarian cancers, 166 with benign pelvic masses, and 142 healthy women. Data from patients with early stage ovarian cancer and healthy women

  11. The contribution of pulse oximetry to the early detection of congenital heart disease in newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romaine Arlettaz; Andrea Seraina Bauschatz; Marion Mönkhoff; Bettina Essers; Urs Bauersfeld

    2006-01-01

    Approximately half of all newborns with congenital heart disease are asymptomatic in the first few days of life. Early detection\\u000a of ductal-dependant cardiac malformations prior to ductal closure is, however, of significant clinical importance, as the\\u000a treatment outcome is related to the time of diagnosis. Pulse oximetry has been proposed for early detection of congenital\\u000a heart disease. The aims of

  12. Early detection of steel rebar corrosion by acoustic emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunek, A.D.; Prine, D.; Li, Z.; Landis, E.; Shah, S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Acoustic emission monitoring was performed in a unique way on concrete specimens containing reinforcing steel and the acoustic emission events correlated with the presence of rebar corrosion. Verification of rebar corrosion was done by galvanic current, half-cell potential, and electrochemical analysis. Results showing the early onset of rebar corrosion from acoustic emission are presented.

  13. Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  14. Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  15. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers. PMID:24371830

  16. Multiple biomarker panels for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers. PMID:24371830

  17. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  18. Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  19. Active Early Detection Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  20. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if she has severe or complete hearing loss. Cochlear implant . This is a small electronic device that can ... into the inner ear. Most children who get cochlear implants are between 2 and 6 years old, but ...

  1. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... noise or needing to turn up the volume. Cochlear implants. These electronic devices are for people with severe ... if you have a hearing aid or a cochlear implant with telecoils. Ask if this type of system ...

  2. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... relieving the depression often associated with hearing loss. Sound and the Ear We define sound in two ways: Frequency (pitch), which is measured ... in decibels. The lowest intensity at which a sound must be generated to be heard is called ...

  3. Hearing voices.

    PubMed

    2015-05-27

    This free app was created to help and empower people who experience the challenge of hearing voices, and to aid their relatives, carers and health professionals in understanding this phenomenon. PMID:26015129

  4. Mouse colorectal cancer an early detection approach using nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Ruff, Silvana Y; Izaguirre, María F; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L; Casco, Víctor H

    2014-01-01

    Murine induced colon cancer has been used to demonstrate that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy images, combined with Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) and specific quantization scoring methods allow distinguishing early alterations in colon mucosa. TPEF was used only to identified crypts and submucosa regions, whereas the image analysis was used to get quantitative data (Integrated Intensity and Aspect Ratio scoring) of different cancer stages. The submucosa amount of collagen fibers was significant and their orientation suffering proportional changes with the development of the pathological processes. Both after the fourth and eighth weeks after colon cancer induction, integrated intensity and aspect ratio values have shown significant statistical differences compared with control samples. Thus, SHG microscopy has proved to be a useful quantitative tool to highlight early changes of submucosa and the progression of these through the cancer development. PMID:25227053

  5. [Guidelines on the early detection of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Alberts, A R; Bokhorst, L P; Roobol, M J

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of prostate cancer presents certain dilemmas, and various prostate cancer guidelines have been developed to support clinicians in decision making. However, these guidelines often give contradictory advice and should be appraised critically. We will discuss how the general practitioner (GP) should deal with the frequently used, often contradictory guidelines on this topic. A number of dilemmas concerning the early diagnosis of prostate cancer are discussed in this clinical lesson, based on a single case in the GP's practice; this concerns a 49-year-old male who approached his GP for prostate cancer screening. After the process of shared decision making, the patient was screened and diagnosed with a low-grade prostate carcinoma for which active surveillance was initiated. PMID:25898869

  6. Laser application in otology for hearing restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Igino

    1994-09-01

    Prior to the development of the stapes replacement prosthesis in the early 1950s, loss of hearing due to otosclerosis remained an untreatable disease. Today, loss of hearing due to otosclerosis can be restored in the majority of cases to near normal levels. Since 1980 the laser has played a major and important role in otosclerosis surgery. This paper explores the use of lasers for hearing restoration and compares the results of laser surgery to non-laser surgery.

  7. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline. PMID:21866215

  8. [Research on early fire detection with CO-CO2 FTIR-spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Jian-hua; Zhang, Ren-cheng; Huang, Xiang-ying; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2007-05-01

    A new fire detection method is put forward based on the theory of FTIR spectroscopy through analyzing all kinds of detection methods, in which CO and CO2 are chosen as early fire detection objects, and an early fire experiment system has been set up. The concentration characters of CO and CO2 were obtained through early fire experiments including real alarm sources and nuisance alarm sources. In real alarm sources there are abundant CO and CO2 which change regularly. In nuisance alarm sources there is almost no CO. So it's feasible to reduce the false alarms and increase the sensitivity of early fire detectors through analyzing the concentration characters of CO and CO2. PMID:17655099

  9. Hear ye? Hear ye! Successful auditory aging.

    PubMed Central

    Gates, G A; Rees, T S

    1997-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is a multifactorial process that affects nearly all people in their senior years. Most cases are due to a loss of cochlear hair cell function and are well mediated by communication courtesy and modern amplification technology. Severe hearing loss is generally due to cochlear problems or age-related diseases and may require speech reading, assistive listening devices, and cochlear implants, depending on the degree of loss. Presbycusis may seriously impair communication and contribute to isolation, depression, and possibly dementia. Accurate diagnosis and prompt remediation are widely available but are frequently underused. Geriatric health care and well-being is enhanced by the detection and remediation of communication disorders. PMID:9348755

  10. Difference detection based early mode termination for depth map coding in MVC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghui Wang; Xin Jin; S. Goto

    2010-01-01

    Depth map coding is a new topic in multiview video coding (MVC) following the development of depth-image-based rendering (DIBR). Since depth map is monochromatic and has less texture than color map, fast algorithm is necessary and possible to reduce the computation burden of the encoder. This paper proposed difference detection based early mode termination strategy. The difference detection (DD) algorithms

  11. Microwave Imagistic and Data Processing Software for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihaela Costin; Marius Zbancioc; Baltag Octavian

    Microwave employment in cancer detection is a new noninvasive technique meant to uncover very early tumor cells in breast tissue. Medical microwave imagistic in breast cancer detection implies special processing and fuzzy procedures to display the temperature map and to highlight the inner structure atypical development. Our research regards a practical realization of the installation and the dedicated software meant

  12. Multiresolution-Based Segmentation of Calcifications for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sentelle; C. Sentelle; Melanie A. Sutton

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of microcalcifications in a mammogram may be an early indication of breast cancer. Unfortunately, due to size, shape and limited contrast from surrounding normal tissue, microcalcifications can occasionally be hard to detect in computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. These CAD systems can also be slow compared to a radiologist's performance when reviewing film-screen mammography. The research described here investigates a

  13. Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    -layer congestion control protocol such as TCP. The RED gateway has no bias against bursty traffic and avoids- guishing propagation delay from persistent queueing de- lay. The most effective detection of congestion canRandom Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson Lawrence

  14. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  15. Early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate by measuring chlorophyll reflectance and fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from off-target drift of herbicide is critical in crop production. Subtle changes in canopy reflectance could present useful information to detect the onset of crop stress. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate a portable spectroradiometer and a portable...

  16. An adaptive procedure of smoke and background discrimination in the early fire detection video system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasiliy Vasyukov; Ekaterina Kalennikova

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive procedure of smoke and background discrimination intended for being applied in the early forest fire detection video system is suggested. The procedure based on analysis of threshold sets assemblage possesses certain robustness under the influence of image properties variations. Keywords-threshol d set; forest fire detection; video

  17. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  18. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  19. Statistica Sinica 21 (2011), 597-624 EARLY DETECTION OF A CHANGE IN POISSON RATE

    E-print Network

    Mei, Yajun

    2011-01-01

    of detecting a change in the mean of Poisson distributions after taking into account the effects of population our approaches to a general setting with arbitrary probability distributions, as wellStatistica Sinica 21 (2011), 597-624 EARLY DETECTION OF A CHANGE IN POISSON RATE AFTER ACCOUNTING

  20. Acoustic emission technique used for detecting early stages of precipitation during aging of Inconel 625

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mittra; J. S. Dubey; S. Banerjee

    2003-01-01

    Aging behavior of Inconel 625 has been studied at 540 °C. The Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase, found in this material only after a long service life, has been detected along with the ?? phase after a short aging. Acoustic emission technique has been found sensitive enough to detect early stages of precipitation.

  1. Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap de Leeuw; Nick van der Beek; W. Dieter Neugebauer; Peter Bjerring; H. A. Martino Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is in- creasing all over the world. The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice. Complementary methods for detection and accurate demarcation of NMSC at an early stage are needed in order to limit the damage caused by tumours. Objective: The purpose of the

  2. Early Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Detected by Proton MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Melissa E.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Liesinger, Amanda M.; Spychalla, Anthony; Zhang, Bing; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although 1H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the 1H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem 1H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on the posterior cingulate gyrus using antibodies to synaptic vesicles, hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), neurofibrillary tangle conformational-epitope (cNFT), amyloid-?, astrocytes, and microglia. The slides were digitally analyzed using Aperio software, which allows neuropathologic quantification in the posterior cingulate gray matter. MRS and pathology associations were adjusted for time from scan to death. Significant associations across AD and control subjects were found between reduced synaptic immunoreactivity and both NAA/Cr and NAA/mI in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Higher pTau burden was associated with lower NAA/Cr and NAA/mI. Higher amyloid-? burden was associated with elevated mI/Cr and lower NAA/mI ratios, but not with NAA/Cr. 1H-MRS metabolite levels reveal early neurodegenerative changes associated with AD pathology. Our findings support the hypothesis that a decrease in NAA/Cr is associated with loss of synapses and early pTau pathology, but not with amyloid-? or later accumulation of cNFT pathology in the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, elevation of mI/Cr is associated with the occurrence of amyloid-? plaques in AD. PMID:25471565

  3. Current Approaches and Challenges in Early Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

  4. Current approaches and challenges in early detection of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Schneble, Erika J; Graham, Lindsey J; Shupe, Matthew P; Flynt, Frederick L; Banks, Kevin P; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E; Setlik, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

  5. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  6. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  7. Gap detection and ear of presentation: examination of disparate findings: re: Sininger Y.S., & de Bode, S. (2008). Asymmetry of temporal processing in listeners with normal hearing and unilaterally deaf subjects. Ear Hear 29, 228-238

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this Letter is to address incongruent findings reported in two current papers concerning an ear advantage for gap detection. The methodology of one of the studies was closely replicated in order to determine whether those data were confounded by a floor effect. A novel methodology not prone to a floor effect was also implemented to test for an ear advantage. Design In the replication of one of the studies, gap detection was measured for three stimuli: a 400-Hz tone, a 4000-Hz tone, and a broad band noise. Temporal gaps were positioned at the midpoints of 500-ms waveforms and imposed with linear 5-ms ramps. An adaptive procedure incorporating an arithmetic step size was used to estimate threshold. In the novel methodology, gap detection in 500-ms segments of broad band noise was measured using an adaptive procedure with interleaved tracks and a geometric step size. Gap boundaries were not shaped. The observers were 7 right-handed, normal-hearing adults. Results The replication of the published study suggested that the procedure was likely to be confounded by a floor effect. No evidence of an ear advantage was observed in this replication. The novel methodology yielded threshold estimates for broad band noise that were not contaminated with a floor effect and, again, no evidence of an ear advantage was observed. Conclusions No evidence was found for an ear advantage for gap detection. The demonstration that the procedure used by one published study was likely prone to a floor effect does not account for the finding of an ear advantage in that study. The issue remains unresolved. PMID:18941412

  8. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  9. Types of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    Types of Hearing Loss Hearing Loss: Type of Hearing Loss | Degree of Hearing Loss | Configuration of Hearing Loss More information on this topic can be found in our Audiology Information Series [PDF]. Hearing loss can be categorized by which part of the ...

  10. Speech-Language-Hearing Department of Communication

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    faculty at the UNH Speech- Language-Hearing Center. She considers herself a generalist, with a particular faculty at the UNH Speech-Language-Hearing Center. Her areas of expertise include early intervention of experience as a practicing clinician to her role as clinical faculty at the UNH Speech-Language

  11. Early detection of insulation failure in electric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homce, G. T.

    A system capable of monitoring mine electrical power systems and detecting impending component failure could significantly improve power system safety and reduce unscheduled equipment downtime. Such monitoring would require a method of evaluating electrical parameters, calculated from terminal values, for indications of component deterioration. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has targeted electrical failure of squirrel cage induction motors and examined the use of mathematical models to aid in the evaluation. The initial stage of the work is complete and has produced polynomial networks called adaptive learning networks (ALN's) that can detect and quantify winding insulation leakage simulated on laboratory motors. In the modeling process, empirical data from laboratory motors were used to select the electrical parameters most significant for assessing motor conditions, and mathematical expressions relating these parameters to simulated deterioration were formed.

  12. A rapid urine test for early detection of kidney injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishal S Vaidya; Glen M Ford; Sushrut S Waikar; Yizhuo Wang; Matthew B Clement; Victoria Ramirez; Warren E Glaab; Sean P Troth; Frank D Sistare; Walter C Prozialeck; Joshua R Edwards; Norma A Bobadilla; Stephen C Mefferd; Joseph V Bonventre

    2009-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) has been qualified by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as a highly sensitive and specific urinary biomarker to monitor drug-induced kidney injury in preclinical studies and on a case-by-case basis in clinical trials. Here we report the development and evaluation of a rapid direct immunochromatographic lateral flow 15-min assay for detection of

  13. Projected Cost-Effectiveness of Statewide Universal Newborn Hearing Screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Keren; Mark Helfand; Charles Homer; Heather McPhillips; Tracy A. Lieu

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Early identification of hear- ing impairment may improve language outcomes and subsequent school and occupational performance of the deaf. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), cur- rently mandated by 32 states, can reduce the median age of identification of hearing impairment from 12 to 18 months to 6 months or less. However, because false- negative tests must be minimized, the

  14. Detection of early pregnancy-specific proteins in Holstein milk.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong Xun; Kim, Hong Rye; Diao, Yun Fei; Lee, Min Gu; Jin, Dong il

    2012-06-18

    Bovine pregnancy is commonly diagnosed by rectal palpation or ultrasonography and changes in progesterone concentration. To determine a simpler and less expensive diagnostic method, we sought to identify early pregnancy-specific proteins in bovine milk by comparing samples collected from pregnant and non-pregnant Holstein cattle. Of the 600-700 protein spots visible on 2-DE gel images, 39 were differentially expressed in milk from pregnant and non-pregnant cattle. Antibodies generated against synthetic peptides of milk whey proteins expressed specifically during pregnancy were used to confirm protein expression patterns. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of expression of lactoferrin (lactotransferrin) and alpha1G T-type calcium channel subunit (alpha-1G) were higher in samples from pregnant than non-pregnant cattle. These findings suggest that assays for pregnancy-specific milk proteins may be used to diagnose pregnancy in cattle. PMID:22484055

  15. Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuesong; Dai, Wei; Kwong, Dora Lai-wan; Szeto, Carol Y Y; Wong, Elibe Hiu-wun; Ng, Wai Tong; Lee, Anne W M; Ngan, Roger K C; Yau, Chun Chung; Tung, Stewart Y; Lung, Maria Li

    2015-02-15

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a human malignancy that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Early diagnosis of NPC will greatly improve the overall survival. However, current EBV DNA marker detection still lacks the predictive value to perform well in high-risk populations for early detection of NPC. Since aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is widely considered to be an important epigenetic change in early carcinogenesis, this study identified a panel of methylation markers for early detection of NPC and also assessed the clinical usefulness of these markers with noninvasive plasma specimens instead of biopsies. MS-HRM assays were carried out to assess the methylation status of a selected panel of four TSGs (RASSF1A, WIF1, DAPK1 and RAR?2) in biopsies, NP brushings and cell-free plasma from NPC patients. High-risk and cancer-free groups were used as controls. DNA methylation panel showed higher sensitivity and specificity than EBV DNA marker in cell-free plasma from NPC patients at early Stages (I and II) and in addition to the EBV DNA marker, MS-HRM test for plasma and NP brushing DNA methylation significantly increased the detection rate at all NPC stages as well as local recurrence, using this selected four-gene panel (p<0.05). MS-HRM assay on a selected gene panel has great potential to become a noninvasive and complementary test for NPC early and recurrent detection in combination with the EBV DNA test to increase the sensitivity for NPC detection at an early stage. PMID:25196065

  16. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment. PMID:25313725

  17. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been treated with minodronate for osteoporosis during 18 months. Based on the MRI findings and medication history, early stage BRONJ could be considered. Therefore minodronate was switched to teriparatide. Thereafter mandible pares-thesias, odontalgia and exposed bone were not observed. This case suggests that MRI is useful for the early detection of BRONJ.

  18. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and disordered processes of hearing, balance, taste, smell, voice, speech, and language. Use the following keywords to help you search for organizations that are relevant to enlarged vestibular aqueducts: Early identification of deafness in children Genetic diseases/disorders For ...

  19. Screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer in high risk population

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Chu; Wong, Jau-Min; Chang, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a serious growing health issue in developed countries. For patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the five year survival rate is below 5%. One major important reason leads to the poor survival rate is lack of early detection of pancreatic cancer. Over 80% of the patients are diagnosed in advanced disease stages. Screening for pancreatic cancer is a desirable option for high risk individuals to allow early detection and treatment of curable pancreatic neoplasms at a pre-invasive stage. This article highlights the need, endpoint, population, method, diagnostic yield, and the problems of current screening programs. PMID:24605033

  20. Education Technology Programs Authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Washington, DC, May 11, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document represents the second hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, held in Washington, DC on May 11, 1999 on the education technology programs authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Michael Castle, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on…

  1. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

  2. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with /sup 111/In oxide labeled while blood cells and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p less than 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attenuation coefficient of the medullary cavities in the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  3. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Stephanie M; Arendt, Lisa M; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R; Buchsbaum, Rachel J; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  4. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer: Strategic Map for Innovation-A White Paper.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  5. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Stephanie M.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  6. Using Runoff Hydrograph Model for Early Detecting Landslide Dam Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chompuchan, C.; Chen, W. L.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous areas, many studies explored that during extreme rainfall event induced landslide dams failure and consequently caused the catastrophe damage of lives and infrastructures at the downstream of the watershed. The detection of initial landslide dam formation and the estimation of its occurrence position in the upstream were essential to warn the residents and evacuate in advance. The devices currently used, such as wire sensor, geophone sensor, and infrared cameras (CCD) are classified as the post-event type sensor, which only has a shorter response time, and can just hardly satisfy the requirement which people expect from precaution system. To predict disasters earlier and increase response time, this study used the change point derived from comparing theoretical and observing runoff hydrograph. Chishan River watershed was selected as a case study. Grid Rational Algorithm for Predicting Hydrograph (GRAPH), the dynamic rainfall - runoff model, was used to calibrate watershed runoff hydrograph parameter. The landslide dams were simulated at difference distances along the river, and the runoff hydrographs were compared. Then, the rainfall data and landslide dam failure during Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 was verified the model.The result showed that, during the initial landslide dam formation, the observed accumulate and peak flow hydrograph reduced significantly in comparison with theoretical flow. This model can be applied to establish an efficient warning system for debris flow occurring precaution. In addition, this study has been improved for a longer response time by integrating traditional observation system and runoff hydrograph warning systems and can provide to the references of related authorities.

  7. TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cariou, Romain [Departement de physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan (France); Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-36, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA (United States); Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Frei, Melissa [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hanna, Chad [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Kara, Erin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Keppel, Drew [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationphysik, Hannover (Germany); Liao, Laura, E-mail: leo.singer@ligo.org [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  8. Early Detection of Infarct in Reperfused Canine Myocardium Using 99mTc-Glucarate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Okada; Gerald Johnson III; Zhonglin Liu; Sonia D. Hocherman; Ban-An Khaw; Robert D. Okada

    99mTc-Glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent with the poten- tial for very early detection of myocardial infarction. The pur- poses of this study using a canine model were to determine (a) the time course of 99mTc-glucarate uptake and clearance from necrotic and normal myocardium; (b) the 99mTc-glucarate ne- crotic-to-normal activity ratio over time; (c) the time course of detectable scan

  9. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  10. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  11. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  12. Epidemiology of Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss with Universal Newborn Hearing Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ghogomu, Nsangou; Umansky, Amy; Lieu, Judith E. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Compare the epidemiology of pediatric Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss before and after implementation of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening in Missouri. Study Design Inception cohort Methods Charts of 134 children born between January 1 1990 and December 31 2007 diagnosed with Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss at a single institution in Missouri were reviewed to determine the effects of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening on age of detection and etiology of hearing loss. Results Mean age of detection declined from 4.4 (SD 1.8) to 2.6 (SD 2.6) years of age while rate of detection by six months of age increased from 3% to 42%. The majority (58%) of cases had normal hearing at birth. The most common etiological category was unknown (41%) before screening and congenital (45%) after screening. The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging has increased by 21% (2-fold) while use of Computed Tomography has declined by 8% since 2002. Yields of Connexin, Pendred, electrocardiogram, and syphilis testing were 0/48 and 2/31 before and after screening respectively. Conclusion Implementation of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening in Missouri is associated with a decrease in age of detection of Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss. The majority of cases are either not present or not detectable at birth. The combination of hearing status at birth and imaging findings suggests that the majority of cases are congenital rather than of unknown etiology. PMID:23553416

  13. Differentiated services with multiple random early detection algorithm using ns2 simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed A. Qadeer; Vikas Sharma; Ankit Agarwal; S. S. Husain

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of random early detection algorithm and differentiated services on ns2. In the present scenario of computer networks the traffic is increasing exponentially due to which packet losses are also increasing at a great rate. An active queue management in routers and gateways can potentially reduce packet loss rates in the Internet. In this paper we

  14. Early attack reaction sensor (EARS), a man-wearable gunshot detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Chang; William Mendyk; Lisa Thier; Paul Yun; Andy LaRow; Scott Shaw; William Schoenborn

    2006-01-01

    The Early Attack Reaction Sensor (EARS) is a modified passive acoustic system that detects gunshots (muzzle blast and\\/or shockwave) to provide the user with relative azimuth and range of sniper fire via both audio alert and visual display. The EARS system consists of a microphone array in a small planar configuration and an equivalently sized Digital Signal Processing board, which

  15. Histochemical detection of glycogen phosphorylase activity as parameter for early ischemic damage in rat heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Frederiks; J. P. M. Schellens; F. Marx; K. S. Bosch; H. Vreeling-Sindelfirovfi

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated whether enzyme histochemical parameters can be applied to detect early ischemic damage in rat heart after ischemia without restoration of the blood flow. Ischemia was induced by incubating heart fragments for 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min at 37°C. The activity and localization of the following enzymes was studied in

  16. A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo Development

    E-print Network

    Gould, Stephen

    A Linear Chain Markov Model for Detection and Localization of Cells in Early Stage Embryo to find individual cell candidates within the em- bryo. These cell candidates are combined into embryo hy applications such as predicting blas- tocyst and can be used for assessing embryos in in vitro fertilization

  17. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys in Chequamegon Bay in support of invasive species early detection research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the impetus and approach for MED invasive species early detection research generally and presents preliminary results concerning benthic composition and non-native species found in the 2013 Chequamegon Bay survey. The audience is a group of researchers...

  19. Early detection of axonal and neuronal lesions in prenatal-onset periventricular leukomalacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Zhen Meng; Yasuhiro Arai; Kimiko Deguchi; Sachio Takashima

    1997-01-01

    The expression of ?-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP) immunoreactivity was investigated in 16 cases of prenatal-onset periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). ?-APP positive axons were found in the early stage of prenatal PVL, which included coagulation necrosis, microglial activation, axonal swelling or astrogliosis, but were not detectable in the late stage of prenatal PVL. Furthermore, ?-APP immunoreactive neurons were also observed in the

  20. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    E-print Network

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  1. Tree crown detection in high resolution optical images during the early growth stages of Eucalyptus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tree crown detection in high resolution optical images during the early growth stages of Eucalyptus resolution images aims to determine the tree positions and crown sizes. In this paper, we use a mathematical-date) has been tested for the first time, which estimates individual tree crown variation during these dates

  2. Early detection of prenatal substance exposure and the role of child welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth K. Anthony; Michael J. Austin; Denicia R. Cormier

    2010-01-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is a public health concern that has potential short- and long-term effects for infants and young children. Ongoing parental substance abuse and the home environment have significant consequences for infant and child development. Pregnancy may be an ideal time to address maternal substance abuse; however, early detection of prenatal substance use is complicated by a number

  3. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  4. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  5. Hierarchical Bayesian Detection Algorithm for Early-Universe Relics in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    McEwen, Jason

    .peiris@ucl.ac.uk #12;2 I. INTRODUCTION The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides our best pictureHierarchical Bayesian Detection Algorithm for Early-Universe Relics in the Cosmic Microwave sources embedded in the cosmic microwave back- ground (CMB) fluctuations. We present a hierarchical

  6. Early detection and the course of glomerular injury in patients with sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Guasch; Millicent Cua; William E Mitch

    1996-01-01

    Early detection and the course of glomerular injury in patients with sickle cell anemia. We performed a cross sectional analysis of glomerular function in 34 adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SSA). Patients were divided according to GFR and albumin excretion rate (AER): SSA controls (normal GFR and AER, N = 10), albuminuria (increased AER, but normal GFR, N =

  7. An Extensible Biomarker Curation Approach and Software Infrastructure for the Early Detection of Cancer

    E-print Network

    Mattmann, Chris

    An Extensible Biomarker Curation Approach and Software Infrastructure for the Early Detection of cancer biomarkers. In this paper, we describe our work building a data collection and curation data through the use of a common information model for cancer biomarker research. We argue

  8. A combined approach for the early detection of ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George L. Adonakis; Evangelos Paraskevaidis; Stamatia Tsiga; Konstantinos Seferiadis; Dimitrios E. Lolis

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the combined procedure including pelvic examination and serum CA-125 determination, as a screening method for the early detection of ovarian cancer. In 2000 women over 45 years old, without any evidence of adnexal disease, pelvic examination and serum CA-125 determination were performed. When either the findings of the pelvic

  9. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  10. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  11. Early detection of malignant skin can-cers, in particular melanoma, is crucial as

    E-print Network

    Drew, Mark S.

    MOTIVATION · Early detection of malignant skin can- cers, in particular melanoma, is crucial). EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS Melanoma Melanin Haemoglobin Geo­mean BCC Spits Nevus Task n Precision Recall F-measure AUC Segmentation 120 0.89 0.90 0.89 ­ Malignant vs. Benign 500 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.95 Melanoma vs. Benign

  12. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  13. An Early Fire Detection Method Based on Smoke Texture Analysis and Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Cui; Hua Dong; Enze Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Texture is an important property of fire smoke, which is a significant signal for early fire detection. This paper describes a method of analyzing the texture of fire smoke combining two innovative texture analysis tools, Wavelet Analysis and Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrices (GLCM). Tree-Structured Wavelet transform is used to represent the textural images and GLCM are used to compute the

  14. Plasma RNA based Early Lung Cancer Detection by Tethered Cationic Lipoplex Assay | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our primary objectives are (1) to optimize the tCLN biochip and to evaluate its performance for capture and detection of 5-6 targeted miRNAs and mRNAs in lung cancer patient plasma, and (2) to conduct pilot scale test using well defined human plasma samples from early lung cancer patients and smokers.

  15. Spatial economic analysis of early detection and rapid response strategies for an invasive species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooks A. Kaiser; Kimberly M. Burnett

    2010-01-01

    Economic impacts from invasive species, conveyed as expected damages to assets from invasion and expected costs of successful prevention and\\/or removal, may vary significantly across spatially differentiated landscapes. We develop a spatial–dynamic model for optimal early detection and rapid response (EDRR) policies, commonly exploited in the management of potential invaders around the world, and apply it to the case of

  16. Original Paper Skin Self-Examination Education for Early Detection of Melanoma

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Original Paper Skin Self-Examination Education for Early Detection of Melanoma: A Randomized Research Center, Alcohol and Skin Cancer Projects, State College, PA, United States 3 Rutgers Cancer seek the care of a physician after discovering their melanoma, an ongoing study will determine

  17. Fiber Optic Micro-endoscopy for Detection of Bacteria in Early Stages of Infection

    E-print Network

    Mufti, Nooman Sadat

    2012-02-14

    site located in the lungs of an animal model, thereby enabling detection of fluorescent bacteria during the early stages of infection. In this thesis, I present a contact probe fiber bundle fluorescence micro-endoscope with a range of LED based...

  18. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGIES FOR EARLY DETECTION SURVEYS IN FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL LANDSCAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In surveys designed for early detection of a pathogen it is typical for a large number of samples to be collected and brought to the laboratory for confirmatory, diagnostic testing, often with PCR or ELISA. When the incidence of the pathogen is expected to be low, group or batch testing is preferred...

  19. Prevention, early detection, and management of complications after 328 consecutive extrapleural pneumonectomies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Sugarbaker; Michael T. Jaklitsch; Raphael Bueno; William Richards; Jeanne Lukanich; Steven J. Mentzer; Yolonda Colson; Phillip Linden; Michael Chang; Leah Capalbo; Elizabeth Oldread; Siyamek Neragi-Miandoab; Scott J. Swanson; Lambros S. Zellos

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveExtrapleural pneumonectomy for therapy of mesothelioma has been associated with significant perioperative mortality and morbidity. Postoperative complications of this procedure require a unique management approach. We developed treatment algorithms for most of the common complications of extrapleural pneumonectomy resulting in reduced mortality and hospital stay. Complications after extrapleural pneumonectomy were further analyzed to elucidate means of prevention, early detection, and

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed S Rahman; Nilesh Ingole; Darren Roblyer; Vanda Stepanek; Rebecca Richards-Kortum; Ann Gillenwater; Surendra Shastri; Pankaj Chaturvedi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an important global need to improve early detection of oral cancer. Recent reports suggest that optical imaging technologies can aid in the identification of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity; however, there is little data evaluating the use of optical imaging modalities in resource limited settings where oral cancer impacts patients disproportionately. In this article, we evaluate

  1. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  2. Auditory training during development mitigates a hearing loss-induced perceptual deficit

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ramanjot; Sarro, Emma C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory experience during early development can shape the central nervous system and this is thought to influence adult perceptual skills. In the auditory system, early induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) leads to deficits in central auditory coding properties in adult animals, and this is accompanied by diminished perceptual thresholds. In contrast, a brief regimen of auditory training during development can enhance the perceptual skills of animals when tested in adulthood. Here, we asked whether a brief period of training during development could compensate for the perceptual deficits displayed by adult animals reared with CHL. Juvenile gerbils with CHL, and age-matched controls, were trained on a frequency modulation (FM) detection task for 4 or 10 days. The performance of each group was subsequently assessed in adulthood, and compared to adults with normal hearing (NH) or adults raised with CHL that did not receive juvenile training. We show that as juveniles, both CHL and NH animals display similar FM detection thresholds that are not immediately impacted by the perceptual training. However, as adults, detection thresholds and psychometric function slopes of these animals were significantly improved. Importantly, CHL adults with juvenile training displayed thresholds that approached NH adults. Additionally, we found that hearing impaired animals trained for 10 days displayed adult thresholds closer to untrained adults than those trained for 4 days. Thus, a relatively brief period of auditory training may compensate for the deleterious impact of hearing deprivation on auditory perception on the trained task. PMID:24772071

  3. Exciting new advances in oral cancer diagnosis: avenues to early detection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma remains poor in spite of advances in therapy of many other malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment remains the key to improved patient survival. Because the scalpel biopsy for diagnosis is invasive and has potential morbidity, it is reserved for evaluating highly suspicious lesions and not for the majority of oral lesions which are clinically not suspicious. Furthermore, scalpel biopsy has significant interobserver and intraobserver variability in the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia. There is an urgent need to devise critical diagnostic tools for early detection of oral dysplasia and malignancy that are practical, noninvasive and can be easily performed in an out-patient set-up. Diagnostic tests for early detection include brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, autofluorescence, salivary proteomics, DNA analysis, biomarkers and spectroscopy. This state of the art review critically examines these tests and assesses their value in identifying oral squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions. PMID:21798030

  4. A frameshift mutation in GRXCR2 causes recessively inherited hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Ayesha; Kohrman, David C.; Naz, Sadaf

    2014-01-01

    More than 360 million humans are affected with some degree of hearing loss, either early or later in life. A genetic cause for the disorder is present in a majority of the cases. We mapped a locus (DFNB101) for hearing loss in humans to chromosome 5q in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Exome sequencing revealed an insertion mutation in GRXCR2 as the cause of moderate to severe and likely progressive hearing loss in the affected individuals of the family. The frameshift mutation is predicted to affect a conserved, cysteine-rich region of GRXCR2, and to result in an abnormal extension of the C-terminus. Functional studies by cell transfections demonstrated that the mutant protein is unstable and mislocalized relative to wild type GRXCR2, consistent with a loss of function mutation. Targeted disruption of Grxcr2 is concurrently reported to cause hearing loss in mice. The structural abnormalities in this animal model suggest a role for GRXCR2 in the development of stereocilia bundles, specialized structures on the apical surface of sensory cells in the cochlea that are critical for sound detection. Our results indicate that GRXCR2 should be considered in differential genetic diagnosis for individuals with early onset, moderate to severe and progressive hearing loss. PMID:24619944

  5. Asymmetric and unilateral hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Lieu, Judith E C

    2015-07-01

    Asymmetric and unilateral hearing losses in children have traditionally been underappreciated, but health care practitioners are now beginning to understand their effect on development and the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. The common wisdom among medical and educational professionals has been that at least one normal-hearing or near-normal-hearing ear was sufficient for typical speech and language development in children. The objective of this review is to illustrate, to the non-otolaryngologist, the consequences of asymmetric and unilateral hearing loss in children on developmental and educational outcomes. Etiology, detection, and management are also discussed. Lastly, implications for further research are considered. PMID:26004144

  6. Detection and Localization of Pre-Cancerous Lesions and Early Lung Cancer Using Tissue Autofluorescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jaclyn Yip-Chan

    In this work, two different yet related hypotheses were tested by experimental means as follows: (i) pre-cancerous and non-invasive (early) lung cancer can be detected and localized using the fluorescence properties of tumour localizing drugs at non-photosensitizing doses to skin tissue; (ii) significant differences exist in laser-induced autofluorescence between normal, pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues such that these differences alone can be exploited to detect and delineate early lung cancer without using exogenous drug(s). Exogenous fluorescent tumour markers such as hematoporphyrin derivatives (e.g. Photofrin) have been used to enhance to detection of occult lung lesions. Photofrin is preferentially retained in tumor tissues compared to the surrounding normal tissues; it fluoresces at 630 nm and 690 nm when excited at -405 nm. Based on this principle several imaging and non-imaging devices have been developed. However, wider clinical applications were limited due to the skin photosensitivity property of Photofrin. We have postulated that this could be solved by employing a much lower dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg) which was believed to be less photosensitizing to human patients. This postulate was experimentally tested by ratio fluorometry and early lung cancers were detected with no false negative results and no apparent skin photosensitivity. An important finding in this study was that the mechanism for detection of early cancer was mainly due to the differences in the green autofluorescence between normal and malignant tissues, rather than fluorescence of tumour localizing drug. This discovery led to the second postulate of this thesis that tissue autofluorescence alone can be exploited for the detection of early lung cancer. The results indicated that algorithm(s) could be developed to clearly delineate early lesions from the normal tissues. Several algorithms were then tested using a non-imaging ratio fluorometer device and a prototype imaging fluorescence system to detect early lung cancer and dysplasia during standard bronchoscopy, therefore confirming the initial hypotheses even in a clinical setting. The major source of the autofluorescence in the normal bronchial tissue was determined to come from the sub-epithelial layers. The mechanism for the decrease in the autofluorescence in pre-malignant and malignant tissues was explored but not yet completely elucidated. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  7. Hearing Loss in Children: Types of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... America Information For... Media Policy Makers Types of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of our hearing. There are four types of hearing loss: Conductive Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by something ...

  8. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by Adults with Hearing Loss Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss Percent of Persons with Hearing Loss[*] Who Have Ever Used Hearing Aids [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ...

  9. Acute autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss associated with Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Bachmeyer; Nathalie Leclerc-Landgraf; Frédéric Laurette; Pierre Coutarel; Jean-François Cadranel; Jacques Médioni; Robin Dhôte; Miette Mougeot-Martin

    1998-01-01

    We report the sudden onset of bilateral hearing loss in a patient with Crohn's disease while the intestinal disease was quiescent. Antibodies directed against collagen type II were detected in the serum. Dramatic improvement of his hearing was observed under corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss was established. This condition could be considered as an extraintestinal manifestation of

  10. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  11. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  12. The effect of early visual deprivation on the development of face detection.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Catherine J; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Lewis, Terri L; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-09-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to 20, patients' accuracy and response times on a Mooney face detection task were normal. Experiment 2 revealed that the neural mechanisms underlying face detection in a similar group of adult patients are abnormal: the amplitude of both the P100 and N170 event-related potential were larger in patients than in visually normal controls, and the extent of augmentation was related to the duration of deprivation. Thus, early visual experience is necessary for the establishment of normal neural networks for face detection; abnormalities at these early processing stages may contribute to the deficits we previously reported in configural face processing for this patient cohort. PMID:24033578

  13. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  14. A rapid method for the detection of early stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, K. A.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, rapid technique for detecting early changes in the arterial vessels of rats and rabbits fed an atherogenic diet is described. After perfusion fixation, the descending thoracic aorta was cytochemically stained with oil red O to detect intracellular lipid and with Hoechst 33342 dye to detect nuclear DNA. The vessels were whole mounted and the luminal surface examined en face using both transmitted light and epifluorescence microscopy. With this technique it is possible to identify and quantitate mononuclear cells adhering to the vessel wall, determine the distribution and number of intimal foam cells within the intima, and determine the mitotic index of the endothelium. Tissue samples can be quickly prepared using this technique, thus allowing rapid analysis of the influence of various substances on the early stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation in animals fed an atherogenic diet. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3202115

  15. Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

    Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

  16. Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Shan, Bohan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore L.

    2014-09-01

    Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

  17. Get Your Hearing Checked

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Screening Tests > Get Your Hearing Checked Get Your Hearing Checked The Basics Take Action! Ver en español ... If you are worried that you might have hearing loss, you aren’t alone. Many people lose ...

  18. Hearing Problems in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    Most children hear and listen from the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them ... United States are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. More lose their hearing later during childhood. Babies ...

  19. Hearing Aids for Children

    MedlinePLUS

    Hearing Aids for Children What do I need to know about hearing aids for my child? To achieve the best results ... it. It is important to understand how hearing aids work and how to select, operate, and care ...

  20. Spatial hearing of normally hearing and cochlear implanted children

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John; Summerfield, A. Quentin; O’Donoghue, Gerard M.; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Spatial hearing uses both monaural and binaural mechanisms that require sensitive hearing for normal function. Deaf children using either bilateral (BCI) or unilateral (UCI) cochlear implants would thus be expected to have poorer spatial hearing than normally hearing (NH) children. However, the relationship between spatial hearing in these various listener groups has not previously been extensively tested under ecologically valid conditions using a homogeneous group of children who are UCI users. We predicted that NH listeners would outperform BCI listeners who would, in turn, outperform UCI listeners. Methods We tested two methods of spatial hearing to provide norms for NH and UCI using children and preliminary data for BCI users. NH children (n = 40) were age matched (6–15 years) to UCI (n = 12) and BCI (n = 6) listeners. Testing used a horizontal ring of loudspeakers within a booth in a hospital outpatient clinic. In a ‘lateral release’ task, single nouns were presented frontally, and masking noises were presented frontally, or 90° left or right. In a ‘localization’ task, allowing head movements, nouns were presented from loudspeakers separated by 30°, 60° or 120° about the midline. Results Normally hearing children improved with age in speech detection in noise, but not in quiet or in lateral release. Implant users performed more poorly on all tasks. For frontal signals and noise, UCI and BCI listeners did not differ. For lateral noise, BCI listeners performed better on both sides (within ?2 dB of NH), whereas UCI listeners benefited only when the noise was opposite the unimplanted ear. Both the BCI and, surprisingly, the UCI listeners performed better than chance at all loudspeaker separations on the ecologically valid, localization task. However, the BCI listeners performed about twice as well and, in two cases, approached the performance of NH children. Conclusion Children using either UCI or BCI have useful spatial hearing. BCI listeners gain benefits on both sides, and localize better, but not as well as NH listeners. PMID:21295863

  1. New polymorphic mtDNA restriction site in the 12S rRNA gene detected in Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emna Mkaouar-Rebai; Abdelaziz Tlili; Saber Masmoudi; Ilhem Charfeddine; Faiza Fakhfakh

    2008-01-01

    The 12S rRNA gene was shown to be a hot spot for aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss since several deafness-associated mtDNA mutations were identified in this gene. Among them, we distinguished the A1555G, the C1494T and the T1095C mutations and C-insertion or deletion at position 961. One hundred Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss and 100 hearing individuals were analysed

  2. Hearing Loss in Children: Delayed Speech and Language Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This information packet presents materials which focus on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children to prevent speech and language delays. A glossary of terms is followed by a summary of results of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference (1993) concerning early identification of hearing

  3. Archeological treasures protection based on early forest wildfire multi-band imaging detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouverneur, B.; Verstockt, S.; Pauwels, E.; Han, J.; de Zeeuw, P. M.; Vermeiren, J.

    2012-10-01

    Various visible and infrared cameras have been tested for the early detection of wildfires to protect archeological treasures. This analysis was possible thanks to the EU Firesense project (FP7-244088). Although visible cameras are low cost and give good results during daytime for smoke detection, they fall short under bad visibility conditions. In order to improve the fire detection probability and reduce the false alarms, several infrared bands are tested ranging from the NIR to the LWIR. The SWIR and the LWIR band are helpful to locate the fire through smoke if there is a direct Line Of Sight. The Emphasis is also put on the physical and the electro-optical system modeling for forest fire detection at short and longer ranges. The fusion in three bands (Visible, SWIR, LWIR) is discussed at the pixel level for image enhancement and for fire detection.

  4. Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  5. Early detection and counselling intervention of asthma symptoms in preschool children: study design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Hafkamp-de Groen; Ashna D Mohangoo; Johan C de Jongste; Johannes C van der Wouden; Henriëtte A Moll; Vincent WV Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Harry J de Koning; Hein Raat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood asthma is an important public health objective. This study evaluates the effectiveness of early detection of preschool children with asthma symptoms, followed by a counselling intervention at preventive child health centres. Early detection and counselling is expected to reduce the prevalence of asthma symptoms and improve health-related quality of life at age 6 years. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This

  6. ITIH3 Is a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Poh Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Shia Loh, Marie Chiew; Wang, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yan So, Jimmy Bok; Lim, Khong Hee; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:20515073

  7. Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2001-10-01

    Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

  8. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

  9. Hearing and music in dementia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Chow, Maggie L

    2015-01-01

    Music is a complex acoustic signal that relies on a number of different brain and cognitive processes to create the sensation of hearing. Changes in hearing function are generally not a major focus of concern for persons with a majority of neurodegenerative diseases associated with dementia, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, changes in the processing of sounds may be an early, and possibly preclinical, feature of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of knowledge concerning hearing and music perception in persons who have a dementia as a result of a neurodegenerative disease. The review focuses on both peripheral and central auditory processing in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on the processing of music and other non-verbal sounds. The chapter also reviews music interventions used for persons with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25726296

  10. 76 FR 13111 - Compassionate Allowances for Autoimmune Disease, Office of the Commissioner; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...These hearings concerned rare diseases, cancers, traumatic brain injury and stroke, early-onset Alzheimer's disease and...schizophrenia, and cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, respectively. We will hold our next hearing on March...

  11. Sudden hearing loss after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with impaired balance, tinnitus, sensation of blockage, and hearing loss in his left ear, which developed after dental treatment for dental pain 4 days previously. Treatment of the carious left upper second molar tooth had included pulp extirpation, canal expansion, and tooth filling under local anesthesia with articaine and epinephrine. Impaired balance decreased spontaneously within 3 days of dental treatment, but tinnitus and hearing loss persisted. Pure tone audiogram showed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear, with a downslope from 40 to 100 dB, and an abnormal speech discrimination score (50%). Treatment included intravenous prednisolone, intratympanic dexamethasone, and oral betahistine and trimetazidine. The patient had improved hearing and resolution of tinnitus. Sudden hearing loss is rare after dental treatment, and awareness of this complication may prompt early referral for treatment and may improve recovery and prognosis. PMID:23642550

  12. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  13. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: The potential role of auditory Gestalt perception

    PubMed Central

    Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian–German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

  14. Factors Influencing the Detectability of Early Warning Signals of Population Collapse.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Drake, John M; Griffiths, Jason I; Ozgul, Arpat

    2015-07-01

    The recent description of potentially generic early warning signals is a promising development that may help conservationists to anticipate a population's collapse prior to its occurrence. So far, the majority of such warning signals documented have been in highly controlled laboratory systems or in theoretical models. Data from wild populations, however, are typically restricted both temporally and spatially due to limited monitoring resources and intrinsic ecological heterogeneity-limitations that may affect the detectability of generic early warning signals, as they add additional stochasticity to population abundance estimates. Consequently, spatial and temporal subsampling may serve to either muffle or magnify early warning signals. Using a combination of theoretical models and analysis of experimental data, we evaluate the extent to which statistical warning signs are robust to data corruption. PMID:26098338

  15. Serum-based DNA methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer: potential for screening and early detection.

    PubMed

    Summers, Thomas; Langan, Russell C; Nissan, Aviram; Brücher, Björn L D M; Bilchik, Anton J; Protic, Mladjan; Daumer, Martin; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Early identification and treatment of pre-cancerous colorectal lesions, or node-negative CRC are highly effective interventions that substantially reduce disease-specific mortality. Colonoscopy remains a highly effective primary screening tool based on its excellent diagnostic accuracy, and its ability to remove pre-cancerous lesions. However, the nature of the procedure limits compliance with colonoscopy intended for population-based CRC screening. A significant advance in the screening and care of these patients could be realized by blood-based biomarkers, which could accurately identify patients at-risk for CRC development whom might benefit from early and/or more frequent surveillance for disease. We reviewed and herein discuss the potential for serum based DNA methylation biomarkers for screening and early detection of CRC. PMID:23459561

  16. [Research on process character information in early fire based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum detection].

    PubMed

    Du, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Ren-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    CO was chosen as an early fire detection factor through analyzing all kinds of characters in the process of fires, and an experiment system was established based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Through this system, lots of early fire experiments were carried out, and the authors got the CO concentrations of all kinds of materials. Using the concentration of CO, an autoregressive integrated model was established by time series analysis, then the process characters phi1 and phi2 were extracted from them. Through analyzing the phase graph of the process characters, it was found that the real fires and the nuisance fires were distributed in different regions. Plenty of experiments indicate that this detection method can discriminate between real fire sources and nuisance sources quickly when fires occur. PMID:18536412

  17. Recent advances in targeted endoscopic imaging: Early detection of gastrointestinal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Cho, Young-Seok; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Ho-Shik; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging has emerged as a new discipline in gastrointestinal endoscopy. This technology encompasses modalities that can visualize disease-specific morphological or functional tissue changes based on the molecular signature of individual cells. Molecular imaging has several advantages including minimal damage to tissues, repetitive visualization, and utility for conducting quantitative analyses. Advancements in basic science coupled with endoscopy have made early detection of gastrointestinal cancer possible. Molecular imaging during gastrointestinal endoscopy requires the development of safe biomarkers and exogenous probes to detect molecular changes in cells with high specificity anda high signal-to-background ratio. Additionally, a high-resolution endoscope with an accurate wide-field viewing capability must be developed. Targeted endoscopic imaging is expected to improve early diagnosis and individual therapy of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:22442742

  18. Emerging Strategies for the Early Detection and Prevention of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Santanu; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K.; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapeutic protocols, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year post therapeutic survival rate is among the lowest of the major cancers with loco-regional relapse being the main cause of death. Moreover, in most instances, the quality of life of the afflicted patient is severely compromised. The poor prognosis for HNSCC is primarily due to disease detection at advanced stages. Accordingly, development of early detection and preventive strategies are essential. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and etiology of HNSCC should facilitate development of improved intervention and therapeutic approaches. The present review discusses the potential role of such factors for developing preventive and early diagnostic strategies for HNSCC management. PMID:21465466

  19. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  20. Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

  1. Early video smoke detection system to improve fire protection in rolling stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Pilato, Luca; Fanucci, Luca

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a video system, operating in the visible spectrum range, for early smoke detection in passenger trains. The main idea is integrating standard smoke sensors with the results of a smoke detection processing, which exploits video surveillance cameras already available on-board the train. To this aim a novel video processing flow is proposed exploiting temporal, spatial and chromatic characteristics of the reference scenario. The proposed algorithm has been successfully verified with several video set and its implementation complexity fully characterized.

  2. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  3. Pacific herring hearing does not include ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mann, David A; Popper, Arthur N; Wilson, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some clupeid fishes, including shad and menhaden, can detect ultrasound (sound with frequencies higher than 20?kHz) and actively avoid it. However, other clupeids, including sardines and anchovies, do not detect ultrasound. The hearing abilities of herring are of particular interest because of their commercial importance, our reliance on acoustics to monitor their populations and behavioural evidence of responses to high-frequency sound by some clupeid species. We measured the hearing sensitivity of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) using the auditory brainstem response and found that they were unable to detect ultrasonic signals at received levels up to 185?dB re 1??Pa. Herring had hearing thresholds at lower frequencies (100–5000?Hz) that were typical of other non-ultrasound?detecting clupeids. This lower?frequency hearing sensitivity could explain the results of several earlier studies showing responses to broadband sounds. PMID:17148154

  4. Load Early Detection (LED): A Congestion Control Algorithm Based on Routers' Traffic Load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjan Durresi; Leonard Barolli; Mukundan Sridharan; Sriram Chellappan; Raj Jain

    2006-01-01

    Efficient bandwidth allocation and low delays remain important goals, especially in high- speed networks. Existing end-to-end congestion control schemes (such as TCP+AQM\\/RED) have significant limitations to achieve these goals. In this paper, we present a new and sim- ple congestion control scheme, called Load Early Detection (LED), that achieves high link efficiency and low persistent queue length. The major novelty

  5. Microwave imaging via space-time beamforming for early detection of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essex J. Bond; Xu Li; Susan C. Hagness; Barry D. Van Veen

    2002-01-01

    A backscatter-based microwave imaging technique that compensates for frequency-dependent propagation effects is proposed for detecting early-stage breast cancer. An array of antennas is located near the surface of the breast and an ultrawideband pulse is transmitted sequentially from each antenna. The received backscattered signals are passed through a space-time beamformer that is designed to image backscattered signal energy as a

  6. Fetal calf serum in growth medium obscures the detection of early anticardiolipin antibody secreting clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanj Menon; David A. Isenberg

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) on the detection of early anticardiolipin antibody (ACL) secreting clones, using two well-established human IgG clones, LJ1 and AH2. By plating cells at 50\\/well and growing both clones simultaneously in standard growth (SG) medium containing 10% FCS, and in serum-free (SF) medium, we were able to measure by ELISA the

  7. The Smoke Detection for Early Fire-Alarming System Base on Video Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thou-Ho Chen; Yen-Hui Yin; Shi-Feng Huang; Yan-Ting Ye

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an smoke-detection method for early fire-alarming system based on video processing. The basic strategy of smoke-pixel judgment is composed of two decision rules: a chromaticity-based static decision rule and a diffusion-based dynamic characteristic decision rule. The chromatic decision rule is deduced by grayish color of smoke and dynamic decision rule is dependent on the spreading attributes of

  8. Role of biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer and chemoprevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Hirsch; D. T. Merrick; W. A. Franklin

    2002-01-01

    Role of biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer and chemoprevention. F.R. Hirsch, D.T. Merrick, W.A. Franklin. #ERS Journals Ltd 2002. ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. The poor prognosis associated with this disease is closely related to the fact that most lung cancer patients are not identified until their malignancy has reached

  9. Early detection and monitoring of fatigue in high strength steels with MWM-Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Zilberstein; D. Grundy; V. Weiss; N. Goldfine; E. Abramovici; J. Newman; T. Yentzer

    2005-01-01

    Fatigue monitoring of cyclically loaded shot peened high-strength steel components can be accomplished via magnetic permeability measurements during laboratory tests or in service. These measurements can be performed either continuously using permanently mounted Meandering Winding Magnetometer Arrays (MWM®-Arrays) or intermittently with scanning MWM-Arrays. The results obtained to date suggest that MWM-Array permeability measurements can provide early detection of fatigue damage

  10. Early Detection of Cervical Cancer among Native American Women: A Qualitative Supplement to a Quantitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne Messer; Allan Steckler; Mark Dignan

    1999-01-01

    The North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year (1989-1995) National Cancer Institute–funded, community-based, early detection of cervical cancer intervention implemented among two Native American tribes in North Carolina: the eastern band of the Cherokee Indians and the Lumbee. The initial quantitative analysis of the intervention showed modest effects and found that the intervention had different effects

  11. CB detection and early warning--fusing disparate sensors into the detection process: program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birenzvige, Amnon; Sickenberger, David W.; Reyes, Felix; Underwood, William J.; Reiff, Christian G.; Gonski, David; Fargues, Monique P.; Nelson, Bruce N.

    2003-04-01

    Improved situational awareness is a primary goal for the Objective Force. Knowing where the enemy is and what are the threats to his troops provides the commander with the information he needs to plan his mission and provide his forces with maximum protection from the variety of threats that are present on the battlefield. Sensors play an important role in providing critical information to enhance situational awareness. The sensors that are used on the battlefield include, among others, seismic, acoustic, and cameras in different spectral ranges of the electro-magnetic spectrum. These sensors help track enemy movement and serve as part of an intrusion detection system. Characteristically these sensors are relatively cheap and easy to deploy. Chemical and biological agent detection is currently relegated to sensors that are specifically designed to detect these agents. Many of these sensors are collocated with the troops. By the time alarm is sounded the troops have already been exposed to the agent. In addition, battlefield contaminants frequently interfere with the performance of these sensors and result in false alarms. Since operating in a contaminated environment requires the troops to don protective garments that interfere with their performance we need to reduce false alarms to an absolute minimum. The Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) is currently conducting a study to examine the possibility of detecting chemical and biological weapons as soon as they are deployed. For that purpose we conducted a field test in which the acoustic, seismic and electro-magnetic signatures of conventional and simulated chemical / biological artillery 155mm artillery shells were recorded by an array of corresponding sensors. Initial examination of the data shows a distinct differences in the signatures of these weapons. In this paper we will provide detailed description of the test procedures. We will describe the various sensors used and describe the differences in the signatures generated by the conventional and the (simulated) chemical rounds. This paper will be followed by other papers that will provide more details information gained by the various sensors and describe how fusing the data enhance the reliability of the CB detection process.

  12. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Armin; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to terrorists because animal disease agents are easily available. This review addresses the vulnerabilities of the livestock industry to agroterrorism. However, we also show that early detection systems have recently been developed for agroterrorism and deliberate spread of animal pathogens in livestock, including an agroterrorism intelligence cycle, syndromic surveillance programs, and computer-based clinical decision support systems that can be used for early detection of notifiable animal diseases. The development of DIVA-vaccines in the past 10 to 15 years has created, in principle, an excellent response instrument to counter intentional animal disease outbreaks. These developments have made our animal agriculture less vulnerable to agroterrorism. But we cannot relax; there are still many challenges, in particular with respect to integration of first line of defense, law enforcement, and early detection systems for animal diseases. PMID:23971814

  13. Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

    2015-04-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. PMID:25688116

  14. [Study on the early detection of Sclerotinia of Brassica napus based on combinational-stimulated bands].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Feng, Lei; Lou, Bing-gan; Sun, Guang-ming; Wang, Lian-ping; He, Yong

    2010-07-01

    The combinational-stimulated bands were used to develop linear and nonlinear calibrations for the early detection of sclerotinia of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Eighty healthy and 100 Sclerotinia leaf samples were scanned, and different preprocessing methods combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied to develop partial least squares (PLS) discriminant models, multiple linear regression (MLR) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. The results indicated that the optimal full-spectrum PLS model was achieved by direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC), then De-trending and Raw spectra with correct recognition ratio of 100%, 95.7% and 95.7%, respectively. When using combinational-stimulated bands, the optimal linear models were SPA-MLR (DOSC) and SPA-PLS (DOSC) with correct recognition ratio of 100%. All SPA-LSSVM models using DOSC, De-trending and Raw spectra achieved perfect results with recognition of 100%. The overall results demonstrated that it was feasible to use combinational-stimulated bands for the early detection of Sclerotinia of oilseed rape, and DOSC-SPA was a powerful way for informative wavelength selection. This method supplied a new approach to the early detection and portable monitoring instrument of sclerotinia. PMID:20828003

  15. Recommendations for screening and early detection of common cancers in India.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Anderson, Benjamin O; Basu, Partha; Belinson, Jerome L; Cruz, Anil D'; Dhillon, Preet K; Gupta, Prakash; Jawahar, Tenkasi S; Joshi, Niranjan; Kailash, Uma; Kapambwe, Sharon; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Panda, Dharitri; Sankaranarayanan, R; Selvam, Jerard M; Shah, Keerti V; Shastri, Surendra; Shridhar, Krithiga; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Sivaram, Sudha; Seth, Tulika; Srivastava, Anurag; Trimble, Edward; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2015-07-01

    Cancers of the breast, uterine cervix, and lip or oral cavity are three of the most common malignancies in India. Together, they account for about 34% of more than 1 million individuals diagnosed with cancer in India each year. At each of these cancer sites, tumours are detectable at early stages when they are most likely to be cured with standard treatment protocols. Recognising the key role that effective early detection and screening programmes could have in reducing the cancer burden, the Indian Institute for Cytology and Preventive Oncology, in collaboration with the US National Cancer Institute Center for Global Health, held a workshop to summarise feasible options and relevant evidence for screening and early detection of common cancers in India. The evidence-based recommendations provided in this Review are intended to act as a guide for policy makers, clinicians, and public health practitioners who are developing and implementing strategies in cancer control for the three most common cancers in India. PMID:26149887

  16. Emerging Roles for Multimodal Optical Imaging in Early Cancer Detection: A Global Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Noah; Pierce, Mark; El-Naggar, Adel; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies have become increasingly important in the clinical management of cancer, and now play key roles in cancer screening, diagnosis, staging, and monitoring response to treatment. Standard imaging modalities such as MRI, PET, and CT require significant financial resources and infrastructure, which limits access to these modalities to those patients in high-resource settings. In contrast, optical imaging strategies, with the potential for reduced cost and enhanced portability, are emerging as additional tools to facilitate the early detection and diagnosis of cancer. This article presents a vision for an expanding role for optical imaging in global cancer management, including screening, early detection at the point-of-care, biopsy guidance, and real-time histology. Multi-modal optical imaging – the combination of widefield and high resolution imaging - has the potential to aid in the detection and management of precancer and early cancer for traditionally underserved populations. Several recent widefield and high-resolution optical imaging technologies are described, along with requirements for implementing such devices into lower-resource settings. PMID:20218743

  17. [Hearing preservation: Better hearing with advanced technology].

    PubMed

    Rader, T; Helbig, S; Stöver, T; Baumann, U

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation allows patients the synergetic use of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). The application of specific surgical and therapeutic techniques enables the reduction of inner ear trauma, which leads otherwise to complete hearing loss. Due to simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation, speech understanding is improved especially in noise. EAS is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for subjects with profound hearing loss in the higher frequencies and no or mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. Several Manufacturers offer individual soft electrodes specially designed for hearing preservation as well as combined electric-acoustic audio processors. PMID:24782208

  18. Plasma miRNAs as early biomarkers for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yang; Han, Jing; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Jing; Xia, Yongxiang; Liu, Jibin; Jiang, Yue; Dai, Juncheng; Lu, Jianhua; Jin, Guangfu; Han, Jiali; Wei, Qingyi; Shen, Hongbing; Sun, Beicheng; Hu, Zhibin

    2015-10-01

    The early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presents a challenge because of the lack of specific biomarkers. Serum/plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) can discriminate HCC patients from controls. We aimed to identify and evaluate HCC-associated plasma miRNAs originating from the liver as early biomarkers for detecting HCC. In this multicenter three-phase study, we first performed screening using both plasma (HCC before and after liver transplantation or liver hepatectomy) and tissue samples (HCC, para-carcinoma and cirrhotic tissues). Then, we evaluated the diagnostic potential of the miRNAs in two case-control studies (training and validation sets). Finally, we used two prospective cohorts to test the potential of the identified miRNAs for the early detection of HCC. During the screening phase, we identified ten miRNAs, eight of which (miR-20a-5p, miR-25-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-132-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-320a and miR-324-3p) were significantly overexpressed in the HBV-positive HCC patients compared with the HBV-positive cancer-free controls in both the training and validation sets, with a sensitivity of 0.866 and specificity of 0.646. Furthermore, we assessed the potential for early HCC detection of these eight newly identified miRNAs and three previously reported miRNAs (miR-192-5p, miR-21-5p and miR-375) in two prospective cohorts. Our meta-analysis revealed that four miRNAs (miR-20a-5p, miR-320a, miR-324-3p and miR-375) could be used as preclinical biomarkers (pmeta ?early detection biomarker for HCC screening. PMID:25845839

  19. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: An Otologic Emergency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vijayendra; Greeshma Buggaveeti; Bhavin Parikh; R. Sangitha

    The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of steroids, volume expanders and antivirals in the management of idiopathic\\u000a sudden sensory neural hearing loss and to establish importance of early medical intervention. In this prospective study, thirty-four\\u000a patients presenting with idiopathic sudden hearing loss of 30 db or more were enrolled in study group between 2005 and 2009.\\u000a Patient variables as

  20. Screening for Hearing Loss in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Glenn C.

    1981-01-01

    Hearing loss in infants has severe, lifelong consequences. The critical period for speech and language development is from birth to age two, so every effort must be made to diagnose hearing problems early. Several simple screening and testing procedures can be carried out in a normal office visit. The use of a ‘high risk registry’ is advocated for newborns. Parents are usually the first to suspect a problem. Believe the parents... get the child tested. PMID:21289801

  1. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations. PMID:21263171

  2. Symbolic time series analysis of ultrasonic data for early detection of fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shalabh; Ray, Asok; Keller, Eric

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel analytical tool for early detection of fatigue damage in polycrystalline alloys that are commonly used in mechanical structures. Time series data of ultrasonic sensors have been used for anomaly detection in the statistical behaviour of structural materials, where the analysis is based on the principles of symbolic dynamics and automata theory. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated relative to existing pattern recognition tools, such as neural networks and principal component analysis, for detection of small changes in the statistical characteristics of the observed data sequences. This concept is experimentally validated on a special-purpose test apparatus for 7075-T6 aluminium alloy specimens, where the anomalies accrue from small fatigue crack growth.

  3. Evaluation of serological tests for the detection of pseudorabies gE antibodies during early infection.

    PubMed

    Kinker, D R; Swenson, S L; Wu, L L; Zimmerman, J J

    1997-04-01

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA) were compared for their ability to detect antibodies against pseudorabies virus (Aujeszky's disease virus) glycoprotein E (gE) in the early stages of infection in pigs previously vaccinated with gE-deleted pseudorabies vaccines. Seventy pigs were included in the study. Five groups of 6 pigs each were vaccinated with one of 5 different pseudorabies virus (PRV) gE-deleted vaccines, and subsequently infected intranasally with 10(5.6) TCID50 of the Iowa 4892 pneumotropic strain of PRV. This entire procedure was repeated using 10(4.6) TCID50 of the Rice strain of PRV. Five unvaccinated control pigs were also challenged with each virus strain. Three control pigs died before seroconverting, leaving 67 pigs for comparison. Blood samples were drawn from experimentally inoculated pigs on the day of vaccination, the day of challenge, and on 4-10, 14, and 21 days postchallenge (DPC). Serology test sensitivity estimates and comparisons among tests were made for each sampling day. Results of this study demonstrated differences among the tests in the time from inoculation to initial antibody detection, and the time to detect 50% and 75% of the infected pigs. The average time until first detection of pigs as seropositive for gE antibodies by PCFIA was 7.5 DPC. The blocking ELISA detected pigs as seropositive an average of 8.8 DPC, and the indirect ELISA first detected gE antibodies by 9.3 DPC. Fifty percent of the pigs were detected as seropositive by days 7, 8, and 9 for the PCFIA, blocking ELISA, and indirect ELISA, respectively. Similarly, 75% of the pigs were detected as seropositive by days 8, 9, and 10 for the PCFIA, blocking ELISA, and indirect ELISA, respectively. All pigs were detected as seropositive by 14 DPC for all 3 tests. PMID:9220601

  4. A nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak early detection and rapid response in China

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yajia; Wang, Jinfeng; Ma, Jiaqi; Jin, Lianmei; Sun, Qiao; Lv, Wei; Lai, Shengjie; Liao, Yilan; Hu, Wenbiao

    2011-01-01

    Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS) started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real-time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and transmit information either in real time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country. PMID:23908878

  5. Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Andreas O. H.

    2010-01-01

    Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task. PMID:22073093

  6. Plasticity in human directional hearing.

    PubMed

    Javer, A R; Schwarz, D W

    1995-04-01

    Interaural time difference (ITD), the main cue for localization of low-frequency sound in azimuth, is widely thought to be evaluated according to Jeffress' model. This theory proposes that each of an array of neurons detects coinciding input from both ears, conducted along axonal delay lines, with the azimuth angle corresponding to the activation of selected neurons. Thus, sound source localization is assumed to depend on axon conduction velocities, a relatively fixed parameter. Clinical experience suggests that directional hearing is adaptable. We investigated if sound localization in azimuth could adapt plastically to altered ITDs. We equipped binaural insert hearing aids with adjustable electronic delay lines. Subjects with normal hearing were required to wear these devices during all waking hours for several days. Localization of an invisible sound source was measured in an anechoic room before and at various intervals after introduction of a constant delay in one ear between 171 and 684 mus. Test sounds were high-pass, low-pass and broad-band noises. Introduction of a delay in one ear lead to an immediate displacement of the perceived sound location towards the opposite side. Within hours of exposure, the displacement was reduced, and further normalization of the perceived localization occurred over several days. After removal of the delays sound localization normalized rapidly. We conclude that ITD alterations can lead to plastic adaptation of directional hearing, which cannot rely exclusively on fixed axon conduction velocities. Our results suggest additional mechanisms for directional hearing on the basis ITD. PMID:7602671

  7. Compound Heterozygosity of the Functionally Null Cdh23v-ngt and Hypomorphic Cdh23ahl Alleles Leads to Early-onset Progressive Hearing Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Yuki; Suzuki, Sari; Ohshiba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kei; Sagara, Yoshihiko; Yasuda, Shumpei P.; Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Kominami, Ryo; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    The waltzer (v) mouse mutant harbors a mutation in Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) and is a model for Usher syndrome type 1D, which is characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and prepubertal onset of progressive retinitis pigmentosa. In mice, functionally null Cdh23 mutations affect stereociliary morphogenesis and the polarity of both cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In contrast, the murine Cdh23ahl allele, which harbors a hypomorphic mutation, causes an increase in susceptibility to age-related hearing loss in many inbred strains. We produced congenic mice by crossing mice carrying the v niigata (Cdh23v-ngt) null allele with mice carrying the hypomorphic Cdh23ahl allele on the C57BL/6J background, and we then analyzed the animals’ balance and hearing phenotypes. Although the Cdh23v-ngt/ahl compound heterozygous mice exhibited normal vestibular function, their hearing ability was abnormal: the mice exhibited higher thresholds of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and rapid age-dependent elevation of ABR thresholds compared with Cdh23ahl/ahl homozygous mice. We found that the stereocilia developed normally but were progressively disrupted in Cdh23v-ngt/ahl mice. In hair cells, CDH23 localizes to the tip links of stereocilia, which are thought to gate the mechanoelectrical transduction channels in hair cells. We hypothesize that the reduction of Cdh23 gene dosage in Cdh23v-ngt/ahl mice leads to the degeneration of stereocilia, which consequently reduces tip link tension. These findings indicate that CDH23 plays an important role in the maintenance of tip links during the aging process. PMID:24172198

  8. Very Early Optical Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Evidence for Relative Paucity of Detection

    E-print Network

    P. W. A. Roming; P. Schady; D. B. Fox; B. Zhang; E. Liang; K. O. Mason; E. Rol; D. N. Burrows; A. J. Blustin; P. T. Boyd; P. Brown; S. T. Holland; K. McGowan; W. B. Landsman; K. L. Page; J. E. Rhoads; S. R. Rosen; D. Vanden Berk; S. D. Barthelmy; A. A. Breeveld; A. Cucchiara; M. De Pasquale; E. E. Fenimore; N. Gehrels; C. Gronwall; D. Grupe; M. R. Goad; M. Ivanushkina; C. James; J. A. Kennea; S. Kobayashi; V. Mangano; P. Meszaros; A. N. Morgan; J. A. Nousek; J. P. Osborne; D. M. Palmer; T. Poole; M. D. Still; G. Tagliaferri; S. Zane

    2006-08-16

    Very early observations with the Swift satellite of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows reveal that the optical component is not detected in a large number of cases. This is in contrast to the bright optical flashes previously discovered in some GRBs (e.g. GRB 990123 and GRB 021211). Comparisons of the X-ray afterglow flux to the optical afterglow flux and prompt gamma-ray fluence is used to quantify the seemingly deficient optical, and in some cases X-ray, light at these early epochs. This comparison reveals that some of these bursts appear to have higher than normal gamma-ray efficiencies. We discuss possible mechanisms and their feasibility for explaining the apparent lack of early optical emission. The mechanisms considered include: foreground extinction, circumburst absorption, Ly-alpha blanketing and absorption due to high redshift, low density environments, rapid temporal decay, and intrinsic weakness of the reverse shock. Of these, foreground extinction, circumburst absorption, and high redshift provide the best explanations for most of the non-detections in our sample. There is tentative evidence of suppression of the strong reverse shock emission. This could be because of a Poynting-flux-dominated flow or a pure non-relativistic hydrodynamical reverse shock.

  9. Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Natalie Sheng Jie; Hamed, Zaribafzadeh; Yeow, Chen Hua; Chan, Casey; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of applying polarized Raman spectroscopy in probing the early biochemical compositions and orientation changes in impacted porcine cartilage explants. We divide 100 fresh tibial cartilage explants into four groups: control (unimpacted) and 3 groups of single impact at 15, 20, and 25 MPa. Each group is examined for biochemical changes using Raman microscopy, cell viability changes using confocal fluorescence microscopy, and histological changes using the modified Mankin score. For the 15-MPa impact group, the modified Mankin score (p > 0.05, n = 15) and cell viability test (p > 0.05, n = 5) reveal no significant changes when compared to the control, but polarized Raman spectroscopy detects significant biochemical changes. A significant decrease in the parallel polarized intensity of the pyranose ring band at 1126 cm-1 suggests a possible decrease in the glycoaminoglycan content in early cartilage damage (one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferonni test, p < 0.05, n = 10). For impacts greater than 15 MPa, cell viability and modified Mankin score are consistent with the changes in the observed polarized Raman signals. This suggests that the polarized Raman spectroscopy technique has potential for diagnosis and detection of early cartilage damage at the molecular level.

  10. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer. PMID:26171415

  11. Nanoparticle-facilitated functional and molecular imaging for the early detection of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivasubramanian, Maharajan; Hsia, Yu; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer detection in its early stages is imperative for effective cancer treatment and patient survival. In recent years, biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and ultrasound have been greatly developed and have served pivotal roles in clinical cancer management. Molecular imaging (MI) is a non-invasive imaging technique that monitors biological processes at the cellular and sub-cellular levels. To achieve these goals, MI uses targeted imaging agents that can bind targets of interest with high specificity and report on associated abnormalities, a task that cannot be performed by conventional imaging techniques. In this respect, MI holds great promise as a potential therapeutic tool for the early diagnosis of cancer. Nevertheless, the clinical applications of targeted imaging agents are limited due to their inability to overcome biological barriers inside the body. The use of nanoparticles has made it possible to overcome these limitations. Hence, nanoparticles have been the subject of a great deal of recent studies. Therefore, developing nanoparticle-based imaging agents that can target tumors via active or passive targeting mechanisms is desirable. This review focuses on the applications of various functionalized nanoparticle-based imaging agents used in MI for the early detection of cancer. PMID:25988156

  12. 20 CFR 702.344 - Formal hearings; record of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PROCEDURE Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.344 Formal hearings; record of hearing. All formal hearings shall be open to the...exhibits, and any other pertinent document or record, in whole or in...

  13. A Sensitive Period for the Impact of Hearing Loss on Auditory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Buran, Bradley N.; Sarro, Emma C.; Manno, Francis A. M.; Kang, Ramanjot; Caras, Melissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Manipulations of the sensory environment typically induce greater changes to the developing nervous system than they do in adulthood. The relevance of these neural changes can be evaluated by examining the age-dependent effects of sensory experience on quantitative measures of perception. Here, we measured frequency modulation (FM) detection thresholds in adult gerbils and investigated whether diminished auditory experience during development or in adulthood influenced perceptual performance. Bilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) of ?30 dB was induced either at postnatal day 10 or after sexual maturation. All animals were then trained as adults to detect a 5 Hz FM embedded in a continuous 4 kHz tone. FM detection thresholds were defined as the minimum deviation from the carrier frequency that the animal could reliably detect. Normal-hearing animals displayed FM thresholds of 25 Hz. Inducing CHL, either in juvenile or adult animals, led to a deficit in FM detection. However, this deficit was greater for juvenile onset hearing loss (89 Hz) relative to adult onset hearing loss (64 Hz). The effects could not be attributed to sensation level, nor were they correlated with proxies for attention. The thresholds displayed by CHL animals were correlated with shallower psychometric function slopes, suggesting that hearing loss was associated with greater variance of the decision variable, consistent with increased internal noise. The results show that decreased auditory experience has a greater impact on perceptual skills when initiated at an early age and raises the possibility that altered development of CNS synapses may play a causative role. PMID:24501366

  14. Progress in identifying infants with hearing loss—United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tonya R; Alam, Suhana; Gaffney, Marcus

    2015-04-10

    Congenital hearing loss affects one to three of every 1,000 live born infants and negatively impacts children through delayed speech, language, social, and emotional development when undetected. To address this public health issue, jurisdiction-based Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs are working to ensure all newborns are screened for hearing loss, receive follow-up diagnostic testing (DX) if they do not pass the screening, and are enrolled in early intervention (EI) services if diagnosed with a permanent hearing loss. Although substantial progress has been made in the provision and documentation of services, challenges remain because, unlike screening results, diagnostic test results and enrollment in EI are not consistently reported to the EHDI programs. Therefore, it is difficult for states and territories to know if infants received recommended follow-up services (diagnostic testing and/or EI services), often resulting in infants being classified at either stage as lost to follow-up (LFU)/lost to documentation (LTD). To assess progress toward identifying children with hearing loss and reducing LFU/LTD for DX (LFU/LTD-DX) and EI enrollment (LFU/LTD-EI), CDC analyzed EHDI surveillance data for 2006-2012. Results indicated that the number of jurisdictions reporting data increased from 49 to 57, rates of screening increased from 95.2% to 96.6%, rates of referral from screening decreased from 2.3% to 1.6%, rates of diagnosis among infants not passing their final screening increased from 4.8% to 10.3%, and enrollment in EI among children diagnosed with hearing loss increased from 55.4% to 61.7%, whereas rates for both LFU/LTD-DX and LFU/LTD-EI declined. These findings show sustained progress toward screening, identification, and enrollment in EI as well as highlighting the need for continued improvements in the provision and documentation of EHDI services. PMID:25856256

  15. Universal newborn hearing screening program in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Rouev, P; Mumdzhiev, H; Spiridonova, J; Dimov, P

    2004-06-01

    The design of a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Program (UNHSP) depends on many factors unique to each hospital. The goal of any UNHSP is to perform a valid hearing screening on all newborn infants prior to hospital discharge. Ultimately hearing screening of all infants should decrease the age at which intervention is initiated in these who require it. It is clear that there is no "one" model for UNHSPs. Each program must carefully consider what type and severity of hearing loss it wishes to identify. Then, based on available screening tools, program philosophy, prior experience, personnel, typical maternity length of stay, etc., an appropriate protocol must be developed. We present our protocol for detection and confirmation of hearing loss, and for habilitation of deaf children. For detection the hearing loss we used the automated auditory brainstem response (ABR) delivery system (A-ABR), and we confirm this with conventional non-automated ABR delivery system (BERA). The healthy babies we screen after 6h of age using a simultaneous 35-dB nHL screening option available on the Newborn Hearing Screener ALGO-2. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) babies we screen prior to discharge using all options of the ALGO-2. The "refer" ALGO-2 results are immediately retested. Infants in need of an outpatient screen are recalled at age 3-4 weeks. The diagnosis "hearing loss" is determinate only by BERA and the neonatal hearing screening is the first part of program of habilitation of hearing-impaired children. The cost for UNHSP in Bulgaria is 1407 euro per case identified. PMID:15126022

  16. Difficulties in Early Ice Detection with the Small Ice Detector-2 HIAPER (SID-2H) in Maritime Cumuli

    E-print Network

    Lasher-Trapp, Sonia

    The Small Ice Detector, version 2 (SID-2), High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER; SID-2H) was used to detect small ice particles in the early stages of ice formation in the high ...

  17. Name Program Description Issuing Institute Due Date # of pages Amount Duration The Early Detection Research Network: Biomarker

    E-print Network

    Research Network: Biomarker Developmental Laboratories (U01) Discovery, development, characterization, and testing of biomarkers of early cancer or risk; Development of relevant technologies for biomarker detection; development of analytical tools for the evaluation of biomarkers. Collaborative interaction

  18. Early detection of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger on table grapes: a tool for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, F; Reverberi, M; Ricelli, A; D'Onghia, A M; Yaseen, T

    2010-09-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate are the main fungal contaminants of table grapes. Besides their ability to cause black rot, they can produce ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that has attracted increasing attention worldwide. The objective of this work was to set up a simple and rapid molecular method for the early detection of both fungi in table grapes before fungal development becomes evident. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays were developed by designing species-specific primers based on the polyketide synthases (PKS(S)) sequences of A. carbonarius and A. niger that have recently been demonstrated to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. Three table grape varieties (Red globe, Crimson seedless, and Italia) were inoculated with A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate strains producing OTA. The extracted DNA from control (non-inoculated) and inoculated grapes was amplified by PCR using ACPKS2F-ACPKS2R for A. carbonarius and ANPKS5-ANPKS6 for A. niger aggregate. Both primers allowed a clear detection, even in symptomless samples. PCR-based methods are considered to be a good alternative to traditional diagnostic means for the early detection of fungi in complex matrix for their high specificity and sensitivity. The results obtained could be useful for the definition of a 'quality label' for tested grapes to improve the safety measures taken to guarantee the production of fresh table grapes. PMID:20582777

  19. Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

  20. Testicular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection.

    PubMed Central

    Friman, P C; Finney, J W; Glasscock, S G; Weigel, J W; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Testicular self-examination (TSE) can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer, the third leading cause of death in young men. We evaluated the effectiveness of a brief and specific checklist for teaching TSE skills. Ten men were videotaped while performing testicular self-examinations before and after training. The TSE training resulted in large and significant increases in the number of TSE steps completed and duration of the TSE. Two urological validation measures supported the improvements observed in the mens' self-examinations. Subjects reported continued performance of TSE during a follow-up telephone interview. This pilot study indicates that a brief and specific checklist is an effective strategy for teaching early cancer detection skills. PMID:3710951

  1. Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2009-05-01

    In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

  2. National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).

    PubMed

    Juriši?, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitre?i?, Drago; Cvitkovi?, Ante

    2014-09-01

    Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25420380

  3. Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dinesh V; Tupkari, Jagdish V

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of routine Papanicolaou stain (PAP) and Silver stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) staining in brush biopsies taken from suspected oral lesions for early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Brush biopsies were collected from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral cavity of 34 patients and 10 normal-aged and sex-matched controls. The numbers of AgNORs were counted in 100 squamous epithelial cell nuclei per slide after silver staining of the smears (Ploton’s one-step method). Results: Sensitivity and specificity of PAP analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 91.176% and 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% and 76.92%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of AgNOR analysis in the oral smears for detection of oral cancer and normal cells was 100%. The positive and negative prediction values were 100% each. Conclusion: Based on the above facts, we conclude that brush biopsy in conjunction with AgNOR staining is an easily practicable, non-invasive, safe and accurate screening method for the detection of macroscopically suspicious oral cancerous lesions. Because of its simple technique and high reliability for cellular proliferation, AgNOR staining in brush smears can be used as an adjunct to other routine cytological diagnoses for the early detection of oral cancer. However, further investigations with more number of study samples will be needed to establish this correlation beyond doubt. PMID:21731263

  4. The need for standardization of methods for worldwide infant hearing screening: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Somefun, Abayomi O; Swanepoel, De Wet

    2008-10-01

    No uniform case definition presently exists for infant hearing screening programs worldwide especially for minimal hearing loss (HL). This article systematically reviewed the current practices in developing countries for programs aimed at early detection of "disabling" congenital and early-onset HL and found significant variations which undermine comparability of key findings in the reported studies. Implications for the exclusion of minimal HL are explored within the context of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization and its adapted version for children and youth (ICF-CY). A revised World Health Organization classification that accounts for all categories of HL based on ICF-CY may provide a suitable framework for improved uniformity in reporting standards. PMID:18806479

  5. A Clinical Analysis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Lee, You Jae; Kang, Bo Sung; Lee, Ji Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives High-dose systemic steroid therapy is the mainstay treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Recovery rates from SSNHL range are about 47-63% and are influenced by various prognostic factors. To evaluate the prognostic value of specific clinical parameters, we reviewed 289 cases by clinical and statistical analysis. Subjects and Methods This study included 289 patients with SSNHL who visited the Department of Otolaryngology at Soonchunhyang University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2012. The cases were reviewed retrospectively based on clinical charts. Hearing improvement was evaluated in relation to pure-tone audiogram results, duration between SSNHL onset and time of initial treatment, seasonal incidence, dizziness, patient age, degree of hearing loss, patterns of initial pure-tone audiogram and presence of underlying disease. Results Hearing improvement was observed in 196 of 289 (67.8%) patients; such improvement began within 7 days in most patients, followed by rapid hearing recovery. Cases that failed to show improvement within 14 days were unlikely to achieve hearing recovery. The more severe the hearing loss during the early stage, the lower the hearing recovery rates. Patients aged less than 60 years appear to have better prognosis of hearing improvement compared to those who are over 60 years. Conclusions Important prognostic factors for recovery in patients with SSNHL include the time of initiating treatment after symptom onset, the degree of early-stage hearing loss, and the age of the affected patient. PMID:25279228

  6. CVPR 2009 Submission #****. CONFIDENTIAL REVIEW COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Automated Feature Extraction for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in

    E-print Network

    Mittal, Anurag

    COPY. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE. Automated Feature Extraction for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy images can as- sist in early diagnosis and screening of a common dis- ease:Diabetic Retinopathy. A robust Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common retinal compli- cation associated with diabetes. It is a major cause

  7. News Note: Multi-center Study Validates ProPSA Test for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Past studies have found a form of free PSA, called proenzyme PSA (pro-PSA), to be elevated in cancerous prostate tissue. Results from a multi-center study, supported by the NCI Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), have validated proPSA as a detector of early stage prostate cancer.

  8. Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies in the Perth Abyssal Plain

    E-print Network

    Granot, Roi

    Early India-Australia spreading history revealed by newly detected Mesozoic magnetic anomalies Abyssal Plain (PAP), offshore Western Australia, is the only section of crust that directly records the early spreading history between India and Australia during the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana. However

  9. Evaluation of radionuclide bone-imaging for the early detection of sepsis in a model of equine neonatal osteomyelitis 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, James Rutledge

    1986-01-01

    EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE GONE-IMAGING FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF SEPSIS IN A MODEL OF EQUINE NEONATAL OSTEOMYELITIS A Thesis by JAMES RUTLEDGE TAYLOR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Med1cal Sciences EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIOE BONE-IMAGING FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF SEPSIS IN A MODEL OF EQUINE NEONATAL OSTEOMYELITIS A Thesis by JAMES RUTLEOGE...

  10. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  11. Utility of Line Probe Assay for the Early Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Madhuri, K.; Deshpande, Smita; Dharmashale, Sujata; Bharadwaj, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite endorsement of the line probe assay (LPA) for the diagnosis of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients, there is limited data available on the performance of LPAs in India, especially from high burden states like Maharashtra, for the early diagnosis and detection of drug resistance, in order to initiate timely and appropriate treatment. Objective: To evaluate the utility of the line probe assay (LPA) for the early diagnosis of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis as compared to the ‘Gold standard’ 1% proportion method (PM). Materials and Methods: A total of 687 patients suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis were screened. One hundred samples (95 sputum and 5 BAL), positive for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) by Ziehl Neelson (ZN) smears, were included in the study. Digested and decontaminated specimens were subjected directly to the LPA (Genotype MTBDR@ plus assay) and were processed in parallel using the conventional culture on the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium followed by drug susceptibility testing (DST) using the PM. Results: All the 100 samples gave interpretable results on LPA with a turnaround time of 24-48 hours as opposed to six to eight weeks taken by the 1% proportion method. Sensitivity for the detection of rifampicin, isoniazid, and multidrug resistance (MDR) was 98.1, 92.1, and 95%, respectively, with a specificity of 97.8% for rifampicin and 98.33% for MDR detection. It also had the additional advantage of allowing a study of mutation patterns. Conclusions: High performance characteristics and a short turnaround time makes LPA an excellent diagnostic tool, for an early and accurate diagnosis, in a high MDR- TB-prevalent region, as reflected from our data.

  12. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-? estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  13. Raising sun protection and early detection awareness among Florida high schoolers.

    PubMed

    Geller, Alan C; Shamban, Jill; O'Riordan, David L; Slygh, Carolyn; Kinney, John P; Rosenberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Changing adolescents' sun protection behaviors remains a challenge, and the need for effective interventions targeting this group is a priority, particularly in warmer climates where emphasis on appropriate sun protection remains a year-round concern. However, there has been little prospective research on the effect of school-based sun protection interventions, particularly on adolescents, especially teens aged 15 to 18. High school science students in Palm Beach County, Florida, received a seven-lesson sun protection and early detection curriculum preceded by pretests and followed with post-tests 6 months later. The main outcome measures were student knowledge and sun protection practices, including adherence to sunscreen recommendations. Of 344 students completing the baseline surveys, 184 students completed the postintervention questionnaire. Overall, there were significant improvements from baseline to follow-up for many of the knowledge questions. Greatest change scores were seen in the children's ability to correctly define the five rules of early detection of skin cancer (27-60%, p<0.001) with improved change scores by gender and race persisting after 6 months. No significant differences were found in reported use of sunscreen, hat wearing, or sunglasses, although there was a slight decrease in the reported use of always wearing sun protective clothing (p=0.03). In conclusion, in this study, a skin cancer prevention and detection curriculum integrated into high school biology, resulted in knowledge gains maintained at least 6 months after classroom teaching. For example, procedural knowledge (e.g., knowing ways to identify early malignant moles) obtained in this study improved in 6 months, and may lay the foundation for future behavioral change. Sun protection activities in the United States have met with many challenges and obstacles and thus, further work is needed to better understand what combination of knowledge-based information, activity-based education, school-wide changes, and community efforts, will create a long-term systemic improvement in sun protection habits in children. PMID:15804297

  14. [Program for early detection of ovarian cancer for women as prophylaxis provided at a municipal hospital].

    PubMed

    Cnota, Wojciech; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Olesiak-Andryszczak, Ma?gorzata; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Neoplasms are still severe social problem; they are one of the most common causes of death (30-40%), they last for a very long time and the symptoms are characterized by significant intensity. There have been many attempts of introducing an effective screening program for early detection of ovarian cancer. This paper describes one of them, taking place in municipal hospital. To create and introduce a complex prophylactic program considering early diagnosis of ovarian cancer (with use of Doppler transvaginal sonography and serologic markers--CA125); to assess the value of various features (TVS, CA125 levels, family history) for sensitivity and specificity of screening method; to assess the effectiveness of Doppler TVS as a screening method; and to describe the group of participants that is of the best benefit in screening program. From October 1997 to December 2000 the Program for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer, introduced by Foundation "Godula HOPE", gathered 3775 women aged 46 +/- 9.5. Most of the participants were self-referred, but there was the group of doctor-referred patients. Bimanual pelvic examination and Doppler TVS were performed in all participants; in case of doubtful results of TVS--serum CA 125 was obtained. The form created by author was used to gather the most important information of medical and family history. The most of participating women were: above 45 yr. old, married, on middle education level, non-working or mental worker, living in town. 365 adnexal tumors were detected among examined women. Using our own criteria 228 patients were chosen to laparotomy--16 of operated tumors were histologically confirmed to be malignant. Our sensitivity of PI was 93.75%, specificity--89.62%. The values for RI were respectively: 89.61% and 73.72%. Program of early detection of ovarian cancer using transvaginal sonography can be organized in municipal hospital; the most important feature of the examination (for screening program) is the grayscale sonographic morphology and the Doppler parameters are of additional value. The best cut-off values of PI and RI were 0.8 and 0.5 respectively. The great meaning of family history of ovarian cancer was confirmed. Demographic results suggest that program should be modified to be available for older patients on low level of education with family history of ovarian or breast cancer. PMID:15884203

  15. Early detection of dengue virus by use of reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Tan, Kim-Kee; Danlami, Mohammed Bashar; Shu, Meng-Hooi; Johari, Jefree; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Brooks, David; Piepenburg, Olaf; Nentwich, Oliver; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Franco, Leticia; Tenorio, Antonio; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-03-01

    A method for the rapid diagnosis of early dengue virus (DENV) infection is highly needed. Here, a prototype reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was developed. The assay detected DENV RNA in <20 min without the need for thermocycling amplification. The assay enabled the detection of as few as 10 copies of DENV RNA. The designed RT-RPA primers and exo probe detected the DENV genome of at least 12 genotypes of DENV circulating globally without cross-reacting with other arboviruses. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the RT-RPA assay for the detection of DENV RNA in 203 serum samples of patients with clinically suspected dengue. The sera were simultaneously tested for DENV using a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and IgM- and IgG-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 130 samples and 61 of the samples (46.9%) were classified as viremic with qRT-PCR. The RT-RPA assay showed good concordance (? of ?0.723) with the RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR assays in detecting the dengue viremic samples. When used in combination with ELISA, both the RT-RPA and RT-LAMP assays increased the detection of acute DENV infection to ?95.7% (?45/47) in samples obtained within 5 days of illness. The results from the study suggest that the RT-RPA assay is the most rapid molecular diagnostic tool available for the detection of DENV. Hence, it is possible to use the RT-RPA assay in a laboratory to complement routine serology testing for dengue. PMID:25568438

  16. Early Detection of Dengue Virus by Use of Reverse Transcription-Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Tan, Kim-Kee; Danlami, Mohammed Bashar; Shu, Meng-Hooi; Johari, Jefree; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Brooks, David; Piepenburg, Olaf; Nentwich, Oliver; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Franco, Leticia; Tenorio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A method for the rapid diagnosis of early dengue virus (DENV) infection is highly needed. Here, a prototype reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was developed. The assay detected DENV RNA in <20 min without the need for thermocycling amplification. The assay enabled the detection of as few as 10 copies of DENV RNA. The designed RT-RPA primers and exo probe detected the DENV genome of at least 12 genotypes of DENV circulating globally without cross-reacting with other arboviruses. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the RT-RPA assay for the detection of DENV RNA in 203 serum samples of patients with clinically suspected dengue. The sera were simultaneously tested for DENV using a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and IgM- and IgG-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 130 samples and 61 of the samples (46.9%) were classified as viremic with qRT-PCR. The RT-RPA assay showed good concordance (? of ?0.723) with the RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR assays in detecting the dengue viremic samples. When used in combination with ELISA, both the RT-RPA and RT-LAMP assays increased the detection of acute DENV infection to ?95.7% (?45/47) in samples obtained within 5 days of illness. The results from the study suggest that the RT-RPA assay is the most rapid molecular diagnostic tool available for the detection of DENV. Hence, it is possible to use the RT-RPA assay in a laboratory to complement routine serology testing for dengue. PMID:25568438

  17. Towards early ice detection on wind turbine blades using acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbyuk, Viktor; Peterson, Bo; Möller, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The study focuses on the early detection of ice using controlled acoustic waves propagating in the wind turbine blades. An experimental set-up with a cold climate chamber, a composite test object used in turbine blades and equipment for glaze and rime ice production has been developed. Controlled acoustic waves are generated by magnetostrictive Terfenol-D based actuator. The propagation of three orthogonally polarized acoustic waves was studied by means of 6 accelerometers positioned, 3 each, in 2 holders on the 8 m long composite test object. The results show that for the considered composite test object the formation of ice, the ice mass, icing areas and the temperature have a significant influence on controlled acoustic waves propagation w.r.t. Fourier transform, amplitude attenuation and RMS values as indicators concluding that the proposed acoustic wave technique is a promising approach for ice detection.

  18. Use of an electronic nose for the early detection and differentiation between spoilage fungi.

    PubMed

    Keshri, G; Magan, N; Voysey, P

    1998-11-01

    Six spoilage fungi (four Eurotium species, a Penicillium sp. and Wallemia sebi) were grown as spore lawn surface cultures at 0.95 water activity and 25 degrees C. Prior to and during visible growth (24 and 48, and 72 h), single cultures were enclosed in polyethylene bags, the head space was sampled with an electronic nose unit, consisting of 14 polymer sensors, and the data analysed. There was good replication between volatile patterns of the same species and using principal component, discriminant function and cluster analyses it was possible to differentiate between the agar blanks, three Eurotium spp., the Penicillium sp. and W. sebi during microscopic growth for the first time. This suggests that there is potential for the early detection of the activity of spoilage fungi in general, as well as possible differentiation between related xerophilic spoilage fungi, by detection of the patterns of volatile odours produced using an electronic nose system. PMID:9830141

  19. Prevention of preterm birth: early detection and aggressive treatment with terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Adkins, R T; Van Hooydonk, J E; Bressman, P L; Growdon, J H; Bolen, P R; Varin, J C; Thompson, B R

    1993-02-01

    We evaluated a program for prevention of preterm birth involving early detection and aggressive intervention with subcutaneous terbutaline pump therapy in a high-risk, private patient population. Risk factor screening, frequent cervical examinations, and intensive patient education were used to detect preterm labor before it progressed to an advanced stage. Home terbutaline pump therapy was prescribed for patients with uterine contractions associated with progressive cervical change, after stabilization with IV magnesium sulfate. In this study of 51 patients, home terbutaline pump therapy was successful in 98% of the cases, prolonging pregnancy an average of 6.6 weeks. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37 +/- 1.4 weeks, and infant birth weight averaged 3 kg. Only 22% of infants required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, with a mean length of stay of 7.25 days. Population factors in this compliant, well-educated patient group may have contributed to the positive outcomes achieved. PMID:8240475

  20. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  1. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind–solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  2. Characterization and identification of smoke plume for early forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Kohler, Daniel; Davenport, Tim; Moussa, Georges

    2012-10-01

    Characterization and discrimination of fire smoke for a land-based early forest fire detection system are discussed. Preliminary results of several fire plume identification schemes applied to multispectral video data obtained from a number of controlled fire experiments are presented. The temporal, spectral, and spatial signatures of the fire are exploited. The methods discussed include: (1) range filtering followed by entropy filtering of the infrared (IR) video data, (2) dual range moving average differencing followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of IR video data, and (3) PCA of visible color video data followed by texture analysis and segmentation. The three schemes presented are tailored to detect the fire core, the heat plume, and the smoke, respectively.

  3. Red ginseng delays age-related hearing and vestibular dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Young Sun; Park, Hun Yi; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Since Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been proven to protect against gentamicin-induced vestibular and hearing dysfunction, the effects of KRG on age-related inner ear disorder in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. While age-related hearing loss was detected at the age of 6months (32kHz) and 9months (16kHz) in the control group, it was significantly delayed (p<0.05) in the 150mg/kg KRG-treated group. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in the tail-hanging and swimming tests, with significantly different severity scores and swimming times detected between the control and 150mg/kg KRG-treated group at the age of 12months (p<0.05). Mice treated with 500mg/kg KRG exhibited irritability and aggravated inner ear dysfunction. Histological observation supported the findings of hearing and vestibular function defects. In conclusion, C57BL/6 mice showed early-onset hearing loss and progressive vestibular dysfunction with aging, which were delayed by treatment with 150mg/kg KRG. However, 500mg/kg KRG treatment may induce aggressive behavior. PMID:24952098

  4. A large Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Pamplona, Spain: early detection, rapid control and no case fatality

    PubMed Central

    CASTILLA, J.; BARRICARTE, A.; ALDAZ, J.; GARCÍA CENOZ, M.; FERRER, T.; PELAZ, C.; PINEDA, S.; BALADRÓN, B.; MARTÍN, I.; GOÑI, B.; ARATAJO, P.; CHAMORRO, J.; LAMEIRO, F.; TORROBA, L.; DORRONSORO, I.; MARTÍNEZ-ARTOLA, V.; ESPARZA, M. J.; GASTAMINZA, M. A.; FRAILE, P.; ALDAZ, P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease was detected in Pamplona, Spain, on 1 June 2006. Patients with pneumonia were tested to detect Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine (Binax Now; Binax Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA), and all 146 confirmed cases were interviewed. The outbreak was related to district 2 (22 012 inhabitants), where 45% of the cases lived and 50% had visited; 5% lived in neighbouring districts. The highest incidence was found in the resident population of district 2 (3/1000 inhabitants), section 2 (14/1000). All 31 cooling towers of district 2 were analysed. L. pneumophila antigen (Binax Now) was detected in four towers, which were closed on 2 June. Only the strain isolated in a tower situated in section 2 of district 2 matched all five clinical isolates, as assessed by mAb and two genotyping methods, AFLP and PFGE. Eight days after closing the towers, new cases ceased appearing. Early detection and rapid coordinated medical and environmental actions permitted immediate control of the outbreak and probably contributed to the null case fatality. PMID:17662166

  5. Early Seizure Detection Using Neuronal Potential Similarity: A Generalized Low-Complexity and Robust Measure.

    PubMed

    Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Rasekhi, Jalil; Teixeira, Cesar A; Netoff, Theoden I; Parhi, Keshab K; Dourado, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    A novel approach using neuronal potential similarity (NPS) of two intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) electrodes placed over the foci is proposed for automated early seizure detection in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. The NPS measure is obtained from the spectral analysis of space-differential iEEG signals. Ratio between the NPS values obtained from two specific frequency bands is then investigated as a robust generalized measure, and reveals invaluable information about seizure initiation trends. A threshold-based classifier is subsequently applied on the proposed measure to generate alarms. The performance of the method was evaluated using cross-validation on a large clinical dataset, involving 183 seizure onsets in 1785 h of long-term continuous iEEG recordings of 11 patients. On average, the results show a high sensitivity of 86.9% (159 out of 183), a very low false detection rate of 1.4 per day, and a mean detection latency of 13.1 s from electrographic seizure onsets, while in average preceding clinical onsets by 6.3 s. These high performance results, specifically the short detection latency, coupled with the very low computational cost of the proposed method make it adequate for using in implantable closed-loop seizure suppression systems. PMID:25997912

  6. Identification of urine protein biomarkers with the potential for early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Cao, Jing; Li, Lin; Liu, Yanbin; Zhao, Hong; Li, Nan; Li, Bo; Zhang, Aiqun; Huang, Huanwei; Chen, She; Dong, Mengqiu; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and has an overall 5-year survival rate lower than 15%. Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated a significant relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography screening. However, biomarkers capable of identifying the most at-risk population and detecting lung cancer before it becomes clinically apparent are urgently needed in the clinic. Here, we report the identification of urine biomarkers capable of detecting lung cancer. Using the well-characterized inducible Kras (G12D) mouse model of lung cancer, we identified alterations in the urine proteome in tumor-bearing mice compared with sibling controls. Marked differences at the proteomic level were also detected between the urine of patients and that of healthy population controls. Importantly, we identified 7 proteins commonly found to be significantly up-regulated in both tumor-bearing mice and patients. In an independent cohort, we showed that 2 of the 7 proteins were up-regulated in urine samples from lung cancer patients but not in those from controls. The kinetics of these proteins correlated with the disease state in the mouse model. These tumor biomarkers could potentially aid in the early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26133466

  7. Hearing loss is a common feature of symptomatic children with profound biotinidase deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Wolf; Robert Spencer; Tucker Gleason

    2002-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss occurs in approximately 75% of symptomatic children with profound biotinidase deficiency, which is more common than originally thought. The hearing loss varies in severity and is usually irreversible. The biochemical, genotype, and clinical variations do not correlate with the development of hearing loss. Thus, it is very important to diagnose the disorder early, especially by newborn screening,

  8. Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

  9. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  10. Early detection and late cognitive control of emotional distraction by the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    García-Pacios, Javier; Garcés, Pilar; Del Río, David; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Unpleasant emotional distraction can impair the retention of non-emotional information in working memory (WM). Research links the prefrontal cortex with the successful control of such biologically relevant distractors, although the temporal changes in this brain mechanism remain unexplored. We use magnetoencephalography to investigate the temporal dynamics of the cognitive control of both unpleasant and pleasant distraction, in the millisecond (ms) scale. Behavioral results demonstrate that pleasant events do not affect WM maintenance more than neutral ones. Neuroimaging results show that prefrontal cortices are recruited for the rapid detection of emotional distraction, at early latencies of the processing (70-130?ms). Later in the processing (360-450?ms), the dorsolateral, the medial and the orbital sections of the prefrontal cortex mediate the effective control of emotional distraction. In accordance with the behavioral performance, pleasant distractors do not require higher prefrontal activity than neutral ones. These findings extend our knowledge about the brain mechanisms of coping with emotional distraction in WM. In particular, they show for the first time that overriding the attentional capture triggered by emotional distractors, while maintaining task-relevant elements in mind, is based on the early detection of such linked-to-survival information and on its later cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26067780

  11. Early detection and late cognitive control of emotional distraction by the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    García-Pacios, Javier; Garcés, Pilar; Del Río, David; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Unpleasant emotional distraction can impair the retention of non-emotional information in working memory (WM). Research links the prefrontal cortex with the successful control of such biologically relevant distractors, although the temporal changes in this brain mechanism remain unexplored. We use magnetoencephalography to investigate the temporal dynamics of the cognitive control of both unpleasant and pleasant distraction, in the millisecond (ms) scale. Behavioral results demonstrate that pleasant events do not affect WM maintenance more than neutral ones. Neuroimaging results show that prefrontal cortices are recruited for the rapid detection of emotional distraction, at early latencies of the processing (70-130?ms). Later in the processing (360-450?ms), the dorsolateral, the medial and the orbital sections of the prefrontal cortex mediate the effective control of emotional distraction. In accordance with the behavioral performance, pleasant distractors do not require higher prefrontal activity than neutral ones. These findings extend our knowledge about the brain mechanisms of coping with emotional distraction in WM. In particular, they show for the first time that overriding the attentional capture triggered by emotional distractors, while maintaining task-relevant elements in mind, is based on the early detection of such linked-to-survival information and on its later cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26067780

  12. MRI detection of early bone metastases in B16 mouse melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Gauvain, Karen M.; Garbow, Joel R.; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Hirbe, Angela C.; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastasis causes significant morbidity in cancer patients, including bone pain, pathologic fractures, nerve compression syndrome, and hypercalcemia. Animal models are utilized to study the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases and to evaluate potential therapeutic agents. Previously published methods for imaging bone metastasis in rodent models have focused on identifying advanced stage metastasis using simple X-rays. Here we report MRI as a method for detecting early bone metastases in mouse models in vivo. B16 mouse melanoma cells were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of C57BL/6 mice and magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the left leg following the development of metastatic disease, when tumor associated bone destruction was histologically present but not visible by X-ray. T1 and T2 relaxation times of bone marrow were measured in healthy control mice and B16 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. Mean T2 values for normal marrow were 28 ms (SD 5) and for diseased bone marrow were 41 ms (SD 3). T2 relaxation time of diseased bone marrow is significantly longer than that of normal bone marrow (P < 0.0001) and can be used as a marker of early bone metastases. These studies demonstrate that MR imaging can detect bone marrow metastases in small animals prior to development of cortical bone loss identified by X-ray. PMID:16283483

  13. Multimodality approach to optical early detection and mapping of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chung, Jungrae; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-07-01

    Early detection of cancer remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by dysplasia presenting as white, red, or mixed red and white epithelial lesions on the oral mucosa (leukoplakia, erythroplakia). Dysplastic lesions in the form of erythroplakia can carry a risk for malignant conversion of 90%. A noninvasive diagnostic modality would enable monitoring of these lesions at regular intervals and detection of treatment needs at a very early, relatively harmless stage. The specific aim of this work was to test a multimodality approach [three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarimetry] to noninvasive diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy using the hamster cheek pouch model (nine hamsters). The results were compared to tissue histopathology. During carcinogenesis, epithelial down grow, eventual loss of basement membrane integrity, and subepithelial invasion were clearly visible with OCT. Polarimetry techniques identified a four to five times increased retardance in sites with squamous cell carcinoma, and two to three times greater retardance in dysplastic sites than in normal tissues. These techniques were particularly useful for mapping areas of field cancerization with multiple lesions, as well as lesion margins.

  14. Toward the early evaluation of therapeutic effects: an electrochemical platform for ultrasensitive detection of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2011-10-15

    The ability for early evaluation of therapeutic effects is a significant challenge in leukemia research. To address this challenge, we developed a novel electrochemical platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of apoptotic cells in response to therapy. In order to construct the platform, a novel three-dimensional (3-D) architecture was initially fabricated after combining nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles via a layer-by-layer method. The formed architecture provided an effective matrix for annexin V with high stability and bioactivity to enhance sensitivity. On the basis of the specific recognition between annexin V and phosphatidylserine on the apoptotic cell membrane, the annexin V/3-D architecture interface showed a predominant capability for apoptotic cell capture. Moreover, a lectin-based nanoprobe was designed by noncovalent assembly of concanavalin A on CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-labeled silica nanospheres with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) as a linker. This nanoprobe incorporated both the specific carbohydrate recognition and the multilabeled QDs-based signal amplification. By coupling with the QDs-based nanoprobe and electrochemical stripping analysis, the proposed sandwich-type cytosensor showed an excellent analytical performance for the ultrasensitive detection of apoptotic cells (as low as 48 cells), revealing great potential toward the early evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:21888423

  15. Multimodality approach to optical early detection and??mapping of oral neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chung, Jungrae; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of cancer remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by dysplasia presenting as white, red, or mixed red and white epithelial lesions on the oral mucosa (leukoplakia, erythroplakia). Dysplastic lesions in the form of erythroplakia can carry a risk for malignant conversion of 90%. A noninvasive diagnostic modality would enable monitoring of these lesions at regular intervals and detection of treatment needs at a very early, relatively harmless stage. The specific aim of this work was to test a multimodality approach [three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarimetry] to noninvasive diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy using the hamster cheek pouch model (nine hamsters). The results were compared to tissue histopathology. During carcinogenesis, epithelial down grow, eventual loss of basement membrane integrity, and subepithelial invasion were clearly visible with OCT. Polarimetry techniques identified a four to five times increased retardance in sites with squamous cell carcinoma, and two to three times greater retardance in dysplastic sites than in normal tissues. These techniques were particularly useful for mapping areas of field cancerization with multiple lesions, as well as lesion margins. PMID:21806268

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

  17. Heritage of Army Audiology and the Road Ahead: The Army Hearing Program

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Kathy; Ciliax, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss has been documented as early as the 16th century, when a French surgeon, Ambroise Paré, wrote of the treatment of injuries sustained by firearms and described acoustic trauma in great detail. Even so, the protection of hearing would not be addressed for three more centuries, when the jet engine was invented and resulted in a long overdue whirlwind of policy development addressing the prevention of hearing loss. We present a synopsis of hearing loss prevention in the US Army and describe the current Army Hearing Program, which aims to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in soldiers and to ensure their maximum combat effectiveness. PMID:18923117

  18. Heritage of army audiology and the road ahead: the Army Hearing Program.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, D Scott; Gates, Kathy; Ciliax, Donald

    2008-12-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss has been documented as early as the 16th century, when a French surgeon, Ambroise Paré, wrote of the treatment of injuries sustained by firearms and described acoustic trauma in great detail. Even so, the protection of hearing would not be addressed for three more centuries, when the jet engine was invented and resulted in a long overdue whirlwind of policy development addressing the prevention of hearing loss. We present a synopsis of hearing loss prevention in the US Army and describe the current Army Hearing Program, which aims to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in soldiers and to ensure their maximum combat effectiveness. PMID:18923117

  19. Early Detection of Oleic Acid-Induced Lung Injury in Rats Using 111In-Labeled Anti-Rat

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    be a useful acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) diagnostic agent. We further investigated the ability of 111In-aICAM-1 to detect inflammation in another ARDS lung injury model. Methods: 111In-labeled rat that 111In-aICAM-1 could be a very early, highly specific ARDS diagnostic agent and may be useful to detect

  20. Early Onset of Regional Intestinal Ischemia Can Be Detected with Carbon Dioxide Tension Measurement Inside the Peritoneal Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisbert Knichwitz; Paul Reinhold; Frank Schaumann; Klaus Dieter Richter; Hugo Van Aken

    2000-01-01

    Methods for detecting regional gastrointestinal ischemia are rare. An early detection of ischemia in the stomach or ileum can be achieved by the continuous intramucosal Pco2 (Pico2) measurement in the region. However, phys- iological consideration suggests that the placement of a fiberoptic CO2 sensor in the peritoneal cavity should yield comparable results. We tested the hypothesis that a con- tinuous

  1. Diabetic Nephropathy for the Primary Care Provider: New Understandings on Early Detection and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Andrew; Krikorian, Armand; Lerma, Edgar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal disease in the United States, occurring in 20%-40% of patients with diabetes. This condition is a distinct manifestation of diabetic renal disease seen in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Despite clear screening and management recommendations, diabetic nephropathy remains substantially underdiagnosed. Methods This review presents recent guidelines and recommendations from varied work groups to identify, monitor, and halt the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Our search of the recent literature focused on diagnostic criteria, the latest screening recommendations, novel screening methods, current research, new treatment recommendations, and goals for early intervention. Results Current recommendations for early detection and treatment of diabetic nephropathy include yearly albumin to creatinine ratio checks and more frequent tests if indicated based on glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria; optimizing glucose control with a target hemoglobin A1c goal of <7%; initiating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) as the first line in disease management with dual therapy of ACE inhibitors and ARBs no longer recommended; managing blood pressure with a goal of <140/90 mmHg as the target for all patients with diabetes; and initiating statin therapy for patients <50 years old and with concomitant chronic kidney disease and diabetes and in all patients with chronic kidney disease >50 years of age regardless of the coexistence of diabetes. Conclusion With early detection, proper screening, and management, the impact of diabetic nephropathy may be better mitigated to lessen its impact on society and healthcare. PMID:25249803

  2. Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

  3. In vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging allows early detection of a therapeutic response in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sagiyama, Koji; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Togao, Osamu; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Maher, Elizabeth A; Mickey, Bruce E; Pan, Edward; Sherry, A Dean; Bachoo, Robert M; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-03-25

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which account for more than 50% of all gliomas, is among the deadliest of all human cancers. Given the dismal prognosis of GBM, it would be advantageous to identify early biomarkers of a response to therapy to avoid continuing ineffective treatments and to initiate other therapeutic strategies. The present in vivo longitudinal study in an orthotopic mouse model demonstrates quantitative assessment of early treatment response during short-term chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) by amide proton transfer (APT) imaging. In a GBM line, only one course of TMZ (3 d exposure and 4 d rest) at a dose of 80 mg/kg resulted in substantial reduction in APT signal compared with untreated control animals, in which the APT signal continued to increase. Although there were no detectable differences in tumor volume, cell density, or apoptosis rate between groups, levels of Ki67 (index of cell proliferation) were substantially reduced in treated tumors. In another TMZ-resistant GBM line, the APT signal and levels of Ki67 increased despite the same course of TMZ treatment. As metabolite changes are known to occur early in the time course of chemotherapy and precede morphologic changes, these results suggest that the APT signal in glioma may be a useful functional biomarker of treatment response or degree of tumor progression. Thus, APT imaging may serve as a sensitive biomarker of early treatment response and could potentially replace invasive biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis. This would have a major impact on the clinical management of patients with glioma. PMID:24616497

  4. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  5. Introduction How We Hear

    E-print Network

    Chinburg, Ted

    Introduction How We Hear Cochlear Mechanics Cochlear Implants Conclusion Can You Hear Me Now Cochlear Implants Conclusion Some Questions How does hearing work? What are the important structures is a cochlear implant and what role can mathematical modeling play in improving implant performance? Joshua

  6. Implementing Hearing Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffe, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Hearing damage from noise exposure and approaches to implementing hearing safety in school industrial laboratories through noise reduction and protective equipment are discussed. Although all states have not adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Act, teachers should be aware of noise hazards and act to protect hearing. (MF)

  7. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  8. Physician hearing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rabinowitz; Oyebode Taiwo; Kanta Sircar; Oluremi Aliyu; Martin Slade

    2006-01-01

    PurposeHearing is an important sense for physicians, making communication and stethoscope use possible, yet not much is known about the impact of hearing loss on professional function. The purpose of this study was to explore hearing-related issues affecting physicians.

  9. Discovery and Validation of New Potential Biomarkers for Early Detection of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, David; Guinó, Elisabet; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Rodriguez-Moranta, Francisco; Sanjuan, Xavier; de Oca, Javier; Salazar, Ramon; Moreno, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of characteristic proteins secreted by colon cancer tumor cells in biological fluids could serve as a biomarker for the disease. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate new serum biomarkers and demonstrate their potential usefulness for early diagnosis of colon cancer. Methods The study was organized in three sequential phases: 1) biomarker discovery, 2) technical and biological validation, and 3) proof of concept to test the potential clinical use of selected biomarkers. A prioritized subset of the differentially-expressed genes between tissue types (50 colon mucosa from cancer-free individuals and 100 normal-tumor pairs from colon cancer patients) was validated and further tested in a series of serum samples from 80 colon cancer cases, 23 patients with adenoma and 77 cancer-free controls. Results In the discovery phase, 505 unique candidate biomarkers were identified, with highly significant results and high capacity to discriminate between the different tissue types. After a subsequent prioritization, all tested genes (N?=?23) were successfully validated in tissue, and one of them, COL10A1, showed relevant differences in serum protein levels between controls, patients with adenoma (p?=?0.0083) and colon cancer cases (p?=?3.2e-6). Conclusion We present a sequential process for the identification and further validation of biomarkers for early detection of colon cancer that identifies COL10A1 protein levels in serum as a potential diagnostic candidate to detect both adenoma lesions and tumor. Impact The use of a cheap serum test for colon cancer screening should improve its participation rates and contribute to decrease the burden of this disease. PMID:25215506

  10. Development of high-sensitivity near-infrared fluorescence imaging device for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a high-sensitivity near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging system for noninvasive cancer detection based on the molecular-labeled fluorescent contrast agents. Recent developments in molecular beacons offer a way to selectively tag various precancer and cancer signatures and provide high tumor-to-background contrast. Near-infrared imaging can deeply probe tissue up to a couple of centimeters; thus, it possesses the potential for noninvasive detection of breast or lymph node cancer. A phase cancellation (in- and antiphase) device is used to increase the sensitivity in detecting fluorescent photons and the accuracy of tumor localization. The optoelectronic system consists of the laser diode sources, fiber optics, interference filter (to select the fluorescent photons), and the high-sensitivity photon detector (photomultiplier tube). The source-detector pair scans the tissue surface in multiple directions, and the localization image can be obtained by angular back-projection reconstruction. Simulations and experimental data demonstrated the feasibility of detection and localization offluorescent object embedded inside the highly scattering media. Tumor-bearing mouse model with injection of fluorescent contrast agents is used to simulate the human breast tumor labeled with molecular beacons. The system can detect fluorescent contrast agents as small as one nanomole at the depth of three centimeters, with a three-millimeter localization error. This instrument has the potential for tumor diagnosis and imaging, and the accuracy of the localization suggests that this system could help guide the clinical fine-needle biopsy. Also, this portable device would be complementary to x-ray mammography and provide add-on information on early diagnosis and localization of breast tumor. PMID:15742853

  11. A case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2011-10-01

    The reasons behind sudden sensorineural hearing loss are mostly unknown, but viral infections, blood disorders, ototoxicity, noise trauma, autoimmune disease, acoustic tumor, and even mental stress may be related to the disease. In cases of hearing loss as a result of psychogenic factors, early diagnosis and adequate treatment under collaboration with the psychiatric department are crucial, since failure to take appropriate measures may result in permanent sequela. We report a case, with a review of the literature, of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise. PMID:22128658

  12. A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Onen, Onursal; Sisman, Alper; Gallant, Nathan D.; Kruk, Patricia; Guldiken, Rasim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration. PMID:22969352

  13. Auditory evoked potential response and hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Paulraj, M P; Subramaniam, Kamalraj; Yaccob, Sazali Bin; Adom, Abdul H Bin; Hema, C R

    2015-01-01

    Hypoacusis is the most prevalent sensory disability in the world and consequently, it can lead to impede speech in human beings. One best approach to tackle this issue is to conduct early and effective hearing screening test using Electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG based hearing threshold level determination is most suitable for persons who lack verbal communication and behavioral response to sound stimulation. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a type of EEG signal emanated from the brain scalp by an acoustical stimulus. The goal of this review is to assess the current state of knowledge in estimating the hearing threshold levels based on AEP response. AEP response reflects the auditory ability level of an individual. An intelligent hearing perception level system enables to examine and determine the functional integrity of the auditory system. Systematic evaluation of EEG based hearing perception level system predicting the hearing loss in newborns, infants and multiple handicaps will be a priority of interest for future research. PMID:25893012

  14. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  15. Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiangwei

    2008-10-15

    Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a polyclonal detector antibody. The capture antibody was covalently immobilized on modified glass slides. The detector antibody was conjugated with AF532 labeled secondary antibody prior to being used as probe for the antigen. Imaging was performed with a TIRF system. This technique is demonstrated for detecting HIV-1 p24 antigen down to 0.1 pg/mL with a dynamic range of over 4 orders of magnitude. A Langmuir isotherm fit the molecule count dependence on the target concentration. The results also showed that neither sensitivity nor dynamic range was affected by the biological matrix. SMISA is therefore a promising approach for the early diagnosis of virus-induced diseases. Single-molecule enzymatic kinetics and enantioselectivity were monitored in real time by using TIRF microscopy. AF532 labeled poly-L-lysine (PLL) or poly-D-lysine (PDL) was covalently immobilized on a dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) self-assembled monolayer (DSU SAM). Chain shortening due to enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the reduction of the individual fluorescence intensities. A broad distribution was obtained when 100 single-molecule half-lives were analyzed. However, the detailed hydrolysis process involved also a long-lived component and an induction period that varied significantly among molecules. Charge and steric heterogeneity at the surface are responsible for these features.

  16. Hearing loss in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ashok Murthy, V; Krishna, Kirtan

    2013-01-01

    To study hearing loss in healthy pregnant women. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective study. We screened fifty healthy, non-complicated pregnant women (study group) in the third trimester for hearing loss who had no previous history for the same. Fifty healthy, non-pregnant women (control group) were also screened for hearing loss with a normal pure tone audiogram (PTA) for evidence of hearing loss. Thirteen women in the study group had evidence of hearing loss, in the form of absence of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), though the PTA was within normal limits. In the control group, two women had evidence of hearing loss, in the form of absence of DPOAE with normal PTA. This study proves that pregnancy exacerbates hearing loss, if the patient has any risk factors for the same. PMID:24381908

  17. Comparison of pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state responses in subjects with normal hearing and hearing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Ozdek; Mahmut Karacay; Guleser Saylam; Emel Tatar; Nurdan Aygener; Mehmet Hakan Korkmaz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) thresholds in normal\\u000a hearing (NH) subjects and subjects with hearing loss. This study involved 23 NH adults and 38 adults with hearing loss (HI).\\u000a After detection of behavioral thresholds (BHT) with pure tone audiometry, each subject was tested for ASSR responses in the\\u000a same

  18. Early attack reaction sensor (EARS), a man-wearable gunshot detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jay; Mendyk, William; Thier, Lisa; Yun, Paul; LaRow, Andy; Shaw, Scott; Schoenborn, William

    2006-05-01

    The Early Attack Reaction Sensor (EARS) is a modified passive acoustic system that detects gunshots (muzzle blast and/or shockwave) to provide the user with relative azimuth and range of sniper fire via both audio alert and visual display. The EARS system consists of a microphone array in a small planar configuration and an equivalently sized Digital Signal Processing board, which is interfaced to a PDA via a PCMCIA slot. Hence, configuration easily provides portability. However, the system is being repackaged for man-wearable and vehicle mount applications. The EARS system in a PDA configuration has been tested in open fields at up to 500 meters range and has provided useable bearing and range information against the sniper rounds. This paper will discuss EARS system description, various test results, and EARS system capabilities and limitations.

  19. Radiolabeled Apoptosis Imaging Agents for Early Detection of Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since apoptosis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis and is associated with responses to therapy, molecular imaging of apoptotic cells could be useful for early detection of therapeutic effects, particularly in oncology. Radiolabeled annexin V compounds are the hallmark in apoptosis imaging in vivo. These compounds are reviewed from the genesis of apoptosis (cell death) imaging agents up to recent years. They have some disadvantages, including slow clearance and immunogenicity, because they are protein-based imaging agents. For this reason, several studies have been conducted in recent years to develop low molecule apoptosis imaging agents. In this review, radiolabeled phosphatidylserine targeted peptides, radiolabeled bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) complex, radiolabeled 5-fluoropentyl-2-methyl-malonic acid (ML-10), caspase-3 activity imaging agents, radiolabeled duramycin, and radiolabeled phosphonium cation are reviewed as promising low-molecular-weight apoptosis imaging agents. PMID:25383382

  20. The Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Detect and Track Early-Stage Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross A.; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan N.; Sperling, Laurence S.; LaBudde, Brian D.; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the potential value of noninvasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to accurately detect exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is emerging. This case-based concept report describes CPET abnormalities in an asymptomatic at-risk man with suspected early-stage ischemic heart disease. When CPET was repeated 1 year after baseline assessment, his cardiovascular function had worsened, and an anti-atherosclerotic regimen was initiated. When the patient was retested after 3.3 years, the diminished left ventricular function had reversed with pharmacotherapy directed at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, in addition to identifying appropriate patients in need of escalating therapy for atherosclerosis, CPET was useful in monitoring progression and reversal of abnormalities of the coronary circulation in a safe and cost-effective manner without the use of radiation. Serial CPET parameters may be useful to track changes marking the progression and/or regression of the underlying global ischemic burden. PMID:20884826

  1. Breath analysis system for early detection of lung diseases based on multi-sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Yu, Joon-Boo; Shin, Jeong-Suk; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Expiratory breath contains various VOCs(Volatile Organic Compounds) produced from the human. When a certain disease exists, the exhalation has specific VOCs which may be generated from diseases. Many researchers have been actively working to find different types of biomarkers which are characteristic for particular diseases. Research regarding the identification of specific diseases from exhalation is still in progress. The aim of this research is to implement early detection of lung disease such as lung cancer and COPD(Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), which was nominated on the 6th of domestic death rate in 2010, based on multi-sensor array system. The system has been used to acquire sampled expiratory gases data and PCA(Principle Component Analysis) technique was applied to analyze signals from multi-sensor array. Throughout the experimental trials, a clearly distinguishable difference between lung disease patients and healthy controls was found from the measurement and analysis of their respective expiratory gases.

  2. Advanced Solid State Nanopores Architectures: From Early Cancer Detection to Nano-electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state nanopores (ssNPs) are potentially low-cost and highly scalable technologies for rapid and reliable se-quencing of the human diploid genome for under 1,000. The ssNPs detect ionic current changes while molecules translocate through the pore. Several key challenges must be overcome in order for ssNPs to become ubiquitous in the fields of medical diagnostics and personalized healthcare. One major challenge is to reduce the speed at which DNA translocates through the nanopore from microseconds to milliseconds per nucleotide, enabling reliable identification of single nucleotides. The other major challenge is to improve the sensitivity of the approach requiring new sensing modalities and novel device architectures. In this paper, we review our recent efforts to (i) develop ssNPs for early cancer detection, (ii) to embed graphene electrodes in dielectric nanolaminates to form 3 and 4 terminal nanopore devices, and (iii) we demonstrate a nanopore based structure consisting of stacked graphene and Al2O3 dielectric layers to study electrochemical activity at graphene edges. The electrochemical signal corresponding to the atomically thin graphene layer could also provide a pathway to DNA sequencing. Solid-state nanopores (ssNPs) are potentially low-cost and highly scalable technologies for rapid and reliable se-quencing of the human diploid genome for under 1,000. The ssNPs detect ionic current changes while molecules translocate through the pore. Several key challenges must be overcome in order for ssNPs to become ubiquitous in the fields of medical diagnostics and personalized healthcare. One major challenge is to reduce the speed at which DNA translocates through the nanopore from microseconds to milliseconds per nucleotide, enabling reliable identification of single nucleotides. The other major challenge is to improve the sensitivity of the approach requiring new sensing modalities and novel device architectures. In this paper, we review our recent efforts to (i) develop ssNPs for early cancer detection, (ii) to embed graphene electrodes in dielectric nanolaminates to form 3 and 4 terminal nanopore devices, and (iii) we demonstrate a nanopore based structure consisting of stacked graphene and Al2O3 dielectric layers to study electrochemical activity at graphene edges. The electrochemical signal corresponding to the atomically thin graphene layer could also provide a pathway to DNA sequencing. Supported by National Institute of Health.

  3. A promising method of enhancement for early detection of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Mehdi; Karami, Mehdi; Amirfattahi, Rassoul; Bateni, Vahid; Ahamadzadeh, Mohammad R.; Ebrahimi, Bahareh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Computed Tomography (CT) scan without contrast is the modality of choice for diagnosis of stroke. However, routine brain CT scan, with linear processing has some limitations in early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of processed CT images with conventional ones in early diagnosis of cerebrovascular attack (CVA). Patients and Methods: This was a self-controlled study conducted in a university referal hospital from 2010 to 2011. Seventy CT scans underwent a process using Laplacian Pyramid transform. Thirty five of participants were diagnosed with CVA while others had only headache and no ischemic stroke diagnosis based on the first and follow-up CT scans. A neuroradiologist made diagnosis with and without the help of processed CT scans. The McNemar and Wilcoxon analysis were used to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two methods. Results: The sensitivity (% 65.7 vs. %31.4, P value = 0.001), positive predictive value (% 85.2 vs. % 61, P value = 0.03) and negative predictive value (% 73.9% vs. %49, P value = 0.01) of the processed method were significantly higher than the routine one, while no difference was seen in specificity (% 88.6 vs. %77.1, P value = 0.15). Moreover, the accuracy of the processed method was significantly better than the linear one (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that nonlinear modified Laplacian Pyramid method can composed CT scans which can be more helpful in early detection of ischemic stroke. PMID:23826011

  4. Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Joseph C.; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Munro, Nancy B.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Smith, Charles D.; Jiang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years) — 15 normal controls (NCs), 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the detection of pathophysiological changes in early-stage AD. PMID:25610788

  5. Early detection and prevention of pancreatic cancer: Is it really possible today?

    PubMed Central

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Segersvärd, Ralf; Lohr, Matthias; Verbeke, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Considering the low incidence of pancreatic cancer, population-based screening is not feasible. However, the existence of a group of individuals with an increased risk to develop pancreatic cancer has been well established. In particular, individuals suffering from a somatic or genetic condition associated with an increased relative risk of more than 5- to 10-fold seem to be suitable for enrollment in a surveillance program for prevention or early detection of pancreatic cancer. The aim of such a program is to reduce pancreatic cancer mortality through early or preemptive surgery. Considering the risk associated with pancreatic surgery, the concept of preemptive surgery cannot consist of a prophylactic removal of the pancreas in high-risk healthy individuals, but must instead aim at treating precancerous lesions such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms, or early cancer. Currently, results from clinical trials do not convincingly demonstrate the efficacy of this approach in terms of identification of precancerous lesions, nor do they define the outcome of the surgical treatment of these lesions. For this reason, surveillance programs for individuals at risk of pancreatic cancer are thus far generally limited to the setting of a clinical trial. However, the acquisition of a deeper understanding of this complex area, together with the increasing request for screening and treatment by individuals at risk, will usher pancreatologists into a new era of preemptive pancreatic surgery. Along with the growing demand to treat individuals with precancerous lesions, the need for low-risk investigation, low-morbidity operation and a minimally invasive approach becomes increasingly pressing. All of these considerations are reasons for preemptive pancreatic surgery programs to be undertaken in specialized centers only. PMID:25232247

  6. Prototype early warning system for heart disease detection using Android Application.

    PubMed

    Zennifa, Fadilla; Fitrilina; Kamil, Husnil; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Heart Disease affects approximately 70 million people worldwide where most people do not even know the symptoms. This research examines the prototype of early warning system for heart disease by android application. It aims to facilitate users to early detect heart disease which can be used independently. To build the application in android phone, variable centered intelligence rule system (VCIRS) as decision makers and pulse sensor - Arduino as heart rate detector were applied in this study. Moreover, in Arduino, the heart rate will become an input for symptoms in Android Application. The output of this system is the conclusion statement of users diagnosed with either coronary heart disease, hypertension heart disease, rheumatic heart disease or do not get any kind of heart disease. The result of diagnosis followed by analysis of the value of usage variable rate (VUR) rule usage rate (RUR) and node usage rate (NUR) that shows the value of the rule that will increase when the symptoms frequently appear. This application was compared with the medical analysis from 35 cases of heart disease and it showed concordance between diagnosis from android application and expert diagnosis of the doctors. PMID:25570737

  7. Allocating cancer-directed expenditures: tensions between prevention, early detection and treatment is unnecessary.

    PubMed

    Hillner, Bruce E; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    In most countries, the allocation of financial resources for cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment come from different nonrelated "silos." Primary prevention benefits have the greatest economic return since the cancer benefits are intertwined with other major health conditions. Smoking alone accounts for about one-third cancer deaths. In most affluent countries, vaccines for selected viral caused cancers are (wisely) widely available if not optimally utilized. Estimating the additional cancer burden from obesity is still evolving. Age-targeted, less frequent but higher rates of participation in early detection of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer will likely be prudent expenditures.The last 20 years in high-income countries, there has seen an explosion in demand and the costs of cancer drug or biologic therapy, a modest growth in some forms of radiation, yet minimal or declining surgical costs for primary disease control. Expenditures for cancer drugs are now the world leader of any medication category. While a few have truly led to marked benefits, all have been priced at levels that strain or break budgets. We comment on ten steps or principles that can be applied in most countries that can meaningfully reduce cancer care costs with minimal impact on survival and maintain or enhance quality of patient's life especially with advanced disease. We emphasize limiting systemic therapies for metastatic disease to fully ambulatory patients, those who previously responded to therapy, and earlier initiation of palliative care. Changing behaviors, incentives, expectations, and the framing of treatment effects are necessary to "bend" the current unrelenting cancer care cost curve. PMID:21253785

  8. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  9. Segmental Impedance Thresholds for Early Detection of Unilateral Upper Limb Swelling.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B J; Dylke, E S; Ward, L C; Kilbreath, S L

    2014-05-16

    Abstract Background: Detection of early lymphedema is important for effective treatment outcome and reduction of disease burden. The aims of this study were to determine normal inter-limb variance in the hand and four segments of the arm using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) to provide diagnostic thresholds for detection of early lymphedema development, to determine the intra-rater reliability of these measurements, and to compare the inter-limb BIS ratios to differences based on arm circumference measures. Methods and results: One hundred women, aged 49.1 (SD 13.8) years without history of breast cancer or lymphedema participated. Impedance measures for the hand and four 10?cm length arm segments were used to determine the inter-limb segment BIS ratios. Circumference difference and segment volumes were calculated from circumference measures obtained with a tape measure. A subgroup of women was measured on two occasions, one week apart. Thresholds were determined for the dominant and nondominant limb, based on two and three standard deviations (SD) above the mean. The 2SD and 3SD thresholds for the dominant arm ranged from 1.121 to 1.150 and 1.172 to 1.209, respectively, and for the nondominant limb ranged from 1.057 to 1.107 and 1.103 to 1.169, respectively. Intra-rater reliability was high (ICC: 0.945-0.983). BIS ratio and circumference-based measures did not identify the same segments as being over threshold. Conclusions: BIS diagnostic thresholds for the hand and four segments of the arm, based on normative data, taking into consideration arm dominance have been developed. Segmental BIS has been shown to be highly reliable. PMID:24837521

  10. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  11. Phenotypic spectrum of a patient with Gorlin's syndrome and role of dermoscopy in the early detection of basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Catarina; Morais, Paulo; Santos, Paulo; Castro, Miguel; Azevedo, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder, mainly characterized by the presence of multiple and early-onset basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts and palmoplantar pits. We describe the case of a patient with clinical and imaging features of Gorlin syndrome, and highlight the role of dermoscopy in the early detection of basal cell carcinomas. In addition, we discuss the dermoscopic features of palmar pits. PMID:26131878

  12. Evaluation of radionuclide bone-imaging for the early detection of sepsis in a model of equine neonatal osteomyelitis

    E-print Network

    Taylor, James Rutledge

    1986-01-01

    abscesses. It is well documented today, however, that regions of osteomyelitis can appear as areas of decreased uptake, or "cold spots". ' ' Most likely in the early phase of osteomyelitis, 11, 12, 14 acute inflammation of the bone and marrow causes... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Med1cal Sciences EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIOE BONE-IMAGING FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF SEPSIS IN A MODEL OF EQUINE NEONATAL OSTEOMYELITIS A Thesis by JAMES RUTLEOGE...

  13. New polymorphic mtDNA restriction site in the 12S rRNA gene detected in Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Avenue Magida Boulila, Sfax 3029 (Tunisia)], E-mail: emna_mkaouar@mail2world.com; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Avenue Magida Boulila, Sfax 3029 (Tunisia); Charfeddine, Ilhem [Service d'O.R.L., C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Avenue Magida Boulila, Sfax 3029 (Tunisia)], E-mail: faiza.fakhfakh@gnet.tn

    2008-05-09

    The 12S rRNA gene was shown to be a hot spot for aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss since several deafness-associated mtDNA mutations were identified in this gene. Among them, we distinguished the A1555G, the C1494T and the T1095C mutations and C-insertion or deletion at position 961. One hundred Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss and 100 hearing individuals were analysed in this study. A PCR-RFLP analysis with HaeIII restriction enzyme showed the presence of the A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene in only one out of the 100 patients. In addition, PCR-RFLP and radioactive PCR revealed the presence of a new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site in the same gene of 12S rRNA site in 4 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss. UVIDOC-008-XD analyses showed the presence of this new polymorphic restriction site with a variable heteroplasmic rates at position +1517 of the human mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, direct sequencing of the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in the 100 patients and in 100 hearing individuals revealed the presence of the A750G and A1438G polymorphisms and the absence of the C1494T, T1095C and 961insC mutations in all the tested individuals. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome in the 4 patients showing the new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site revealed only the presence of the A8860G transition in the MT-ATP6 gene and the A4769G polymorphism in the ND2 gene.

  14. New polymorphic mtDNA restriction site in the 12S rRNA gene detected in Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2008-05-01

    The 12S rRNA gene was shown to be a hot spot for aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss since several deafness-associated mtDNA mutations were identified in this gene. Among them, we distinguished the A1555G, the C1494T and the T1095C mutations and C-insertion or deletion at position 961. One hundred Tunisian patients with non-syndromic hearing loss and 100 hearing individuals were analysed in this study. A PCR-RFLP analysis with HaeIII restriction enzyme showed the presence of the A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene in only one out of the 100 patients. In addition, PCR-RFLP and radioactive PCR revealed the presence of a new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site in the same gene of 12S rRNA site in 4 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss. UVIDOC-008-XD analyses showed the presence of this new polymorphic restriction site with a variable heteroplasmic rates at position +1517 of the human mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, direct sequencing of the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in the 100 patients and in 100 hearing individuals revealed the presence of the A750G and A1438G polymorphisms and the absence of the C1494T, T1095C and 961insC mutations in all the tested individuals. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome in the 4 patients showing the new HaeIII polymorphic restriction site revealed only the presence of the A8860G transition in the MT-ATP6 gene and the A4769G polymorphism in the ND2 gene. PMID:18325329

  15. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  16. An exploration of rural and urban Kenyan women's knowledge and attitudes regarding breast cancer and breast cancer early detection measures.

    PubMed

    Muthoni, Ann; Miller, Ann Neville

    2010-09-01

    Many women in Kenya with breast cancer symptoms do not seek medical attention until their cancer is very advanced, leading to high mortality rates and a heavy cancer burden on the nation. In this study we employed eight focus groups with low- and middle-income rural and urban Kenyan women to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning breast cancer and its early detection measures. Topics for discussion were derived from the components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Findings revealed a huge divide between urban middle-income women and all other groups with respect to knowledge of breast cancer and early detection measures. In addition, women viewed breast cancer as a highly severe disease. Perceived benefits of early detection measures centered around preparing themselves for what was assumed to be inevitable death. PMID:20677038

  17. Hearing light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred; Niemann, Kurt; Müller, Andreas

    2000-09-01

    The sensitivity of the human ear is brought to a close by an amazingly simple experiment. The design of a photoacoustic converter with kitchen equipment, which helps to gain qualitative insights on ear performance as well as on photoacoustic detection methods, is described.

  18. Spatial hearing in children with visual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ashmead, D H; Wall, R S; Ebinger, K A; Eaton, S B; Snook-Hill, M M; Yang, X

    1998-01-01

    A study is reported of the effect of early visual experience on the development of auditory space perception. The spatial hearing of thirty-five children with visual disabilities (twenty-two with congenital total blindness) was compared with that of eighteen sighted children and seventeen sighted adults. The tests provided a comprehensive assessment of spatial-hearing ability, including psychophysical estimates of spatial resolution in the horizontal, vertical, and distance dimensions, as well as measures of reaching and walking to the locations of sound sources. The spatial hearing of the children with visual disabilities was comparable to or somewhat better than that of the sighted children and adults. This pattern held even when the group with visual disabilities was restricted to those children with congenital total blindness; in fact, some of those children had exceptionally good spatial hearing. These findings imply that the developmental calibration of human spatial hearing is not dependent on a history of visual experience. It seems likely that this calibration arises from the experience of changes in sound-localization cues arising from self-motion, such as turning the head or walking. As a practical matter, orientation and mobility instructors may reasonably assume that individuals with visual disabilities can use their hearing effectively in day-to-day travel situations. PMID:9692091

  19. Simultaneous Detection of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Core Antigen and Anti-HCV Antibodies Improves the Early Detection of HCV Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syria Laperche; Nadine Le Marrec; Annie Girault; Francoise Bouchardeau; Annabelle Servant-Delmas; Michele Maniez-Montreuil; Pierre Gallian; Thierry Levayer; Pascal Morel; Nicole Simon; Unite ´ d'Hemodialyse

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether a new enzyme immunoassay developed for the simultaneous detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (Ag) and anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV Ab) (Monolisa HCV Ag\\/Ab ULTRA; Bio-Rad) could improve the early detection of HCV infection, we compared its sensitivity to that of anti-HCV, HCV core Ag, and HCV RNA assays. The populations studied included 12 blood donor

  20. Early Detection of Sepsis in the Emergency Department using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nachimuthu, Senthil K.; Haug, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory state due to an infection, and is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic and supportive therapy is associated with improved outcomes. Our objective was to detect the presence of sepsis soon after the patient visits the emergency department. We used Dynamic Bayesian Networks, a temporal probabilistic technique to model a system whose state changes over time. We built, trained and tested the model using data of 3,100 patients admitted to the emergency department, and measured the accuracy of detecting sepsis using data collected within the first 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours after admission. The area under the curve was 0.911, 0.915, 0.937 and 0.944 respectively. We describe the data, data preparation techniques, model, results, various statistical measures and the limitations of our experiments. We also briefly discuss techniques to improve accuracy, and the generalizability of our methods to other diseases. PMID:23304338

  1. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  2. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoon, T. F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2011-11-01

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak-Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0-5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets.

  3. Potential of fecal microbiota for early-stage detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Georg; Tap, Julien; Voigt, Anita Y; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kultima, Jens Roat; Costea, Paul I; Amiot, Aurélien; Böhm, Jürgen; Brunetti, Francesco; Habermann, Nina; Hercog, Rajna; Koch, Moritz; Luciani, Alain; Mende, Daniel R; Schneider, Martin A; Schrotz-King, Petra; Tournigand, Christophe; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Yamada, Takuji; Zimmermann, Jürgen; Benes, Vladimir; Kloor, Matthias; Ulrich, Cornelia M; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Sobhani, Iradj; Bork, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Several bacterial species have been implicated in the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but CRC-associated changes of fecal microbiota and their potential for cancer screening remain to be explored. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples to identify taxonomic markers that distinguished CRC patients from tumor-free controls in a study population of 156 participants. Accuracy of metagenomic CRC detection was similar to the standard fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and when both approaches were combined, sensitivity improved > 45% relative to the FOBT, while maintaining its specificity. Accuracy of metagenomic CRC detection did not differ significantly between early- and late-stage cancer and could be validated in independent patient and control populations (N = 335) from different countries. CRC-associated changes in the fecal microbiome at least partially reflected microbial community composition at the tumor itself, indicating that observed gene pool differences may reveal tumor-related host–microbe interactions. Indeed, we deduced a metabolic shift from fiber degradation in controls to utilization of host carbohydrates and amino acids in CRC patients, accompanied by an increase of lipopolysaccharide metabolism. PMID:25432777

  4. Mycotoxin contamination of food in Europe: early detection and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Magan, Naresh

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the early detection and prevention strategies which have been employed in Europe for the control of mycotoxin contamination of food in the context of a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) framework. The critical control points (CCPs) in the whole food chain where mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and ochratoxins are important have been identified. Ecological studies on the effect of environmental factors which are marginal for growth and mycotoxin production have been identified for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum (deoxynivlenol production), and for Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus ochraceus (ochratoxin production) in relation to cereal production and for A. carbonarius in relation to grapes and wine production (ochratoxin formation). To minimise the entry of these mycotoxins into the food chain, effective and rapid diagnostic tools are required to monitor the CCPs effectively. To this end the potential use of molecular imprinted polymers, lateral flow devices and molecular-based techniques for the rapid detection and quantification of the mycotoxigenic moulds or their toxins have also been developed. PMID:16944291

  5. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  6. A multi-wavelength (u.v. to visible) laser system for early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Leszczy?ski, M.; Slight, T. J.; Meredith, W.; Schemmann, M.; Moseley, H.; Woods, J. A.; Valentine, R.; Kalra, S.; Mossey, P.; Theaker, E.; Macluskey, M.; Mimnagh, G.; Mimnagh, W.

    2015-03-01

    A multi-wavelength (360nm - 440nm), real-time Photonic Cancer Detector (PCD) optical system based on GaN semiconductor laser technology is outlined. A proof of concept using blue laser technology for early detection of cancer has already been tested and proven for esophageal cancer. This concept is expanded to consider a wider range of wavelengths and the PCD will initially be used for early diagnosis of oral cancers. The PCD creates an image of the oral cavity (broad field white light detection) and maps within the oral cavity any suspicious lesions with high sensitivity using a narrow field tunable detector.

  7. Early detection of glaucoma using fully automated disparity analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) from stereo fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Archie; Corona, Enrique; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian S.

    2006-03-01

    Early detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) is critical in diagnosis of glaucoma, because such glaucomatous damage precedes clinically identifiable visual loss. Early detection of glaucoma can prevent progression of the disease and consequent loss of vision. Traditional early detection techniques involve observing changes in the ONH through an ophthalmoscope. Stereo fundus photography is also routinely used to detect subtle changes in the ONH. However, clinical evaluation of stereo fundus photographs suffers from inter- and intra-subject variability. Even the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) has not been found to be sufficiently sensitive for early detection. A semi-automated algorithm for quantitative representation of the optic disc and cup contours by computing accumulated disparities in the disc and cup regions from stereo fundus image pairs has already been developed using advanced digital image analysis methodologies. A 3-D visualization of the disc and cup is achieved assuming camera geometry. High correlation among computer-generated and manually segmented cup to disc ratios in a longitudinal study involving 159 stereo fundus image pairs has already been demonstrated. However, clinical usefulness of the proposed technique can only be tested by a fully automated algorithm. In this paper, we present a fully automated algorithm for segmentation of optic cup and disc contours from corresponding stereo disparity information. Because this technique does not involve human intervention, it eliminates subjective variability encountered in currently used clinical methods and provides ophthalmologists with a cost-effective and quantitative method for detection of ONH structural damage for early detection of glaucoma.

  8. Hearing Safety What causes noiseinduced hearing loss (NIHL)?

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Robert E.

    be severely damaged. This kind of hearing loss may be accompanied by tinnitus, an experience of sound like in hearing loss and tinnitus. Exposure to impulse and continuous noise may cause only a temporary hearing

  9. Detection and prevalence of disseminated tumor cells from the bone marrow of early stage male breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf, Andreas D; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Walter, Christina B; Hahn, Markus; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Markus; Brucker, Sara Y

    2015-07-01

    Male breast cancer (mBC) is a rare entity. As detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of females with early stage breast cancer is a promising prognostic marker, we aimed to determine the prevalence and prognostic value of DTCs in mBC. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from male patients undergoing primary surgery for early stage breast cancer (T1-4, N0-2, M0) at Tuebingen University, Germany, between January 2001 and April 2015. DTCs were identified by immunocytochemistry (pancytokeratin antibody A45/B-B3) and cytomorphology. 24 patients with mBC were included into the analysis. DTCs were detected in four of these (17 %). There was no significant association between the DTC status and any other clinicopathological parameter. Also, no significant impact of the DTC status on DFS or OS could be observed. DTCs are detectable in patients with early stage mBC. The detection rate is comparable to that in women. No associations between DTCs and clinicopathological features or prognosis were observed, which is most likely due to the small sample size. The detection of DTCs in male patients with early stage breast cancer emphasizes the transmission of future clinical applications for DTCs from women to men. PMID:26012646

  10. Gold nanoparticles allow detection of early-stage edema in mice via computed tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Domey, Jenny; Teichgräber, Ulf; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high X-ray attenuation, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) emerged as preclinical contrast agents by giving high vasculature contrast. For this reason, GNPs are regularly applied for computed tomography (CT) imaging of tumors but not for the visualization of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and applicability of preclinical GNPs (AuroVist™) of two different sizes (1.9 nm and 15 nm) for the detection of inflammation-associated phagocytes in early-stage edema. Both GNP variants were stable under in vitro conditions and achieved high micro-CT (mCT) contrast after embedment into agarose. Fifteen-nanometer GNPs were detected after uptake into macrophages via mCT imaging exhibiting higher X-ray contrast than cells treated with 1.9 nm GNPs and untreated ones. Both 1.9 nm and 15 nm GNPs exhibited good biocompatibility on murine macrophages according to ATP and cellular dehydrogenase levels. Reactive oxygen species levels produced by phagocytic cells decreased significantly (P?0.05) after co-incubation with GNPs regardless of the size of the nanoparticle (NP) in comparison to untreated control cells. In vivo mCT studies of inflammation imaging revealed that GNPs with a diameter of 15 nm accumulated within subcutaneous edema 2 hours after injection with a maximum signaling 8 hours postinjection and could be detected up to 48 hours within the edema region. In contrast, 1.9 nm GNPs were not shown to accumulate at the site of the inflammation region and were mostly excreted via the renal system 2–4 hours after injection. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that both GNP variants (1.9 nm and 15 nm) were stable and biocompatible under in vitro conditions. However, only 15 nm NPs have the potential as contrast agent for phagocyte labeling and applications in CT imaging of inflammation on a cellular level.

  11. Detection of bone erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis: 3D ultrasonography versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Peluso, G; Bosello, S L; Gremese, E; Mirone, L; Di Gregorio, F; Di Molfetta, V; Pirronti, T; Ferraccioli, G

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ultrasonography (US) is an interesting tool that could improve the traditional approach to musculoskeletal US in rheumatology, due to its virtual operator independence and reduced examination time. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of 3DUS in the detection of bone erosions in hand and wrist joints of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients, with computed tomography (CT) as the reference method. Twenty ERA patients without erosions on standard radiography of hands and wrists underwent 3DUS and CT evaluation of eleven joints: radiocarpal, intercarpal, ulnocarpal, second to fifth metacarpo-phalangeal (MCP), and second to fifth proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of dominant hand. Eleven (55.0 %) patients were erosive with CT and ten of them were erosive also at 3DUS evaluation. In five patients, 3DUS identified cortical breaks that were not erosions at CT evaluation. Considering CT as the gold standard to identify erosive patients, the 3DUS sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.9, 0.55, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. A total of 32 erosions were detected with CT, 15 of them were also observed at the same sites with 3DUS, whereas 17 were not seen on 3DUS evaluation. The majority of these 3DUS false-negative erosions were in the wrist joints. Furthermore, 18 erosions recorded by 3DUS were false positive. The majority of these 3DUS false-positive erosions were located at PIP joints. This study underlines the limits of 3DUS in detecting individual bone erosion, mostly at the wrist, despite the good sensitivity in identifying erosive patients. PMID:26091903

  12. STAT3-mediated Coincidence Detection Regulates Noncanonical Immediate Early Gene Induction*

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; Willard, Belinda; Haque, S. Jaharul; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways interact with one another to form dynamic networks in which the cellular response to one stimulus may depend on the presence, intensity, timing, or localization of other signals. In rare cases, two stimuli may be simultaneously required for cells to elicit a significant biological output. This phenomenon, generally termed “coincidence detection,” requires a downstream signaling node that functions as a Boolean AND gate to restrict biological output from a network unless multiple stimuli are received within a specific window of time. Simultaneous activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and a thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1) increases the expression of multiple immediate early genes (IEGs) associated with growth and angiogenesis. Using a bioinformatic comparison of IEG promoter regions, we identified STAT3 as a critical transcription factor for the detection of coincident EGFR/PAR-1 activation. EGFR activation induces classical STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation but also initiates an inhibitory signal through the PI3K-AKT signaling axis that prevents STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation. Coincident PAR-1 signaling resolves these conflicting EGF-activated pathways by blocking AKT activation and permitting GSK-3?/?-dependent STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation and STAT3-dependent gene expression. Functionally, combinatorial EGFR/PAR-1 signaling suppresses EGF-induced proliferation and thrombin-induced leukocyte adhesion and triggers a STAT3-dependent increase in endothelial cell migration. This study reveals a novel signaling role for STAT3 in which the simultaneous presence of extracellular EGF and thrombin is detected at the level of STAT3 post-translational modifications. Collectively, our results describe a novel regulatory mechanism in which combinatorial EGFR/PAR-1 signaling regulates STAT3-dependent IEG induction and endothelial cell migration. PMID:23504318

  13. Is All Human Hearing Cochlear?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the possibility that the saccule may contribute to human hearing. The forty participants included twenty healthy people and twenty other subjects selected from patients who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo to Audiology Department of Hazrat Rasoul Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran). Assessments comprised of audiological evaluations, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), recognition of spoken phonemes in white noise (Rsp in wn), and auditory brainstem response to 500?Hz tone burst (ABR500?HZ). Twenty affected ears with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by abnormal cVEMPs revealed decreased scores of Rsp in wn and abnormal findings of ABR500?HZ. Both unaffected and normal ears had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs and ABR500?HZ between three groups were significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA). The correlation between RSP in wn and p13 latencies was significant. The peak-to-peak amplitudes showed significant correlation to RSP in wn. The correlation between RSP in wn and the latencies of n23 was significant. In high-level of noisy competing situations, healthy human saccular sensation can mediate the detection of low frequencies and possibly help in cochlear hearing for frequency and intensity discrimination. So, all human hearing is not cochlear. PMID:24453793

  14. Biomechanics of hearing in katydids.

    PubMed

    Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Animals have evolved a vast diversity of mechanisms to detect sounds. Auditory organs are thus used to detect intraspecific communicative signals and environmental sounds relevant to survival. To hear, terrestrial animals must convert the acoustic energy contained in the airborne sound pressure waves into neural signals. In mammals, spectral quality is assessed by the decomposition of incoming sound waves into elementary frequency components using a sophisticated cochlear system. Some insects like katydids (or bushcrickets) have evolved biophysical mechanisms for auditory processing that are remarkably equivalent to those of mammals. Located on their front legs, katydid ears are small, yet are capable of performing several of the tasks usually associated with mammalian hearing. These tasks include air-to-liquid impedance conversion, signal amplification, and frequency analysis. Impedance conversion is achieved by a lever system, a mechanism functionally analogous to the mammalian middle ear ossicles, yet morphologically distinct. In katydids, the exact mechanisms supporting frequency analysis seem diverse, yet are seen to result in dispersive wave propagation phenomenologically similar to that of cochlear systems. Phylogenetically unrelated katydids and tetrapods have evolved remarkably different structural solutions to common biophysical problems. Here, we discuss the biophysics of hearing in katydids and the variations observed across different species. PMID:25515594

  15. Do You Hear What Horton Hears?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert; Johnson, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    "I've never heard of a small speck of dust that is able to yell" says Horton of a sound he hears well (Geisel 1954). It is always valuable to connect science to student's interests and their everyday world--so what better way to teach concepts relating to sound than to read "Horton Hears a Who" by Dr. Seuss? Here the authors present several…

  16. Hearing Lost, Hearing Gained. Hearing Aids Make a Difference. Tune in to Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandal, Ronda

    This illustrated booklet is intended to assist special education consultants, teachers, and parents to monitor hearing aid use by children with hearing impairments in the Northwest Territories (Canada). The first section presents basic information on what hearing aids are, types of personal hearing aids, and FM (frequency modulation) hearing aid…

  17. Acute autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss associated with Crohn’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Bachmeyer; Nathalie Leclerc-Landgraf; Frédéric Laurette; Pierre Coutarel; Jean-François Cadranel; Jacques Médioni; Robin Dhôte; Miette Mougeot-Martin

    1998-01-01

    We report the sudden onset of bilateral hearing loss in a patient with Crohn’s disease while the intestinal disease was quiescent. Antibodies directed against collagen type II were detected in the serum. Dramatic improvement of his hearing was observed under corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss was established. This condition could be considered as an extraintestinal manifestation of

  18. Correlated evolution between hearing sensitivity and social calls in bats

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Kirsten M; Moss, Cynthia F; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2006-01-01

    Echolocating bats are auditory specialists, with exquisite hearing that spans several octaves. In the ultrasonic range, bat audiograms typically show highest sensitivity in the spectral region of their species-specific echolocation calls. Well-developed hearing in the audible range has been commonly attributed to a need to detect sounds produced by prey. However, bat pups often emit isolation calls with low-frequency components that facilitate mother–young reunions. In this study, we examine whether low-frequency hearing in bats exhibits correlated evolution with (i) body size; (ii) high-frequency hearing sensitivity or (iii) pup isolation call frequency. Using published audiograms, we found that low-frequency hearing sensitivity is not dependent on body size but is related to high-frequency hearing. After controlling for high-frequency hearing, we found that low-frequency hearing exhibits correlated evolution with isolation call frequency. We infer that detection and discrimination of isolation calls have favoured enhanced low-frequency hearing because accurate parental investment is critical: bats have low reproductive rates, non-volant altricial young and must often identify their pups within large crèches. PMID:17148288

  19. A hierarchical strategy for underground early fire detection based on a T-cycled semiconductor gas sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Conrad; Peter Reimann; Andreas Schütze

    2007-01-01

    Based on a single semiconductor gas sensor device operated in a T-cycled mode we developed a hierarchical identification strategy for the use in under-ground early fire detection systems, i.e. in coal mines. This strategy not only provides the identification of the alarm scenario to be detected (CO and ethene in a specific ratio) but is also suitable for identifying or

  20. CapitolHearings.org

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exactly goes on in the U.S. Congress on a daily basis? This is a question that many people would like to know, and this website is a great way to find that out. The CapitolHearings.org site was created by C-SPAN in conjunction with Congressional Quarterly, and it provides detailed information about ongoing Congressional hearings and sessions, along with some fun trivia. Visitors can use the website to listen to gavel-to-gavel coverage of U.S. Senate Committee hearings, and there are a total of 26 hearing rooms that are included. On the homepage, visitors can view the current hearing schedule and access the full text of each item that is up for debate and discussion. Also, visitors can use the "Watch Congress" button to get easy access to the proceedings, and they can also search past hearings as well.