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Sample records for early hearing detection

  1. Early detection of hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Götz

    2010-01-01

    The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement) and 2 (AABR testing) need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric) acoustician specialized on children. PMID:22073092

  2. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  3. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and

  4. Rural Family Perspectives and Experiences with Early Infant Hearing Detection and Intervention: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. PMID:26316007

  5. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  6. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement current voluntary initiatives through systematic scaling-up of public awareness and requisite manpower development towards sustainable service capacities at all levels of healthcare delivery. PMID:17266763

  7. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  8. Early detection of non-organic hearing loss using a simple tone-in-noise test.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Daniel; Morris, Olwyn; Adewale, Mabel; Millgate, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of non-organic hearing loss (NOHL) is important in order to ensure appropriate management decisions. One possible audiometric test for achieving this is the tone-in-noise (TIN) test although its current format is not widely applicable and may not optimize accuracy. We sought to investigate a modified TIN test, using narrowband noise, and the influence of different noise levels and alternative approaches to determining the outcome. Seventy-five normal-hearing and 8 hearing-impaired subjects were asked to feign or exaggerate a hearing loss. The shift in genuine or exaggerated/feigned thresholds with the introduction of ipsilateral noise was determined. The TIN test was able to accurately separate between genuine and feigned thresholds when using narrowband noise presented at the effective masking level corresponding to the apparent tone threshold and using a 'fail' criterion of a repeatable threshold shift of ? 10 dB at one or more frequencies. It also produced similar shifts in exaggerated thresholds. In conclusion, this modified TIN test is a potentially accurate method to rapidly identify unilateral and bilateral NOHL in a wide range on contexts and could be applied to automated audiometry. PMID:22918148

  9. A 25-Year Review of Cuba's Screening Program for Early Detection of Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Pérez, María Cecilia; Gaya, José Antonio; Savio, Guillermo; Perera, Maritza; Ponce de León, Maribel; Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Early screening for hearing loss is currently recognized as an international healthcare standard. In Cuba, such a program was initiated in the capital, Havana, in 1983 and scaled up to national coverage in 1991. Objective Review the development of Cuba's national hearing screening program over the last 25 years (organizational structure, efficiency, coverage and impact on health), and the science and technology developed to sustain it. Intervention The program was organized in two steps: Step 1-clinical selection of children at different stages of development with multiple high-risk registers; Step 2-referral to territorial, hospitalbased centers for auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) testing, diagnostic evaluation, and intervention. Prior to national scaling-up, the efficiency of this multiple targeted screening (MTS) protocol was evaluated in Havana. Technology and equipment were then developed, and personnel were trained to set up the national screening network. In 1996, the multiple auditory steady-state evoked response (MSSR) technique for objective audiogram estimation was introduced using AUDIX equipment, designed and produced in Cuba for this program. A semi-automated version for neonatal screening has been developed more recently. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the program's efficiency, coverage, yield, and impact on health. Results During the first stage of implementation in Havana, the MTS protocol correctly identified 72.5% of children with congenital and preverbal hearing loss. Subsequent studies of different aspects of the program have shown that: 1) the mean age of hearing loss detection/intervention in one municipality was reduced from 4 years to 10 months; 2) hearing-impaired children who were screened showed improved language and cognitive development compared to those who were not screened; 3) the MSSR technique predicted type and severity of hearing loss more accurately than physiological techniques used previously and was also shown to be an effective screening method (92% to 96% sensitivity, 100% specificity); and 4) program coverage (25-86%), though reasonably high in some regions, is not complete and needs improvement, particularly in the country's remote and rural areas. Conclusions The MTS protocol can be considered a valid option for increasing the yield and effectiveness of a hearing screening program operating with limited resources. The MSSR technique provides valuable data for the diagnosis and treatment of children detected through a screening program and, with improvements, may also be useful as a screening method. PMID:21483323

  10. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: How Far We've Come, How Far We've yet to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimondo, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The February 2011 National Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) conference marked its tenth annual event. During the opening plenary, speakers looked back and described the progress and accomplishments of past years. They highlighted activities of the various federal agencies, medical organizations, and individuals who helped move EHDI…

  11. Early Detection of Hearing Loss: The Case for Listening to Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchbank, Alison Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article is drawn from a larger doctoral study that explored hearing mothers' experiences of discovering that their babies had a permanent hearing loss in Australia in 2008. The particular focus for this paper is the period in time after a concern is flagged, either by a newborn hearing screener or the mother herself, until a hearing loss is…

  12. Auditory Screening in Infants for Early Detection of Permanent Hearing Loss in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, M; Zadeh, PY; Javadian, Y; Fard, HA; Delavari, K; Panjaki, HSA; Gorji, HAMH

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undiagnosed hearing loss can cause disorders in speech and language and delay in social and emotional development. Aim: This study aimed to screen for hearing loss in all newborns born in Babol city during 2009-2011. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen thousand one hundred and sixty-five newborns (49% [7430/15165] male and 51% [7735/15165] female) born during a 30-month period in Babol, underwent hearing screening by the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test at the age of 15 days. In infants referred at this stage, an auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was the next investigation. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA, 16) through descriptive statistic method. Results: In the first screening stage, 10.8% (1648/15165) cases were referred to the second stage for further investigation. 9.4% (154/1648) were lost to follow-up from among the referred cases despite continuous contact and education about the importance of the problem. Among the participants in the second stage, 6.2% (92/1494) were referred to the third stage and underwent ABR and OAE testing. 14.1% (13/92) were lost at this stage. Of the remaining participants, 34.2% (27/79) were diagnosed with a hearing loss. Therefore, the incidence of hearing loss in this study was 1.8/1,000 newborns. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of hearing loss in this study, implementation of a universal newborn hearing screening program is recommended. PMID:24971205

  13. Decision-Making in Families Engaged in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainscott, Sarah Dawson

    2010-01-01

    Families are faced with numerous decisions shortly after their infants are identified with a hearing loss. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the family decision-making process including how families receive and respond to information and how family priorities and concerns for their child's future relate to the decisions they make. Of…

  14. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT

  15. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  16. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  17. Issues in early identification of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alberti, P W; Hyde, M L; Riko, K; Corbin, H; Fitzhardinge, P M

    1985-04-01

    In a general hospital, an early detection research program based on a high risk register and brain stem electric response audiometry (BERA) using click and frequency-specific stimuli identified 631 at-risk neonates from the well baby nursery and the neonatal intensive care nursery (ICN). BERA tests were done before discharge and four months later; comparison of outcomes revealed substantial discrepancies. From the follow-up test, 51 cases of mild to severe hearing loss were identified. Experience from the research program has raised some issues relevant for establishment of service programs. Evaluation of all babies (general nursery and ICN) is justified on the basis of yield but is resource consuming; strategies for minimizing work load are discussed. Risk factor criterion levels affect case loading and yield. Frequency-specific BERA identifies cases which would not be detected by click stimuli and which raise management questions. Deferral of testing to four months is feasible and desirable. PMID:3982181

  18. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  19. Early intervention programme for hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Narayanswamy, S

    1992-01-01

    The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream. PMID:12286296

  20. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  1. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on

  2. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  3. Augmented warning sound detection for hearing protectors.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Eric R; Brammer, Anthony J; Yu, Gongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Perception of warning sounds, such as vehicle backup alarms, is reduced when hearing protection devices (HPDs) are worn. A cross-correlation approach is employed to detect a pre-selected warning sound and enable it to bypass the attenuation of the HPD while still attenuating the environmental noise. Computer simulation shows that the algorithm can detect the specified alarm at signal-to-environmental-noise ratios as low as -30?dB. Human subject testing of the algorithm, implemented on a modified commercial HPD, confirms the minimum detection threshold obtained in simulation, and demonstrates a 7?dB improvement in detection threshold compared with the unmodified HPD. PMID:24437853

  4. Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

  5. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  6. Breast Cancer: Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  7. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs. PMID:25790949

  8. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  9. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO…

  10. Sensory Temporal Processing in Adults with Early Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Joanne E.; Brown, Lenora N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined tactile and visual temporal processing in adults with early loss of hearing. The tactile task consisted of punctate stimulations that were delivered to one or both hands by a mechanical tactile stimulator. Pairs of light emitting diodes were presented on a display for visual stimulation. Responses consisted of YES or NO

  11. Targeted massive parallel sequencing: the effective detection of novel causative mutations associated with hearing loss in small families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hereditary hearing loss is one of the most common heterogeneous disorders, and genetic variants that can cause hearing loss have been identified in over sixty genes. Most of these hearing loss genes have been detected using classical genetic methods, typically starting with linkage analysis in large families with hereditary hearing loss. However, these classical strategies are not well suited for mutation analysis in smaller families who have insufficient genetic information. Methods Eighty known hearing loss genes were selected and simultaneously sequenced by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 8 Korean families with autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Results Five mutations in known hearing loss genes, including 1 nonsense and 4 missense mutations, were identified in 5 different genes (ACTG1, MYO1F, DIAPH1, POU4F3 and EYA4), and the genotypes for these mutations were consistent with the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of hearing loss in each family. No mutational hot-spots were revealed in these Korean families. Conclusion Targeted NGS allowed for the detection of pathogenic mutations in affected individuals who were not candidates for classical genetic studies. This report is the first documenting the effective use of an NGS technique to detect pathogenic mutations that underlie hearing loss in an East Asian population. Using this NGS technique to establish a database of common mutations in Korean patients with hearing loss and further data accumulation will contribute to the early diagnosis and fundamental therapies for hereditary hearing loss. PMID:22938506

  12. Developmental hearing loss impairs signal detection in noise: putative central mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gay, Jennifer D; Voytenko, Sergiy V; Galazyuk, Alexander V; Rosen, Merri J

    2014-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss have difficulty processing sounds in noisy environments. This is most noticeable for speech perception, but is reflected in a basic auditory processing task: detecting a tonal signal in a noise background, i.e., simultaneous masking. It is unresolved whether the mechanisms underlying simultaneous masking arise from the auditory periphery or from the central auditory system. Poor detection in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is attributed to cochlear hair cell damage. However, hearing loss alters neural processing in the central auditory system. Additionally, both psychophysical and neurophysiological data from normally hearing and impaired listeners suggest that there are additional contributions to simultaneous masking that arise centrally. With SNHL, it is difficult to separate peripheral from central contributions to signal detection deficits. We have thus excluded peripheral contributions by using an animal model of early conductive hearing loss (CHL) that provides auditory deprivation but does not induce cochlear damage. When tested as adults, animals raised with CHL had increased thresholds for detecting tones in simultaneous noise. Furthermore, intracellular in vivo recordings in control animals revealed a cortical correlate of simultaneous masking: local cortical processing reduced tone-evoked responses in the presence of noise. This raises the possibility that altered cortical responses which occur with early CHL can influence even simple signal detection in noise. PMID:25249949

  13. Developmental hearing loss impairs signal detection in noise: putative central mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Jennifer D.; Voytenko, Sergiy V.; Galazyuk, Alexander V.; Rosen, Merri J.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss have difficulty processing sounds in noisy environments. This is most noticeable for speech perception, but is reflected in a basic auditory processing task: detecting a tonal signal in a noise background, i.e., simultaneous masking. It is unresolved whether the mechanisms underlying simultaneous masking arise from the auditory periphery or from the central auditory system. Poor detection in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is attributed to cochlear hair cell damage. However, hearing loss alters neural processing in the central auditory system. Additionally, both psychophysical and neurophysiological data from normally hearing and impaired listeners suggest that there are additional contributions to simultaneous masking that arise centrally. With SNHL, it is difficult to separate peripheral from central contributions to signal detection deficits. We have thus excluded peripheral contributions by using an animal model of early conductive hearing loss (CHL) that provides auditory deprivation but does not induce cochlear damage. When tested as adults, animals raised with CHL had increased thresholds for detecting tones in simultaneous noise. Furthermore, intracellular in vivo recordings in control animals revealed a cortical correlate of simultaneous masking: local cortical processing reduced tone-evoked responses in the presence of noise. This raises the possibility that altered cortical responses which occur with early CHL can influence even simple signal detection in noise. PMID:25249949

  14. The Parent Teaching Home: An Early Intervention Program for Hearing-Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Freeman

    1974-01-01

    The Bill Wilkerson Hearing and Speech Center Program for hearing-impaired children emphasizes the value of detecting hearing impairment in infancy, followed by immediate intervention in the form of an intensive parent teaching program which stresses the maximization of residual hearing to enhance natural language acquisition. (Author/JA)

  15. [Fitting hearing aids in early childhood based on auditory evoked potentials in steady states].

    PubMed

    Zenker Castro, F; Fernández Belda, R; Barajas de Prat, J J

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the Newborn Hearing Screening Program is to achieve early. Identification and appropriate intervention for hearing loss. Hearing aids are the most frequent intervention for deafness. Paediatric specific clinical protocols for fitting hearing aids always recommend accurate characterisation of hearing thresholds in newborns. In this sense, electrophysiological procedures are specially indicated in determined hearing sensibility from the first age of life since it is an objective and reliable procedure. 20 normal hearing subject and 17 hearing loss subjects participated in this study. Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSR) were obtained from all of them. Hearing aid fitting was established from the electrophysiological responses. Dynamic range, gain, compression ratio and maximum output of the hearing aid were obtained from the intensity amplitude function of the ASSR. The procedure discussed in this study is specially indicated in newborns and very young children in which other test are not suitable. PMID:17184006

  16. Early intervention in South Africa: moving beyond hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Claudine; Pittman, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Since little information is available on the outcome of early hearing intervention programs in South Africa, this article examines data on infants and families registered with a family-centred, home-based intervention program (HI HOPES) over a 12-month period in order to track the effectiveness of the holistic unbiased support to families of infants and toddlers with a hearing-loss. The aim of HI HOPES, which is based on the SKI-HI model of early intervention in the USA, is to ensure that families are enabled to make informed choices for their unique infant. Data were gathered on 32 infants ages birth to three years and their families using both qualitative and quantitative measures which included analysis of demographic data, quarterly language assessments, and parent satisfaction surveys. The report on the pilot year of this early intervention program shows that, though the sample is small, there is significant improvement in infant receptive and expressive language for infants identified before seven months of age, as well as a high level of satisfaction from families who have received services. PMID:18781512

  17. Infants and children with hearing loss need early language access.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Moreland, Christopher J; Napoli, Donna Jo; Osterling, Wendy; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Around 96 percent of children with hearing loss are born to parents with intact hearing, who may initially know little about deafness or sign language. Therefore, such parents will need information and support in making decisions about the medical, linguistic, and educational management of their child. Some of these decisions are time-sensitive and irreversible and come at a moment of emotional turmoil and vulnerability (when some parents grieve the loss of a normally hearing child). Clinical research indicates that a deaf child's poor communication skills can be made worse by increased level of parental depression. Given this, the importance of reliable and up-to-date support for parents' decisions is critical to the overall well-being of their child. In raising and educating a child, parents are often offered an exclusive choice between an oral environment (including assistive technology, speech reading, and voicing) and a signing environment. A heated controversy surrounds this choice, and has since at least the late 19th century, beginning with the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf in Milan, held in 1880. While families seek advice from many sources, including, increasingly, the internet, the primary care physician (PCP) is the professional medical figure the family interacts with repeatedly. The present article aims to help family advisors, particularly the PCP and other medical advisors in this regard. We argue that deaf children need to be exposed regularly and frequently to good language models in both visual and auditory modalities from the time hearing loss is detected and continued throughout their education to ensure proper cognitive, psychological, and educational development. Since there is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical studies on many of the issues families must confront, professional opinions, backed by what studies do exist, are the only option. We here give our strongly held professional opinions and stress the need for improved research studies in these areas. PMID:20866021

  18. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While

  19. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  20. Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800 ms) or short (50 ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

  1. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

    2010-01-01

    Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

  2. Is Early Intervention Effective in Improving Spoken Language Outcomes of Children With Congenital Hearing Loss?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this research forum article was to present research findings on the effectiveness of early intervention for improving outcomes of children with congenital hearing loss. Method The method involved a narrative overview of recent findings from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study. Results Early intervention, either in the form of amplification or cochlear implantation, was associated with higher language scores. Maternal education and communication mode used during early intervention were also significant contributors to child outcomes. Early performance predicted later language development. Conclusion Early intervention is effective in improving early language outcomes, at a population level. PMID:26649545

  3. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the

  4. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

  5. Enhanced Visual Speech Perception in Individuals with Early-Onset Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Edward T., Jr.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: L. E. Bernstein, M. E. Demorest, and P. E. Tucker (2000) demonstrated enhanced speechreading accuracy in participants with early-onset hearing loss compared with hearing participants. Here, the authors test the generalization of Bernstein et al.'s (2000) result by testing 2 new large samples of participants. The authors also investigated…

  6. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

  7. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative

  8. Effect of Early Intervention on Language Development in Hearing-Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Elahe; Jafari, Zahra; Gholami, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss from birth up to the age of 3 years has a negative effect on speech/language development and results in sensory, cognitive, emotional, and academic defects in adulthood by causing delayed development of communicative-linguistic abilities. The present study was performed in order to assess the effect of early intervention on language development in Persian children aged 6-7 years with severe sensorineural hearing loss. Materials and Methods: Thirty boys and girls aged 6-7 years participated in this study, all of them had severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. All children were using bilateral behind-the-ear hearing aid, and had similar economic/socio-cultural backgrounds. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on the age of identification/intervention of hearing loss (3-6 and 12-15 months of age). The Persian TOLD-P3 test was used to evaluate language development in all subjects. Data collection was accomplished by observation, completion of questionnaires, and speech recording. Results: There was a significant difference in language development in 11 sub-tests and five lingual gains on the Persian TOLD-P3 test between early (3-6 months of age) and late identified/intervened (12-15 months of age) hearing-impaired children (P<0.05). Early identified/intervened hearing-impaired children had a notable preference in all assessed sub-tests and lingual gains. Conclusion: Early identification/intervention of hearing loss before the age of 6 months has a significant positive effect on a child’s language development in terms of picture/relational/oral vocabulary, grammatical comprehension, sentence combining, grammatical completion, phonologic analysis, word differentiation, word production, semantics, and syntax. Moreover, early identification/ intervention of hearing loss develops the hearing-impaired child’s lingual gains in visual vocabulary, grammatical completion, word differentiation, phonologic analysis, and word production. PMID:26877999

  9. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technolog | Research on the effectiveness and clinical impact of early detection technologies and practices.

  10. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technolo | Research on the effectiveness and clinical impact of early detection technologies and practices.

  11. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  12. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  13. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Adults with Early Stage Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2’) following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

  14. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons. PMID:26161524

  15. Training Needs of Early Intervention Personnel Working with Infants and Toddlers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Rosalyn; Niemeyer, Judith A.; Compton, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of newborn hearing screenings, infants with hearing loss are identified earlier than ever before. Each state is responsible for providing trained personnel and delivery of early intervention services to families with newly identified infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing. Consequently, the role of each state's Part C…

  16. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  17. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  18. Recommendations of the NIDCD Working Group on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment on Acceptable Protocols for Use in State-Wide Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This document presents the consensus statement of a 2-day conference which addressed issues concerned with the early identification of hearing impairment. The conference resulted in the following consensus conclusions: (1) all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit should be screened for hearing loss prior to discharge; (2) universal…

  19. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  20. Fostering early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Judy A; Weyhenmeyer, Diana P; Mabus, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how faith community nurses (FCNs) fostered early breast cancer detection for those at risk in rural and African American populations throughout nine counties in midwestern Illinois to decrease breast cancer disparities. Flexible methods for breast cancer awareness education through FCNs, effective strategies for maximizing participation, and implications for practice were identified. In addition, networking within faith communities, connecting with complementary activities scheduled in those communities, and offering refreshments and gift items that support educational efforts were identified as effective ways of maximizing outcomes and reinforcing learning. Flexible educational programming that could be adapted to situational and learning needs was important to alleviate barriers in the project. As a result, the number of participants in the breast cancer awareness education program exceeded the grant goal, and the large number of African American participants and an unexpected number of Hispanic and Latino participants exceeded the target. PMID:25427713

  1. Evaluating the Structure of Early English Literacy Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.

    PubMed

    Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, word reading, and vocabulary skills in DHH children who have auditory access to speech. One hundred and sixty-seven DHH children (M age = 60.43 months) were assessed with a battery of early literacy measures. Forty-six percent used at least 1 cochlear implant; 54% were fitted with hearing aids. About a fourth of the sample was acquiring both spoken English and sign. Scores on standardized tests of phonological awareness and vocabulary averaged at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the hearing norming sample. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that DHH children's early literacy skills were best characterized by a complex 3-factor model in which phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and vocabulary formed 3 separate, but highly correlated constructs, with letter-sound knowledge and word reading skills relating to both phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge. This supports the hypothesis that early reading of DHH children with functional hearing is qualitatively similar to that of hearing children. PMID:26109317

  2. The Experiences and Involvement of Grandparents in Hearing Detection and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNee, Chelsea M.; Jackson, Carla W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of grandparents during hearing detection and intervention. Data were collected and analyzed from survey responses of 50 parents and 35 grandparents of children of varying ages who have hearing loss. Parents described important types of support that grandparents provided including frequent…

  3. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection

  4. Factors Affecting Early Services for Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melody; Page, Thomas A.; Oleson, Jacob; Spratford, Meredith; Berry, Lauren Unflat; Peterson, Barbara; Welhaven, Anne; Arenas, Richard M.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe factors affecting early intervention (EI) for children who are hard of hearing, we analyzed (a) service setting(s) and the relationship of setting to families' frequency of participation, and (b) provider preparation, caseload composition, and experience in relation to comfort with skills that support spoken language for…

  5. Actual versus Desired Family-Centered Practice in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention programs (EIPs) for children with hearing loss (HL) are increasingly characterized by a growing family-centered orientation. This article examined mothers' and professionals' assessments of actual and desired parental involvement in 6 educational centers in Israel that implement an EIP for young children with HL and their

  6. A Model of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss Provided through Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Stredler-Brown, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families need access to appropriate early intervention services that are delivered by professionals who are well trained and experienced using their chosen communication approach. Unfortunately, a lack of qualified practitioners, especially in remote and rural communities, and limited funding can…

  7. Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  8. Early childhood education: a means to earlier diagnosis of hearing impairment in the multihandicapped.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, L; Tessier, A

    1983-04-01

    Detection of congenital or infantile hearing loss is often delayed in otherwise normal children, but even greater delays occur in the multihandicapped. Neonatal hearing screening and high risk register techniques have not had universal acceptance. A collaborative project between medical school otology and audiology personnel and a school for multihandicapped children under the age of 3 years in the Department of Special Education in another university has significantly reduced detection time and provided speech, language and other remedial therapy while otologic diagnosis and educational functional assessment proceed. The investigators and staff are bilingual. Parents learn to observe and work with their own child at the school and in the home. PMID:6192106

  9. Early Detection of Core Deficits in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marian; Dijamco, Angeline; Gratier, Maya; Rozga, Agata

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this review of the research literature is to discuss approaches to the early detection of autism in infancy. Early detection would enable diagnoses to be made before 18 months of age rather than at 24-30 months, the age where diagnoses start to be made now. After summarizing the criteria for a deficit to be considered "core" to the

  10. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  11. Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners.

    PubMed

    Sandy, K Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, PMID:27156916

  12. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  13. Parental Level of Satisfaction Regarding Early Intervention Services for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Barbara Smith

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the level of satisfaction of parents regarding early identification/intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The purpose of this study is to compare the progress of children who are D/HH with their hearing peers on elements used to measure the readiness of students to enter the…

  14. Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children: NIH Consensus Statement [and] Summary of the NIH Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIH Consensus Statement, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children was developed by a nonadvocate, non-Federal panel of 58 experts during a 3-day meeting in 1993. The panel concluded that: (1) all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit should be screened for hearing loss prior to discharge; (2)…

  15. Parental Level of Satisfaction Regarding Early Intervention Services for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Barbara Smith

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the level of satisfaction of parents regarding early identification/intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). The purpose of this study is to compare the progress of children who are D/HH with their hearing peers on elements used to measure the readiness of students to enter the

  16. Early Detection of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating illness, although its autosomal dominant genetic transmission allows a unique opportunity to study apparently healthy individuals before manifest disease. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Vascular Cognitive Impairment), but studying otherwise-healthy appearing individuals who will go on with nearly 99% certainty to manifest the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. The field has witnessed an explosion of research examining possible early indicators of HD during what is now referred to as the “prodrome” of HD. A NIH study in its ninth year (PREDICT-HD) has offered a glimpse into the transition from an apparently healthy state to an obviously diseased state, and can serve as a model for many other genetic diseases, both neurological and non-neurological. PMID:24348095

  17. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  18. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  19. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  20. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  1. Early Detection of Maternal Risk for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mikat, B.; Gellhaus, A.; Wagner, N.; Birdir, C.; Kimmig, R.; Köninger, A.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. New molecular insights offer new possibilities of early diagnosis of elevated maternal risk. Maternal risk factors, biophysical parameters like Doppler examination of the uterine arteries and biochemical parameters allow early risk calculation. Preventive and effective therapeutic agents like acetylsalicylacid can be started in the early second trimester. This article reviews the diagnostic possibilities of early risk calculation to detect women having high risk for preeclampsia and the potential benefits for them, the offspring and health care systems. We provide risk calculation for preeclampsia as an important and sensible part of first trimester screening. PMID:22852092

  2. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for...

  3. 10 CFR 2.623 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in combined license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for...

  4. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604...

  5. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a... Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Construction Permit § 2.604...

  6. Hearing Screening of Infants and the Importance of Early Language Acquisition. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology No. 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Miriam

    This thesis explores parental perspectives on hearing-screening of children, and the importance of the time of detection of a congenital hearing impairment for the child's development. A qualitative approach based mainly on interviews was employed, and the results were analyzed according to three different methods-empirical phenomenology, grounded…

  7. [Neonatal hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Kuan, M L; Lien, C F; Chen, S J; Chang, P

    1993-01-01

    Auditory deprivation in early life significantly effects speech, language, cognition and learning development. The importance of neonatal hearing screening in order to detect and manage children with hearing impairment during the critical period before three years of age can't be neglected. The neonatal hearing screening program at Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, under a cooperation of audiologists, otologists and pediatricians, identified 1885 neonates for hearing loss from September 1990 to August 1991. There were two study groups, a high risk group of hearing impairment and a non-high risk group. We performed hearing screening and followed-up for the failure at initial test using methods including behavioral observation audiometry, auditory brainstem response, tympanogram, pneumatic otoscopy and questionnaire. Approximately 2.7% of neonates were classified as high risk for hearing loss, the incidence of hearing loss was 8% to 14% in this group. The incidence of hearing loss in non-high risk group was 0.11%. If both groups were contained that the incidence of hearing loss was 0.32% to 0.48%, 0.11% with a sensorineural hearing loss, 0.21% to 0.37% with a conductive hearing loss. Both behavioral audiometry (89% false negative rate) and questionnaire (50% return rate) were not effective for screening purposes in this study. Our results also indicated that the most advantage of using a high risk register lay in the fact that only 2.7% of a total population needed to be screened to identify approximately 67% to 78% of hearing-impaired babies. This saved both time and money. PMID:8296558

  8. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. PMID:25138156

  9. Early-onset hearing loss reorganizes the visual and auditory network in children without cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Yang, Li-Zhuang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Shu-Li; Wang, Ying; Gu, Feng; Yang, Zhiyu; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-02-10

    The present study investigates the effect of early-onset hearing loss on the reorganization of visual and auditory networks in children without cochlear implants. Eleven congenitally deaf children and 12 age-matched hearing children were included in the study. Bilateral transverse temporal cortices and bilateral lateral occipital cortices were defined as auditory and visual seeds, respectively (as verified using an independent component analysis). The four seed-based connectivity maps were computed for each participant. As a result, group analysis showed that the primary auditory cortex was less connected with the motor cortex, whereas the visual cortex showed strengthened connectivity with motor and speech cortices in congenitally deaf children compared with the controls. Moreover, we found that the differences in functional connectivity between deaf and control children were not because of morphometric changes. Our results provide neural evidence for the sensorimotor coupling model of speech development. PMID:26730516

  10. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  11. Evaluation of the use of a questionnaire by non-specialists to detect hearing loss in preschool Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mariana; Lichtig, Ida

    2005-06-01

    In developing countries there is a lack of trained personnel and testing equipment to facilitate early detection of hearing impairment in children. There is a need to develop a strategic functional model for identification of hearing impairments through a scheme for the optimal utilization of the limited and local resources in the community. A questionnaire offers a low-cost option, specially if it is administered by non-professionals. This study evaluated a parent report questionnaire by non-professionals, to identify hearing loss in pre-school children of a poor community in São Paulo city. Seven volunteers were trained by a professional to use the questionnaire. A total of 133 children aged 3-6 years enrolled in this study. Their parents answered the questionnaire administered by the volunteers and the children underwent audiological screening (audiometry and imitanciometry). The results showed that the volunteers reproduced the evaluation of the professional regarding the use of the questionnaire. The majority of the results were statistically significant and the minimal percentage of concordance was 77%. Of the 133 children who were tested, 12 failed the audiometry screening (9.02%) and 18 failed the tympanometry screening (13.53%). The questionnaire did not differentiate between the children who failed in the audiological screening from those who did not, suggesting further refinements are necessary. PMID:15900189

  12. Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism, Progressive Early-Onset Spinocerebellar Ataxia, and Late-Onset Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, E; Ensert, CG; Gulerman, HC

    2011-01-01

    The association of ataxia, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hearing loss is extremely rare. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature of the neurological manifestations, age of onset, clinical severity and associated abnormalities. We describe a 24-year-old woman with secondary hypergonadotropic amenorrhea, early-onset progressive spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), late-onset sensorineural hearing loss and normal intelligence and compare it with reported cases. PMID:24052715

  13. Timing Discrepancies of Early Intervention Hearing Services in Urban and Rural Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Burton, Mary; Loan, Ashley; Shinn, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the timing of early intervention diagnostic and therapeutic services in cochlear implant recipients from rural and urban areas. Study design Retrospective case series review Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Cochlear implant recipients from a single comprehensive hearing institute born with severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined. Timing of diagnostic and therapeutic services was examined. Intervention(s) Diagnosis, amplification, and eventual cochlear implantation for all patients in the study Main outcome measure(s) Time points of definitive diagnosis, amplification, and cochlear implantation for children from urban and rural regions were examined. Correlation analysis of distance to testing center and timing of services was also assessed. Results 40 children born with congenital hearing loss were included in the study and were diagnosed at a median age of 13 weeks after birth. Children from rural regions obtained amplification at a median age of 47.7 weeks after birth, while urban children were amplified at 26 weeks after birth. Cochlear implantation was performed at a median age of 182 weeks after birth in those from rural areas and at 104 weeks after birth in urban-dwelling patients. A linear relationship was identified between distance to the implant center and timing of hearing aid amplification (r=0.5, p=0.033) and cochlear implantation (r=0.5, p=0.016). Conclusions Children residing outside of metro areas may be at higher risk of delayed rehabilitative services and cochlear implantation than those residing in urban areas that may be closer in proximity to tertiary care centers. PMID:24136305

  14. Testimony of Gina Adams, Senior Fellow, Urban Institute. Before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the testimony of Gina Adams before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices." This testimony was presented to the House Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives last March 19, 2009. She talks about how…

  15. [Screening programs for early detection of psychosis?].

    PubMed

    Cougnard, Audrey; Verdoux, Hélène

    2006-03-01

    Programs for the early detection of psychosis are currently underway in most developed countries. Their aim is to improve the outcome of subjects with psychotic disorders, but neither their feasibility nor their usefulness was assessed before their implementation. The postulate underlying these programs - that early treatment improves the prognosis of psychosis - has not yet been demonstrated. The absence of effective and adequately specific screening tests implies that a substantial number of the subjects evaluated may be incorrectly diagnosed with and treated for psychoses (false positives). Development of facilities specializing in the assessment and care of subjects with early psychosis often implies a decrease in funding for facilities caring for patients with chronic psychoses. Educational and information campaigns aimed at the general public and health professionals, on the other hand, may help reduce the stigma associated with psychosis and improve access to care for subjects in early stages of psychosis. Risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of programs for the early detection of psychosis must be evaluated before promoting their development. PMID:16550146

  16. On the detection of early cochlear damage by otoacoustic emission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucertini, M.; Moleti, A.; Sisto, R.

    2002-02-01

    Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence suggest that otoacoustic emission parameters may be used to reveal early cochlear damage, even before it can be diagnosed by standard audiometric techniques. In this work, the statistical distributions of a set of otoacoustic emission parameters chosen as candidates for the early detection of cochlear damage (global and band reproducibility, response level, signal-to-noise ratio, spectral latency, and long-lasting otoacoustic emission presence) were analyzed in a population of 138 ears. These ears have been divided, according to a standard audiometric test, in three classes: (1) ears of nonexposed bilaterally normal subjects, (2) normal ears of subjects with unilateral noise-induced high-frequency hearing loss, and (3) their hearing impaired ears. For all analyzed parameters, a statistically significant difference was found between classes 1 and 2. This difference largely exceeds the difference observed between classes 2 and 3. This fact suggests that the noise exposure, which was responsible for the unilateral hearing loss, also caused subclinical damage in the contralateral, audiometrically normal, ear. This is a clear indication that otoacoustic emission techniques may be able to early detect subclinical damages.

  17. Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

  18. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa YC

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children’s cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children’s caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children’s communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children’s communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers’ level of education and the male caregivers’ use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers’ use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

  19. Multilingual children with hearing loss: Factors contributing to language use at home and in early education.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Yc

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, including the communication mode (oral, manual, or mixed) and languages used in home and early educational environments. This article reports an exploratory analysis to examine factors associated with language use and communication mode of children at 3 years of age. A Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis was performed on data from 406 children to examine factors influencing communication mode and oral language use. The factor that most influenced children's communication mode at home was the communication mode used by their female caregiver. Children's communication mode in their early education environment was most related to the communication mode they used at home, and then related to the presence of additional needs in the children, female caregivers' level of education and the male caregivers' use of languages other than English (LOTEs). A second exploratory CHAID analysis of data for children from multilingual families (n = 106) indicated that female caregivers' use of English at home significantly influenced whether children used a LOTE at home. Finally, the use of a LOTE at home was associated with the use of a LOTE in the early education environment. These findings serve as an initial description of the factors that were associated with the communication mode and language use of children with hearing loss. PMID:23519446

  20. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  1. Mothers' Involvement in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: The Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Al-Yagon, Michal; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers' involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers' involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables…

  2. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  3. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  4. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  5. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  6. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  7. Mothers' Involvement in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: The Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Al-Yagon, Michal; Dromi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers' involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers' involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables

  8. Technology--and Colorado Early Education Staff--Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler-Woodard, Dee

    2009-01-01

    The youngest deaf and hard of hearing children with disabilities in Colorado can now participate more fully in the world around them thanks to funding from grants solicited through the Early Education Department at the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind. The grants enable the children, from birth to age 3, to overcome their physical…

  9. Improvement of the predicted aural detection code ICHIN (I Can Hear It Now)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Phillip

    Acoustic tests were conducted to study the far-field sound pressure levels and aural detection ranges associated with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter in straight and level flight at various advancing blade tip Mach numbers. The flight altitude was nominally 150 meters above ground level. This paper compares the normalized predicted aural detection distances, based on the measured far-field sound pressure levels, to the normalized measured aural detection distances obtained from sound jury response measurements obtained during the same test. Both unmodified and modified versions of the prediction code ICHIN-6 (I Can Hear It Now) were used to produce the results for this study.

  10. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  11. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  12. Noninvasive strategies for breast cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Trecate, Giovanna; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer. An extensive number of potential breast cancer biomarkers have been discovered by microarray hybridization or sequencing of circulating DNA, noncoding RNA and blood cell RNA; multiplex analysis of immune-related molecules and mass spectrometry-based approaches for high-throughput detection of protein, endogenous peptides, circulating and volatile metabolites. However, their medical relevance and their translation to clinics remain to be exploited. Once they will be fully validated, cancer biomarkers, used in combination with the current and emerging imaging technologies, represent an avenue to a personalized breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27044539

  13. Thermography for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Choi, Haeyoung; Ryu, SeonYoung; Kook, MyungHo; Chang, KiSoo; Kim, GeonHee

    2012-02-01

    Cancer is increasing fast nowadays through all over the world. Early diagnosis of cancer is a desirable subject as it can significantly improve the patient's chances of survival. In most cases the cancer is diagnosis using MRI, CT, PET. But, there are several disadvantages associated with high cost, low sensitivity and specificity, and health risks from radioactive. For that reason, significant efforts are being invested to improve the current imaging system. Thermography can offer some advantages. Chief among these are the contact free and low cost for detect cancer. But thermography has some disadvantages associated with low sensitivity for small tumors. In this research develops non contact, safe, high sensitivity, and low cost infrared imaging technique. Experiments were performed using lock in thermography with a small amount of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) and radiofrequency generator. As a result, highly sensitive infrared thermography can a small amount of MNP be detected by the technique.

  14. Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology

  15. Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

  16. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches. The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  17. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  18. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  19. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  20. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  1. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 4. Song, Y. T. (2007) Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681.

  2. Prevention and early detection of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaratnam, K.

    1985-01-01

    The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

  3. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed. PMID:21263260

  4. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; Mascaux, C; Nackaerts, K

    2012-09-01

    The greatest news of the past year in this field was the first large-scale early detection trial that could prove a 20% reduction in lung cancer-related mortality by screening high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Several expert groups and medical societies have assessed the data and concluded that LDCT screening for lung cancer is, however, not ready for large-scale population-based implementation. Too many open questions remain, such as definition of the at-risk population, timing and intervals of screening, optimal method of acquisition and interpretation of the images, how to handle (false) positive findings, and especially cost-effectiveness in relation to other lung cancer prevention strategies, mainly smoking cessation. Further analyses and several ongoing European trials are eagerly awaited. Much hope also resides in the use of biomarkers, as their use in, e.g., blood or exhaled air may provide more easy-to-use tests to better stratify high-risk populations for screening studies. While exciting research is ongoing in this domain--e.g. with microRNAs--none of the tests has yet reached sufficient validation for clinical use. Early central lung cancers are more difficult to visualise by CT. For these patients, standard bronchoscopy, complemented by autofluoresence endoscopy, has been studied in different screening and follow-up settings. PMID:22987984

  5. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

  6. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  7. Early predictors of autism in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing: three longitudinal case studies.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Elizabeth Cameron; Thrasher, Amy; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Early assessment data (starting at 9 months) for three children who were deaf or hard of hearing and later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed. The results from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Words and Gestures and the Child Development Inventory were used to develop three profiles of children who were deaf or hard of hearing and had ASD. One child lacked expected skills and language at ages 9 and 14 months. Another child lost skills and language after 17 months. The third child had results usually within or above the average range until 3 years of age. However, his age quotient decreased for MacArthur-Bates CDI: Words and Gestures Words Expressed and the Child Development Inventory: Social to significantly below the normal range. Although it can be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence of ASD and deafness, there were early warning signs for these children. PMID:25321852

  8. Rate of language growth in children with hearing loss in an auditory-verbal early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed. (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) for 24 children with hearing loss in a convenience sample. A statistically significant change in raw scores was observed across 6-month intervals. However, growth in standard scores did not show statistically significant predictable change across the 6-month intervals. Scores on the language measure were closer to expectations for younger peers with normal hearing when compared to data reported for the PLS-4 normative sample. Language outcomes varied significantly for individual children based on time spent in early intervention, suggesting that intervention was contributing to growth. PMID:24745108

  9. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  10. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  11. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have

  12. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  13. Gesture in Early Child Language: Studies of Deaf and Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Morford, Marolyn

    1985-01-01

    The gesture systems developed by 10 deaf children, each incapable of acquiring a conventional spoken language naturally and not exposed to a conventional manual language by their hearing parents, were compared and contrasted to both the speech and the gesture systems developed by three hearing children learning English. (Author/BE)

  14. Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

    2014-01-01

    It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

  15. Smartphone-based hearing screening in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan

    2014-01-01

    It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692

  16. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  17. Neuropsychological strategies for detecting early dementia.

    PubMed

    Grober, Ellen; Hall, Charles; McGinn, Maryanne; Nicholls, Toni; Stanford, Stephanie; Ehrlich, Amy; Jacobs, Laurie G; Kennedy, Gary; Sanders, Amy; Lipton, Richard B

    2008-01-01

    As new and more effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) emerge, the development of efficient screening strategies in educationally and racially diverse primary care settings has increased in importance. A set of candidate screening tests and an independent diagnostic assessment were administered to a sample of 318 patients treated at a geriatric primary care center. Fifty-six subjects met criteria for dementia. Exploratory analysis led to the development of three two-stage screening strategies that differed in the composition of the first stage or Rapid Dementia Screen, which is applied to all patients over the age of 65. The second stage, applied to those patients who screen positively for dementia, is accomplished with the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test to detect memory impairment. Using clinical diagnosis as a gold standard, the strategies had high sensitivity and specificity for identifying dementia and performed better for identifying AD than non-AD dementias. Sensitivity and specificity did not differ by race or education. The strategies provide an efficient approach to screening for early dementia. PMID:18078539

  18. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  19. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  20. Evaluation of hearing among kindergarten children in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss among kindergarten children is considered as a major health problem especially when there is a deficiency in routine hearing screening during the clinical examination. The aim of the study was to detect any pattern of hearing loss among kindergarten children in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). Methods A total of 1220 kindergarten students in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) were subjected to meticulous hearing evaluation using otological examination, Tuning fork tests, pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry, and tympanometry. Results We found that 18 kindergarten students had type C tympanogram (Eustachian tube dysfunction), 28 had type B tympanogram (secretory otitis media with conductive hearing loss), 4 had chronic otitis media with conductive hearing loss, and 6 had mild sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusions Early detection and eradication of hearing loss improves quality of life outcomes of children which reduces the incidence of social burden from unrecognized hearing loss. PMID:26527196

  1. Occupation Hearing Loss and the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Aaron

    1976-01-01

    Industrial noise has become a major concern among both health and safety professionals. The primary care physician is in a position to initiate preventive action by ensuring early detection of hearing deficiencies. PMID:21308052

  2. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  3. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 children born in the United States are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Research shows that early ... to this, the average age of identification for deaf and hearing impaired children was close to three ...

  4. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  5. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  6. A Team Approach to Quality Programming for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Priscilla Shannon

    2011-01-01

    In this issue of "Odyssey," Joanne Corwin describes New Mexico's statewide partnership among several agencies for the provision of early intervention services to infants and children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families (Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks, p. 20). A…

  7. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Cochleae Contributes to the Early Onset of Hearing Loss in A/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Ge, Ruli; Xie, Gang; Li, Ping; Zhao, Xin; Gao, Lixiang; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Oumei; Huang, Fei; Han, Fengchan

    2015-01-01

    A/J and C57BL/6 J (B6) mice share a mutation in Cdh23 (ahl allele) and are characterized by age-related hearing loss. However, hearing loss occurs much earlier in A/J mice at about four weeks of age. Recent study has revealed that a mutation in citrate synthase (Cs) is one of the main contributors, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that A/J mice displayed more severe degeneration of hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in the cochleae compared with B6 mice. Moreover, messenger RNA accumulation levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the inner ears of A/J mice were significantly higher than those in B6 mice at 2 and 8 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry localized caspase-3 expression mainly to the hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis in cochleae. In vitro transfection with Cs short hairpin RNA (shRNA) alone or cotransfection with Cs shRNA and Cdh23 shRNA significantly increased the levels of caspase-3 in an inner ear cell line (HEI-OC1). Finally, a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK could preserve the hearing of A/J mice by lowering about 15 decibels of the sound pressure level for the auditory-evoked brainstem response thresholds. In conclusion, our results suggest that caspase-mediated apoptosis in the cochleae, which may be related to a Cs mutation, contributes to the early onset of hearing loss in A/J mice. PMID:25732708

  8. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  9. Multilingual Children with Hearing Loss: Factors Contributing to Language Use at Home and in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed…

  10. Early Identification of Hearing Impaired Children: Expanding and Refining Best Practices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.; Mauk, Gary W.

    The goal of this project was to increase by 50 percent the number of children with significant hearing impairment identified by 12 months of age. Attainment of this goal was attempted through activities in three major areas: (1) replication and documentation of the benefits of a birth certificate-based screening system; (2) investigation of the…

  11. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. PMID:26994265

  12. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  13. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  14. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science. | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  15. Coherence measurement for early contact detection between two components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryam, B. C. B. N.; Meher, K. K.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Rama Rao, A.

    2006-02-01

    In process and power plants, there are several structural components which may come in contact with the neighbouring components over a period of time. For example, the coaxial tubes often used for conveying hot fluids, where the detection of contact between the tubes at an early stage is important for safety and performance considerations. The paper presents the observation on the coherence behaviour for the detection of early contact based on the simple laboratory experiments.

  16. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 μCi source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  17. Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

    1999-06-01

    Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

  18. [Universal newborn hearing screening--a silent revolution].

    PubMed

    Schmuziger, N; Veraguth, D; Probst, R

    2008-09-24

    Significant hearing loss is one of the most frequent congenital diseases and present at birth in approximately one in 1000 newborns. During the first years of life, this number of children with permanent hearing loss rises by approximately the same amount. Hearing impairment is not an obvious condition in newborns in most cases and produces very few signs in infancy. Such hearing loss threatens normal speech and personality development. The longer the child is without auditory stimulation by speech, the more difficult it is to acquire the missed linguistic skills. Therefore, early detection and rehabilitation of such hearing loss is crucial. Universal newborn hearing screening is the most effective method to detect such impairment and is based on objective audiometric test methods that were recently developed and adapted for screening requirements. Useful tests are otoacoustic emissions and the auditory brainstem response. This article reviews this new screening tests in general and with special regard to the situation in Switzerland. PMID:18821498

  19. Gap detection as a function of stimulus bandwidth with fixed high-frequency cutoff in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Grose, J H; Eddins, D A; Hall, J W

    1989-11-01

    Gap detection was measured as a function of noise bandwidth with constant high-frequency cutoff in both normal-hearing and cochlear-impaired listeners. Band-widening functions were measured in a low-frequency region (0.6-kHz upper cutoff) and a high-frequency region (2.2-kHz upper cutoff). Measures of frequency selectivity were also obtained in the two frequency regions. The results for the normal-hearing listeners indicated that, on a double logarithmic scale, gap thresholds improved more steeply with increasing bandwidth in the higher frequency region than in the lower. However, performance at the narrow bandwidths was independent of frequency region. For the cochlear-impaired listeners, gap thresholds were generally longer than normal in both frequency regions. However, in the higher frequency region, progressively more listeners approached normal values as bandwidth was increased. The elevated gap thresholds were due in part to the higher absolute thresholds and in part to poor ability to process stimulus fluctuation. No correspondence was found between gap detection performance and frequency selectivity. PMID:2808923

  20. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Early detection and referral

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Noth, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause or cure, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3–5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Vigilance among clinicians in recognizing IPF early in the disease course remains critical to properly caring for these patients, as this provides the widest range of management options. When IPF is suspected, a multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) by a clinician, radiologist and pathologist with ILD expertise should occur, as this improves diagnostic agreement in both community and academic settings. When community MDE is not possible, or diagnostic doubt exists, referral to an ILD center should be considered. ILD center referral may also provide access specialized care, including clinical trials and lung transplantation, and should be considered for any patient with an established diagnosis of IPF. PMID:24746629

  2. Early Detection of Kawasaki Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Hae; Hong, Seung Ji; Seo, In Ae; Kwak, Min Ha; Cho, Seung Man; Kim, Doo Kwon; Choi, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of infantile Kawasaki disease (KD), and to evaluate early diagnostic features of KD in febrile infants. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 KD patients from January 2010 to October 2014. There was an analysis of the clinical, laboratory data of the infants versus children groups. Furthermore, the clinical and laboratory data of infantile KD patients were compared with 16 infants who were admitted for other acute febrile diseases. Results A total of 64 patients with KD were identified; 20 (31.3%) were infants; 44 (68.8%) were >1 year old children. Incomplete KD was much more common in infants (n=13, 65.0%) than in children group (n=14, 31.8%) (p=0.013). The infants were characterized by significantly higher rates of inflammatory changes at the Bacille Calmett-Guérin (BCG) inoculation site (p<0.001), but lower rates of changes in the extremities (p=0.029) and cervical lymphadenopathy (p=0.006). The serum levels of platelet after 1 week (p=0.005), C-reactive protein (p=0.038), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (p=0.026) were all significantly higher in the infants group. Comparing the infants with KD versus the other acute febrile diseases, there were significantly higher serum levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.002), C-reactive protein (p=0.046) and NT-proBNP (p=0.001) for the infants with KD group. Conclusion BCGitis and higher levels of NT-proBNP can be helpful for early diagnosis of the incomplete KD in infants, and may be a good predictor of KD in acute febrile infants, when combined with other acute phase reactants. PMID:26617654

  3. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  4. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient occlusal and proximal caries. This technique may ultimately allow for continuous monitoring of caries before and during treatment.

  5. Sensitivity of cortical auditory evoked potential detection for hearing-impaired infants in response to short speech sounds

    PubMed Central

    Van Dun, Bram; Carter, Lyndal; Dillon, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are an emerging tool for hearing aid fitting evaluation in young children who cannot provide reliable behavioral feedback. It is therefore useful to determine the relationship between the sensation level of speech sounds and the detection sensitivity of CAEPs, which is the ratio between the number of detections and the sum of detections and non-detections. Twenty-five sensorineurally hearing impaired infants with an age range of 8 to 30 months were tested once, 18 aided and 7 unaided. First, behavioral thresholds of speech stimuli /m/, /g/, and /t/ were determined using visual reinforcement orientation audiometry. Afterwards, the same speech stimuli were presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB sound pressure level, and CAEPs were recorded. An automatic statistical detection paradigm was used for CAEP detection. For sensation levels above 0, 10, and 20 dB respectively, detection sensitivities were equal to 72±10, 75±10, and 78±12%. In 79% of the cases, automatic detection P-values became smaller when the sensation level was increased by 10 dB. The results of this study suggest that the presence or absence of CAEPs can provide some indication of the audibility of a speech sound for infants with sensorineural hearing loss. The detection of a CAEP might provide confidence, to a degree commensurate with the detection probability, that the infant is detecting that sound at the level presented. When testing infants where the audibility of speech sounds has not been established behaviorally, the lack of a cortical response indicates the possibility, but by no means a certainty, that the sensation level is 10 dB or less. PMID:26557328

  6. EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

  7. [Ethics and clinical practice guidelines: newborn hearing screening and early deaf childcare].

    PubMed

    André-Vert, J; Laurence, M

    2014-08-01

    A national program for newborn hearing screening is gradually spreading throughout France, coming at a specific historical time: French sign language was recognized as a French language only in 2005, after almost a century of this language being banned in French educational institutions. Therefore, social views on deafness vary considerably depending on hearing status--deaf or hearing--and on the language used: spoken language, sign language, or bilingual. To help professionals take these different perspectives into account, the ethical questions raised during the French Authority for Health clinical practice guidelines development on deaf child care were retrospectively analyzed based on the Childress and Beauchamp principles: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This analysis showed that the steps followed during the guideline development were very similar to those devised by J.M. Gomas's model for ethical decision making and were respectful of R. Ogien's minimal ethics principles: equal consideration for everyone, neutrality toward conceptions of what is good for oneself, and interventions limited to cases of obvious harm caused to others. PMID:25001434

  8. Ultrasonography for early detection of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andolf, E; Svalenius, E; Astedt, B

    1986-12-01

    Ultrasound scan for detection of ovarian enlargements was performed in a target group of out-patients attending the clinic for various reasons in the 40-70 years range. Overall 805 women were examined, in 99% of whom the ovaries and/or their vessels could be identified. Pathological findings were suspected in 83 patients at the first scan, and were confirmed in 50 after a repeat scan, 39 of whom subsequently underwent surgery. Various ovarian lesions were found in 35 women, including five mucinous and serous cystadenomas, one carcinoma, two borderline tumours, and a cancer of the caecum. None of the borderline or malignant ovarian lesions were found by manual pelvic examination. Ultrasound screening appears to be a useful diagnostic aid, though its usefulness might be further improved if other risk factors such as heredity and period of ovulatory activity are taken into consideration. PMID:3542015

  9. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection…

  10. First Information Parents Receive after UNHS Detection of Their Baby's Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover…

  11. Prediction and early detection of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Iams, Jay D

    2003-02-01

    Studies of cervical sonography, fetal fibronectin, and uterine contraction monitoring during pregnancy have improved our understanding of how preterm labor occurs, but their use in practice remains uncertain. This article reviews the use of these tests to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of preterm labor and to estimate the likelihood of preterm birth in women with historical risk factors. Because the clinical criteria for a diagnosis of preterm labor are inaccurate until labor is well established, over-diagnosis is common. A cervical length measurement of more than 30 mm or a negative fibronectin obtained from a patient with possible preterm labor can avoid over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment. There is no role for routine use of either cervical sonography or fibronectin to screen pregnant women for preterm birth risk, but women thought to be at increased risk may be reassured by negative test results. Uterine contraction monitoring has low sensitivity for detecting women at risk of preterm birth. Current use of cervical length and fetal fibronectin in pregnancy is limited to situations where a negative result can avoid unnecessary interventions. PMID:12576267

  12. Spinster homolog 2 (spns2) deficiency causes early onset progressive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J; White, Jacqueline K; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P

    2014-10-01

    Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

  13. Spinster Homolog 2 (Spns2) Deficiency Causes Early Onset Progressive Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Ingham, Neil; Kelly, John; Jadeja, Shalini; Goulding, David; Pass, Johanna; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Nijnik, Anastasia; Jackson, Ian J.; White, Jacqueline K.; Forge, Andrew; Jagger, Daniel; Steel, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice rapidly lost auditory sensitivity and endocochlear potential (EP) from 2 to 3 weeks old. We found progressive degeneration of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, but the earliest defect was a decline in the EP, suggesting that dysfunction of the lateral wall was the primary lesion. In the lateral wall of adult mutants, we observed structural changes of marginal cell boundaries and of strial capillaries, and reduced expression of several key proteins involved in the generation of the EP (Kcnj10, Kcnq1, Gjb2 and Gjb6), but these changes were likely to be secondary. Permeability of the boundaries of the stria vascularis and of the strial capillaries appeared normal. We also found focal retinal degeneration and anomalies of retinal capillaries together with anterior eye defects in Spns2 mutant mice. Targeted inactivation of Spns2 in red blood cells, platelets, or lymphatic or vascular endothelial cells did not affect hearing, but targeted ablation of Spns2 in the cochlea using a Sox10-Cre allele produced a similar auditory phenotype to the original mutation, suggesting that local Spns2 expression is critical for hearing in mammals. These findings indicate that Spns2 is required for normal maintenance of the EP and hence for normal auditory function, and support a role for S1P signalling in hearing. PMID:25356849

  14. Rural Barriers to Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Infant Hearing Loss in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Hardin, Bryan; Rayle, Christopher; Lester, Cathy; Studts, Christina R.; Shinn, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess regional parental barriers in the diagnostic and therapeutic process following abnormal newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Study Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study Setting Tertiary medical center Patients Parents of infants who failed NHS in Kentucky from January 2009 – February 2012 Main Outcome Measure Demographic information, county of origin, and attitudes and perceptions regarding NHS and barriers in the NHS diagnostic process. Results There were 460 participants in the study, which included25.4% of parents were from the Appalachian region. 21% of Appalachian parents found the process on newborn hearing testing difficult. Appalachian parents were more likely to have no more than 12 years of education (OR 1.7, p=0.02) and Medicaid insurance (OR 2.3, p<0.001) compared with non-Appalachian parents. A higher percentage of Appalachian parents were unaware of the NHS results at the time of hospital discharge than non-Appalachians (14% v. 7%, p=0.03). Distance from the diagnostic/therapeutic center represented was a significant barrier for Appalachian parents (OR 2.8, p=0.001). Compared with urban parents, a greater percentage of rural parents had never heard of a cochlear implant (p=0.01). Appalachian parents expressed a strong interest in telemedicine and a desire for closer services. Conclusion Multiple barriers including education, distance, accessibility, socioeconomic factors can affect timely diagnosis and treatment of congenital hearing loss for children residing in rural areas. Educational and telemedicine programs may benefit parents in Appalachia, as well as parents in other rural areas. PMID:25325844

  15. Gallbladder Carcinoma, the Difficulty of Early Detection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephen L; Bear, Jonathan R; Van Echo, David C; Dainer, Hugh M

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an uncommon malignancy with a high mortality rate. Detecting gallbladder carcinoma in its early stages can be difficult, despite improvements in ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Most diagnoses of GBC are made at advanced stages, with the majority being found incidentally during surgery for cholelithiasis. The presented case demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing GBC preoperatively in its early stages. PMID:27014527

  16. Early detection and intervention in schizophrenia: editor's introduction.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, T H

    1996-01-01

    A greater understanding of the nature of schizophrenia, along with the continuing limitations of our current treatments, has refocused attention on the early course of psychosis in the form of early detection and intervention around onset. This issue of the Bulletin offers an indepth look at the knowledge, models, current data, and seminal clinical research programs that support why renewed interest in the late premorbid, prodromal, and onset phases of schizophrenia appears both timely and reasonable. PMID:8782281

  17. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  18. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  19. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25417331

  20. Screening and Early Detection of Gastric Cancer: East Versus West.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Low ratio of mortality over incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries including Korea and Japan could be explained by early detection after screening, different treatment strategy, or genetic disparity between the East and West. Early detection after screening program for gastric cancer and subsequent surgical treatment including appropriate lymph node dissection has been developed successfully in high risk areas such as East Asian countries. Even in countries with a low prevalence of gastric cancer, a specific screening program is recommended for any high-risk population. PMID:26315523

  1. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  2. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field. PMID:26656286

  3. Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging for early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-08-01

    We propose a new multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) method for early breast cancer detection. MAMI is a two-stage robust Capon beamforming (RCB) based image formation algorithm. MAMI exhibits higher resolution, lower sidelobes, and better noise and interference rejection capabilities than the existing approaches. The effectiveness of using MAMI for breast cancer detection is demonstrated via a simulated 3-D breast model and several numerical examples. PMID:16916099

  4. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Fefferman, Nh; Naumova, En

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old onesFhealth threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorismFcall for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  5. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  6. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

  7. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Beemer, Brianne T; Greene, Nathaniel T; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  8. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  9. [Prevention, early detection and monitoring of cutaneous melanoma].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Luc

    2016-03-01

    In parallel to the development of new treatments, considerable work remains to be done with regard on the one hand to early detection, and on the other, to the prevention of the main extrinsic risk factor, namely ultraviolet rays. Caregivers have an important educational role to play with patients and their families concerning these different aspects. PMID:26944640

  10. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations. PMID:23807496

  11. Physical principles of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

  12. Effective Practices in Early Intervention: Infants Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Both Vision & Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Deborah; And Others

    This manual documents key program development strategies and inservice training topics provided by the Model Demonstration Early Intervention Network Project. This project focused on building the capacity of early intervention programs to serve infants who are deaf-blind and their families. The first section covers program development and includes…

  13. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment. PMID:25726819

  14. Early detection of fungi damage in citrus using NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Jose; Ortiz, Coral; Sabater, Maria D.; Molto, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    Early detection of defects and diseases in fruit helps to correctly classify them and make more adequate decisions about the destination of the product: internal market, export or industry. An early fungi infection detection is especially important because a few infected fruits can disseminate the infection to a whole batch, causing great economic losses and affecting to further exports. Ensure products with excellent quality and absolute absence of fungi infections is particularly important in those batches for long conservation or to be exported. The main objective of this work is to detect the fungi infections before they can be visible. Near Infrared spectroscopy has been employed in this work, because it is a non-destructive technique and can be easily implemented on line due to the high speed and simplicity of the process.

  15. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  16. Impedance-Matching Hearing in Paleozoic Reptiles: Evidence of Advanced Sensory Perception at an Early Stage of Amniote Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Johannes; Tsuji, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23∶1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. Conclusions/Significance Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that proved advanced sensory perception to be of notable adaptive significance. PMID:17849018

  17. Prognosis, screening, early detection and differentiation of arterial pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, Guido

    2007-06-16

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been partially reclassified during the 2003 Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension held in Venice. PH is a common disorder that may complicate a variety of cardiopulmonary diseases, including severe COPD, left ventricular failure and chronic thromboembolic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure which is not due to classical coexistent cardiopulmonary disease. PAH usually occurs in the absence of an evident cause (idiopathic or familial) or it may be associated with connective tissue disease, HIV infection, chronic liver disease, congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts, venous or capillary involvement, thyroid or myeloproliferative disorders as well as a result of the use of toxic agents and anorexigens. The actuality of developed disease-specific treatments over the past decade, emphasises the importance of an early screening and detection of PH which, even optimally treated in advanced stages, still remains a progressive lethal disease in most of its forms. Early identification represents a real challenge for the clinician: in fact, it is believed that an early recognition and, thus, an early treatment, might be associated with improved survival. In this review, after a short introduction on disease prognosis, we will focus on screening and early recognition of some categories of PH, based on a sequential approach that includes clinical suspicion, detection and differentiation of pulmonary hypertension. This strategy should consent to reach an assessment of severity, ultimately providing the best selective use of therapies. PMID:17629802

  18. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  19. Malaria epidemic early warning and detection in African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Abeku, Tarekegn A.; Hay, Simon I.; Ochola, Samuel; Langi, Peter; Beard, Brian; de Vlas, Sake J.; Cox, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Malaria epidemics have long been known to recur in the African highlands. Efforts to develop systems of early warning and detection for epidemics are outlined here with special emphasis on the Highland Malaria Project (HIMAL). This project has been conducting research on the operational implementation of a district-based surveillance and epidemic-monitoring system using a network of sentinel sites in four pilot districts of Kenya and Uganda. The potential use of weather monitoring as well as disease surveillance for effective early warning is being investigated. PMID:15324728

  20. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  1. Post-processing analysis of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions to detect 4 kHz-notch hearing impairment – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zimatore, Giovanna; Fetoni, Anna Rita; Paludetti, Gaetano; Cavagnaro, Marta; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Troiani, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background To identify a parameter to distinguish normal hearing from hearing impairment in the early stages. The parameter was obtained from transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), overcoming the limitations of the usually adopted waveform descriptive parameters which may fail in standard clinical screenings. Material/Methods Audiometric examinations and TEOAE analysis were conducted on 15 normal ears and on 14 hearing-impaired ears that exhibited an audiometric notch around 4 kHz. TEOAE signals were analyzed through a multivariate technique to filter out the individual variability and to highlight the dynamic structure of the signals. The new parameter (named radius 2-dimension – RAD2D) was defined and evaluated for simulated TEOAE signals modeling a different amount of hearing impairment. Results Audiometric examinations indicated 14 ears as impaired-hearing (IH), while the TEOAE ILO92 whole reproducibility parameter (WWR) indicated as IH 7 signals out of 14 (50%). The proposed new parameter indicated as IH 9 signals out of 14 (64%), reducing the number of false negative cases of WWR. Conclusions In this preliminary study there is evidence that the new parameter RAD2D defines the topology and the quantification of the damage in the inner ear. The proposed protocol can be useful in hearing screenings to identify hearing impairments much earlier than conventional pure tone audiometry and TEOAE pass/fail test. PMID:21629197

  2. Signature-forecasting and early outbreak detection system

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Elena N.; MacNeill, Ian B.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Daily disease monitoring via a public health surveillance system provides valuable information on population risks. Efficient statistical tools for early detection of rapid changes in the disease incidence are a must for modern surveillance. The need for statistical tools for early detection of outbreaks that are not based on historical information is apparent. A system is discussed for monitoring cases of infections with a view to early detection of outbreaks and to forecasting the extent of detected outbreaks. We propose a set of adaptive algorithms for early outbreak detection that does not rely on extensive historical recording. We also include knowledge of infection disease epidemiology into forecasts. To demonstrate this system we use data from the largest water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, which occurred in Milwaukee in 1993. Historical data are smoothed using a loess-type smoother. Upon receipt of a new datum, the smoothing is updated and estimates are made of the first two derivatives of the smooth curve, and these are used for near-term forecasting. Recent data and the near-term forecasts are used to compute a color-coded warning index, which quantify the level of concern. The algorithms for computing the warning index have been designed to balance Type I errors (false prediction of an epidemic) and Type II errors (failure to correctly predict an epidemic). If the warning index signals a sufficiently high probability of an epidemic, then a forecast of the possible size of the outbreak is made. This longer term forecast is made by fitting a ‘signature’ curve to the available data. The effectiveness of the forecast depends upon the extent to which the signature curve captures the shape of outbreaks of the infection under consideration. PMID:18716671

  3. Signature-forecasting and early outbreak detection system.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Elena N; Macneill, Ian B

    2005-01-01

    Daily disease monitoring via a public health surveillance system provides valuable information on population risks. Efficient statistical tools for early detection of rapid changes in the disease incidence are a must for modern surveillance. The need for statistical tools for early detection of outbreaks that are not based on historical information is apparent. A system is discussed for monitoring cases of infections with a view to early detection of outbreaks and to forecasting the extent of detected outbreaks. We propose a set of adaptive algorithms for early outbreak detection that does not rely on extensive historical recording. We also include knowledge of infection disease epidemiology into forecasts. To demonstrate this system we use data from the largest water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, which occurred in Milwaukee in 1993. Historical data are smoothed using a loess-type smoother. Upon receipt of a new datum, the smoothing is updated and estimates are made of the first two derivatives of the smooth curve, and these are used for near-term forecasting. Recent data and the near-term forecasts are used to compute a color-coded warning index, which quantify the level of concern. The algorithms for computing the warning index have been designed to balance Type I errors (false prediction of an epidemic) and Type II errors (failure to correctly predict an epidemic). If the warning index signals a sufficiently high probability of an epidemic, then a forecast of the possible size of the outbreak is made. This longer term forecast is made by fitting a 'signature' curve to the available data. The effectiveness of the forecast depends upon the extent to which the signature curve captures the shape of outbreaks of the infection under consideration. PMID:18716671

  4. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early ‘lepospondyl’ microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  5. Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Lauridsen, Henrik; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-03-01

    Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early 'lepospondyl' microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore useful to understand the evolutionary and functional drivers behind the shift from aquatic to aerial hearing in early tetrapods. Here, we combine imaging techniques with neurophysiological measurements to resolve how the change from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adult affects the ear morphology and sensory capabilities of salamanders. We show that air-induced pressure detection enhances underwater hearing sensitivity of salamanders at frequencies above 120 Hz, and that both terrestrial adults and fully aquatic juvenile salamanders can detect airborne sound. Collectively, these findings suggest that early atympanic tetrapods may have been pre-equipped to aerial hearing and are able to hear airborne sound better than fish on land. When selected for, this rudimentary hearing could have led to the evolution of tympanic middle ears. PMID:25652830

  6. School Safety, Discipline, and IDEA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Waynesboro, Georgia, August 13, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on August 13, 1999, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed school safety, discipline, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the report includes…

  7. Ritalin Use among Youth: Examining the Issues and Concerns. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the proceedings of a hearing held on May 16, 2000, before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families. The hearing addressed issues and concerns on the use of ritalin among youth with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Following opening remarks of the congressmen, the…

  8. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  9. Early breast cancer detection using techniques other than mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Kopans, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    X-ray mammography is the only imaging method currently available with any proven efficacy for screening to detect early-stage, clinically occult breast cancer. Sonography has a limited role in the differentiation of cystic from solid masses and as a guide for aspiration and preoperative localization of selected breast lesions. Computed tomography has a more limited role to determine the spatial orientation of a lesion detected only in the lateral mammographic position. All other imaging methods should be considered experimental at this time.

  10. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  11. Program Monitoring Practices for Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…

  12. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  13. [Cost-effective and early detection of oncologic pathology].

    PubMed

    Zmeul, V K; Kindialov, V M

    1990-01-01

    A critical analysis of prophylactic medical examination of population was conducted for detecting early oncological pathology. Methodological approaches in the practice of selecting persons with pretumorous diseases were examined. Great emphasis was put on the necessity of ascertaining the rates of accelerating functional changes as the most characteristic and accessible sign of tissue change from normal into pathological. A diagram-inset for the case histories of ambulatory patients to be included into prospective programme of prophylactic medical examination is suggested. PMID:2115697

  14. Future directions for the early detection of recurrent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneble, Erika J; Graham, Lindsey J; Shupe, Matthew P; Flynt, Frederick L; Banks, Kevin P; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E; Setlik, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

  15. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-can we detect early pancreatic cancer?

    PubMed

    Haugk, Beate

    2010-10-01

    Haugk B
(2010) Histopathology 57, 503-514
Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia - can we detect early pancreatic cancer? Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, with an incidence equalling mortality. Pancreatic cancer is a heterogeneous group in which pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common. It is now established that PDAC develops through stepwise progression from precursor lesions. Detection and treatment of these precursor lesions would allow curative treatment. Three precursor lesions for PDAC have been identified. Two of these - mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) - are rare, radiologically detectable, cystic precursor lesions which can be cured if treated at the preinvasive stage. The third and most common precursor lesion has recently been defined as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). PanINs are microscopic lesions with no clinical correlate. They display a spectrum of cyto-architectural changes (PanIN-1, PanIN-2 and PanIN-3) mirrored in an increasing accumulation of molecular genetic changes, with PanIN-3 sharing many of the alterations with PDAC. Great advances in the understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis have opened avenues for diagnosis and chemoprevention. However, access to the pancreas is limited, molecular tests are at the early stages and too little is known about the natural history of early PanINs to justify resection. Currently, screening focuses upon high-risk individuals only. PMID:20875068

  16. Genetics of early cancer detection behaviours in Australian female twins.

    PubMed

    Treloar, S A; McDonald, C A; Martin, N G

    1999-03-01

    Early detection of cervical and breast cancers is an important component of women's health strategy. Screening programmes, health professional interventions and preventive behaviours such as breast self-examination provide the means to this end. Our twin study sought to identify the relative influence of environmental and genetic factors on liability to early cancer detection behaviours, including use of cervical smear tests, mammograms, and breast examination. Additive genetic and random environmental effects models gave the best, most parsimonious fit to the data for each early cancer detection behaviour. The heritability of liability to Pap smear use was 66%, mammogram use 50%, breast examination by a doctor or nurse 38% and breast self-examination 37%. Genetic influences were behaviour-specific; there was no evidence for a common genetic influence on the four behaviours. Potential covariates investigated included age, amount of contact between co-twins, educational level and personality traits such as harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, neuroticism, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, perceived control, interpersonal dependency and ways of coping. None were significant. The study was carried out before the implementation of national screening programmes with media campaigns to increase participation rates. Hence follow-up investigation, including data on regularity of behaviours, would be informative. PMID:10392801

  17. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  18. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  19. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F M J; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error's extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  20. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  1. Xeromammography in the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cooperman, Lawrence R.; Seltzer, Ronald A.; Reimer, George W.; Rossiter, Stanford B.

    1975-01-01

    Community hospitals can do much in the general effort toward earlier detection of breast cancer. Using xeromammography in the department of general radiology of one community hospital, 21 cases of occult carcinoma were detected in 2,392 patients in a two year period. Patients were both symptomatic and asymptomatic. This percentage is comparable to results in previously published series of similar patient populations, and can be expected to be slightly higher than screening populations of totally asymptomatic patients. In 24 percent of cases of occult carcinoma there was axillary node involvement, compared with 42 percent axillary node involvement in cases of nonoccult carcinoma. Early detection efforts are currently centered on improving thoroughness in physical examinations, stressing breast self-examination and identifying patients in high-risk categories. These, together with proper periodic use of mammograms, will yield the highest rate of early carcinoma detection until more sensitive biologic markers are developed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:1210330

  2. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  3. Theoretical Prediction of Ultrasound Elastography for Detection of Early Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shigao; An, Kai-Nan; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography could be used as a new noninvasive technique for detecting early osteoarthritis. As the first critical step, this study theoretically predicted the excitation power and the measurement errors in detecting cartilage detect. A finite element model was used to simulate wave propagation of elastography in the cartilage. The wave was produced by a force F, and the wave speed C was calculated. The normal cartilage model was used to define the relationship between the wave speed and elastic modulus. Various stiffness values were simulated. F = 10 N with a duration of 0.5 ms was required for having measurable deformation (10 μm) at the distal site. The deformation had a significant rise when the wave crossed the defect. The relationship between the wave speed and elastic parameters was found as C = 1.57 × (E)/(2 × ρ(1+μ)))1/2, where E was the elastic modulus, μ was Poisson's ratio, and ρ was the density. For the simulated defect with an elastic modulus of 7 MPa which was slightly stiffer than the normal cartilage, the measurement error was 0.1 MPa. The results suggested that, given the simulated conditions, this new technique could be used to detect the defect in early osteoarthritis. PMID:24307873

  4. Acquired hearing loss in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katbamna, Bharti; Flamme, Gregory A

    2008-12-01

    Studies on prevalence of acquired hearing loss across the life span have shown a trend of increase in hearing loss with age. A parallel decline in age of recreational use of loud music and cigarette smoking suggests that these early listening and recreational habits may be major contributing factors to the chronic hearing disability seen in later years. In recognition of these new recreational patterns of adolescents and young adults, Healthy People 2010 has issued a list of objectives for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss and smoking in adolescents and young adults through early education and intervention. In this article, the authors describe the effects of noise- and music-induced and smoking-induced hearing loss and provide guidelines for early identification and hearing conservation. Such an early approach to identification and conservation should ultimately help reduce hearing loss prevalence rates in adults. PMID:19041465

  5. Early detection in lung cancer. Case finding and screening.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, D R

    1996-01-01

    There is general agreement that the most effective approach to lung cancer is primary prevention--stop smoking. Richards has proposed the MVROCST--the Monosyllabic Verbal Response Office Cancer Screening Test: "Do you smoke?" If "yes," intervene. If "no," move on. Ample evidence exists that a clear message from a physician to a patient about the importance of stopping smoking makes a difference. In contrast to the maze of arguments and data on early detection, this is something that each physician clearly can and should do. A reduced risk for lung cancer may begin as early as 5 years after cessation of cigarette use. Huuskonen has proposed conceptualizing screening as a coordinated intervention with the goal of identifying populations at risk and working to modify that risk. Primary prevention should be central to any efforts to reduce mortality from lung cancer, and attention to this area needs to increase despite the difficulties and frustration. Despite declining percentages of smokers in the population as a whole, it is estimated that more than 3000 teenagers become regular smokers each day in the United States. In this environment, the question of whether to recommend a CXR or sputum for early detection is not going to disappear in the near future. The NCI has recognized the persistent and important nature of this debate and is currently funding the Prostate, Lung, Colon and Ovary Cancer Screening Trial. This is a large and powerful randomized study of men and women aged 60 to 74. The lung cancer arm is designed to look at the usefulness of a yearly CXR intervention in reducing cancer-specific mortality. The overall power of the study (based on national mortality data) is 0.99 for a 15% reduction in lung cancer mortality and 0.89 for a 10% reduction, with differentially better sensitivity in men than women. The study is currently in progress at multiple sites and will be completed over the next 12 to 14 years. In the meantime, what is the right approach? It is useful in considering this question to return to the concepts of early detection, screening, and case finding. 1. Early detection in lung cancer remains a concept of uncertain applicability because of the unknowns and variability in the natural history of the disease. The available, accessible, and acceptable detection tools appear to be inadequate by current evidence. This is not a static field, however, and new work in the area of biomarkers carries promise for significantly more sensitive and specific techniques. Tockman and colleagues conclude that early detection is conceptually sound, although not currently practical, and further research may expand the role of intervention. In the end, a judgement on early detection in lung cancer must be linked to the proposed setting--screening or case finding. 2. Screening, defined as the application of a test to the general population to define disease risk further with the implied benefit of improved treatment and outcome, cannot be recommended for lung cancer. This is the perspective of the major organizations cited previously, and it is based on admittedly imperfect but nonetheless convincing data. 3. Case finding, the situation of the patient who seeks care and is available for informed discussion and negotiation on possible testing, is a potentially different situation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:8569301

  6. Melanoma screening: A plan for improving early detection.

    PubMed

    Shellenberger, Richard; Nabhan, Mohammed; Kakaraparthi, Sweta

    2016-05-01

    Malignant melanoma ranks fifth in the number of new cases annually in the United States (US). Despite increasing incidence and lack of recent improvement in mortality, national melanoma screening guidelines are currently not in existence. Our purpose was to review the evidence regarding screening whole-body skin examinations for early detection and a possible mortality benefit for malignant melanoma. Data sources for our review were MEDLINE Complete, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study selection included: epidemiologic data from the US and European cancer surveillance registries, population-based case-control screening trials, computer-simulated Markov model trials, and survey trials. Studies were limited to those published in the English language. Data was extracted using a dual extraction method. Data from studies have shown that the mortality of malignant melanoma is highly predicated on the tumor thickness at the time of diagnosis. Our data review is in support of the implementation of whole-body skin examinations, performed by primary care physicians, for the purpose of early detection of melanoma. A large national population-based, case-control, skin cancer screening trial in Germany has shown a reduction in melanoma-specific mortality. In conclusion, our review of the evidence supports physicians performed whole-body skin examination can lead to the detection of earlier stage melanomas as well as to a reduction in disease-specific mortality. We found a paucity of randomized trials to be a limitation of screening studies for many cancers, including melanoma. To improve screening rates and early detection of malignant melanoma, we propose making skin cancer education part of the curriculum in US primary care residency programs to become the genesis for widespread melanoma screening. Our study had no funding. Key messages Malignant melanoma is the fifth leading cancer in the United States (US). In the US and many countries worldwide, the incidence and mortality rates have not declined despite advances seen in the detection and treatment of many cancers. Whole-body skin examination is non-invasive and has shown to be cost effective. There is evidence supporting a mortality benefit using routine, widespread skin cancer examinations. Primary care physicians have been shown to effectively use skin cancer examination for early detection and reduced melanoma mortality. The majority of US primary care residents are inadequately trained in skin cancer examination. There is a possible survival advantage and cost effectiveness for melanoma screening. PMID:26911192

  7. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Millan-Garcia, Leonardo; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Nakano, Mariko; Toscano-Medina, Karina; Perez-Meana, Hector; Rojas-Cardenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained. PMID:22778607

  8. An early fire detection algorithm using IP cameras.

    PubMed

    Millan-Garcia, Leonardo; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Nakano, Mariko; Toscano-Medina, Karina; Perez-Meana, Hector; Rojas-Cardenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained. PMID:22778607

  9. Functional and structural changes throughout the auditory system following congenital and early-onset deafness: implications for hearing restoration.

    PubMed

    Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    The absence of auditory input, particularly during development, causes widespread changes in the structure and function of the auditory system, extending from peripheral structures into auditory cortex. In humans, the consequences of these changes are far-reaching and often include detriments to language acquisition, and associated psychosocial issues. Much of what is currently known about the nature of deafness-related changes to auditory structures comes from studies of congenitally deaf or early-deafened animal models. Fortunately, the mammalian auditory system shows a high degree of preservation among species, allowing for generalization from these models to the human auditory system. This review begins with a comparison of common methods used to obtain deaf animal models, highlighting the specific advantages and anatomical consequences of each. Some consideration is also given to the effectiveness of methods used to measure hearing loss during and following deafening procedures. The structural and functional consequences of congenital and early-onset deafness have been examined across a variety of mammals. This review attempts to summarize these changes, which often involve alteration of hair cells and supporting cells in the cochleae, and anatomical and physiological changes that extend through subcortical structures and into cortex. The nature of these changes is discussed, and the impacts to neural processing are addressed. Finally, long-term changes in cortical structures are discussed, with a focus on the presence or absence of cross-modal plasticity. In addition to being of interest to our understanding of multisensory processing, these changes also have important implications for the use of assistive devices such as cochlear implants. PMID:24324409

  10. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Dawn M.; Grimes, Ian C.; Weiss, Jennifer M.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Agni, Rashmi M.; Vyazunova, Irina; Clipson, Linda; Storts, Douglas R.; Thliveris, Andrew T.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR) tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29–55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega). This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001), which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001). The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible. PMID:26252492

  11. First information parents receive after UNHS detection of their baby's hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Mouvet, Kimberley; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Hardonk, Stefan; Van Hove, Geert; Van Puyvelde, Martine; Leigh, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The first information parents receive after referral through Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) has significant consequences for later care-related decisions they take and thus for the future of the child with a hearing loss. In this study, 11 interviews were conducted with a representative sample of Flemish service providers to discover (a) the content of the information provided to parents and (b) the service providers' assumptions and beliefs concerning deafness and care. To do this, we conducted an interpretative phenomenological analysis, followed by a discourse analysis. Results showed that parents receive diverse information, depending on the reference center to which they are referred. Moreover, all service providers used a medical discourse. We suggest that there is value to be gained from closer consideration of the nature of follow-up services provided in response to UNHS in Flanders and from auditing the professional preparation of service providers that are involved in providing information to parents. PMID:22960753

  12. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  13. On early detection of strong infections in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2014-02-01

    Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

  14. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  15. [The significance of the early detection and intervention for schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Kiyoaki; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2013-04-01

    Early detection of, and intervention for, schizophrenia improve the social and functional outcome of the schizophrenia patient. A shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is an indication of a good prognosis for schizophrenia, but the DUP in Japan is comparatively long. There are some reports which have suggested shortening the DUP, for example, the Buckingham project and TIPS. They show early intervention services reduce the rate of onset of schizophrenia, and improve functions of schizophrenia patients. Intervention for patients with At Risk Mental State (ARMS) may stop or delay the onset of schizophrenia. Furthermore, intensive cares for patients in the critical period can also induce better clinical and functional outcomes. A shorter DUP and an intensive and comprehensive approach within the critical period are eagerly awaited in Japan. PMID:23678591

  16. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  17. New cancer biomarkers deriving from NCI early detection research.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2003-01-01

    Cancer is not a single disease but an accumulation of several events, genetic and epigenetic, arising in a single cell over a long time interval. A high priority in the cancer field is to identify these events. This can be achieved by characterizing cancer-associated genes and their protein products. Identifying the molecular alterations that distinguish any particular cancer cell from a normal cell will ultimately help to define the nature and predict the pathologic behavior of that cancer cell. It will also indicate the responsiveness to treatment of that particular tumor. Understanding the profile of molecular changes in any particular cancer will be extremely useful as it will become possible to correlate the resulting phenotype of that cancer with molecular events. Achieving these goals and knowledge will provide an opportunity for discovering new biomarkers for early cancer detection and developing prevention approaches. This will also help us identify new targets for therapeutic development. Advancement in technology includes methods and tools that enable research including, but not limited to, instrumentation, techniques, devices, and analysis tools (e.g., computer software). Resources such as databases, reagents, and tissue repositories are different than technologies. The identification and definition of the molecular profiles of cancer will require the development and dissemination of high-throughput molecular analysis technologies, as well as elucidation of all of the molecular species embedded in the genome of cancer and normal cells. The main challenge in cancer control and prevention is to detect the cancer early. This could then enable effective interventions and therapies contributing to reduction in mortality and morbidity. At a specific time, biomarkers serve as molecular signposts of the physiologic state of a cell. These signposts are the result of genes, their products (proteins) and other organic chemicals made by the cell. Biomarkers could prove to be vital for the identification of early cancer and subjects at risk of developing cancer as a normal cell progresses through the complex process of transformation to a cancerous state. This chapter discusses ongoing research in genetic and proteomic approaches to identify molecular signatures such as protein profiles, microsatellite instability, hypermethylation, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Other topics covered here include the use of genomics and proteomics as high-throughput technology platforms to facilitate biomarker-aided detection of early cancer. Other areas covered include issues surrounding the analysis, validation, and predictive value of biomarkers using such technologies. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques, such as buccal cell isolates serving as viable sources of biomarkers, complementary to traditional sources such as serum or plasma, are also presented. The review also brings attention to the efforts of the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), in bringing together scientific expertise from leading national and international institutions, to identify and validate biomarkers for the detection of precancerous and cancerous cells in determining risk for developing cancer. The network's serious determined efforts in linking discovery to process development, resulting in early detection tests and clinical assessment, are also discussed. PMID:12903844

  18. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of individual chapters. It may also be approached in a linear fashion, as a sequence of steps leading to a comprehensive approach to early-detection. Our primary audience comprises resource professionals within the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program’s networks of parks, but we think that the knowledge and experience captured in this document is more broadly applicable to include other natural areas professionals. We have chosen to emphasize the technical side of invasive species early-detection because this is the arena in which most professionals need more guidance. This approach includes but is not limited to complex techniques that may seem to be just beyond the budgetary and (or) time-bound grasps of some resource professionals. Nonetheless, we have provided low-cost options.

  19. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  20. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scherdel, Pauline; Dunkel, Leo; van Dommelen, Paula; Goulet, Olivier; Salaün, Jean-François; Brauner, Raja; Heude, Barbara; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic review to address two key and interconnected questions underlying growth monitoring: which conditions should be targeted, and how should abnormal growth be defined? We systematically searched for studies reporting algorithms for growth monitoring in children and studies comparing the performance of new WHO growth charts with that of other growth charts. Among 1556 identified citations, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Six target conditions have mainly been studied: Turner syndrome, coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, growth hormone deficiency, renal tubular acidosis, and small for gestational age with no catch-up after 2 or 3 years. Seven algorithms to define abnormal growth have been proposed in the past 20 years, but their level of validation is low, and their overall sensitivities and specificities vary substantially; however, the Grote and Saari clinical decision rules seem the most promising. Two studies reported that WHO growth charts had poorer performance compared with other existing growth charts for early detection of target conditions. Available data suggest a large gap between the widespread implementation of growth monitoring and its level of evidence or the clinical implications of early detection of serious disorders in children. Further investigations are needed to standardise the practice of growth monitoring, with a consensus on a few priority target conditions and with internationally validated clinical decision rules to define abnormal growth, including the selection of appropriate growth charts. PMID:26777129

  1. Exosomes: potential for early detection in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-04-01

    Progress in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer at earlier stages has motivated research in identifying novel noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection. Exosomes, which contain bioactive molecules (such as proteins, RNAs and lipids), are membrane-structured nanovesicles that are secreted from living cells and are found in human body fluids. As functional mediators, exosomes play key roles in cell-cell communications, regulating diverse biological processes. Here we aim to examine recent findings in the potential diagnostic value of serum exosomes in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26860951

  2. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  3. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  4. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s normal operation. This technique eliminates the probing problem of a gain/phase margin method by connecting the power input to a spectral analyzer. Therefore, it is able to evaluate stability for all kinds of hybrid DC/DC converters with or without remote sense pins, and is suitable for real-time and in-circuit testing. This frequency-domain technique is more sensitive to detect oscillation at early stage than the time-domain method using an oscilloscope.

  5. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  6. Auditory nerve synapses persist in ventral cochlear nucleus long after loss of acoustic input in mice with early-onset progressive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Brian; Fiorillo, Benjamin; Ryugo, David K; Lauer, Amanda M

    2015-04-24

    Perceptual performance in persons with hearing loss, especially those using devices to restore hearing, is not fully predicted by traditional audiometric measurements designed to evaluate the status of peripheral function. The integrity of auditory brainstem synapses may vary with different forms of hearing loss, and differential effects on the auditory nerve-brain interface may have particularly profound consequences for the transfer of sound from ear to brain. Loss of auditory nerve synapses in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) has been reported after acoustic trauma, ablation of the organ of Corti, and administration of ototoxic compounds. The effects of gradually acquired forms deafness on these synapses are less well understood. We investigated VCN gross morphology and auditory nerve synapse integrity in DBA/2J mice with early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing status was confirmed using auditory brainstem response audiometry and acoustic startle responses. We found no change in VCN volume, number of macroneurons, or number of VGLUT1-positive auditory nerve terminals between young adult and older, deaf DBA/2J. Cell-type specific analysis revealed no difference in the number of VGLUT1 puncta contacting bushy and multipolar cell body profiles, but the terminals were smaller in deaf DBA/2J mice. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of numerous healthy, vesicle-filled auditory nerve synapses in older, deaf DBA/2J mice. The present results suggest that synapses can be preserved over a relatively long time-course in gradually acquired deafness. Elucidating the mechanisms supporting survival of central auditory nerve synapses in models of acquired deafness may reveal new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25686750

  7. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  8. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  9. Autism spectrum disorders: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Susan E; Rogers, Sally J; Fombonne, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, "autism"). We conclude from our review of the evidence that, in the absence of additional, more compelling data, the clinical usefulness of existing screening instruments remains questionable. However, the potential importance of such research is underscored by the clear benefits of early behavioural intervention: despite differences in orientation, outcomes for children with autism can be significantly enhanced with early intensive intervention. Although many questions remain (notably, What are the critical therapeutic components? For whom? For what domains of development? For what level of intensity and duration?), interventions shown to be effective are all carefully planned, engineered, monitored, and designed to target specific skill domains. Including children with autism in regular classes within the public school system poses several challenges, the most pressing of which is the large number of school personnel who need to be trained in evidence-based teaching and behavioural management practices. Finally, psychotropic drugs may help to reduce some symptoms, but they are neither curative nor a substitute for other forms of support and intervention. PMID:14574826

  10. Quantifying limits to detection of early warning for critical transitions

    PubMed Central

    Boettiger, Carl; Hastings, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Catastrophic regime shifts in complex natural systems may be averted through advanced detection. Recent work has provided a proof-of-principle that many systems approaching a catastrophic transition may be identified through the lens of early warning indicators such as rising variance or increased return times. Despite widespread appreciation of the difficulties and uncertainty involved in such forecasts, proposed methods hardly ever characterize their expected error rates. Without the benefits of replicates, controls or hindsight, applications of these approaches must quantify how reliable different indicators are in avoiding false alarms, and how sensitive they are to missing subtle warning signs. We propose a model-based approach to quantify this trade-off between reliability and sensitivity and allow comparisons between different indicators. We show these error rates can be quite severe for common indicators even under favourable assumptions, and also illustrate how a model-based indicator can improve this performance. We demonstrate how the performance of an early warning indicator varies in different datasets, and suggest that uncertainty quantification become a more central part of early warning predictions. PMID:22593100

  11. Trial of early detection of breast cancer: description of method.

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    A large-scale trial has been started in the United Kingdom with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different methods for the early detection of breast cancer. Two populations, each of 25,000 women aged 45-64 are invited for annual screening by mammography and/or clinical examination. Two further populations, one of 25,000 and one of 40,000 women in the same age range, are invited for education sessions in breast self-examination, and 4 control populations, totalling 120,000 women, are offered no additional services beyond conventional diagnostic facilities. All breast histology, both benign and malignant, in all women in the study is recorded, as are the findings, management and follow-up of all breast cancers. Changes in the populations, and deaths from all causes, are also recorded. This is essentially a non-randomized trial, though in one of the screening centres, where an education programme about breast cancer is provided for the whole population, only women registered with certain randomly selected general practices are invited to be screened. The principal means of evaluation will be the comparison of the mortality rates from breast cancer in each of the study populations. Costs, in terms of use of health resources, unnecessary surgery and radiation hazard, will be assessed. Additional aspects of the trial include studies of women's attitudes to early detection, and of the aetiology of breast cancer. PMID:7032568

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  13. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  14. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was integrated with current measurement facilities in a single biochip to discriminate tumor cells from blood with higher efficiency and selectivity. This biochip can be an implemented as a point-of-care device for the early detection of cancer at cellular level.

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... a result of disease, aging, or injury from noise or certain medicines. A hearing aid magnifies sound ... See your audiologist for adjustments. I hear background noise. A hearing aid does not completely separate the ...

  17. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...

  18. An early respiratory distress detection method with Markov models.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Hariharan; Saha, Aditya; Swamy, Gokul; Genc, Sahika

    2014-01-01

    A method for early detection of respiratory distress in hospitalized patients which is based on a multi-parametric analysis of respiration rate (RR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) data trends to ascertain patterns of patient instability pertaining to respiratory distress is described. Current practices of triggering caregiver alerts are based on simple numeric threshold breaches of SpO2. The pathophysiological patterns of respiratory distress leading to in-hospital deaths are much more complex to be detected by numeric thresholds. Our pattern detection algorithm is based on a Markov model framework based on multi-parameter pathophysiological patterns of respiratory distress, and triggers in a timely manner and prior to the violation of SpO2 85-90% threshold, providing additional lead time to attempt to reverse the deteriorating state of the patient. We present the performance of the algorithm on MIMIC II dataset resulting in true positive rate of 92% and false positive rate of 6%. PMID:25570730

  19. Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

  20. PAX3 gene deletion detected by microarray analysis in a girl with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Drozniewska, Malgorzata; Haus, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Deletions of the PAX3 gene have been rarely reported in the literature. Mutations of this gene are a common cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and 3. We report a 16 year old female presenting hearing loss and normal intellectual development, without major features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1, and without family history of the syndrome. Her phenotype, however, overlaps with features of craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. Microarray analysis showed ~862 kb de novo deletion at 2q36.1 including PAX3. The above findings suggest that the rearrangement found in our patient appeared de novo and with high probability is a cause of her phenotype. PMID:24839464

  1. Detecting high-frequency hearing loss with click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Goodman, Shawn S.; Ellison, John C.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to clinical click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) tests that are inaccurate above 45 kHz, a research procedure measured CEOAEs up to 16 kHz in 446 ears and predicted the presence?absence of a sensorineural hearing loss. The behavioral threshold test that served as a reference to evaluate CEOAE test accuracy used a yesno task in a maximum-likelihood adaptive procedure. This test was highly efficient between 0.5 and 12.7 kHz: Thresholds measured in 2 min per frequency had a median standard deviation (SD) of 1.21.5 dB across subjects. CEOAE test performance was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The mean AUC from 1 to 10 kHz was 0.90 (SD = 0.016). AUC decreased to 0.86 at 12.7 kHz and to 0.7 at 0.5 and 16 kHz, possibly due in part to insufficient stimulus levels. Between 1 and 12.7 kHz, the medians of the magnitude difference in CEOAEs and in behavioral thresholds were <4 dB. The improved CEOAE test performance above 45 kHz was due to retaining the portion of the CEOAE response with latencies as short as 0.3 ms. Results have potential clinical significance in predicting hearing status from at least 1 to 10 kHz using a single CEOAE response. PMID:21303007

  2. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  3. Early detection of criminality concerns and the social link.

    PubMed

    Perbal, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    In modern societies, rhetoric focused on body and health is common as biomedical sciences have taken a big place in people's lives. They must enhance the society, health and living conditions of citizens. Solving criminality problems remains a major challenge and the early detection of antisocial children - future offenders - promises to offer a solution to criminality thanks to science and medical advances. But in a democratic society that values ​​solidarism and pluralism and tends to preserve the social link, it is necessary to question the ethical relevance of this method of managing criminality. This paper proposes to analyze these questions in the light of debates that have troubled France for a number of years. PMID:26085449

  4. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice. PMID:26260369

  5. A nurse-managed universal newborn hearing screen program.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rita Allen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common major birth defects, yet the average age for identifying significant hearing loss in children in the United States is 30 months. Hearing loss directly affects a child's ability to develop normal language skills, impairs his or her ability to communicate with others in the environment, and has been shown to correlate with poor academic performance. However, if hearing loss is detected early and interventions are begun before 6 months of age, children with hearing loss develop language, cognitive, and speech skills comparable to their non-hearing-impaired peers. Only 38 states mandate universal newborn hearing screening before discharge from the hospital. This article describes an institutional universal hearing screening program developed by nursing, which collaborated with physicians, audiologists, and otolaryngologists. Careful planning, including a thorough literature review, networking with area hospitals, and dialoging with experts in the field led to a successful program.The outcomes from this program compare favorably to nationally published data. PMID:15329635

  6. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  7. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  8. Rest and exercise echocardiography for early detection of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment for this progressive disease. Rest and exercise echocardiography has been used to screen patients in an attempt to identify early stage PH. However, current PH guidelines recommend against exercise tests because of the lack of evidence. We reviewed previous studies to discuss the current standpoint concerning rest and exercise echocardiography in PH. Around 20 exercise echocardiography studies were included to assess the cutoff value for exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH). Approximately 40 exercise echocardiography studies were also included to evaluate the pulmonary artery pressure-flow relationship as assessed by the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac output (ΔmPAP/ΔQ). There were several EIPH and ΔmPAP/ΔQ reference values in individuals with pulmonary vascular disease. We believed that assessing the ΔmPAP/ΔQ makes sense from a physiological standpoint, and the clinical value should be confirmed in future studies. Exercise echocardiography is an appealing alternative in PH. Further studies are needed to assess the prognostic value of the pulmonary artery pressure-flow relationship in high-risk subjects. PMID:26620849

  9. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  10. Early detection of intentional harm in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean; Sigman, Mariano; Garcia, María Del Carmen; Silva, Walter; Ciraolo, Carlos; Vaucheret, Esteban; Baglivo, Fabricio; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    A decisive element of moral cognition is the detection of harm and its assessment as intentional or unintentional. Moral cognition engages brain networks supporting mentalizing, intentionality, empathic concern and evaluation. These networks rely on the amygdala as a critical hub, likely through frontotemporal connections indexing stimulus salience. We assessed inferences about perceived harm using a paradigm validated through functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye-tracking and electroencephalogram recordings. During the task, we measured local field potentials in three patients with depth electrodes (n = 115) placed in the amygdala and in several frontal, temporal, and parietal locations. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that intentional harm induces early activity in the amygdala (<200 ms), which-in turn-predicts intention attribution. The amygdala was the only site that systematically discriminated between critical conditions and predicted their classification of events as intentional. Moreover, connectivity analysis showed that intentional harm induced stronger frontotemporal information sharing at early stages. Results support the 'many roads' view of the amygdala and highlight its role in the rapid encoding of intention and salience-critical components of mentalizing and moral evaluation.media-1vid110.1093/brain/awv336_video_abstractawv336_video_abstract. PMID:26608745

  11. Urinary protein biomarkers in the early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Brian M.; Lomakin, Aleksey; Marrangoni, Adele; Velikokhatnaya, Liudmila; Prosser, Denise; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of lung cancer has the potential to greatly impact disease burden through the timely identification and treatment of affected individuals at a manageable stage of development. The insufficient specificity demonstrated by currently used screening and diagnostic techniques has led to intense investigation into biomarkers as diagnostic tools. Urine may represent a non-invasive alternative matrix for diagnostic biomarker development. We performed an analysis of 242 biomarkers in urines obtained from 83 NSCLC patients, 74 patients diagnosed with benign pulmonary conditions and 77 healthy donors. A large number of significant alterations were observed between the NSCLC and control groups. A multivariate analysis identified a three biomarker panel consisting of IGFBP-1, sIL-1Ra, CEACAM-1 which discriminated NSCLC from healthy controls with a SN/SP of 84/95 in an initial training set and 72/100 in an independent validation set. This panel performed well among multiple subtypes of NSCLC and early stage disease but demonstrated only limited efficacy for the discrimination of NSCLC from benign controls and limited specificity for several other cancers and tuberculosis patients. These findings demonstrate that urine biomarkers may provide screening and diagnostic properties which exceed those reported for serum biomarkers and approach a level necessary for further clinical development. PMID:25416410

  12. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  13. Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

  14. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  15. Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future. PMID:19824562

  16. The Federal Role in K-12 Mathematics Reform. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (February 2, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing focuses on the federal role in K-12 mathematics reform. Prepared statements are provided from: Michael N. Castle, Chairman, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Dale E. Kildee, Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Early Childhood Youth, and Families; Howard P. "Buck" Mckeon, Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary…

  17. Early Childhood Interventions: Public-Private Partnerships. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Human Resources.

    These hearings transcripts recount testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives concerning early childhood development programs. Testimony addressed the questions of how public and private investments in early childhood programs contribute to successful outcomes for infants and mothers, and how these successes can be measured and replicated…

  18. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion process understanding and for planning appropriately for preventive action in practical situations.

  19. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast...

  20. [Hearing impairment and dementia].

    PubMed

    Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia. PMID:25217286

  1. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  2. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  3. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-357

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen…

  4. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  5. Mobile Technologies in the Early Detection of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Michèle; Husky, Mathilde; Catheline, Gwénaëlle; Pelletier, Amandine; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biological and pathophysiological processes implicated in different forms of dementia is itself dependent on reliable descriptions of cognitive performance and capacities. However, traditional instruments are often unable to detect subtle declines in cognitive functions due to natural variation at the time of testing. Mobile technologies permit the repeated assessment of cognitive functions and may thereby provide more reliable descriptions of early cognitive difficulties that are inaccessible to clinic or hospital-based instruments. This assessment strategy is also able to characterize in real-time the dynamic associations between cognitive performance and specific daily life behaviors or activities. In a cohort of elderly rural residents, 60 individuals were administered neuropsychological and neuroimaging exams as well as a one-week period of electronic ambulatory monitoring of behavior, semantic memory performance, and daily life experiences. Whereas imaging markers were unrelated to traditional neuropsychological test scores, they were significantly associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory performance. Moreover, certain daily life activities such as reading or completing crossword puzzles were associated with increases in semantic memory performance over the subsequent hours of the same day. The revolution in mobile technologies provides unprecedented opportunities to overcome the barriers of time and context that characterize traditional hospital and clinical-based assessments. The combination of both novel and traditional methods should provide the best opportunity for identifying the earliest risk factors and biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. PMID:25536290

  6. Klinefelter syndrome: are we missing opportunities for early detection?

    PubMed

    Nahata, Leena; Rosoklija, Ilina; Yu, Richard N; Cohen, Laurie E

    2013-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is a common condition that remains underdiagnosed, particularly prior to adulthood. Early detection could prevent morbidity and mortality, but the classic phenotype of small testes and tall stature may not be apparent until adolescence, and there is minimal guidance regarding whom to screen. We performed a retrospective study at Boston Children's Hospital in patients with the ICD-9 code for "Klinefelter syndrome" diagnosed prior to age 20 years, and determined age and reason for diagnosis, karyotype, heights, and comorbid conditions. Eighty percent had a 47,XXY karyotype, of whom half were diagnosed at age 11 to 19 years. The most common comorbidities were neurocognitive, including learning disabilities (67%), psychosocial problems (33%), and attention deficit disorder (27%). Subjects were only slightly taller than average in childhood (height standard deviation score = 0.64). These data show that Klinefelter syndrome is associated with long-standing comorbidities that frequently remain under-recognized; a karyotype should be considered in boys with neurocognitive problems. PMID:23836810

  7. [Importance of early detection in autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor

    2007-01-01

    Autism, currently known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a lifelong neuropsychiatric disorder that starts before three years of age. The behavioral and cognitive symptoms seem to be caused by an abnormal synaptic connectivity that leads to deficits in the ability to filter sensory information. Poor filtering seems to constitute a barrier for the integration and processing of neuronal information. Because ASD is not a neurodegenerative disorder, under appropriate conditions, symptoms usually improve over time, probably because the autistic person learns to filter sensory information by alternative neuronal routes. This allows him/her to have a better understanding of the surrounding environment and in turn facilitates learning. Early intervention on children identified before age 2 notably improves prognosis. Currently, ASD can be detected in boys and girls when they are about 18 months old. However, parents and autism experts can observe symptoms before that age. The participation of the health system in order to prepare parents, pediatricians, and caregivers is highly important and leads to significant improvements in the quality of life of autistic individuals and of caregivers. PMID:17388098

  8. Hearing in Insects.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias

    2016-03-11

    Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution. PMID:26667273

  9. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: early detection resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Anderson, Benjamin O; Miller, Anthony B; Thomas, David B; Ang, Eng-Suan; Caffarella, Rosemary S; Corbex, Marilys; Kreps, Gary L; McTiernan, Anne

    2008-10-15

    A key determinant of breast cancer outcome in any population is the degree to which cancers are detected at early stages of disease. Populations in which cancers are detected at earlier stages have lower breast cancer mortality rates. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) held its third Global Summit in Budapest, Hungary in October 2007, bringing together internationally recognized experts to address the implementation of breast healthcare guidelines for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). A multidisciplinary panel of experts specifically addressed the implementation of BHGI guidelines for the early detection of disease as they related to resource allocation for public education and awareness, cancer detection methods, and evaluation goals. Public education and awareness are the key first steps, because early detection programs cannot be successful if the public is unaware of the value of early detection. The effectiveness and efficiency of screening modalities, including screening mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination, were reviewed in the context of resource availability and population-based need by the panel. Social and cultural barriers should be considered when early detection programs are being established, and the evaluation of early detection programs should include the use of well developed, methodologically sound process metrics to determine the effectiveness of program implementation. The approach and scope of any screening program will determine the success of any early detection program as measured by cancer stage at diagnosis and will drive the breadth of resource allocation needed for program implementation. PMID:18837017

  10. Course of hearing recovery according to frequency in patients with acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hirofumi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Imamura, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    Through pure-tone audiometry, we studied the course of hearing recovery in 24 ears of 20 men (ages 18-48 years) who had acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). All subjects were members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force. The hearing level in 5 ears returned to normal, the hearing level of 13 ears recovered but was not within the normal range, and the hearing level of 6 ears was unchanged. The time from noise exposure to presentation was longer in patients with unchanged hearing than in other patients. Recovery of hearing was poorest at 4,000 Hz, followed by 8,000 and 2,000 Hz. We concluded that hearing in patients with acute ASHL is likely to return to normal when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz recovers gradually; partial recovery of hearing is expected when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz reaches an early plateau. PMID:18616091

  11. Computed tomography in the early detection of asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Filion, R; Colman, N; Bertrand, P

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT; both conventional (CCT) and high resolution (HRCT)) scans of the thorax were evaluated to detect early asbestosis in 61 subjects exposed to asbestos dust in Québec for an average of 22(3) years and in five controls. The study was limited to consecutive cases with chest radiographs of the International Labour Organisation categories 0 or 1 determined independently. All subjects had a standard high kilovoltage posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph, a set of 10-15 1 cm collimation CCT scans and a set of three to five 2 mm collimation HRCT scans in the upper, middle, and lower lung fields. Five experienced readers independently read each chest radiograph and sets of CT scans. On the basis of three to five readers agreeing for small opacities of the lung parenchyma, 12/46 (26%) negative chest radiographs were positive on CT scans, but 6/18 (33%) positive chest radiographs were negative on CT scan. On the basis of four to five readers agreeing on a chest radiograph, 36/66 (54%) subjects were normal (group A), 17/66 (26%) were indeterminate (group B), and 13/66 (20%) were abnormal (group C). By the combined readings of CCT and HRCT, 4/31 (13%) asbestos exposed subjects of group A were abnormal (p < 0.001), 6/17 (35%) of group B were abnormal, and in group C, 1/13 (8%) was normal, 2/13 were indeterminate, and 10/13 (77%) were abnormal. Separate readings of CCT and HRCT on distinct films in 14 subjects showed that all cases of asbestosis were abnormal on both CCT and HRCT. Inter-reader analyses by kappa statistics showed significantly better agreement for the readings of CT than the chest radiographs (p < 0.001), and for the reading of CCT than HRCT (p < 0.01). Thus CT scans of the thorax identifies significantly more irregular opacities consistent with the diagnosis of asbestosis than the chest radiograph (20 cases on CT scans v 13 on chest radiographs when four to five readers agreed, 13% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal chest radiographs or 21% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal or near normal chest radiographs. It decreased the number of indeterminate cases significantly from 17 on chest radiographs to 13 on CT scans. All cases of asbestosis detected only on CT scans were similarly seen on CCT and HRCT and did not have significant changes in lung function. The CT scans significantly reduced the inter-reader variability, despite the absence of ILO type reference films for these scans. Images PMID:8398855

  12. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to control measures that limit its impact and help prevent future outbreaks. PMID:20092624

  13. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  14. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection

    PubMed Central

    Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. Material and methods A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A – 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B – 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge – test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B – 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. Results We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p <0.0001) and it increased after 5 years in group D (p <0.0001) in comparison to group C. Patients aged >40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p<0.01) as much as patients aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69. In men >70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (p<0.001). The place of living was determining the level of motivation for broadening knowledge – in bigger towns in a greater extent (p <0.01). The frequency of reporting to screening tests during a period of 5 years was comparable in groups C and D, regardless of knowledge tests’ results. Health risk awareness following the education process was motivating men to undergo screening tests (p <0.05). This confirms our own research hypothesis. Regardless of the age bracket, the obtained result of knowledge test II was higher than test I and the result of test III was lower than test II, respectively: p <0.01; p <0.08; p <0.01; p <0.001. The level of knowledge test III among all examined patients was higher in comparison to test I – p <0.01; p <0.001; p <0.001 respectively. White-collar workers obtained in test I a result higher than blue-collar workers, unemployed or retired people p <0.001 and p <0.01 respectively. Unemployed and retired people obtained more scores than blue-collar workers (p <0.05). Both in professional workers and retired people test III was higher than test I – p <0.001 and p <0.001 respectively. In 7 examined men prostate cancer was diagnosed; in group B in 3 in an advanced state, and during 5 years in group C – in 4 men at an early development stage. Conclusions In the examined men, we observed an almost complete lack of knowledge about carcinoma of prostate, hence they did not report to screening tests.The education process influenced the level of knowledge about carcinoma of prostate. The examined men >40, inhabitants of bigger towns with higher education, less with secondary education and still less with elementary education showed interest in improving their health knowledge.Due to increasing knowledge about carcinoma of prostate, patients were undertaking systematic tests – on average once a year. It confirmed the fact that education on prostate cancer influences its early detection.Education on carcinoma of prostate on a large scale may lead to decreasing morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24578854

  15. The effectiveness of a phonics-based early intervention for deaf and hard of hearing preschool children and its possible impact on reading skills in elementary school: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S; Oetting, Tara L

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and group phonics-based instruction supplemented by Visual Phonics in a language-enriched preschool classroom. Standardized assessments were conducted before, during, and after the intervention. Along with some additional assessments, the same assessments were conducted in early elementary school. The results showed that all participants demonstrated at least some use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills when they were explicitly trained, and that these skills were sustained in early elementary school. Furthermore, all participants exhibited overall reading levels at or above age level when measured in early elementary school. PMID:23967767

  16. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  17. Hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... or dizzy (more common with Ménière's disease and acoustic neuroma ) Feeling of pressure in the ear (in ... reversed. Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by: Acoustic neuroma Age-related hearing loss Childhood infections, such ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  19. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing loss is a common problem caused by noise, aging, disease, and heredity. Hearing is a complex ... speech sounds the history of exposures to loud noise and environmental or drug-related toxins that are ...

  20. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  1. [Experimental research on non-invasive near-infrared detection of early hepatocirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Jianjun; Xie, Zeping

    2005-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to make an exaluation on the non-invasive near-infrared detection of early hepatocirrhosis. The model of early hepatocirrhosis was established by injecting carbon tetrachloride in mice. Blood and oxygen content in liver tissue were detected with Runman System. The undulated forms of blood and oxygen variation were extracted and analyzed under the software MATLAB. Non-invasive near-infrared detection was found to react sensitively to the variation of the blood and oxygen content in the early hepatocirrhosis. The rhythm of the undulated forms of blood and oxygen in the early hepatocirrhosis was irregular. The main frequency peak of auto-power spectrum was found to move back to the rang 1.0-1.5 Hz and multi-peak was seen. These show that the non-invasive near-infrared detection is of some value in detecting early hepatocirrhosis. PMID:16156275

  2. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 2.2016.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Castle, Erik P; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Farrington, Thomas; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Kim, Simon; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Moses, Kelvin A; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Smaldone, Marc C; Sonn, Geoffrey; Sprenkle, Preston; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for prostate cancer screening in healthy men who have elected to participate in an early detection program. The NCCN Guidelines focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 guideline update, which included issues surrounding screening in high-risk populations (ie, African Americans, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), approaches to refine patient selection for initial and repeat biopsies, and approaches to improve biopsy specificity. PMID:27160230

  3. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. PMID:26429333

  4. A Fresh Start for New Orleans' Children: Improving Education after Katrina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Education System of New Orleans (July 14, 2006, New Orleans, LA). Senate Hearing 109-626

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this hearing was to examine the education system of New Orleans. Statements were presented by: Honorable Lamar Alexander, Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Honorable Mary L. Landrieu, U.S. Senator from Louisiana; Honorable Richard Burr, U.S. Senator from North Carolina; Linda Johnson, President,…

  5. Field Hearing on Technology in Schools: Preparing for the 21st Century. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Petaluma, California, August 30, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met, pursuant to call, on August 30, 1999 in the Petaluma Community Center, Petaluma, California, with Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presiding. This document represents the field hearing on how educational…

  6. Field Hearing on Education Technology and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (Newark, Delaware, April 12, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the House Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce on Educational Technology and the Elementary Secondary Education Act contains statements by: Michael Castle, Subcommittee Chairman; Dale Kildee, Subcommittee member; Thomas Carper, Governor of Delaware, accompanied by…

  7. Field Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Early Intervention and Preschool Programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Brooklyn, New York).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This hearing, held in Brooklyn, New York, on the reauthorization of the early intervention and preschool programs of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addresses the at-risk factors that prevent school readiness of young children and seeks to ascertain the extent to which at-risk children have been identified and served. A statement…

  8. Head Start Reauthorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony concerning the reauthorization of the Head Start Act given on June 9, 1998, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families. The testimony focused on the efficacy of specific programs and activities funded by the Head Start Act, successes and failures, and future needs and directions the…

  9. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  10. The Role of Character Education in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 1, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This publication covers the hearing held on March 1, 2000, in Washington, DC, before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives on the role of character education in U.S. schools. The publication contains the following: "Statement of Mr. Michael N. Castle,…

  11. The Role of Technology in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 8, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, Washington, DC met in Washington, DC on March 8, 2000 to hear testimony on the role of technology in America's schools. Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presided. Contents include the opening statements of Chairman Michael Castle and of…

  12. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  13. [The review of newborn hearing screening program in neonatal intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Qi, Beier; En, Hui; Huang, Lihui

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hearing impairment in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was much higher than that of well-baby nursery. The incidence of the former was 2%-4%, whereas that of the latter was 0.1%-0.3%. Furthermore, the incidence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, progressive and delayed hearing loss was also higher than those of other infants. Therefore, the newborn hearing screening program in NICU has become an important part of pediatric audiology. In this paper, we reviewed the previous studies and suggested the special procedure of hearing screening and following-up which based on the physiological and pathological characteristics of NICU in order to detect hearing impaired as early as possible. PMID:27101692

  14. Evidence of hearing loss in a “normally-hearing” college-student population

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Hensley, B.N.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Hall, J. W.; Guire, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25–8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ≥25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ≥20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for “notched” audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students’ hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects. PMID:21288064

  15. Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz; Maurer, Kurt

    2006-10-01

    RESEARCH INTO THE EARLY COURSE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA HAS IDENTIFIED A PREPSYCHOTIC PRODROMAL STAGE (MEAN DURATION: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

  16. Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  17. Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  18. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  19. 29 CFR 2700.106 - Pre-Hearing Conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-Hearing Conference. 2700.106 Section 2700.106 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2700.106 Pre-Hearing Conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be held...

  20. 29 CFR 2200.207 - Pre-hearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-hearing conference. 2200.207 Section 2200.207 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2200.207 Pre-hearing conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... conduct a pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be...

  1. 33 CFR 20.1207 - Pre-hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-hearing conferences. 20.1207... Expedited Hearings § 20.1207 Pre-hearing conferences. (a) When held. As early as practicable, the ALJ shall order and conduct a pre-hearing conference. He or she may order the holding of the conference in...

  2. 33 CFR 20.1207 - Pre-hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-hearing conferences. 20.1207... Expedited Hearings § 20.1207 Pre-hearing conferences. (a) When held. As early as practicable, the ALJ shall order and conduct a pre-hearing conference. He or she may order the holding of the conference in...

  3. 29 CFR 2200.207 - Pre-hearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-hearing conference. 2200.207 Section 2200.207 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2200.207 Pre-hearing conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... conduct a pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be...

  4. 33 CFR 20.1207 - Pre-hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-hearing conferences. 20.1207... Expedited Hearings § 20.1207 Pre-hearing conferences. (a) When held. As early as practicable, the ALJ shall order and conduct a pre-hearing conference. He or she may order the holding of the conference in...

  5. 29 CFR 2700.106 - Pre-Hearing Conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-Hearing Conference. 2700.106 Section 2700.106 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2700.106 Pre-Hearing Conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be held...

  6. 29 CFR 2200.207 - Pre-hearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-hearing conference. 2200.207 Section 2200.207 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2200.207 Pre-hearing conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... conduct a pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be...

  7. 33 CFR 20.1207 - Pre-hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pre-hearing conferences. 20.1207... Expedited Hearings § 20.1207 Pre-hearing conferences. (a) When held. As early as practicable, the ALJ shall order and conduct a pre-hearing conference. He or she may order the holding of the conference in...

  8. 29 CFR 2200.207 - Pre-hearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-hearing conference. 2200.207 Section 2200.207 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2200.207 Pre-hearing conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... conduct a pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be...

  9. 29 CFR 2700.106 - Pre-Hearing Conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-Hearing Conference. 2700.106 Section 2700.106 Labor... Simplified Proceedings § 2700.106 Pre-Hearing Conference. (a) When held. As early as practicable after the... pre-hearing conference. At the discretion of the Judge, the pre-hearing conference may be held...

  10. Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, C D; Makower, A D

    1983-01-01

    Until fairly recently the detection of heatings was based on men seeing or smelling smoke and the laboratory analysis of mine air samples. Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide by means of tube bundle systems has been a big step forward in detecting spontaneous combustion of coal and has found widespread acceptance in U.K. mines; general fire detection relies on shaft monitors. Both are based on infra-red analysers like the Unor CO-analysers that can be installed underground. In recent years British laboratories have developed and adapted several devices based on other principles: ionisation, semi-conductors, electro-chemical cells, thermistors, detection "thermal noise", infra-red imagers. All these instruments are briefly described by the authors in this paper presented by Mr. Makower. PMID:6414069

  11. Early detection of dementia in the community under a community-based integrated care system.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2014-04-01

    Early detection of dementia is recommended in the stages from mild cognitive impairment to early dementia, excluding the asymptomatic stage. The advantages of early detection for patients and their caregivers include early receipt of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, and early access to appropriate agencies and/or support networks. The disadvantages include psychological damage related to anxiety and depression, and risk of stigmatization and/or social exclusion. The possibility of false positive diagnoses is also problematic. For detection of dementia, various screening tests and questionnaires have been developed. However, none of these techniques are sensitive and specific enough to avoid false positives. Thus, these screening tools are recommended for assessment of the severity of functional decline after sufficient information has been gathered to suspect dementia. In terms of social services, early detection might delay institutionalization. However, implementation of early detection would add a heavy burden on social resources, especially human resources. For effective implementation of early diagnosis and management of dementia, measures are required to improve social and human resources, including the following: improvement of the diagnostic abilities of general practitioners, improvement of necessary care and support systems after diagnosis, and organizing volunteers to support local communities. Under a community-based integrated care system, each community will create a "tailored" system that meets the health needs, health status and values of the community. Promoting social participation and community involvement of the residents should be one of the key strategies to address the shortage of human resources. PMID:24650059

  12. Strategies for early melanoma detection: approaches to the patient with nevi

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Agnessa G.; Grossman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Although there are no non-invasive techniques for definitive diagnosis of melanoma, and the “gold standard” remains biopsy with histologic examination, a variety of modalities may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi. This article reviews general clinical principles of early melanoma detection, and various modalities that are currently available or on the horizon, providing the clinician with an up-to-date understanding of management strategies for their patients with numerous or atypical nevi. Learning objectives At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should: 1) understand the clinical importance of early melanoma detection; 2) appreciate the challenges of early melanoma diagnosis and which patients are at highest risk; 3) know general principles of early melanoma detection; 4) be familiar with current and emerging modalities that may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi; 5) know the advantages and limitations of each modality; and 6) be able to practice a combined approach to the patient with numerous or clinically atypical nevi. PMID:19389517

  13. Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laske, Christoph; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Frost, Shaun M; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Garrard, Peter; Buscema, Massimo; Dauwels, Justin; Soekadar, Surjo R; Mueller, Stephan; Linnemann, Christoph; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Martins, Ralph N; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2015-05-01

    Current state-of-the-art diagnostic measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are invasive (cerebrospinal fluid analysis), expensive (neuroimaging) and time-consuming (neuropsychological assessment) and thus have limited accessibility as frontline screening and diagnostic tools for AD. Thus, there is an increasing need for additional noninvasive and/or cost-effective tools, allowing identification of subjects in the preclinical or early clinical stages of AD who could be suitable for further cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnostics. Implementation of such tests may facilitate early and potentially more effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for AD. Before applying them in clinical practice, these tools should be examined in ongoing large clinical trials. This review will summarize and highlight the most promising screening tools including neuropsychometric, clinical, blood, and neurophysiological tests. PMID:25443858

  14. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers. PMID:26247944

  15. Mouse colorectal cancer an early detection approach using nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Ruff, Silvana Y; Izaguirre, María F; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L; Casco, Víctor H

    2014-01-01

    Murine induced colon cancer has been used to demonstrate that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy images, combined with Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) and specific quantization scoring methods allow distinguishing early alterations in colon mucosa. TPEF was used only to identified crypts and submucosa regions, whereas the image analysis was used to get quantitative data (Integrated Intensity and Aspect Ratio scoring) of different cancer stages. The submucosa amount of collagen fibers was significant and their orientation suffering proportional changes with the development of the pathological processes. Both after the fourth and eighth weeks after colon cancer induction, integrated intensity and aspect ratio values have shown significant statistical differences compared with control samples. Thus, SHG microscopy has proved to be a useful quantitative tool to highlight early changes of submucosa and the progression of these through the cancer development. PMID:25227053

  16. The R109H variant of fascin-2, a developmentally regulated actin crosslinker in hair-cell stereocilia, underlies early-onset hearing loss of DBA/2J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Longo-Guess, Chantal M.; Gagnon, Leona H.; Saylor, Katherine W.; Dumont, Rachel A.; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Pagana, James M.; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; David, Larry L.; Gillespie, Peter G.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative trait locus ahl8 is a key contributor to the early-onset, age-related hearing loss of DBA/2J mice. A non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in the mouse fascin-2 gene (Fscn2) is responsible for this phenotype, confirmed by wild-type BAC transgene rescue of hearing loss in DBA/2J mice. In chickens and mice, FSCN2 protein is abundant in hair-cell stereocilia, the actin-rich structures comprising the mechanically sensitive hair bundle, and is concentrated towards stereocilia tips of the bundle's longest stereocilia. FSCN2 expression increases when these stereocilia differentially elongate, suggesting that FSCN2 controls filament growth, stiffens exposed stereocilia, or both. Because ahl8 accelerates hearing loss only in the presence of mutant cadherin 23, a component of hair-cell tip links, mechanotransduction and actin crosslinking must be functionally interrelated. PMID:20660251

  17. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  18. Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Minimal Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chin Saeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of patients who did not match the audiometric criteria of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) but complained of acute hearing loss. Methods By thorough medical chart reviews, historical cohort study was performed with consecutive data of 589 patients complaining of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss without identifiable causes between 2005 and 2013. Those patients demonstrating a hearing loss of at least 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies based on pure tone audiometry were classified as group I; the others were classified as group II. Patients' characteristics, final hearing, and hearing improvement rate (HIR) between the two groups were compared. Results Group II exhibited distinctive characteristics, including an early age of onset of the hearing loss (P<0.01), an absence of accompanying diabetes (P<0.01) and hypertension (P<0.01), and better unaffected hearing and final hearing compared with group I (P<0.001). However, the HIR of the patients in the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients who did not meet the audiological criteria of SSNHL exhibited distinctive characteristics compared to SSNHL patients. PMID:26622953

  19. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  20. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  1. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  2. Development and evaluation of a portable audiometer for high-frequency screening of hearing loss from ototoxicity in homes/clinics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Peter G; Silaski, Grayson; Wilmington, Debra; Gordon, Samuel; Helt, Wendy; McMillan, Garnett; Fausti, Stephen A; Dille, Marilyn

    2012-11-01

    Cancer treatment often requires patients to be exposed to drugs that can damage hearing. Drugs such as cisplatin can cause permanent damage to hearing if not detected early. Damage typically occurs first in the more basal regions of the cochlea which are specific for high-frequency (HF) hearing and progresses to more apical regions that are relevant to speech understanding. Monitoring of HF hearing loss can be an effective means for early detection of ototoxicity caused by chemotherapy. Once ototoxicity is detected, the oncology medical team could adjust the drug dosage or switch to medications that are less ototoxic. Telehealth technology may improve access to ototoxicity monitoring. Patients could monitor their own hearing using a device that alerts healthcare professionals in the event of a change in hearing. A portable audiometer is currently not available that is 1) capable of automatic or manual (by an audiologist) operation; 2) designed with precision pure-tone functionality up to 20 kHz; and 3) able to remotely transfer health status information to a healthcare professional. This paper describes the design of a technology, the ototoxicity identification (OtoID), that includes a portable audiometer with HF test functionality that meets ANSI/ASA S3.6-2010 standards and is capable of reliably detecting a person's drug-related hearing changes relative to a baseline period (i.e., before ototoxic drugs) using an automated test. The system includes a wireless cellular modem capable of notifying a remote healthcare professional in the event that a significant change in hearing has occurred in the patient. The system was evaluated on test subjects within a sound-proof booth, a noisy hospital ward, and within their homes. Results indicate that the OtoID system can be used by patients to effectively monitor hearing changes remotely within their home or in a hospital ward, ultimately enabling early detection of ototoxicity and potentially avoiding hearing loss. PMID:22801480

  3. Early Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Detected by Proton MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Melissa E.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Liesinger, Amanda M.; Spychalla, Anthony; Zhang, Bing; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although 1H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the 1H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem 1H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on the posterior cingulate gyrus using antibodies to synaptic vesicles, hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), neurofibrillary tangle conformational-epitope (cNFT), amyloid-β, astrocytes, and microglia. The slides were digitally analyzed using Aperio software, which allows neuropathologic quantification in the posterior cingulate gray matter. MRS and pathology associations were adjusted for time from scan to death. Significant associations across AD and control subjects were found between reduced synaptic immunoreactivity and both NAA/Cr and NAA/mI in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Higher pTau burden was associated with lower NAA/Cr and NAA/mI. Higher amyloid-β burden was associated with elevated mI/Cr and lower NAA/mI ratios, but not with NAA/Cr. 1H-MRS metabolite levels reveal early neurodegenerative changes associated with AD pathology. Our findings support the hypothesis that a decrease in NAA/Cr is associated with loss of synapses and early pTau pathology, but not with amyloid-β or later accumulation of cNFT pathology in the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, elevation of mI/Cr is associated with the occurrence of amyloid-β plaques in AD. PMID:25471565

  4. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  5. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  6. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers. PMID:25605618

  7. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  8. Hearing Assistive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  9. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  10. Research Progress of MicroRNA in Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Xu, Cong-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to update the progress of microRNA (miRNA) in early detection of ovarian cancer. We discussed the current clinical diagnosis methods and biomarkers of ovarian cancer, especially the methods of miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer. Data Sources: We collected all relevant studies about miRNA and ovarian cancer in PubMed and CNKI from 1995 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all relevant studies concerning miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer, and excluded the duplicated articles. Results: miRNAs play a key role in various biological processes of ovarian cancer, such as development, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metastasis, and these phenomena appear in the early-stage. Therefore, miRNA can be used as a new biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer, intervention on miRNA expression of known target genes, and potential target genes can achieve the effect of early prevention. With the development of nanoscience and technology, analysis methods of miRNA are also quickly developed, which may provide better characterization of early detection of ovarian cancer. Conclusions: In the near future, miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment, and combining with the new analysis technology and new nanomaterials, point-of-care tests for miRNA with high throughput, high sensitivity, and strong specificity are developed to achieve the application of diagnostic kits in screening of early ovarian cancer. PMID:26668153

  11. Role of biomarkers in early detection of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kar, Manisha

    2014-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related, potentially life threatening condition. The incidence of PE has increased in the past decade, which has been attributed to various predisposing factors. Abnormal placentation is central to the evolution of this disease process. However, the triggering factor for this is still unknown. Interestingly, intense research done in this arena has unveiled the names of some important biomolecules which play important role in the vasculognesis of the early placenta, namely, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) and their antagonists, namely, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1, also known as sVEGFR1), and soluble endoglin (sEng). Besides these, Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was also implicated in this disease process. The roles of immune factors, genetic factors have been stressed from time to time. More novel approaches made, have shed light on the upcoming biomolecules. All these endeavours are directed to diagnose PE as early as possible, which is a real challenge. Question remains whether a single set parameters could diagnose a disease entity which is as complex as PE. Therefore, it is imperative to design feasible, predictive test-set utilizing multiple biomarkers. PMID:24959436

  12. Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1.7 (HF-CVC) times less than that for the BB-triplet test. The effect on the HF-triplet test of varying presentation method (professional or cheap headphones and loudspeakers) was small for the NH group and somewhat larger, but nonsignificant for the hearing-impaired group. Test repetition produced a moderate, significant learning effect for the first and second retests, but was small and nonsignificant for further retesting. The learning effect was about two times larger for the HF-CVC test than for the HF-triplet test. The sensitivity of both new tests for high-frequency hearing loss was similar, with an 87% true-positive and 7% false-positive ratio for detecting an average high-frequency hearing loss of 20 dB or more. Conclusions: The new HF-triplet and HF-CVC tests provide a sensitive and accurate method for detecting high-frequency hearing loss. The tests may signal developing hearing impairment at an early stage. The HF-triplet is preferred over the HF-CVC test because of its smaller learning effect, smaller error rate, greater simplicity, and lower cultural dependency. PMID:25127323

  13. Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection

    PubMed Central

    Begier, Elizabeth M.; Barrett, Nancy L.; Mshar, Patricia A.; Johnson, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Connecticut established telephone-based gram-positive rod (GPR) reporting primarily to detect inhalational anthrax cases more quickly. From March to December 2003, annualized incidence of blood isolates was 21.3/100,000 persons; reports included 293 Corynebacterium spp., 193 Bacillus spp., 73 Clostridium spp., 26 Lactobacillus spp., and 49 other genera. Around-the-clock GPR reporting has described GPR epidemiology and enhanced rapid communication with clinical laboratories. PMID:16229790

  14. Quantitative trait loci on chromosome 5 for susceptibility to frequency-specific effects on hearing in DBA/2J mice

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Sari; ISHIKAWA, Masashi; UEDA, Takuya; OHSHIBA, Yasuhiro; MIYASAKA, Yuki; OKUMURA, Kazuhiro; YOKOHAMA, Michinari; TAYA, Choji; MATSUOKA, Kunie; KIKKAWA, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The DBA/2J strain is a model for early-onset, progressive hearing loss in humans, as confirmed in the present study. DBA/2J mice showed progression of hearing loss to low-frequency sounds from ultrasonic-frequency sounds and profound hearing loss at all frequencies before 7 months of age. It is known that the early-onset hearing loss of DBA/2J mice is caused by affects in the ahl (Cdh23ahl) and ahl8 (Fscn2ahl8) alleles of the cadherin 23 and fascin 2 genes, respectively. Although the strong contributions of the Fscn2ahl8 allele were detected in hearing loss at 8- and 16-kHz stimuli with LOD scores of 5.02 at 8 kHz and 8.84 at 16 kHz, hearing loss effects were also demonstrated for three new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the intervals of 50.3–54.5, 64.6–119.9, and 119.9–137.0 Mb, respectively, on chromosome 5, with significant LOD scores of 2.80–3.91 for specific high-frequency hearing loss at 16 kHz by quantitative trait loci linkage mapping using a (DBA/2J × C57BL/6J) F1 × DBA/2J backcross mice. Moreover, we showed that the contribution of Fscn2ahl8 to early-onset hearing loss with 32-kHz stimuli is extremely low and raised the possibility of effects from the Cdh23ahl allele and another dominant quantitative trait locus (loci) for hearing loss at this ultrasonic frequency. Therefore, our results suggested that frequency-specific QTLs control early-onset hearing loss in DBA/2J mice. PMID:25765874

  15. Hearing Impairment Among Noise-Exposed Workers - United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Bushnell, P Timothy; Themann, Christa L; Morata, Thais C

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the United States, and is more prevalent than diabetes or cancer (1). Occupational hearing loss, primarily caused by high noise exposure, is the most common U.S. work-related illness (2). Approximately 22 million U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous occupational noise (3). CDC compared the prevalence of hearing impairment within nine U.S. industry sectors using 1,413,789 noise-exposed worker audiograms from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Project (4). CDC estimated the prevalence at six hearing impairment levels, measured in the better ear, and the impact on quality of life expressed as annual disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), as defined by the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study (5). The mining sector had the highest prevalence of workers with any hearing impairment, and with moderate or worse impairment, followed by the construction and manufacturing sectors. Hearing loss prevention, and early detection and intervention to avoid additional hearing loss, are critical to preserve worker quality of life. PMID:27101435

  16. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  17. Child Care and Child Welfare. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This document outlines the joint hearing before the House of Representatives, between the Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Human Resources and the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families. The hearing was scheduled out of concern by Congress members over the proliferation…

  18. Early detection of postoperative residual tumor using image subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Suresh B.; Dhawan, Atam P.; Taha, Jamal M.; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lamba, Michael; Sarwal, Alok; Chitre, Yateen S.

    1995-05-01

    The detection after surgery of residual tumor from magnetic resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the low contrast level of the images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging has been found valuable in detecting residual enhancing tumor when performed within 72 hours after surgery. The patient is scanned by the MR scanner with and without infusion of gadolinium, a contrast agent. Usually, the estimation of post-operative tumor volume is done by visual comparison of the T1 MR images obtained with and without gadolinium infusion. The T1 MR images, in most cases, without contrast demonstrates areas of hyper intensities (high brightness levels), consistent with hemorrhage. These hyper intense areas often make it difficult to detect residual tumor in post contrast images. This is due to the presence of both acute hemorrhage and gadolinium enhancement which have high brightness levels in T1 MR images. Even in MR images taken within 72 hours after surgery, detection of tumor enhancement in areas of increased T1 signal produced by blood products or by postoperative changes can be difficult when performed by the naked eye. Due to these problems, the quantification of residual tumor becomes a subjective issue among neuro-radiologists. Thus to reduce errors produced by the human factor, an automated procedure to detect residual tumor is required. We have developed a technique to differentiate tumor enhancement from postoperative changes and blood products on MR imaging. The technique involves fusion of pre- and post-gadolinium MR images performed in the immediate postoperative period. Computerized slice based substraction is then done on the corresponding fused images of the two sets. The subtraction process results in a composite slice, which is examined for differences between pre- and post-gadolinium studies. The presented technique was tested on 14 cases in which MR images were obtained from brain tumor patients within 72 hours after surgery. The subtraction technique easily distinguished residual enhancing tumor from postoperative surgical changes and was simple to perform. The technique proposed and developed has given good results and will be used in clinical trial and diagnosis. Future potentials of the technique are discussed and illustrative cases presented.

  19. Do Hearing Protectors Protect Hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Groenewold, Matthew R.; Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Themann, Christa L.; Davis, Rickie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the association between self-reported hearing protection use at work and incidence of hearing shifts over a 5-year period. Methods Audiometric data from 19,911 workers were analyzed. Two hearing shift measures—OSHA standard threshold shift (OSTS) and high-frequency threshold shift (HFTS)—were used to identify incident shifts in hearing between workers’ 2005 and 2009 audiograms. Adjusted odds ratios were generated using multivariable logistic regression with multi-level modeling. Results The odds ratio for hearing shift for workers who reported never versus always wearing hearing protection was nonsignificant for OSTS (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92–1.64) and marginally significant for HFTS (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00–1.59). A significant linear trend towards increased risk of HFTS with decreased use of hearing protection was observed (P = 0.02). Conclusion The study raises concern about the effectiveness of hearing protection as a substitute for noise control to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1001–1010, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24700499

  20. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  1. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  2. Early Detection of and Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There are approximately one million new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) per year worldwide, with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. The long natural history of colorectal neoplasia affords the opportunity to use preventive measures to improve survival in this disease. Currently screening for adenomatous polyps and early-stage cancers is the best methodology for improving survival. The increasing knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and its natural history is allowing the development of new tools to identify patients who will benefit most from colon cancer screening and the defining of appropriate surveillance intervals. The guidelines for screening for colorectal neoplasia have recently been substantially revised by several organizations based on developing technologies and a growing body of data on the efficacy of CRC screening. PMID:20431727

  3. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Liv Hansen, Naja; Osler, Merete; Lauritzen, Martin; Rostrup, Egill; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently applied to score independent data sets from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) and the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort (Metropolit). Hippocampal texture was superior to volume reduction as predictor of MCI-to-AD conversion in ADNI (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.74 vs 0.67; DeLong test, p = 0.005), and provided even better prognostic results in AIBL (AUC 0.83). Hippocampal texture, but not volume, correlated with Addenbrooke's cognitive examination score (Pearson correlation, r = -0.25, p < 0.001) in the Metropolit cohort. The hippocampal texture marker correlated with hippocampal glucose metabolism as indicated by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (Pearson correlation, r = -0.57, p < 0.001). Texture statistics remained significant after adjustment for volume in all cases, and the combination of texture and volume did not improve diagnostic or prognostic AUCs significantly. Our study highlights the presence of hippocampal texture abnormalities in MCI, and the possibility that texture may serve as a prognostic neuroimaging biomarker of early cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1148-1161, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26686837

  4. Validation of Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (GLNE 010) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We propose a Phase 2 (large cross-sectional) PRoBE-compliant validation trial of stool-based and serum-based tests for the detection of colorectal neoplasia (1). The trial is powered to detect early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma or high grade dysplasia. This is the most stringent, conservative approach to the early diagnosis of colonic neoplasia and addresses the most important endpoint of identifying individuals with curable, early stage cancer and those with very high risk non-invasive neoplasia (high grade dysplasia).

  5. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  6. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  7. An Alternative Approach to Early Literacy: The Effects of ASL in Educational Media on Literacy Skills Acquisition for Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Annie M.; Golos, Debbie B.; Bennett, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood educators need access to research-based practices and materials to help all children learn to read. Some theorists have suggested that individuals learn to read through "dual coding" (i.e., a verbal code and a nonverbal code) and may benefit from more than one route to literacy (e.g., dual coding theory). Although deaf

  8. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  9. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lakes three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  10. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  11. Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Reena; Jones, Emma; Vidart, Victoire; Kuppen, Peter J K; Conti, John A; Francis, Nader K

    2014-09-01

    There is growing interest in early detection of colorectal cancer as current screening modalities lack compliance and specificity. This study systematically reviewed the literature to identify biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps. Literature searches were conducted for relevant papers since 2007. Human studies reporting on early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps using biomarkers were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated, and sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value (PPV) were reported. The search strategy identified 3,348 abstracts. A total of 44 papers, examining 67 different tumor markers, were included. Overall sensitivities for colorectal cancer detection by fecal DNA markers ranged from 53% to 87%. Combining fecal DNA markers increased the sensitivity of colorectal cancer and adenoma detection. Canine scent detection had a sensitivity of detecting colorectal cancer of 99% and specificity of 97%. The PPV of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is 1.26%, compared with 0.31% for the current screening method of guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT). A panel of serum protein biomarkers provides a sensitivity and specificity above 85% for all stages of colorectal cancer, and a PPV of 0.72%. Combinations of fecal and serum biomarkers produce higher sensitivities, specificities, and PPVs for early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Further research is required to validate these biomarkers in a well-structured population-based study. PMID:25004920

  12. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  13. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational

  14. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  15. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  16. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to

  17. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  18. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  19. Early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate by measuring chlorophyll reflectance and fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from off-target drift of herbicide is critical in crop production. Subtle changes in canopy reflectance could present useful information to detect the onset of crop stress. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate a portable spectroradiometer and a portable...

  20. [Research on early fire detection with CO-CO2 FTIR-spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Jian-hua; Zhang, Ren-cheng; Huang, Xiang-ying; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2007-05-01

    A new fire detection method is put forward based on the theory of FTIR spectroscopy through analyzing all kinds of detection methods, in which CO and CO2 are chosen as early fire detection objects, and an early fire experiment system has been set up. The concentration characters of CO and CO2 were obtained through early fire experiments including real alarm sources and nuisance alarm sources. In real alarm sources there are abundant CO and CO2 which change regularly. In nuisance alarm sources there is almost no CO. So it's feasible to reduce the false alarms and increase the sensitivity of early fire detectors through analyzing the concentration characters of CO and CO2. PMID:17655099

  1. POTENTIAL NEW MARKERS IN THE EARLY DETECTION OF BLADDER CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Samir P.; Lokeshwar, Vinata B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Bladder cancer remains a highly prevalent and lethal malignancy. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment have been shown to improve survival at both initial diagnosis and recurrence. A vast number of tumor markers have been identified and rigorously evaluated in attempts to improve non-invasive diagnostic accuracy of bladder cancer. Hematuria was the first tumor marker in a field that has grown to include soluble markers, cell-surface antigens, cell-cycle related proteins, and genetic alterations. We aim to provide a critical appraisal of newer markers and the current state of research. Recent Findings The number of tumor markers identified has been exponentially increasing. For a variety of reasons, many are unsuitable for clinical practice. More promising recent markers include those discovered in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and epigenetics. Much of the recent work is focused on molecular genetic pathways in bladder cancer. Summary The field of bladder cancer tumor markers remains a rapidly evolving area in which newer markers are constantly identified, evaluated, and often discarded if they do not add significantly to the urologists armamentarium. Newer markers rely on genetic rearrangements, molecular changes, and cell-cycle related proteins. Work is currently being done to identify the most promising markers. PMID:19584734

  2. Current Approaches and Challenges in Early Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

  3. Current approaches and challenges in early detection of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Schneble, Erika J; Graham, Lindsey J; Shupe, Matthew P; Flynt, Frederick L; Banks, Kevin P; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E; Setlik, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

  4. Consequences of congenital hearing loss - a longterm view.

    PubMed

    Rapin, I

    1978-12-01

    Responsibility for detection of hearing loss at the earliest possible age rests on the shoulders of the medical profession. Early detection and presentation of language through all available sensory channels, most notably the visual, are essential since deaf children of hearing parents, the vast majority of the deaf, characteristically remain grossly deficient linguistically despite years of special schooling. The deaf children of deaf parents, who are not as deprived linguistically since they learn a manual language at the normal age of language acquisition, tend to be less severely handicapped than the deaf children of hearing parents. Deafness is a hidden handicap in infancy although lack of vestibular function may delay motor milestones like sitting and walking but does not constitute a serious problem after they are achieved. The average 18 year old deaf student achieves a reading level comparable to that of a hearing fourth grader and the mathematical skills of a sixth grader. He is also deficient in science, social studies, and general information despite his average scores on nonverbal intelligence tests. Although many deaf students drop out of school before graduation and few go on to higher education, congenitally deaf adults are usually self-supporting and independent. Eighty per cent of the deaf marry hearing impaired persons. The deaf are greatly assisted by the cohesive deaf community existing in every sizable city which provides a social, recreational, and economic framework to their lives. As a result, delinquency and psychiatric illness are not higher among the deaf than the hearing, despite the difficulties they have dealing with the complexities of the hearing society. PMID:731774

  5. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  6. Breath holding index in detection of early cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja Bašić; Morović, Sandra; Serić, Vesna; Demarin, Vida

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate role of breath holding index (BHI) as a functional parameter for intracranial subclinical atherosclerotic changes in recognizing patients who are at risk for developing cognitive impairment of the vascular type. We included 60 volunteers divided into 3 groups according to age and presence of cognitive impairment (healthy subjects 30-40 years old, controls 60-70 years old and subjects with mild cognitive impairment 60-70 years old). We excluded individuals with moderate and severe carotid stenosis. There was a decreasing trend in the mean blood flow velocities of the intracranial blood vessels due to age increase, but it was not statistically significant. BHI values were 1.66±0.20 in the first group, 1.35±0.31 in the second and 0.69±0.30 in the third group. There was a statistically significant difference between the first two groups and the group with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score (29±1, 27±1 and 19±1 respectively), no statistically significant difference was found in Mini mental state exam (MMSE) score (29±1, 28±1, and 28±1 respectively). After regressing out age and conventional vascular risk factors, we found a good correlation between the decreasing trend in BHI values and MoCA score, and no statistically significant correlation between the BHI values and MMSE score. Results of our study show that BHI test as a parameter of impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (intracranial small vessel wall dysfunction) might differentiate individuals with early cognitive decline from healthy subjects. PMID:20884013

  7. Clinical comparison of two assays for rapid detection of cytomegalovirus early nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Woods, G L; Johnson, A M; Thiele, G M

    1990-03-01

    Three methods for detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 218 clinical specimens were compared: (1) shell vial assay to detect the early nuclear antigen after incubation for 16 hours and 40 hours (Syva Company); (2) 24-well plate assay to detect the early nuclear antigen after incubation for 16 hours (DuPont); and (3) convention tissue cell culture. CMV was detected in 26 specimens (12%) by one or more of these methods. With the shell vial assay, 12 (46%) and 15 (58%) specimens were positive after incubation for 16 hours and 40 hours, respectively. CMV was detected in 17 specimens (65%) by the 24-well plate assay. There was no significant difference in the detection of CMV between these assays. CMV was identified by conventional tissue culture in 15 of 22 (68%) evaluable cultures after an average of 14.2 days. More specimens were positive by conventional culture than by the 16-hour shell vial assay (P = 0.035). For optimal detection of CMV in clinical specimens, both conventional tissue cell culture and an early antigen assay should be performed. The two early antigen assays evaluated in this study yielded comparable results. However, the 24-well plates are more easily manipulated, and the 24-well plate assay, as performed, was easier to interpret and more cost efficient. PMID:2155527

  8. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with /sup 111/In oxide labeled while blood cells and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p less than 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attenuation coefficient of the medullary cavities in the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  9. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

  10. The Impact of a Dialogic Reading Program on Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Kindergarten and Early Primary School-Aged Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Pan-Chung; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a special interactive dialogic reading method developed by Whitehurst et al. (1988) on deaf and hard-of-hearing children in Hong Kong. Twenty-eight deaf and hard-of-hearing children in kindergarten, first, or second grade were pretested on a receptive vocabulary test and assigned to one of three…

  11. Using Runoff Hydrograph Model for Early Detecting Landslide Dam Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chompuchan, C.; Chen, W. L.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous areas, many studies explored that during extreme rainfall event induced landslide dams failure and consequently caused the catastrophe damage of lives and infrastructures at the downstream of the watershed. The detection of initial landslide dam formation and the estimation of its occurrence position in the upstream were essential to warn the residents and evacuate in advance. The devices currently used, such as wire sensor, geophone sensor, and infrared cameras (CCD) are classified as the post-event type sensor, which only has a shorter response time, and can just hardly satisfy the requirement which people expect from precaution system. To predict disasters earlier and increase response time, this study used the change point derived from comparing theoretical and observing runoff hydrograph. Chishan River watershed was selected as a case study. Grid Rational Algorithm for Predicting Hydrograph (GRAPH), the dynamic rainfall - runoff model, was used to calibrate watershed runoff hydrograph parameter. The landslide dams were simulated at difference distances along the river, and the runoff hydrographs were compared. Then, the rainfall data and landslide dam failure during Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 was verified the model.The result showed that, during the initial landslide dam formation, the observed accumulate and peak flow hydrograph reduced significantly in comparison with theoretical flow. This model can be applied to establish an efficient warning system for debris flow occurring precaution. In addition, this study has been improved for a longer response time by integrating traditional observation system and runoff hydrograph warning systems and can provide to the references of related authorities.

  12. Hearing Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  13. HIV-1 Tat biosensor: Current development and trends for early detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Fatin, M F; Ruslinda, A R; Arshad, M K Md; Tee, K K; Ayub, R M; Hashim, U; Kamarulzaman, A; Gopinath, Subash C B

    2016-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected almost 35 million people worldwide. Various tests have been developed to detect the presence of HIV during the early stages of the disease in order to reduce the risk of transmission to other humans. The HIV-1 Tat protein is one of the proteins present in HIV that are released abundantly approximately 2-4 weeks after infection. In this review, we have outlined various strategies for detecting the Tat protein, which helps transcribe the virus and enhances replication. Detection strategies presented include immunoassays, biosensors and gene expression, which utilize antibodies or aptamers as common probes to sense the presence of Tat. Alternatively, measuring the levels of gene transcription is a direct method of analysing the HIV gene to confirm the presence of Tat. By detection of the Tat protein, virus transmission can be detected in high-risk individuals in the early stages of the disease to reduce the risk of an HIV pandemic. PMID:26655174

  14. Non-organic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah C

    2012-12-01

    Annual hearing tests are compulsory in the British Armed Forces. This case report presents a 24-year old soldier who was found to have severe deterioration on her annual audiogram without any significant noise exposure. After two years of specialist audiological investigations she was diagnosed with non-organic hearing loss; further interrogation of her social circumstances suggested potential psychosocial triggers. This diagnosis should be considered early in military primary care in those with objective hearing loss on audiogram where there has been no exposure to significant noise. PMID:23402072

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were calculated for assessment the differences between the spectral data of healthy and injured (stressed) plants of two cultivars. The averaged reflectance spectra for all groups were analyzed in the most informative for green plants spectral ranges: green, red, red edge, and near infrared. Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the maximums of the emitted radiation and at the forefronts and rear slopes. On the 7th day no visual changes in the leaves occurred but a decrease of spectral reflectance was established in the green and red ranges for all cases of two cultivars. On the 14th day an increase of the number of statistically significant differences between spectral reflectance of healthy and treated plants was observed. A shift of the red edge position to the blue region was observed for the case of treatment only with CMV. The growth regulator MEIA is with the best preventing action on the leaves. The correlation of the results from spectral analyses and the DAS-ELISA findings for presence of CMV demonstrates the efficiency and sensitivity of these remote sensing techniques for reliable diagnosis of viral infection and injuries of the plants.

  16. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  17. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been treated with minodronate for osteoporosis during 18 months. Based on the MRI findings and medication history, early stage BRONJ could be considered. Therefore minodronate was switched to teriparatide. Thereafter mandible pares-thesias, odontalgia and exposed bone were not observed. This case suggests that MRI is useful for the early detection of BRONJ. PMID:26069377

  18. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  19. [Early Detection and Integrated Care in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Psychotic Illnesses].

    PubMed

    Lambert, Martin; Schöttle, Daniel; Sengutta, Mary; Lüdecke, Daniel; Nawara, Antonia-Luise; Galling, Britta; Handwerk, Ute; Rothländer, Wiebke; Falk, Anne-Lena; Rietschel, Liz; Gagern, Charlotte; Sarikaya, Gizem; Wittmann, Linus; Ruppelt, Friederike; Daubmann, Anne; Lange, Benjamin; Naber, Dieter; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Unger, Hans-Peter; Ott, Sabine; Romer, Georg; Krüger, Helmut; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wegscheider, Karl; Bock, Thomas; Karow, Anne

    2015-07-01

    This is a prospective 1-year follow-up study comparing a combined intervention consisting of multidimensional early detection strategies with age- and interdisciplinary integrated care (intervention group, n = 120) with standard care (historical control group, n = 105) in adolescents and young adults within the early phase of psychosis. Data at study entry indicate a high complexity and severity of illness. Primary outcome is the 6-month rate of combined symptomatic and functional remission at study endpoint. PMID:26135281

  20. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the difference between hearing aids and sound amplifiers that amplify environmental sounds for consumers with no ... the other hand, FDA does not consider sound amplifiers to be medical devices when labeled for recreational ...

  1. Hearing Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ... exposure to high noise levels (such as loud music) over time can cause permanent damage to the ...

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... case goes behind the ear that holds the electronics that make up the actual hearing aid. It's ... there's a hard plastic case that holds the electronic components, but it's joined to the earmold itself, ...

  3. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  4. A study of the high-frequency hearing thresholds of dentistry professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Andréa Cintra; de Melo, Ana Dolores Passarelli; Santos, Cibele Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: In the dentistry practice, dentists are exposed to harmful effects caused by several factors, such as the noise produced by their work instruments. In 1959, the American Dental Association recommended periodical hearing assessments and the use of ear protectors. Aquiring more information regarding dentists', dental nurses', and prosthodontists' hearing abilities is necessary to propose prevention measures and early treatment strategies. Objective: To investigate the auditory thresholds of dentists, dental nurses, and prosthodontists. Method: In this clinical and experimental study, 44 dentists (Group I; GI), 36 dental nurses (Group II; GII), and 28 prosthodontists (Group III; GIII) were included, , with a total of 108 professionals. The procedures that were performed included a specific interview, ear canal inspection, conventional and high-frequency threshold audiometry, a speech reception threshold test, and an acoustic impedance test. Results: In the 3 groups that were tested, the comparison between the mean hearing thresholds provided evidence of worsened hearing ability relative to the increase in frequency. For the tritonal mean at 500 to 2,000 Hz and 3,000 to 6,000 Hz, GIII presented the worst thresholds. For the mean of the high frequencies (9,000 and 16,000 Hz), GII presented the worst thresholds. Conclusion: The conventional hearing threshold evaluation did not demonstrate alterations in the 3 groups that were tested; however, the complementary tests such as high-frequency audiometry provided greater efficacy in the early detection of hearing problems, since this population's hearing loss impaired hearing ability at frequencies that are not tested by the conventional tests. Therefore, we emphasize the need of utilizing high-frequency threshold audiometry in the hearing assessment routine in combination with other audiological tests. PMID:25991940

  5. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M P; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26628933

  6. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. P.; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B. G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26628933

  7. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  8. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries. PMID:24281081

  9. Detection of Early Cancer: Genetics or Immunology? Serum Autoantibody Profiles as Markers of Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Poletaev, Alexander; Pukhalenko, Alexander; Kukushkin, Andrey; Sviridov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The search for effective methods for detecting cancers at very early stages is currently a top priority of cancer research. While numerous oncogenes have been identified in and associated with human cancers, the last 50 years of molecular and genetic studies have not led to a breakthrough in either the diagnosis or the treatment of cancers. Therefore, the role of oncogenes in carcinogenesis is still unclear, as is their usefulness in the diagnosis of human cancers. In the present review, we discuss the concept of oncogenes and summarize the current approaches for the early detection of human cancers based on antibodies arrays. PMID:26179267

  10. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  11. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E’, an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E’/A’ at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy. PMID:26871457

  12. Ultra-sensitive protein detection via Single Molecule Arrays towards early stage cancer monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Stephanie M.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Zhou, Wenhui; Baig, Shazia; Walter, Stephanie R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Walt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of cancers and continued monitoring of tumor growth would be greatly facilitated by the development of a blood-based, non-invasive, screening technique for early cancer detection. Current technologies for cancer screening and detection typically rely on imaging techniques or blood tests that are not accurate or sensitive enough to definitively diagnose cancer at its earliest stages or predict biologic outcomes. By utilizing Single Molecule Arrays (SiMoA), an ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we were able to measure increasing levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) within murine serum over time, which we attribute to tumor development. The measured concentrations of PSA were well below the detectable limits of both a leading clinical diagnostic PSA ELISA assay as well as a commercial ultra-sensitive PSA assay. Our work benchmarks the role of SiMoA as a vital tool in monitoring previously non-detectable protein biomarkers in serum for early cancer detection and offers significant potential as a non-invasive platform for the monitoring of early stage cancer. PMID:26052106

  13. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  14. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  15. Training in early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer: an observational study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-yu; Chen, Chu-di; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xiao-wei; Ren, Yu-tang; Huang, Si-lin; Cui, Xiao-bing; An, Sheng-li; Xiao, Bing; Bai, Yang; Liu, Si-de; Jiang, Bo; Zhi, Fa-chao; Gong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have analyzed the training of endoscopists in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC). This study assessed whether specific training of endoscopists improves the detection rate of EGC. The rates of detection of EGC by endoscopists at the Digestive Endoscopy Center of the Affiliated Nanfang Hospital of China Southern Medical University between January 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Because some endoscopists received training in the diagnosis of EGC, beginning in September 2013, the study was divided into 3 time periods: January to September 2013 (period 1), September 2013 to January 2014 (period 2), and January to May 2014 (period 3). The rates of EGC detection during these 3 periods were analyzed. From January 2013 to May 2014, a total of 25,314 gastroscopy examinations were performed at our center, with 48 of these examinations (0.2%) detecting EGCs, accounting for 12.1% (48/396) of the total number of gastric cancers detected. The EGC detection rates by trained endoscopists during periods 1, 2, and 3 were 0.3%, 0.6%, and 1.5%, respectively, accounting for 22.0%, 39.0%, and 60.0%, respectively, of the gastric cancers detected during these time periods. In comparison, the EGC detection rates by untrained endoscopists during periods 1, 2, and 3 were 0.05%, 0.08%, and 0.10%, respectively, accounting for 3.1%, 6.0%, and 5.7%, respectively, of the gastric cancers detected during these times. After training, the detection rate by some trained endoscopists markedly increased from 0.2% during period 1 to 2.3% during period 3. Further, the use of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) (odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.4-4.1, P < 0.001) contributed to the diagnosis of EGC. In conclusion, specific training could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC. M-NBI contributed to the diagnosis of EGC. PMID:25590840

  16. Buying a Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... of nerve deafness. Where do I purchase hearing aids? Federal regulation prohibits any hearing aid sale unless ... fit. What are costs and styles of hearing aids? Hearing aids vary in price according to style, ...

  17. TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp; Cariou, Romain; Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan; Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia; Frei, Melissa; Hanna, Chad; Kara, Erin; Keppel, Drew; Liao, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  18. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  19. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  20. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals. PMID:25851202

  1. Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent

  2. Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  3. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  4. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies. PMID:26117369

  5. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  6. Linked color imaging technology facilitates early detection of flat gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hisashi; Miura, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Takezawa, Takahito; Ino, Yuji; Okada, Masahiro; Osawa, Hiroyuki; Lefor, Alan K; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2015-12-01

    Conventional endoscopy can miss flat early gastric cancers (0-IIb) because they may not be visible. We treated a patient with synchronous flat early gastric cancers missed by conventional white-light endoscopy (WLE). A 74-year-old Japanese male was referred for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of a depressed-type early gastric cancer (0-IIc) on the posterior wall of the antrum. Linked color imaging (LCI) detected two flat reddish lesions (0-IIb) measuring 30 mm and 10 mm in diameter in the distal body and prepyloric area, respectively, which had not been detected by conventional WLE. LCI clearly demonstrated the line of demarcation between the malignant lesion and the surrounding mucosa without magnification. Flat early gastric cancers were suspected because both lesions had irregular surface patterns using magnifying blue laser imaging (BLI). An additional depressed lesion (0-IIc) was detected by laser WLE along the greater curvature in the antrum. Magnifying BLI suggested a malignant lesion. Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed atypical glands in all four lesions. ESD of these lesions was performed. Pathological examination of the resected specimens confirmed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma localized to the mucosa in all four lesions. Flat early gastric cancers became clearly visible using new endoscopic technology. PMID:26560036

  7. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  8. Impact of Co-Occurring Birth Defects on the Timing of Newborn Hearing Screening and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Derek A.; Stampfel, Caroline C.; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Dodson, Kelley M.; Pandya, Arti; Lynch, Kathleen B.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Early detection of hearing loss in all newborns and timely intervention are critical to children's cognitive, verbal, behavioral, and social development. The initiation of appropriate early intervention services before 6 months of age can prevent or reduce negative developmental consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess, using large, population-based registries, the effect of co-occurring birth defects (CBDs) on the timing and overall rate of hearing screening and diagnosis. Method The authors linked statewide data from newborn hearing screenings, a birth defects registry, and birth certificates to assess the timeliness of newborn hearing screening and diagnosis of hearing loss (HL) for infants with and without CBDs in 485 children with confirmed HL. Results Nearly one third (31.5%) of children with HL had 1 or more CBDs. The presence of CBDs prolonged the time of the initial infant hearing screening, which contributed to further delays in the subsequent diagnosis of HL. Conclusions Better coordination of HL assessment into treatment plans for children with CBDs may enable earlier diagnosis of HL and provide opportunities for intervention that will affect long-term developmental outcomes for these children. PMID:21940980

  9. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  10. The Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: What Will it Take to Diagnose and Treat Curable Pancreatic Neoplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Anne Marie; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Canto, Marcia Irene; Klein, Alison P.; Herman, Joseph M.; Goggins, Michael; Fishman, Elliot K.; Kamel, Ihab; Weiss, Matthew J.; Diaz, Luis A.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the deadliest of all solid malignancies. Early detection offers the best hope for a cure, but characteristics of this disease such as the lack of early clinical symptoms, make the early detection difficult. Recent genetic mapping of the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer suggests that a large window of opportunity exists for the early detection of pancreatic neoplasia, and developments in cancer genetics offer new, potentially highly specific, approaches for screening for curable pancreatic neoplasia. We review the challenges of screening for early pancreatic neoplasia, as well as opportunities presented by incorporating molecular genetics into these efforts. PMID:24924775

  11. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  12. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These

  13. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  14. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  15. Assessing Component Language Deficits in the Early Detection of Reading Difficulty Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Marshall, Chloe R.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the linguistic components that underlie letter-sound decoding skills and reading comprehension: specifically phonology, morphology, and syntax. Many children who have reading difficulties had language deficits that were detectable before they began reading. Early identification of language difficulties will…

  16. STATISTICAL METHODOLOGIES FOR EARLY DETECTION SURVEYS IN FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL LANDSCAPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In surveys designed for early detection of a pathogen it is typical for a large number of samples to be collected and brought to the laboratory for confirmatory, diagnostic testing, often with PCR or ELISA. When the incidence of the pathogen is expected to be low, group or batch testing is preferred...

  17. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  18. Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate on soybean and cotton using plant leaf hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we describe early detection of crop injury from glyphosate using traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features from leaf hyperspectral reflectance data in non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton. Spectral bands used in the new features are select...

  19. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  20. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys in Chequamegon Bay in support of invasive species early detection research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the impetus and approach for MED invasive species early detection research generally and presents preliminary results concerning benthic composition and non-native species found in the 2013 Chequamegon Bay survey. The audience is a group of researchers...

  1. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  2. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  3. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  4. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  5. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  6. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  7. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  8. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    Background In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. Objective To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. Methods We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Results Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women’s abilities to make trade-offs. Conclusion Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting. PMID:26508842

  9. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estpar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldig, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer. PMID:25898957

  10. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  11. The role of maternal socioeconomic factors in the commitment to universal newborn hearing screening in the Northeastern region of Brazil.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Cavalcanti HG; Guerra RO

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: The implementation of early hearing detection in developing countries remains elusive. The fragile health care system along with insufficient funding for health care services leads to inadequate universal newborn hearing screening programs. There is a high incidence of loss to follow-up, at different stages of the program, in these countries, compromising the effect of early hearing screening programs. Strategies must be developed to improve family commitment to such programs. The objective of the present study was to examine factors that predict loss to second-stage follow-up at a municipal based, universal newborn hearing screening program in the Northeastern region of Brazil.METHOD: The current cross sectional study includes 577 newborns who underwent hearing screening and failed. The population was divided into two groups: those who returned and those who were lost to second-stage screening. Differences between groups were explored and adjusted odds ratios were derived.RESULTS: There was a significantly increased risk of non-adherence to the universal newborn hearing screening program in mothers with low income, few prenatal care visits, minimal education and with a multiparous child.CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors may have a significant influence on the effectiveness of hearing screening programs in poorer regions of Brazil and other low-income countries. Improvements in health care politics, tracking system and public awareness is crucial for successful program implementation.

  12. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0-12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  13. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  14. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  15. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  16. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  17. Acoustical analysis of mechanical heart valve sounds for early detection of malfunction.

    PubMed

    Famaey, Nele; Defever, Korijn; Bielen, Paul; Flameng, Willem; Vander Sloten, Jos; Sas, Paul; Meuris, Bart

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical heart valves carry the disadvantage of lifelong antithrombotic therapy, due to the high risk of thrombus formation on the valve surface. Current diagnostic methods are incapable of detecting thrombus formation in an early stage. This article investigates a new diagnostic method, based on the analysis of the acoustic signal produced by the valve. This method should be capable of early detection of malfunction, thus permitting targeted medication and reducing valve-related complications and mortality. A measurement setup assuring optimal signal quality was developed, and a signal analysis program was implemented and validated on an in vitro mock circulatory loop. Next, four sheep were implanted with a bileaflet mechanical valve. The signals of their valves developing thrombosis were assessed on a weekly basis before explantation. Three sheep were sacrificed shortly after detection of malfunction according to the newly developed method. In each case, thrombus or membrane formation was detected on the leaflets upon explantation. In one sheep, no malfunction was found in the analysis, which was also confirmed by the condition of the valve upon explantation. These preliminary results indicate that acoustical analysis of mechanical heart valves permits early detection of valvular malfunction. Further research with more in vitro and animal testing is required to statistically validate these findings. PMID:20573536

  18. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  19. Mentally Retarded Children Detection at an Early Ages using Social Reaction Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura

    Results have shown that in the first three years of human life, the brain undergoes most of its growth. If mentally retarded children could be detected before the age of three, correct treatment could be prescribed at an early stage before the brain completely develops. Therefore, the possibility for the brain’s recovery would be higher. In this study, we detect mentally retarded children at an early age merely by analyzing children’s reactions while a feedback image is displayed for two minutes. Results showed that by Social Reaction Test, we verified that our system renders the same evaluation as the Enjoji method. Furthermore, detection of mental retardation in children under age three was possible.

  20. The state of molecular biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Callison, J Clay; Callaway-Lane, Carol; Aldrich, Melinda C; Grogan, Eric L; Massion, Pierre P

    2012-08-01

    Using biomarkers to select the most at-risk population, to detect the disease while measurable and yet not clinically apparent has been the goal of many investigations. Recent advances in molecular strategies and analytic platforms, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have identified increasing numbers of potential biomarkers in the blood, urine, exhaled breath condensate, bronchial specimens, saliva, and sputum, but none have yet moved to the clinical setting. Therefore, there is a recognized gap between the promise and the product delivery in the cancer biomarker field. In this review, we define clinical contexts where risk and diagnostic biomarkers may have use in the management of lung cancer, identify the most relevant candidate biomarkers of early detection, provide their state of development, and finally discuss critical aspects of study design in molecular biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:22689914

  1. The State of Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Callison, J. Clay; Callaway-Lane, Carol; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Grogan, Eric L.; Massion, Pierre P.

    2013-01-01

    Using biomarkers to select the most at-risk population, to detect the disease while measurable and yet not clinically apparent has been the goal of many investigations. Recent advances in molecular strategies and analytic platforms, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have identified increasing numbers of potential biomarkers in the blood, urine, exhaled breath condensate, bronchial specimens, saliva, and sputum, but none have yet moved to the clinical setting. Therefore, there is a recognized gap between the promise and the product delivery in the cancer biomarker field. In this review, we define clinical contexts where risk and diagnostic biomarkers may have use in the management of lung cancer, identify the most relevant candidate biomarkers of early detection, provide their state of development, and finally discuss critical aspects of study design in molecular biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:22689914

  2. Detection of Cancer DNA in Plasma of Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balukrishna, Sasidharan; Cochran, Rory; Croessmann, Sarah; Zabransky, Daniel J.; Wong, Hong Yuen; Toro, Patricia Valda; Cidado, Justin; Blair, Brian G.; Chu, David; Burns, Timothy; Higgins, Michaela J.; Stearns, Vered; Jacobs, Lisa; Habibi, Mehran; Lange, Julie; Hurley, Paula J.; Lauring, Josh; VanDenBerg, Dustin; Kessler, Jill; Jeter, Stacie; Samuels, Michael L.; Maar, Dianna; Cope, Leslie; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Pedram; Wolff, Antonio C.; Park, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Detecting circulating plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) in early stage cancer patients has the potential to change how oncologists recommend systemic therapies for solid tumors after surgery. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel sensitive and specific platform for mutation detection. Experimental Design In this prospective study, primary breast tumors and matched pre- and post-surgery blood samples were collected from early stage breast cancer patients (n=29). Tumors (n=30) were analyzed by Sanger sequencing for common PIK3CA mutations, and DNA from these tumors and matched plasma were then analyzed for PIK3CA mutations using ddPCR. Results Sequencing of tumors identified seven PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (H1047R) and three exon 9 mutations (E545K). Analysis of tumors by ddPCR confirmed these mutations and identified five additional mutations. Pre-surgery plasma samples (n=29) were then analyzed for PIK3CA mutations using ddPCR. Of the fifteen PIK3CA mutations detected in tumors by ddPCR, fourteen of the corresponding mutations were detected in pre-surgical ptDNA, while no mutations were found in plasma from patients with PIK3CA wild type tumors (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 100%). Ten patients with mutation positive ptDNA pre-surgery had ddPCR analysis of post-surgery plasma, with five patients having detectable ptDNA post-surgery. Conclusions This prospective study demonstrates accurate mutation detection in tumor tissues using ddPCR, and that ptDNA can be detected in blood before and after surgery in early stage breast cancer patients. Future studies can now address whether ptDNA detected after surgery identifies patients at risk for recurrence, which could guide chemotherapy decisions for individual patients. PMID:24504125

  3. JOINT STATEMENT OF POLICY FOR WISCONSIN HEARING CONSERVATION PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Health, Madison.

    GUIDELINES PREPARED BY STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION AND THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH OUTLINE THE PHILOSOPHY AND PROCEDURES OF THE WISCONSIN HEARING CONSERVATION PROGRAM DESIGNED TO DETECT HEARING LOSSES AND TO PROVIDE APPROPRIATE REMEDIATION AND FOLLOWUP. (DF)

  4. CB detection and early warning--fusing disparate sensors into the detection process: program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birenzvige, Amnon; Sickenberger, David W.; Reyes, Felix; Underwood, William J.; Reiff, Christian G.; Gonski, David; Fargues, Monique P.; Nelson, Bruce N.

    2003-04-01

    Improved situational awareness is a primary goal for the Objective Force. Knowing where the enemy is and what are the threats to his troops provides the commander with the information he needs to plan his mission and provide his forces with maximum protection from the variety of threats that are present on the battlefield. Sensors play an important role in providing critical information to enhance situational awareness. The sensors that are used on the battlefield include, among others, seismic, acoustic, and cameras in different spectral ranges of the electro-magnetic spectrum. These sensors help track enemy movement and serve as part of an intrusion detection system. Characteristically these sensors are relatively cheap and easy to deploy. Chemical and biological agent detection is currently relegated to sensors that are specifically designed to detect these agents. Many of these sensors are collocated with the troops. By the time alarm is sounded the troops have already been exposed to the agent. In addition, battlefield contaminants frequently interfere with the performance of these sensors and result in false alarms. Since operating in a contaminated environment requires the troops to don protective garments that interfere with their performance we need to reduce false alarms to an absolute minimum. The Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) is currently conducting a study to examine the possibility of detecting chemical and biological weapons as soon as they are deployed. For that purpose we conducted a field test in which the acoustic, seismic and electro-magnetic signatures of conventional and simulated chemical / biological artillery 155mm artillery shells were recorded by an array of corresponding sensors. Initial examination of the data shows a distinct differences in the signatures of these weapons. In this paper we will provide detailed description of the test procedures. We will describe the various sensors used and describe the differences in the signatures generated by the conventional and the (simulated) chemical rounds. This paper will be followed by other papers that will provide more details information gained by the various sensors and describe how fusing the data enhance the reliability of the CB detection process.

  5. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-12-15

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false-positive fractures per image. The accuracy of identifying vertebral end plates, marked by radiologists in a morphometric study, was 76.6% (400/522) and 70.9% (420/592) for cases used for training and those for testing, respectively. We prepared 32 additional fracture cases for a validation test, and we examined the detection accuracy of our computerized method. The sensitivity for these cases was 75% (24/32) at 1.03 (33/32) false-positive fractures per image. Our preliminary results show that the automated computerized scheme for detecting vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs has the potential to assist radiologists in detecting vertebral fractures.

  6. Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening; Proceedings Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented in the conference proceedings are schedule and list of participants, seven major papers, and the newborn hearing screening recommendations of the interdisciplinary conference on newborn hearing and early identification of hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory testing is reviewed by Sanford E. Gerber, and Sheldon B. Korones gives a…

  7. Tactile Aid Usage with Young Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    Five hearing impaired children (2 to 4 years old) were followed longitudinally while using a single channel, vibrotactile aid as a supplement to hearing aids. Standardized language tests (including the Scales of Early Communication Skills for Hearing Impaired Children, the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language, and the Test for Auditory…

  8. 34 CFR 303.411 - Opportunity for a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....413 (i.e., procedures that are consistent with the FERPA hearing requirements in 34 CFR 99.22... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunity for a hearing. 303.411 Section 303.411... Early Intervention Records § 303.411 Opportunity for a hearing. The participating agency must,...

  9. Pyruvate Kinase M2: A Novel Biomarker for the Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Son, Ji Yeon; Kang, Ye Rim; An, Ji Hye; Kwon, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Sub; Moon, Aree; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2016-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) is clinically important. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), are frequently used to diagnose AKI. However, these biomarkers increase only after significant structural damage has occurred. Recent efforts have focused on identification and validation of new noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of AKI, prior to extensive structural damage. Furthermore, AKI biomarkers can provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this complex and heterogeneous disease. Our previous study suggested that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), which is excreted in the urine, is a sensitive biomarker for nephrotoxicity. To appropriately and optimally utilize PKM2 as a biomarker for AKI requires its complete characterization. This review highlights the major studies that have addressed the diagnostic and prognostic predictive power of biomarkers for AKI and assesses the potential usage of PKM2 as an early biomarker for AKI. We summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the role of biomarkers and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AKI. This review will elucidate the biological basis of specific biomarkers that will contribute to improving the early detection and diagnosis of AKI. PMID:26977258

  10. Pyruvate Kinase M2: A Novel Biomarker for the Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Son, Ji Yeon; Kang, Ye Rim; An, Ji Hye; Kwon, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Sub; Moon, Aree; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2016-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) is clinically important. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), are frequently used to diagnose AKI. However, these biomarkers increase only after significant structural damage has occurred. Recent efforts have focused on identification and validation of new noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of AKI, prior to extensive structural damage. Furthermore, AKI biomarkers can provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this complex and heterogeneous disease. Our previous study suggested that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), which is excreted in the urine, is a sensitive biomarker for nephrotoxicity. To appropriately and optimally utilize PKM2 as a biomarker for AKI requires its complete characterization. This review highlights the major studies that have addressed the diagnostic and prognostic predictive power of biomarkers for AKI and assesses the potential usage of PKM2 as an early biomarker for AKI. We summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the role of biomarkers and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AKI. This review will elucidate the biological basis of specific biomarkers that will contribute to improving the early detection and diagnosis of AKI. PMID:26977258

  11. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Hasmeena; Gesthalter, Yaron; Spira, Avrum; Brody, Jerome S.; Steiling, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24840047

  12. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced EWM invasions have negative impacts on native biodiversity, recreational boating, fishing, and other types of aquatic tourism (e.g., Eiswerth et al. 2000). On a broader scale, EWM can also be harmful to man-made aquatic infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams. If an EWM invasion can be detected in an early stage where eradication is still a possibility, many of these negative consequences can be limited or prevented altogether (e.g., Madsen et al. 2002). The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of pure and hybridized EWM DNA using both laboratory and field experiments. We performed a pilot experiment in outdoor tanks to determine the basic functionality and sensitivity of the assay. Following this initial test, we collected field samples from Michigan and Montana lakes with and without known EWM populations. Taken together, our findings suggest that eDNA techniques have potential to be a useful strategy for the early detection of EWM.

  13. Urinary Biomarkers in the Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won K.; Wagener, Gebhard; Zhu, Yanqing; Wang, Shuang; Lee, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Serum creatinine (Scr) does not allow for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). The diagnostic utility of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was evaluated for the early detection of postoperative AKI in a prospective study of 90 adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Designs, setting, participants, & measurements: Urinary KIM-1, NAG, and NGAL were measured at 5 time points for the first 24 h after operation and normalized to the urinary creatinine concentration after cardiac surgery. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were generated and the areas under the curve (AUCs) compared for performance of biomarkers in detection of postoperative AKI. Results: Thirty-six patients developed AKI, defined as an increase in Scr of ≥0.3 mg/dl within 72 h after surgery. The AUCs for KIM-1 to predict AKI immediately and 3 h after operation were 0.68 and 0.65; 0.61 and 0.63 for NAG; and 0.59 and 0.65 for NGAL, respectively. Combining the three biomarkers enhanced the sensitivity of early detection of postoperative AKI compared with individual biomarkers: the AUCs for the three biomarkers combined were 0.75 and 0.78. The performance of combining biomarkers was even better among 16 early postoperative AKI patients with AUCs of 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study support that a combination of urinary biomarkers may allow for early detection of postoperative AKI after cardiac surgery before a rise in Scr. PMID:19406962

  14. Hearing assessment of classical orchestral musicians.

    PubMed

    Kähäri, K R; Axelsson, A; Hellström, P A; Zachau, G

    2001-01-01

    Pure-tone audiometry was performed on 140 classical orchestral musicians employed at the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra and the Gothenburg Opera in Sweden. This report is based on the results from hearing threshold measurements, presented as median audiograms according to gender, age group and instrument group. The results did not show severe hearing losses that could be attributed to exposure to musical noise. However, the study reflects the subjects' present hearing ability status and does not give an answer to the question of future hearing dysfunction. Female musicians were shown to have significantly better hearing thresholds in the high-frequency area than did male musicians. Furthermore, the median pure-tone hearing thresholds for the male musicians displayed a notch configuration at 6 kHz in the left ear, similar that of to noise-induced hearing loss. A small, but in general not significant, difference was detected when comparing the median hearing thresholds between each instrument group. Percussion and woodwind players displayed slightly worse hearing thresholds than did other musicians. Players of large string instruments had the best hearing threshold values. When comparing age groups and gender it was noted that the median hearing thresholds were stable and within 20 dB HL up to the age group of 40-49 years for both females and males. PMID:11330914

  15. Evaluation and Management of Hearing Loss in Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Bass, Johnnie K; Knight, Kristin R; Yock, Torunn I; Chang, Kay W; Cipkala, Douglas; Grewal, Satkiran S

    2016-07-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is common in childhood cancer survivors exposed to platinum chemotherapy and/or cranial radiation and can severely impact quality of life. Early detection and appropriate management can mitigate academic, speech, language, social, and psychological morbidity resulting from hearing deficits. This review is targeted as a resource for providers involved in aftercare of childhood cancers. The goal is to promote early identification of survivors at-risk for HL, appropriate evaluation and interpretation of diagnostic tests, timely referral to an audiologist when indicated, and to increase knowledge of current therapeutic options. PMID:26928933

  16. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, C. A.; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices. PMID:26664695

  17. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  18. A computerized scheme of SARS detection in early stage based on chest image of digital radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhong; Lan, Rihui; Lv, Guozheng

    2004-05-01

    A computerized scheme for early severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) lesion detection in digital chest radiographs is presented in this paper. The total scheme consists of two main parts: the first part is to determine suspect lesions by the theory of locally orderless images(LOI) and their spatial features; the second part is to select real lesions among these suspect ones by their frequent features. The method we used in the second part is firstly developed by Katsuragawa et al with necessary modification. Preliminary results indicate that these features are good criterions to tell early SARS lesions apart from other normal lung structures.

  19. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools for early caries detection by field health care providers working in non-traditional settings are urgently needed to support inter-professional dental health management. Lasers Surg. PMID:26414887

  20. ITIH3 Is a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Poh Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Shia Loh, Marie Chiew; Wang, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yan So, Jimmy Bok; Lim, Khong Hee; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:20515073

  1. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Pearse A; de Salvo, Gabriella; Sim, Dawn A; Goverdhan, Srini; Agrawal, Rupesh; Tufail, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. PMID:25733802

  2. Sensitivity and accuracy of DNA based methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For biomonitoring efforts aimed at early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), the ability to detect rare individuals is key and requires accurate species level identification to maintain a low occurrence probability of non-detection errors (failure to detect a present spe...

  3. BioSense: implementation of a National Early Event Detection and Situational Awareness System.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Colleen A; Rolka, H; Walker, D; Loonsk, J

    2005-08-26

    BioSense is a CDC initiative to support enhanced early detection, quantification, and localization of possible biologic terrorism attacks and other events of public health concern on a national level. The goals of the BioSense initiative are to advance early detection by providing the standards, infrastructure, and data acquisition for near real-time reporting, analytic evaluation and implementation, and early event detection support for state and local public health officials. BioSense collects and analyzes Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs ambulatory clinical diagnoses and procedures and Laboratory Corporation of America laboratory-test orders. The application summarizes and presents analytical results and data visualizations by source, day, and syndrome for each ZIP code, state, and metropolitan area through maps, graphs, and tables. An initial proof of a concept evaluation project was conducted before the system was made available to state and local users in April 2004. User recruitment involved identifying and training BioSense administrators and users from state and local health departments. User support has been an essential component of the implementation and enhancement process. CDC initiated the BioIntelligence Center (BIC) in June 2004 to conduct internal monitoring of BioSense national data daily. BIC staff have supported state and local system monitoring, conducted data anomaly inquiries, and communicated with state and local public health officials. Substantial investments will be made in providing regional, state, and local data for early event detection and situational awareness, test beds for data and algorithm evaluation, detection algorithm development, and data management technologies, while maintaining the focus on state and local public health needs. PMID:16177687

  4. The impact of a dialogic reading program on deaf and hard-of-hearing kindergarten and early primary school-aged students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fung, Pan-Chung; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a special interactive dialogic reading method developed by Whitehurst et al. (1988) on deaf and hard-of-hearing children in Hong Kong. Twenty-eight deaf and hard-of-hearing children in kindergarten, first, or second grade were pretested on a receptive vocabulary test and assigned to one of three conditions, dialogic reading, typical reading, and control, with age and degree of hearing loss matched. After an 8-week intervention, the children were re-tested. The dialogic reading group had a significantly greater improvement in vocabulary scores than did the other two groups. Parent-child interactions of high quality and the use of pictorial materials are likely the key successful factors in the program. The educational value of this intervention is discussed. PMID:15585750

  5. Communication Assessment and Intervention: Implications for Pediatric Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Bobsin, Lori L; Houston, K Todd

    2015-12-01

    Historically, children with hearing loss have fallen well behind their hearing peers in the areas of speech and language development, which has often limited their participation in a range of social, educational, and vocational activities. However, with early identification and appropriate intervention coupled with current hearing technology, children with hearing loss can achieve speech and language milestones at rates commensurate with hearing peers. To attain the best outcomes for these children, an early intervention system that provides thorough and unbiased information to families and allows for the efficient and coordinated efforts of qualified professionals must be present. PMID:26443489

  6. A rapid automatic processing platform for bead label-assisted microarray analysis: application for genetic hearing-loss mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Song, Xiumei; Xiang, Guangxin; Feng, Zhengde; Guo, Hongju; Mei, Danyang; Zhang, Guohao; Wang, Dong; Mitchelson, Keith; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required. PMID:23975388

  7. [Rehabilitative measures in hearing-impaired children].

    PubMed

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P

    1991-12-01

    On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child. PMID:1770955

  8. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  9. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  10. [Subsidizing hearing aid purchase in mild to moderate pediatric hearing--pediatric status following prefectural assembly subvention].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yuko; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Sugaya, Akiko; Maeda, Yukihide; Masuda, Yu; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2011-08-01

    The dissemination of newborn hearing screening (NHS) has enabled those with mild to moderate hearing loss to be diagnosed in early infancy. The "handicapped independence support law", however, prevents those not determined to be physically handicapped; i.e., those with mild to moderate hearing loss-, from government assistance in purchasing hearing aids. This results either in (i) parents purchasing hearing aids at their own expense or (ii) nonpurchase of hearing aids. To redress this situation, subvention in purchasing hearing aids of mild to moderate hearing loss children has been begun by some local governments. We petitioned for such aid at the Okayama Prefecture Assembly. A society for supporting pediatric hearing difficulty in Okayama Prefecture also submitted a similar petition in September 2009, and subvention began in April 2010 for all such children in Okayama Prefecture. We report procedures and details leading to this subvention. PMID:21919310

  11. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jianchao; Sun, Wei

    2008-11-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI. PMID:18255276

  12. Early and Efficient Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum by Microscopic Observation of Broth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kidenya, Benson R.; Kabangila, Rodrick; Peck, Robert N.; Mshana, Stephen E.; Webster, Lauren E.; Koenig, Serena P.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture) in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein–Jensen (LJ) solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB) suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3%) pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3%) versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8%) (p = 0.0007). The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7–13), versus 21 days (IQR 14–28) (p<0.0001). The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive) in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture) is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings. PMID:23469014

  13. Factors influencing the detectability of early warning signals of population collapse.

    PubMed

    Clements, Christopher F; Drake, John M; Griffiths, Jason I; Ozgul, Arpat

    2015-07-01

    The recent description of potentially generic early warning signals is a promising development that may help conservationists to anticipate a population's collapse prior to its occurrence. So far, the majority of such warning signals documented have been in highly controlled laboratory systems or in theoretical models. Data from wild populations, however, are typically restricted both temporally and spatially due to limited monitoring resources and intrinsic ecological heterogeneity-limitations that may affect the detectability of generic early warning signals, as they add additional stochasticity to population abundance estimates. Consequently, spatial and temporal subsampling may serve to either muffle or magnify early warning signals. Using a combination of theoretical models and analysis of experimental data, we evaluate the extent to which statistical warning signs are robust to data corruption. PMID:26098338

  14. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  15. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  16. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  17. Early video smoke detection system to improve fire protection in rolling stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Pilato, Luca; Fanucci, Luca

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a video system, operating in the visible spectrum range, for early smoke detection in passenger trains. The main idea is integrating standard smoke sensors with the results of a smoke detection processing, which exploits video surveillance cameras already available on-board the train. To this aim a novel video processing flow is proposed exploiting temporal, spatial and chromatic characteristics of the reference scenario. The proposed algorithm has been successfully verified with several video set and its implementation complexity fully characterized.

  18. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  19. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  20. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using histograms in a dissimilarity-based classification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtenberg, Anne; Simões, Rita; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2014-03-01

    Classification methods have been proposed to detect early-stage Alzheimer's disease using Magnetic Resonance images. In particular, dissimilarity-based classification has been applied using a deformation-based distance measure. However, such approach is not only computationally expensive but it also considers large-scale alterations in the brain only. In this work, we propose the use of image histogram distance measures, determined both globally and locally, to detect very mild to mild Alzheimer's disease. Using an ensemble of local patches over the entire brain, we obtain an accuracy of 84% (sensitivity 80% and specificity 88%).