Sample records for early life programming

  1. Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Brown, Alan S.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Insel, Thomas R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Reyes, Teresa M.; Simerly, Richard B.; Susser, Ezra S.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, clinical investigators have focused on early life as a source of adult psychopathology. Early theories about psychic conflict and toxic parenting have been replaced by more recent formulations of complex interactions of genes and environment. Although the hypothesized mechanisms have evolved, a central notion remains: early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience confers enduring effects. The mechanisms for these effects remain almost as much a mystery today as they were a century ago. Recent studies suggest that maternal diet can program offspring growth and metabolic pathways, altering lifelong susceptibility to diabetes and obesity. If maternal psychosocial experience has similar programming effects on the developing offspring, one might expect a comparable contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders, including affective disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and eating disorders. Due to their early onset, prevalence, and chronicity, some of these disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are among the highest causes of disability worldwide according to the World Health Organization 2002 report. Consideration of the early life programming and transcriptional regulation in adult exposures supports a critical need to understand epigenetic mechanisms as a critical determinant in disease predisposition. Incorporating the latest insight gained from clinical and epidemiological studies with potential epigenetic mechanisms from basic research, the following review summarizes findings from a workshop on Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders held at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009. PMID:20674602

  2. Programming of the lung by early-life infection.

    PubMed

    Hansbro, P M; Starkey, M R; Kim, R Y; Stevens, R L; Foster, P S; Horvat, J C

    2012-06-01

    Many important human diseases, such as asthma, have their developmental origins in early life. Respiratory infections in particular may alter the course of asthma and may either protect against or promote the development of this disease. It is likely that the nature of the effects depends on the type and age of infection and is determined by the impact of infection on the immune and respiratory systems. Immunity in early life is plastic and can be moulded by antigen encounter, which may enhance or reinforce the asthmatic phenotype of early life, or induce protective responses. Chlamydial respiratory infections have specific effects and may increase asthma severity in early life by promoting systemic interleukin 13 responses and causing permanent changes in lung structure. Respiratory viral infections, such as those of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus, promote pro-asthmatic responses in early life that contribute to the induction of asthma. By contrast, probiotics or infection or exposure to certain bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, may have protective effects in asthma by increasing the numbers and activity of regulatory T cells. Here, we review the impact of infections on the developmental origins of asthma. Understanding these effects may lead to new therapeutic approaches for asthma that either target deleterious infections or utilize beneficial ones. PMID:25102006

  3. Developmental Programming of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Effect of Early Life Nutrition on Susceptibility and Disease Severity in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is fast becoming the most common liver disease globally and parallels rising obesity rates. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis have linked alterations in the early life environment to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in later life. Altered early life nutrition, in addition to increasing risk for the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in offspring, is now associated with an increased risk for the development of NAFLD. This review summarizes emerging research on the developmental programming of NAFLD by both maternal obesity and undernutrition with a particular focus on the possible mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic dysfunction and potential strategies for intervention. PMID:26090409

  4. Adverse effects of nutritional programming during prenatal and early postnatal life, some aspects of regulation and potential prevention and treatments.

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; Hammon, H M; Metges, C C

    2009-10-01

    Nutritional programming, regulation and some ways for prevention/treatment to ameliorate or normalize adverse outcomes of programming are discussed. Epidemiological studies in human and animal experiments showed that nutrition during fetal and neonatal life may lead to related disorders in adulthood. But several argues may question its validity arising the question of the adequate models used to reproduce human situations. Protein level in milk formula intake by infant during neonatal life is discussed. Body weight at birth reflects the product growth trajectory during fetal life. Low birth weight is considered as the result of an adverse growth trajectory and is often associated with later metabolic diseases in adult age. But, the sum of prenatal growth trajectory, rapid growth in early infancy (catch up growth), early adiposity rebound in childhood must be considered to determine the origins of later diseases in adulthood. The review focuses the regulation of nutritional imprinting on hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms which are complementary. The HPA axis and GH-IGF axis may have a crucial role in the regulation induced by nutritional programming. The persistent alterations seem to be a consequence, at least in part, of elevated insulin levels during "critical periods" of pre- and early postnatal development. Also, leptin seems to play an important role in this complex system. New knowledge about these mechanisms involved suggest the development of new, rational, and effective preventive and/or therapeutic options before and/or after birth. Thus, early infancy may provide an opportunity for intervention aimed at reducing later disease risk. PMID:19996479

  5. Development of immunity in early life.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Anu; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2015-06-01

    The immune system in early life goes through rapid and radical changes. Early life is also the period with the highest risk of infections. The foetal immune system is programmed to coexist with foreign antigenic influences in utero, and postnatally to rapidly develop a functional system capable of distinguishing helpful microbes from harmful pathogens. Both host genetics and environmental influences shape this dramatic transition and direct the trajectory of the developing immune system into early childhood and beyond. Given the malleability of the immune system in early life, interventions aimed at modulating this trajectory thus have the potential to translate into considerable reductions in infectious disease burden with immediate as well as long-lasting benefit. However, an improved understanding of the underlying molecular drivers of early life immunity is prerequisite to optimise such interventions and transform the window of early life vulnerability into one of opportunity. PMID:25934325

  6. Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

  7. EARLY-LIFE PREDICTORS OF HUMAN LONGEVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia S. Gavrilova; Leonid A. Gavrilov; Galina N. Evdokushkina; Victoria G. Semyonova

    2001-01-01

    The idea of fetal origins of adult degenerative diseases and early-life programming of late-life health and survival is being actively discussed in the scientific literature. This idea is also important for understanding the historical changes in human lifespan through the mechanism of technophysio evolution as suggested by Robert Fogel and Dora Costa. Can this new fascinating concept also be useful

  8. Early Childhood Programs: Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    This report describes the early childhood education programs of the Des Moines Independent Community School District and provides evaluation of the programs' context, process, and product. Following a preface that includes the city's early childhood philosophy, the first section of the report presents a context evaluation of the programs,…

  9. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:25145270

  10. Consensus statement understanding health and malnutrition through a systems approach: the ENOUGH program for early life.

    PubMed

    Kaput, Jim; van Ommen, Ben; Kremer, Bas; Priami, Corrado; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Morine, Melissa; Pepping, Fre; Diaz, Zoey; Fenech, Michael; He, Yiwu; Albers, Ruud; Drevon, Christian A; Evelo, Chris T; Hancock, Robert E W; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; Lumey, L H; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Muller, Michael; Murgia, Chiara; Radonjic, Marijana; Sobral, Bruno; West, Keith P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum's one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of health and disease processes requiring measurements of physiological processes, as well as environmental and social factors, which may alter the expression of genetic information. Analysis of physiological processes with omics technologies to assess systems' responses has only become available over the past decade and remains costly. Studies of environmental and social conditions known to alter health are often not connected to biomedical research. While these facts are widely accepted, developing and conducting comprehensive research programs for health are often beyond financial and human resources of single research groups. We propose a new research program on essential nutrients for optimal underpinning of growth and health (ENOUGH) that will use systems approaches with more comprehensive measurements and biostatistical analysis of the many biological and environmental factors that influence undernutrition. Creating a knowledge base for nutrition and health is a necessary first step toward developing solutions targeted to different populations in diverse social and physical environments for the two billion undernourished people in developed and developing economies. PMID:24363221

  11. The Early History of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Nisbet; C. M. R. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly

  12. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program—IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)—against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5–13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament, self-worth, social problems with peers). Method Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 1,484). A longitudinal quasi-experimental design (intervention/control) with schoolwise assignment to the respective groups was used. Data were gathered via self-report questionnaire. Two-part growth mixture modeling was applied. Results Two prototypical trajectory classes of early alcohol use were found: a problematic group with a sharp increase in prevalence and quantity of consumed alcohol (19.7%) and a normative group with a moderate increase in both outcomes (80.3%). The problematic trajectory class was associated with several risk factors. IPSY decreased the likelihood of membership in the problematic group. Furthermore, IPSY buffered the increase in prevalence and quantity for the normative group, whereas it had no effects on these indicators for the problematic group. Concerning quantity of alcohol use, the effect size in terms of a difference in estimated means between intervention and control group at the last measurement point in the normative group was d = 0.33 (95% CI [0.21, 0.44]). Conclusions Study findings indicate the usefulness of IPSY for reducing alcohol use especially in normative developing adolescents. However, the minority of adolescents consistently pursuing a problematic developmental pathway of alcohol use seem to be in need of earlier, more tailored treatments. PMID:20515209

  13. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

  14. University Campus Life Programs

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    University Campus Life Programs University Recognized Student Groups Non-recognized Student of Student Life Tax and Legal Compliance Reporting handled through University. Reporting handled through University. Organization is taxable unless it has formally applied to the IRS for tax-exempt status. All

  15. NEW RESEARCH Maternal Early Life Experiences and

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    maltreatment. Diurnal salivary cortisol samples were collected as the measure of hypothalamic- pituitaryNEW RESEARCH Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol­682. Key words: early life experiences, parenting, diurnal cortisol, executive function P arenting

  16. Individualized Early Learning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Margaret C.; And Others

    A description and discussion of the design, development, implementation, evaluation and effects of the Individualized Early Learning Program (IELP) are presented in this paper. Implemented in Project Follow Through and other school settings, the IELP gives priority to teaching basic skills and concepts needed for school performance to children in…

  17. Early Childhood Programs for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    Investments in children during the early years of life are regarded as one of the most effective ways to promote children's learning. This book synthesizes the research base and state of practice of early childhood learning and answers such questions as: What programs are most effective, and who benefits most from them? What are the key components…

  18. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  19. Metabolic Induction and Early Responses of Mouse Blastocyst Developmental Programming following Maternal Low Protein Diet Affecting Life-Long Health

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Judith J.; Porter, Richard; Watkins, Adam J.; Burt, Elizabeth; Brooks, Suzanne; Leese, Henry J.; Humpherson, Peter G.; Cameron, Iain T.; Fleming, Tom P.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD), is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5), notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs) including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery. PMID:23300778

  20. Vilas Life Cycle Professorship Program Jennifer Sheridan

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    --Keys to Success Innovative and popular program Available to both women and men Qualitative evaluation happen Both men and women experience such events, but women are more likely to experience them early.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Women Men Know About Life Cycle Grant Program Climate Survey Data, 2003

  1. Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

  2. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  3. Early Life Influences on Cognition: Lanarkshire 1936 

    E-print Network

    Sherlock, Laura

    2013-07-02

    Aims: Prenatal and early life influences are important in the development of childhood cognitive abilities. Birth weight may be seen as a marker of intrauterine nutrition and has been shown to be correlated with intelligence in childhood. The aims...

  4. Impacts and the Early Evolution of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Zahnle; Norman H. Sleep

    2006-01-01

    The K\\/T event shows that, even today, biospheric cratering is an important process. Impacts were much larger and more frequent\\u000a on the early Earth. In all likelihood impacts posed the greatest challenge to the survival of early life.

  5. The Family & Life Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Mellie R.

    The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

  6. Antibiotics in early life and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition and consequently its metabolic activity, can influence body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth, which is consistent with effects of the microbiota on development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early-life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repressed or promoted growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending its susceptibility to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases, such as obesity and types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25488483

  7. Assembling the Early Puzzle of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    So far no theory, no approach, no set of formulas, and no blackboard scheme have been found satisfactory in explaining the origin of life. The absence of solid experimental evidence is the largest drawback in the theoretical models of early life. Therefore, no one may claim the ultimate model'. At the current level of knowledge, this remains impossible. The theory presented here gathers what I consider the most compelling data into a model based on the principles of hierarchical accretion. The challenge to any hierarchical theory about the origin of life is to organize the early achievements of life in a sequence that is thermodynamically meaningful and provides temporal direction (overall increase in stability and efficiency). Some of the major assumptions of this model are as follows:

  8. Reactor service life extension program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Caskey; R. L. Sindelar; R. S. Ondrejcin; E. W. Baumann

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The

  9. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable conditions are meet. Perhaps it could start in a very short interval during the first tens of millions of years after crustal formation. Even with impact-driven extinction events, such a short start-up time would allow life to restart multiple times until it persevered. If panspermia is considered, life could be introduced as soon as liquid surface water was present and could instantly thrive and spread.

  10. Early Childhood and Family Development Programs Improve the Quality of Life for Low-Income Families. Report to the Congress of the United States by the Comptroller General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report to Congress has been acknowledged by Department of Health, Education and Welfare officials as an accurate and comprehensive view of child development issues in the United States, circa 1979. Chapter 1 lists multi- purposes of the review, recapitulates Congressional interest in early childhood and family development programs, defines…

  11. 76 FR 77537 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Services [CMS-9996-N2] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...availability of funding under the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...that establishes the temporary Early Retiree Reinsurance...

  12. 76 FR 18766 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Services [CMS-9996-N] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...accepting applications for the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...that establishes the temporary Early Retiree Reinsurance...

  13. 77 FR 16551 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Services [CMS-9996-N3] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...sponsors participating in the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...that established the temporary Early Retiree Reinsurance...

  14. Animal Models of Early Life Stress: Implications for Understanding Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    In the mid-1950s, Levine and his colleagues reported that brief intermittent exposure to early life stress diminished indications of subsequent emotionality in rats. Here we review ongoing studies of a similar process in squirrel monkeys. Results from these animal models suggest that brief intermittent exposure to stress promotes the development of arousal regulation and resilience. Implications for programs designed to enhance resilience in human development are discussed. PMID:20175105

  15. Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers for Early Life

    E-print Network

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    ELSEVIER FIN AL PR O O F 8.03 Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers for Early Life J. J. Brocks, MA, USA 8.03.1 INTRODUCTION 64 8.03.2 BIOMARKERS AS MOLECULAR FOSSILS 64 8.03.2.1 The Fate of Dead.03.3 THERMAL STABILITY AND MATURITY OF BIOMARKERS 67 8.03.3.1 Biomarkers as Maturity Indicators 67 8

  16. Antibiotics in early life and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cox, Laura M; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition, and consequently the metabolic activity of the microbiota, can affect the body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth. These effects are consistent with the role of the microbiota during development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repression and promotion of growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending the susceptibility of the microbiota to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25488483

  17. The role of glucocorticoid receptor-dependent activity in the amygdala central nucleus and reversibility of early-life stress programmed behavior.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M G; Pan, M S; Doak, W; Cyr, P E P; Muglia, L M; Muglia, L J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) leads to sustained changes in gene expression and behavior, increasing the likelihood of developing a psychiatric disorder in adulthood. The neurobiological basis for the later-in-life psychopathology is relatively unknown. The current study used a mouse model of ELS, achieved by daily maternal separations during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life, to test the role of amygdalar glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in mediating the persistent increase in risk-taking behaviors. ELS produced a decrease in GR mRNA in the brain, with a notable reduction in the amygdala that was associated with sustained alterations in anxiety, fear and sociability-like behaviors. Lentiviral-mediated restoration of the GR mRNA deficit, specifically within the adult central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), reversed the enduring changes in anxiety and social behavior after ELS. These results provide evidence of lasting changes in CeA GR neural circuitry following ELS and suggest a mechanistic role for GR-regulated processes in the CeA in mediating the lifelong maladaptive behaviors of ELS. We demonstrate that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ELS are reversible later in life and implicate the involvement of CeA GR-dependent activity in the sustained dysregulation of emotion following ELS. PMID:25849981

  18. The role of glucocorticoid receptor-dependent activity in the amygdala central nucleus and reversibility of early-life stress programmed behavior

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, M G; Pan, M S; Doak, W; Cyr, P E P; Muglia, L M; Muglia, L J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) leads to sustained changes in gene expression and behavior, increasing the likelihood of developing a psychiatric disorder in adulthood. The neurobiological basis for the later-in-life psychopathology is relatively unknown. The current study used a mouse model of ELS, achieved by daily maternal separations during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life, to test the role of amygdalar glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in mediating the persistent increase in risk-taking behaviors. ELS produced a decrease in GR mRNA in the brain, with a notable reduction in the amygdala that was associated with sustained alterations in anxiety, fear and sociability-like behaviors. Lentiviral-mediated restoration of the GR mRNA deficit, specifically within the adult central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), reversed the enduring changes in anxiety and social behavior after ELS. These results provide evidence of lasting changes in CeA GR neural circuitry following ELS and suggest a mechanistic role for GR-regulated processes in the CeA in mediating the lifelong maladaptive behaviors of ELS. We demonstrate that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ELS are reversible later in life and implicate the involvement of CeA GR-dependent activity in the sustained dysregulation of emotion following ELS. PMID:25849981

  19. Early life stress and blood pressure levels in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, H; Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2013-02-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term consequences on adult physiological functions. We studied the long-term effects of separation on blood pressure levels in non-obese subjects who were separated temporarily in childhood from their parents during World War II (WWII). The original clinical study cohort consists of people born during 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland. This substudy includes 1361 non-obese subjects (body mass index <30 kg m(-2)). Of these, 192 (14.1%) had been evacuated abroad during WWII. The remaining subjects served as controls. Blood pressure levels and use of blood pressure medication were studied. The separated subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure values than the non-separated (148.6+21.5 vs 142.2+19.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) in adult life. Those subjects separated in early childhood had markedly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in adult life compared with the non-separated (154.6 vs 142.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-14.7; P<0.005 and 90.8 vs 87.7 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.0-7.3; P<0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was also higher in the group separated for a duration of <1 year (151.7 vs 142.2 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.0-12.4; P<0.05) compared with the non-separated. Besides being separated, age at separation and duration of separation also influenced blood pressure levels in adult life. This could be due to early hormonal and metabolic programming, during plastic periods in early life, influencing blood pressure levels in adult life. PMID:22336905

  20. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  1. The future is now: early life events preset adult behaviour.

    PubMed

    Patchev, A V; Rodrigues, A J; Sousa, N; Spengler, D; Almeida, O F X

    2014-01-01

    To consider the evidence that human and animal behaviours are epigenetically programmed by lifetime experiences. Extensive PubMed searches were carried out to gain a broad view of the topic, in particular from the perspective of human psychopathologies such as mood and anxiety disorders. The selected literature cited is complemented by previously unpublished data from the authors' laboratories. Evidence that physiological and behavioural functions are particularly sensitive to the programming effects of environmental factors such as stress and nutrition during early life, and perhaps at later stages of life, is reviewed and extended. Definition of stimulus- and function-specific critical periods of programmability together with deeper understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation will deliver greater appreciation of the full potential of the brain's plasticity while providing evidence-based social, psychological and pharmacological interventions to promote lifetime well-being. PMID:23790203

  2. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the case of the North Pole Chert huge barite growths, are juxtaposed with the otherwise generally low-energy sediments. Such localities are interpreted as sites of hydrothermal vents. Within this large-scale geological context, many environments on the micro-scale were habitable for life, such as hydrothermal vents and their vicinities, volcanic rock surfaces, subsurface sediments and sediment surfaces. These early collapse basins, hosting this bacterial life, are only partially comparable to Earthly analogues. A resemblance with Venus' coronae and the chaos terranes on Mars is suggested. This study forms part of an international project on Earth's Earliest Sedimentary Basins, supported by the Dutch Foundation Dr. Schürmannfonds. 2

  3. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life. PMID:25799941

  4. GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

  5. Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

  6. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  7. SENSITIVITY OF RAINBOW TROUT EARLY LIFE STAGES TO NICKEL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four early life stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two early life stage tests were star...

  8. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew Aaron; van Haren, Simon Daniël; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at term delivery than in adults, and lower still at preterm delivery. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ontogeny of plasma factors can be viewed in the context of a lower effectiveness of immune responses to infection and immunization in early life, which may be influenced by the striking neonatal deficiency of complement system proteins or enhanced neonatal production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, among other ontogenic differences. Accordingly, we survey here a number of soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function, particularly direct innate interaction and skewing of adaptive lymphocyte activity in response to infectious microorganisms and adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:25309541

  9. Space life support engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a moon station or a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance work stations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

  10. Space life support engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the first six months of work performed under the NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on two topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance workstations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

  11. Alteration of somatosensory response in adulthood by early life stress

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuru, Yusuke; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is well-known as a critical risk factor for mental and cognitive disorders in adulthood. Such disorders are accompanied by altered neuro- (synapto-) genesis and gene expression. Because psychosomatic disorders induced by early life stress (e.g., physical and/or sexual abuse, and neglect) have become a socio-economic problem, it is very important to clarify the mechanisms underlying these changes. However, despite of intensive clinical and animal studies, such mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Although the disturbance of glucocorticoid and glutamate homeostasis by stress has been well-documented, it has not yet been clarified whether such disturbance by early life stress persists for life. Furthermore, since previous studies have focused on the detection of changes in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, it has not been clarified whether early life stress induced changes in the sensory/motor system. Thus, in this review, we introduce recent studies on functional/structural changes in the somatosensory cortex induced by early life stress. We believe that this review provides new insights into the functional alteration of the somatosensory system induced by early life stress. Such information may have clinical relevance in terms of providing effective therapeutic interventions to early life stressed individuals. PMID:26041988

  12. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  13. Quality in Early Childhood Programs: Reflections from Program Evaluation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin-Hee; Walsh, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how program evaluation has contributed to the definition of quality in early childhood programs and what social and cultural conditions have influenced these definitions. First, a review of evaluation reports from the last 3 decades identified three types of quality used to evaluate early childhood programs: (a)…

  14. The Delaware Department of Correction Life Skills Program. Program Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    Since 1993, the Delaware Department of Correction has offered a Life Skills Program in its four state prisons. Each year, as many as 300 inmates (of the 5,000 housed inmates) enroll in the program, and nearly 85 percent of them graduate. The 4-month program has three major components: academics, violence reduction, and applied life skills. The…

  15. Maternal and early life stress effects on immune function: relevance to immunotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Denise L; Lubahn, Cheri; Lorton, Dianne

    2008-10-01

    Stress is triggered by a variety of unexpected environmental stimuli, such as aggressive behavior, fear, forced physical activity, sudden environmental changes, social isolation or pathological conditions. Stressful experiences during very early life (particularly, maternal stress during fetal ontogeny) can permanently alter the responsiveness of the nervous system, an effect called programming or imprinting. Programming affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, brain neurotransmitter systems, sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the cognitive abilities of the offspring, which can alter neural regulation of immune function. Prenatal or early life stress may contribute to the maladaptive immune responses to stress that occur later in life. This review focuses on the effect of maternal and early life stress on immune function in the offspring across life span. It highlights potential mechanisms by which prenatal stress impacts immune functions over life span. The literature discussed in this review suggests that psychosocial stress during pre- and early postnatal life may increase the vulnerability of infants to the effects of immunotoxicants or immune-mediated diseases, with long-term consequences. Neural-immune interactions may provide an indirect route through which immunotoxicants affect the developing immune system. A developmental approach to understanding how immunotoxicants interact with maternal and early life stress-induced changes in immunity is needed, because as the body changes physiologically across life span so do the effects of stress and immunotoxicants. In early and late life, the immune system is more vulnerable to the effects of stress. Stress can mimic the effects of aging and exacerbate age-related changes in immune function. This is important because immune dysregulation in the elderly is more frequently and seriously associated with clinical impairment and death. Aging, exposure to teratogens, and psychological stress interact to increase vulnerability and put the elderly at the greatest risk for disease. PMID:19404876

  16. The Timing of Early-Life Health Disadvantage

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Margot I.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence: The Impact of School Structure, Puberty and Early Dating on Self-Esteem. ”adolescence, and find that children who face “multiple life events” in the transition to seventh grade experience lower self-esteem

  17. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  18. Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

  19. Life Management Skills. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a life management skills program. Program content is presented first. A curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content, laboratory activities, special notes, major course…

  20. Early quality of life benefits of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Guo; Marsha Wolfson; Robert Holt

    2002-01-01

    Early quality of life benefits of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis.BackgroundThe impact of new therapies on patient quality of life (QOL) is emerging as an important indicator of the value of these therapies. In patients on dialysis, previous QOL evaluations have focused mainly on comparative approaches between modalities, or on longitudinal trends within a modality, but few have evaluated technical innovations

  1. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Hamers, Timo; van Eck van der Sluijs-van de Bor, Margot; Schoeters, Greet; van der Ven, Leo; Eggesbo, Merete; Koppe, Janna; Feinberg, Max; Trnovec, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life). OBELIX is a 4-y project that started in May 2009 and which has the following 5 main objectives: 1) to assess early life exposure in humans to major classes of EDCs identified as potential inducers of obesity (ie, dioxin-like compounds, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds) by using mother-child cohorts from 4 European regions with different food-contaminant exposure patterns; 2) to relate early life exposure to EDCs with clinical markers, novel biomarkers, and health-effect data related to obesity; 3) to perform hazard characterization of early life exposure to EDCs for the development of obesity later in life by using a mouse model; 4) to determine mechanisms of action of obesogenic EDCs on developmental programming with in vivo and in vitro genomics and epigenetic analyses; and 5) to perform risk assessments of prenatal exposure to obesogenic EDCs in food by integrating maternal exposure through food-contaminant exposure and health-effect data in children and hazard data in animal studies. PMID:21543539

  2. Early-life estrogens and prostate cancer in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Prins, G. S.; Ho, S.-M.

    2014-01-01

    While early-life estrogens are thought to play a physiologic role in prostate gland development, inappropriate estrogenic exposures either in dose, type or temporally can reprogram the prostate gland and increase susceptibility to abnormal prostate growth with aging including carcinogenesis. This review discusses the evidence for developmental estrogenic reprogramming that leads to adult prostate disease in a rat model. We propose that estrogen imprinting of the prostate is mediated through both structural reorganization of the gland early in life and epigenomic reprogramming that permits life-long memory of the inappropriate developmental exposures including heightened sensitivity to rising estradiol levels with aging. Complex interactions between early epigenetic programming and later-life experiences results in an emergence of multiple epigenomic outcomes, with some contributing to carcinogenesis with aging. PMID:24795802

  3. Conway's Game of Life: Early Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Robert

    When the October 1970 issue of Scientific American arrived, I had no idea the extent to which Martin Gardner's article in that issue would affect my life. As long as I can remember, my custom would be to seek out the Mathematical Games column in search for Gardner's latest topic with the usual reader challenges. My first reaction to that particular article introducing a new pastime titled "The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game 'life''' was only mildly interesting. A couple of days later, still curious about the outcome of random patterns, I located an old checkerboard and a small jarful of pennies to investigate this new game.

  4. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

  5. Reduced cortical thickness in veterans exposed to early life trauma.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2014-08-30

    Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. PMID:24862391

  6. Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

  7. HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

  8. The habitat and nature of early life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Nisbet; N. H. Sleep

    2001-01-01

    Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500–700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 °C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years

  9. Assessing Early Intervention Outcomes: Beyond Program Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Kofi; Dinero, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that efficacy of early intervention must be assessed in relation to both program and extra-program variables. A framework outlining five classes of independent variables and two classes of outcomes to be considered in efficacy research is presented, and regression and path analytic techniques are suggested as tools for addressing…

  10. The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3?years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

  11. The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Southam, G.

    Although the locations where the earliest traces of life can be studied are few and far between (Isua, 3.8 Ga; Pilbara and Barberton, 3.5-3.3 Ga), the life that existed in the Early Archaean life has left a wealth of testimony. Structural and chemical fossils found in Early Arcahean `habitats' demonstrate that the biosphere was already in an advanced evolutionary state, i.e., much of the strata preserved from this period appears to have been colonised by morphologically and biochemically diverse bacteria. The Early-Mid Archaean microorganisms were morphologically similar to modern organisms and behaved in the same way, building colonies, biofilms and mats and interacting directly with their immediate substrate and with each other (in consortia). Their metabolic processes included chemolithotrophy, possibly methanogenesis and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Early life was diverse and included thermophilic, acid-tolerant, halo-tolerant to halophilic, and radiation resistant species. With one exception, the traces of early life are subtle, on the scale of tens to hundreds of µm although, where environmental conditions were stable and quiet enough for their development, microbial mats on sediment surfaces could contribute to the formation of stromatolites of about 10 cm in height. The diversity, relative level of evolution and widespread distribution of life by 3.5 Ga implies that it must have evolved much earlier, possibly even before or during the period of late heavy bombardment). However, no record of its appearance and early evolution remains on Earth. Given the conditions on early Mars were generally similar to those on early Earth, i.e., habitable, the Southern Highlands of Mars could potentially host this missing record. Life on early Mars would probably have been similarly subtle in its expression, although there is a possibility of "stumbling" across small macroscopic stromatolites. If life still exists on the planet today, it's in the subsurface and its expression will still be subtle. Westall, F. & Southam, G. 2006. Early life on Earth. AGU Geophys. Monogr., "Archean Geodynamics and Environment"s 164. pp 283-304. Westall, F. et al. 2006. The 3.466 Ga Kitty's Gap Chert, an Early Archaean microbial ecosystem. In Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec Pub., Processes on the Early Earth 405, 105-131. 1 Allwood, A. et al., 2006. Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Australia. Nature, 441, 714-718. 2

  12. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-03-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change. PMID:22404764

  13. Early Earth and early life: an extreme environment and extremophiles - application to the search for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, Frances; Brack, André; Barbier, Bernard; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, A.

    2002-11-01

    The early Earth was an extreme environment compared to the present day Earth: oceans with probably higher salinity and lower Ph, evaporitic conditions in the littoral environment, temperatures 70-80°C, little or no O2 in the atmosphere, pervasive volcanism and hydrothermal activity, and peak bolide activity between 4.0-3.85 b.y. ago. The oldest fossil evidence from 3.45 b.y. old sediments shows that life was widespread and thriving in and around hydrothermal vents and in evaporitic, littoral environments, exposed to high UV radiation. Given these conditions, life must have been extremophile by definition. Although there are strong dissimilarities between the geological evolution of early Mars and early Earth, from a microbial point of view, the environmental conditions on both planets were very similar, although the wider range in temperatures on Mars may have made a wider diversity possible. Early Earth and early life therefore represent an excellent analogue for the study of potential early Martian life.

  14. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Holgate, Joan Y; Bartlett, Selena E

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual's brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD. PMID:26136145

  15. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Claire L.; Wood, Alexander M.; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth. PMID:23662104

  16. The evolutionary pattern of early life history in water currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinya Nishimura; Noboru Hoshino

    2009-01-01

    Explanation of the characteristics of the early developmental stage of organisms is an important problem in evolutionary biology.\\u000a In studies to date, evolutionary biologists have proposed some theories that successfully explain egg size variation. Mesoscale\\u000a water movements may transport early life stage organisms in the aquatic biosphere. We propose a novel biological view to explain\\u000a the duration of the retention

  17. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  18. Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and the Prevalence of Breast Cancer in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anishkin, Andriy; Shen, Yifang

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms linking early-life social environment and breast cancer remains limited. We explore direct and indirect effects of early-life socioeconomic status (SES) on breast cancer prevalence in later life. Using 50-year data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 4,275) and structural equation modeling, we found a negative direct effect of early-life SES, indicating that women from higher-SES family background had lower breast cancer prevalence than women from lower-SES families. Additionally, early-life SES has a positive indirect effect on breast cancer via women's adult SES and age at first birth. Were it not for their higher SES in adulthood and delayed childbearing, women from higher-SES families of origin would have had lower breast cancer prevalence than women from lower-SES families. Yet, early-life SES is associated positively with adult SES and age at first birth, and women's higher adult SES and delayed childbearing are related to higher breast cancer prevalence. PMID:22936839

  19. Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and Mortality in Later Life: An Integration of Four Life-Course Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we examine (a) how socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 affects all-cause mortality at ages 54–72, and (b) whether the effect of early-life SES is consistent with the critical period, accumulation of risks, social mobility, and pathway models. We also explore gender differences in the effect of early-life SES and life-course mechanisms. Method. Participants (N = 6,547) were surveyed in 1957, 1975, and 1993, with vital status established until 2011. We combine discrete-time survival analysis with structural equation modeling. SES and health behaviors are modeled as latent factors. Results. Early-life SES affects mortality indirectly via status attainment and health behaviors in adulthood and midlife. This finding is contrary to the critical period and consistent with the pathway model. Persistent disadvantage at three life stages is a strong risk factor for mortality, thus, supporting the accumulation of risks. Moreover, the mortality risk of individuals who experienced downward socioeconomic mobility is comparable to their peers with persistent disadvantage. Discussion. This study highlights the complexity of interrelated life-course processes underlying the effect of early-life SES on mortality in later life. PMID:24496607

  20. Spawning,egg development, and early life history dynamics

    E-print Network

    stomias) in the Gulf of Alaska Deborah M.Blood Ann C.Matarese Morgan S.Busby NOAA Professional Paper NMFS. Matarese Morgan S. Busby May 2007 U.S.Department of Commerce Seattle,Washington #12;Suggested reference Blood, Deborah M., Ann C. Matarese, and Morgan S. Busby. 2007. Spawning, egg development, and early life

  1. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  2. Epigenetic changes in early life and future risk of obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K A Lillycrop; G C Burdge

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase in incidence of obesity over the past two decades cannot be explained solely by genetic and adult lifestyle factors. There is now considerable evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments also strongly influence the risk of developing obesity in later life. Initially, human studies showed that low birth weight was associated with an increased risk of

  3. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  4. Genetic regulation of immune responses to vaccines in early life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Newport; T Goetghebuer; H A Weiss; H Whittle; C-A Siegrist; A Marchant

    2004-01-01

    Infant immunization is the most cost-effective strategy to prevent infectious diseases in childhood, but is limited by immaturity of the immune system. To define strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life, the role of genetic and environmental factors in the control of vaccine responses in infant twins was studied. Immune responses to BCG, polio, hepatitis B, diphtheria, pertussis and

  5. Evaluating the Early College Incentive Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddick, Jan

    To address the lack of academic and social preparation that many rural Alaskans have when they first arrive at college, in 1985 Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska) initiated the Early College Incentive Program (ECIP) to expose junior high students to college learning and living requirements, reduce cultural shock (Sheldon Jackson's student…

  6. Early adult antecedents of life satisfaction at age 70.

    PubMed

    Mussen, P; Honzik, M P; Eichorn, D H

    1982-05-01

    Association between Life Satisfaction Ratings at about age 70 and cognitive, personality, interpersonal, and family characteristics in early adulthood are examined using data from the Guidance Study at the University of California, Berkeley. When the parents of participants in that study were in their early 30s, the mothers were rated on 15 cognitive and personality characteristics and both parents were rated on personal, interpersonal, and family variables. Approximately 40 years later, the surviving parents were interviewed intensively and assigned Life Satisfaction Ratings, For both sexes, certain traits of their own at 30 are correlated with life satisfaction at 70. The predictive characteristics for women reflect a buoyant, responsive attitude toward life; those for men represent emotional and physical health. For a woman, the material relationship and some of her circumstances at 30 were also predictive, but her husband's traits were for the most part unrelated to her satisfaction with life at 70. For men, in contrast, characteristics of their wives indicative of emotional stability were even more highly predictive of their life satisfaction at 70 than were their own traits at 30. PMID:7069155

  7. Excess nutrient supply in early life and its later metabolic consequences.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shalini; Saroha, Vivek; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2013-11-01

    Suboptimal nutrition in early life, both in utero and during infancy, is linked to increased risk of adult obesity and its associated adverse metabolic health problems. Excess nutrient supply during early life can lead to metabolic programming in the offspring. Such overnutrition can occur in the offspring of obese mothers, the offspring of mothers who gain excess weight during gestation, infants of diabetic mothers and infants who undergo rapid growth, particularly weight gain, during early infancy. Postnatal overnutrition is particularly detrimental for infants who are born small for gestational age, who are overfed to attain 'catch-up growth'. Potential mechanisms underlying metabolic programming that results from excess nutrition during early life include resetting of hypothalamic energy sensing and appetite regulation, altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and impaired brown adipose tissue function. More detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in metabolic programming could enable the development of therapeutic strategies for ameliorating its ill effects. Research in this field could potentially identify optimal and appropriate preventative interventions for a burgeoning population at risk of increased mortality and morbidity from obesity and its concomitant metabolic conditions. PMID:23350968

  8. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  9. Low early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid and increased

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elementsLow early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid of life. One mechanistic hypoth- esis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life

  10. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life

  11. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life’s early emergence on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, David S.; Turner, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth’s history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766

  12. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:25327140

  13. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  14. Early life circumstances and their impact on menarche and menopause

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gita D; Cooper, Rachel; Tom, Sarah E; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Ages at menarche and menopause have been shown to be associated with adverse health outcomes in later life. For example, earlier menarche and later menopause have been independently linked to higher risk of breast cancer. Earlier menarche may also be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, menstrual problems and adult obesity. Given the associations of ages at menarche and menopause with future health outcomes, it is important to establish what factors across life, and generations, may influence these. This article examines the associations of early life factors, namely birthweight, bodyweight and growth during childhood, childhood socioeconomic circumstances and psychosocial factors with ages at menarche and menopause. It examines possible explanations of the associations found, including life history theory, and discusses areas for future research. PMID:19245355

  15. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function. PMID:21697884

  16. Personal Well-Being of Gifted Students Following Participation in an Early College-Entrance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boazman, Janette; Sayler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this study, life satisfaction and its correlates were explored through analysis of the experiences and psychological traits of highly gifted students who were accelerated into an early college-entrance program. Happiness, fulfillment in life, assuredness, and good dispositions are constructs that point toward positive character development and…

  17. Fire and Life Safety Program Environmental Health and Safety Services

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    Fire and Life Safety Program Environmental Health and Safety Services Fire Safety Division 806 Walter James ­ CFPS, CFI September 24, 2008 1.2 Updated written program #12;FIRE & LIFE SAFETY PROGRAM 12 21 22 #12;FIRE & LIFE SAFETY PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS v Pyrotechnics/Fireworks Permits

  18. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW). We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test) when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20920223

  19. DNA Methylation as a Risk Factor in the Effects of Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kinnally, Erin L.; Feinberg, Caroline; Kim, David; Ferguson, Kerel; Leibel, Rudolph; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mann, J. John

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic marks (eg, DNA 5-methylcytosine [5mC] content or CpG methylation) within specific gene regulatory regions have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in stress adaptation and resulting health trajectories following early adversity. Yet the developmental programming of the vast majority of the epigenome has not yet been characterized, and its role in the impact of early stress largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among early life stress, whole-epigenome and candidate stress pathway gene (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT) methylation patterns, and adult behavioral stress adaptation in a non-human primate model. Early in life, experimental variable foraging demand (VFD) stress or control conditions were administered to two groups each of 10 female bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) and their mothers. As adults (3–13 years of age), these females were assessed for behavioral adaptation to stress across four conditions of increasing intensity. Blood DNA 5-HTT 5mC status was determined using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and total 5mC content was determined using ELISA. Neither stress reactivity nor DNA methylation differed based on early life stress. However, we found that both greater 5-HTT and whole-genome 5mC was associated with enhanced behavioral stress reactivity following early life stress, but not control conditions. Therefore, regardless of developmental origin, greater DNA methylation conferred a genomic background of “risk” in the context of early stress. We suggest that this may arise from constrained plasticity in gene expression needed for stress adaptation early in development. This risk may have wider implications for psychological and physical stress adaptation and health. PMID:21600281

  20. DNA methylation as a risk factor in the effects of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Kinnally, Erin L; Feinberg, Caroline; Kim, David; Ferguson, Kerel; Leibel, Rudolph; Coplan, Jeremy D; John Mann, J

    2011-11-01

    Epigenetic marks (e.g., DNA 5-methylcytosine [5mC] content or CpG methylation) within specific gene regulatory regions have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in stress adaptation and resulting health trajectories following early adversity. Yet the developmental programming of the vast majority of the epigenome has not yet been characterized, and its role in the impact of early stress largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among early life stress, whole-epigenome and candidate stress pathway gene (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT) methylation patterns, and adult behavioral stress adaptation in a non-human primate model. Early in life, experimental variable foraging demand (VFD) stress or control conditions were administered to two groups each of 10 female bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) and their mothers. As adults (3-13 years of age), these females were assessed for behavioral adaptation to stress across four conditions of increasing intensity. Blood DNA 5-HTT 5mC status was determined using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and total 5mC content was determined using ELISA. Neither stress reactivity nor DNA methylation differed based on early life stress. However, we found that both greater 5-HTT and whole-genome 5mC was associated with enhanced behavioral stress reactivity following early life stress, but not control conditions. Therefore, regardless of developmental origin, greater DNA methylation conferred a genomic background of "risk" in the context of early stress. We suggest that this may arise from constrained plasticity in gene expression needed for stress adaptation early in development. This risk may have wider implications for psychological and physical stress adaptation and health. PMID:21600281

  1. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  2. NASA's space life sciences training program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-08-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  3. NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  4. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo preventivo fondamentale sin dall’epoca prenatale e nelle diverse età della crescita. La condizione metabolica e neuro-endocrino cui è sottoposto il feto è rilevante per la “programmazione metabolica”. E’ dimostrata inoltre l’importanza delle modalità di allattamento e divezzamento con particolare interesse per l’assunzione di proteine nel controllo dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari. La corretta distribuzione di macronutrienti (lipidi, proteine e carboidrati) dall’infanzia all’adolescenza favorisce una crescita corretta e risulta utile a prevenire l’insorgenza dei determinanti di rischio di malattia cardiovascolare in età adulta. Nella presente review verrà esaminato l’impatto della nutrizione dalle più precoci fasi delle vita sul rischio cardiovascolare. PMID:23259704

  5. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children. PMID:25388499

  6. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  7. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  8. Phenotypic plasticity early in life constrains developmental responses later.

    PubMed

    Weinig, C; Delph, L F

    2001-05-01

    Plastic stem-elongation responses to the ratio of red:far-red (R:FR) wavelengths enable plants to match their phenotype to local competitive conditions. However, elongation responses early in the life history may occur at the cost of reduced plasticity later in the life history, because elongation influences both allocation patterns and structural integrity. A common-garden experiment was performed to test whether seedling responses to R:FR affect biomass allocation. biomass accumulation, and subsequent plasticity to the cue. Seedlings of Abutilon theophrasti were stimulated to elongate by low R:FR treatments, and subsequent growth and plasticity was compared with nonelongated individuals. Elongated seedlings were less responsive than nonelongated ones to a second bout of low R:FR. Thus, seedling plasticity to R:FR reduces subsequent responsiveness to this cue. This negative association across life-history stages suggests an important constraint on the evolution of plastic stem responses, because selection in A. theophrasti has previously been shown to favor increases in early elongation in combination with increased later elongation. The reduced responsiveness of elongated seedlings to R:FR appeared to result from a structural feedback mechanism, indicating that the opportunity cost of early responses may be lower in environments providing structural support. PMID:11430653

  9. Early life stress paradigms in rodents: potential animal models of depression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias V. Schmidt; Xiao-Dong Wang; Onno C. Meijer

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  While human depressive illness is indeed uniquely human, many of its symptoms may be modeled in rodents. Based on human etiology,\\u000a the assumption has been made that depression-like behavior in rats and mice can be modulated by some of the powerful early\\u000a life programming effects that are known to occur after manipulations in the first weeks of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Here we

  10. Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

  11. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth D George; Kelly A Bordner; Hani M Elwafi; Arthur A Simen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects.

  12. Early life exposure to air pollution induces adult cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D; Youtz, Dane J; Sun, Qinghua; Wold, Loren E

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether early life exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 ?g/m(3) from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 ?l FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 ?l PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 ?l/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 ?l/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (-9,203 ± 235 ?l/s FA, -7,045 ± 189 ?l/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (?, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to ?-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of early life exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular diseases and the potential for PM2.5 to induce persistent cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. PMID:25172901

  13. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...General Provisions § 303.11 Early intervention program. As used in this...

  14. Hospital Elder Life Program Important Support for Senior Patients

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    hospital staff and HELP volunteers will be happy to provide additional information and assistance. #12Hospital Elder Life Program Important Support for Senior Patients and Family Members. #12;Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) The Hospital Elder Life Program at Highland Hospital provides specialized care

  15. Early Life Stage Mortality Rates of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the early life history of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens is critical for rehabilitation of this species. Recruitment of lake sturgeon is known to be variable, but the extent of that variation and mortality rates experienced by early life stages are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify early life stage mortality and explore the

  16. End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

    2010-01-01

    A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life

  17. Early Childhood Conditions and Life Expectancy: Evidence from Japanese American Internment*

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    1 Early Childhood Conditions and Life Expectancy: Evidence from Japanese American Internment internment during early childhood affected the life expectancy of male internees. Using un-interned Japanese the first four years of life decreased life expectancy by about two years. Furthermore, internees from low

  18. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  19. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B.; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  20. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-06-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  1. Early-life experience, epigenetics, and the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent-offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  2. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Kober, Olivia I.; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  3. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  4. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  5. Planetary Perspective on Life on Early Mars and the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Zahnle, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of early life on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.

  6. Early life circumstances as contributors to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. Using qualitative data, we illustrated how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting, sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. Five representative cases from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16-24) who participated in a study about the disease-related adaptive challenges they faced are discussed. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with the disease. The findings revealed that these young women's unmet need for love, protection, and feeling valued left them vulnerable to exploitive relationships with men who were often significantly older and resulted in their HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  7. Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  8. Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory. PMID:25489493

  9. Early-life stress impacts the developing hippocampus and primes seizure occurrence: cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed. PMID:24574961

  10. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Benner, Seico; Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2015-01-01

    Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED), and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior. PMID:25873851

  11. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Early Life Trauma and Attachment: Immediate and Enduring Effects on Neurobehavioral and Stress Axis Development

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother–infant interactions. This stimulation provides “hidden regulators” of pups’ behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

  13. Early life trauma and attachment: immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups' sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides "hidden regulators" of pups' behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups' immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups' immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

  14. Early life environmental predictors of asthma age-of-onset.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Olivia R; Duffy, David L; Ferreira, Manuel A R

    2014-11-01

    Prevention strategies that delay the onset of asthma may improve clinical outcomes. To identify early life environmental exposures associated with asthma age-of-onset and potential genetic modifiers of these exposures, we studied 1085 subjects with physician-diagnosed asthma and disease onset at or after age two. Subjects reported retrospectively on their exposure to 17 environmental factors before the age of two. The presence of individual or combinations of these early life exposures was then tested for association with variation in asthma age-of-onset. For exposures significantly associated with age-of-onset, we tested if 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with an established association with allergic disease significantly modified the effect of the exposure. Five environmental exposures were significantly associated with variation in asthma age-of-onset after correction for multiple testing: carpet at home (P?=?6?×?10(-5)), a serious chest illness (P?=?10(-4)), father a cigarette smoker (P?=?6?×?10(-4)) and direct exposure to father's smoking (P?=?3?×?10(-4)). Individuals with early childhood asthma onset, between the ages of two and six, were 1.4-fold (CI 1.1-1.9) more likely to report having lived in a house with carpet and 2.1-fold (CI 1.3-3.5) more likely to report suffering a serious chest illness before the age of two, than asthmatics with later disease onset. We further found these individual risks to increase to 3.2-fold (CI 1.7-6.0) if carpet exposure and suffering a serious chest illness co-occurred before age two. Paternal smoking exposures were less likely to be reported by asthmatics with early when compared to later disease onset (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.7). There were no significant SNP interactions with these environmental exposures after correction for multiple testing. Our results suggest that disease onset in individuals at a high-risk of developing asthma can potentially be delayed by avoiding exposure to carpet at home and preventing serious chest illnesses during the first 2 years of life. PMID:25505548

  15. Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

  16. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…

  17. Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce S. McEwen

    2008-01-01

    Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire life span and influencing brain function, behavior, and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called “epigenetics” as well as the role of

  18. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  19. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  20. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that ‘stout’ body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

  1. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  2. Early-Life Exposure to Substance Abuse and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, A M

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic non-communicable disease that is driven by insulin resistance as a result of increasing obesity and decreasing activity levels that occur with increasing age. This disease generally develops after the age of 40, but it is now increasingly diagnosed in children and young adults. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that T2D can originate during early development. It has been repeatedly found that malnutrition during the gestational period can result in intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight, which in combination with postnatal catch-up growth may subsequently lead to the development of T2D. There is ample evidence that T2D may also be programmed by maternal substance abuse (the harmful use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs or alcohol) during pregnancy and/or lactation. The research activity in this field is currently mainly focused on the childhood health problems following prenatal exposures to substance abuse. The delayed programming effects on adult-onset disorders, including metabolic syndrome and T2D, however, have been reported only rarely. This review provides animal and human evidence that early-life exposure to substance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, may program not only childhood health outcomes but also life-long metabolic health status, including risk of T2D and related conditions. PMID:26077016

  3. The LIFE program: a wellness approach to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Picano, James; Epperly, Ted; Myer, Stephanie

    2006-11-01

    The LIFE (lifestyle change, individual readiness, fitness excellence, eating healthy) wellness program was an intensive, out-patient, healthy lifestyle change program with participants from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Our objective was to describe the LIFE program and to present before and after test results for this 1-year program. Fifty-three participants completed the 5-day intensive outpatient and 1-year follow-up program and maintained average weight losses of >10 pounds and 14 pounds for men and women, respectively. Most of the weight loss occurred by 6 months. Participants who completed the program also showed increases in healthy eating attitudes, well-being, and overall quality of life. The LIFE change model has implications for improved service retention, health, and overall quality of life or patient evidence that matters (POEMS). The program is both portable and flexible and can be tailored to the demands of the dynamic military environment. PMID:17153547

  4. Early-Life Stress and Neurometabolites of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) – an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity – using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N = 10) or control rearing conditions (N = 9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

  5. Early-life stress and neurometabolites of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Jeremy D; Mathew, Sanjay J; Abdallah, Chadi G; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G; Smith, Eric L P; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Perera, Tarique D; Dwork, Andrew J; Hof, Patrick R; Gorman, Jack M; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2010-10-28

    We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)-an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity-using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N=10) or control rearing conditions (N=9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

  6. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  7. Evidence-Based Practices and Programs for Early Childhood Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groark, Christina J., Ed.; Mehaffie, Kelly E., Ed.; McCall, Robert, Ed.; Greenberg, Mark T., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    School and district administrators, as well as policymakers, are increasingly recognizing that early education and intervention services for young children have a direct and positive impact on later school performance and quality of life. But which programs and services should be operated and funded? To answer that question, this book highlights…

  8. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    -life conditions, no study on humans has demonstrated the predicted fitness benefit under low later-life nutrition of metabolic diseases. developmental plasticity | silver spoon | human life-history | DoHAD Nutrition duringInfluence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine

  9. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

  10. First Principles for Early Grades Reading Programs in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathy; Strickland, Dorothy; Haase, Janeen; Malik, Sakil

    2009-01-01

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) program is an oral assessment designed to measure the most basic foundation skills for literacy acquisition in the early grades. EGRA's purpose is to document student performance on early grade reading skills in order to inform ministries…

  11. Who Drops Out of Early Head Start Home Visiting Programs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Roggman; Gina A. Cook; Carla A. Peterson; Helen H. Raikes

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Early Head Start home-based programs provide services through weekly home visits to families with children up to age 3, but families vary in how long they remain enrolled. In this study of 564 families in home-based Early Head Start programs, “dropping out” was predicted by specific variations in home visits and certain family characteristics. It also was negatively

  12. Early Head Start Relationships: Association with Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…

  13. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  14. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11?-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be addressed. PMID:24860550

  15. Inflammation and Early-Life Abuse in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse in childhood and adolescence may affect risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Although mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear, chronic stress may lead to dysregulation of immune function and chronic inflammation. Purpose To evaluate associations between early-life physical and sexual abuse and blood levels of inflammatory markers in adulthood among 702 members of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Methods Abuse in childhood (before age 11 years) and adolescence (ages 11–17 years) was self-reported in 2001. Plasma samples collected in 1996–1999 were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP); interleukin (IL)-6; and the soluble fraction of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 in 2001, 2009 and 2010. Results Mean age at blood collection was 43.9 years. Moderate or severe physical abuse was reported by 35.3% of participants; 22.7% reported unwanted sexual touching and 9.8% reported forced sex. Plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 were higher in women reporting sexual abuse in adolescence compared to those reporting no abuse (p=0.04 and 0.03, respectively) in analyses adjusted for confounders including age and childhood adiposity. Inflammatory marker levels were similarly elevated in women reporting sexual abuse during childhood, but results were not significant. Relationships largely persisted after further adjustment for potential mediators such as adult BMI and smoking. Physical abuse during childhood and/or adolescence was not consistently associated with inflammatory marker levels. Conclusions Chronic inflammation may be one mechanism through which sexual abuse may affect future risk of physical and psychological disorders. PMID:23159256

  16. The Toxicity of Diquat, Endothall, and Fluridone to the Early Life Stages of Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Paul; Howard A. Simonin; John Symula; Robert W. Bauer

    1994-01-01

    While most aquatic herbicides have undergone some toxicity testing for effects on non-target aquatic organisms, little of this testing has been conducted on early life stages of gamefish found in lakes undergoing treatment. Commercial formulations of diquat, endothall, and fluridone were selected for acute toxicity testing using very early life stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and

  17. TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

  18. Asthma onset prior to multiple sclerosis and the contribution of sibling exposure in early life

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    Asthma onset prior to multiple sclerosis and the contribution of sibling exposure in early life A with a reduced risk of asthma and other T helper 2 (Th2)-type disorders, possibly through a beneficial effect examine the association between asthma and MS, taking into account early life sibling exposure

  19. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  20. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  1. Intergenerational neural mediators of early-life anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Fox, Andrew S; Oler, Jonathan A; Shackman, Alexander J; Shelton, Steven E; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; McKay, D Reese; Converse, Alexander K; Alexander, Andrew; Davidson, Richard J; Blangero, John; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kalin, Ned H

    2015-07-21

    Understanding the heritability of neural systems linked to psychopathology is not sufficient to implicate them as intergenerational neural mediators. By closely examining how individual differences in neural phenotypes and psychopathology cosegregate as they fall through the family tree, we can identify the brain systems that underlie the parent-to-child transmission of psychopathology. Although research has identified genes and neural circuits that contribute to the risk of developing anxiety and depression, the specific neural systems that mediate the inborn risk for these debilitating disorders remain unknown. In a sample of 592 young rhesus monkeys that are part of an extended multigenerational pedigree, we demonstrate that metabolism within a tripartite prefrontal-limbic-midbrain circuit mediates some of the inborn risk for developing anxiety and depression. Importantly, although brain volume is highly heritable early in life, it is brain metabolism-not brain structure-that is the critical intermediary between genetics and the childhood risk to develop stress-related psychopathology. PMID:26150480

  2. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DeGraff, Deborah S.; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth. PMID:25170434

  3. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive–Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation Across Life Domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine P. Bradshaw; Cindy M. Schaeffer; Hanno Petras; Nicholas Ialongo

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently\\u000a over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes.\\u000a We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to determine whether different\\u000a trajectories of aggressive and disruptive behavior problems

  4. Early Outcomes of the GEAR UP Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…

  5. Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

  6. The Union University "Early Bird" Internship Program in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union Univ., Jackson, TN.

    The Early Bird Internship Program in Teacher Education at Union University was developed to give the sophomore student a general field orientation to the whole school program prior to the senior student teaching program. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for a beginning course for all prospective teachers taken near the end of the…

  7. Unified Early Childhood Personnel Preparation Programs: Perceptions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMontagne, M. J.; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Kilgo, Jennifer L.; Stayton, Vicki; Carr, Victoria; Bauer, Anne M.; Carpenter, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of unified early childhood personnel preparation programs by 28 faculty members in such programs and by graduates (n=42) of unified, dual, or separate exceptional child education or exceptional child special education programs. Faculty stressed the importance of commitment and collaborative problem solving. The…

  8. Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators

    PubMed Central

    Lajud, Naima; Torner, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early life experience decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and results in increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite that the effects of postnatal stress on neurogenesis have been widely studied in adult individuals, few efforts have been done to evaluate its immediate effects on the developing hippocampus. Moreover, it is not clear whether postnatal stress causes a differential impact in hippocampus development in male and female neonates that could be related to emotional deficits in adulthood. It has been proposed that the long term effects of early stress exposure rise from a persistent HPA axis activation during sensitive time windows; nevertheless the exact mechanisms and mediators remain unknown. Here, we summarize the immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups, compare its later consequences in emotionality, and highlight some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming. PMID:25741234

  9. Early referral and planned initiation of dialysis: what impact on quality of life?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fergus J. Caskey; Sarah Wordsworth; Thomas Ben; Frank T. de Charro; Catherine Delcroix; Henk van Hamersvelt; Iain Henderson; Elizabeth Kokolina; Izhar H. Khan; Anne Ludbrook; Merike Luman; Gordon J. Prescott; Dimitri Tsakiris; Myftar Barbullushi; Alison M. MacLeod

    2003-01-01

    Background. Early patient referral correlates with improved patient survival on dialysis. We examine whether early referral and a planned first dialysis affect quality of life (QoL). Methods. All patients commencing dialysis in nine centres in seven European countries between 1 July 1998 and 31 October 1999 were recruited. Definitions: early referralsfollowed by a nephrologist )1 month before first dialysis (-1

  10. Early Quality of Life in Patients with Localized Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Eton, David T.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men with localized prostate carcinoma are faced with important treatment decisions, and quality of life (QoL) information has become a crucial element of decision making. The first objective of this study was to compare the early, health-related QoL (HRQoL) of men with localized prostate carcinoma who were treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or brachytherapy. A second objective was to identify demographic and psychosocial variables that predict HRQoL. METHODS Two-hundred fifty-six men with localized prostate carcinoma were interviewed within 7 weeks of treatment initiation. The interview included measures of prostate-specific HRQoL (the University of California—Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index), general HRQoL (the SF-36), and psychosocial variables. RESULTS After adjusting for covariates, treatment group differences were found for both prostate specific HRQoL and general HRQoL. Men who underwent prostatectomy reported more urinary and sexual problems and more general physical dysfunction compared with men who were treated with either form of radiation therapy. Men who were treated with brachytherapy reported the fewest problems in sexual function and the least general physical dysfunction. Few treatment group differences were found in mental functioning. Both demographic factors and psychosocial factors predicted HRQoL. Older men and African-American men reported more physical problems than younger men and Caucasian men, respectively. A supportive social environment, high self-efficacy, and high self-esteem were predictive of better HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS Shortly after undergoing treatment for localized prostate carcinoma, men who underwent radical prostatectomy, older men, and African-American men are at heightened risk for experiencing prostate-specific and general deficits in HRQoL. Having psychosocial resources from which to draw may enhance HRQoL. PMID:11745222

  11. Early Social Development: Parent and Child Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Robert P.; Andrews, Mary P.

    This study investigated the effects of short term supplemental parent and classroom programs on the self-concept, sociometric status, social involvement, and heterogeneity of friendship and associations of day care children 3.3 to 5 year of age. The treatment conditions compared: (1) a regular day care program (control); (2) a day care program

  12. Assessing the effects of an early retirement program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Espen Bratberg; Tor Helge Holmås; Øystein Thøgersen

    2004-01-01

    We investigate induced retirement effects of the Norwegian early retirement program “AFP” and emphasize effects caused by relocations of some individuals from disability pension and unemployment to AFP. Theoretical considerations predict that AFP unambiguously induces more early retirement. Analyzing Norwegian register data 1994–96 with parametric and non-parametric methods, we demonstrate that i) economic incentives influence the retirement decision, ii) there

  13. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was created almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services.…

  14. Early Head Start Participants, Program, Families and Staff in 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  15. Early Childhood Education Programs in Kenya: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nganga, Lydiah W.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood education in Kenya serves the critical purpose of preparing young children for primary education. Notwithstanding the associated benefits for society as a whole, the government of Kenya is involved minimally. Indeed, parents are responsible for planning, developing and managing different early childhood programs. Consequently,…

  16. Parental Responsiveness Moderates the Association Between Early-life Stress and Reduced Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Roth, T. L.; Rosen, J. B.; Dozier, M.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress, such as maltreatment, institutionalization, and exposure to violence, is associated with accelerated telomere shortening. Telomere shortening may thus represent a biomarker of early adversity. Previous studies have suggested that responsive parenting may protect children from the negative biological and behavioral consequences of early adversity. This study examined the role of parental responsiveness in buffering children from telomere shortening following experiences of early-life stress. We found that high-risk children had significantly shorter telomeres than low-risk children, controlling for household income, birth weight, gender, and minority status. Further, parental responsiveness moderated the association between risk and telomere length, with more responsive parenting associated with longer telomeres only among high-risk children. These findings suggest that responsive parenting may have protective benefits on telomere shortening for young children exposed to early-life stress. Accordingly, this study has important implications for early parenting interventions. PMID:23527512

  17. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Mohtar; A. Whittaker; N. Amar; W. Burgess

    2009-01-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS' mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to

  18. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A

    2008-01-01

    The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity. PMID:18797507

  19. Effectiveness of the Additional Early Mathematics Program for Teaching Children Early Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Rijt, Bernadette A. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the development of early mathematical competence related to counting among young poor arithmetic achievers in the four- to seven-year age group. An Additional Early Mathematics program was offered to students scoring below a criterium with either guiding instruction or structured instruction. (Author/LRW)

  20. The Role of Early Life Stress as a Predictor for Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcohol and drug dependence are equally important. Exposure to early life stress, that is unfortunately common in the general population, has been shown to predict a wide range of psychopathology, including addiction. Objective This review will look at the characteristics of early life stress that may be specific predictors for adolescent and adult alcohol and drug dependence and will focus on studies in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Results Experiencing maltreatment and cumulative stressful life events prior to puberty and particularly in the first few years of life is associated with early onset of problem drinking in adolescence and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Early life stress can result in permanent neurohormonal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes, morphological changes in the brain and gene expression changes in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, all of which are implicated in the development of addiction. However, a large proportion of children who have experienced even severe early life stress do not develop psychopathology indicating that mediating factors such as gene-environment interactions and family and peer relationships are important for resilience. Conclusions There appears to be a direct pathway from chronic stress exposure in pre-pubertal children via adolescent problem drinking to alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. However, this route can be moderated by genetic and environmental factors. The role that gene-environment interactions play in the risk-resilience balance is being increasingly recognized. PMID:20596857

  1. CARES/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. CARES/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element analysis programs to evaluate component reliability due to inherent surface and/or volume type flaws. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker law. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled by using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. The probabilistic time-dependent theories used in CARES/LIFE, along with the input and output for CARES/LIFE, are described. Example problems to demonstrate various features of the program are also included.

  2. Development of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Isidoro Candel

    2005-01-01

    The following paper presents the main evaluation instruments used in early intervention, and reflects upon their use, taking into account that they were created with and for the normal population. Likewise, developmental characteristics of some child groups are described, more notably the x fragile syndrome, Williams syndrome and Prader Willi…

  3. Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

  4. The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

    This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

  5. Early Childhood Program Standards for Three and Four Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Sandra Putnam; Lamana, Annette; Van Thiel, Lisa

    This document presents the Massachusetts Early Childhood Program Standards and Learning Guidelines for Three- and Four-Year-Olds, required for programs receiving funding through Community Partnerships for Children (CPC). The standards were developed in accord with the accreditation process of the National Association for the Education of Young…

  6. Early Recognition and Intervention: Programs for Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Peter; Gilles, Cynthia

    Described in the guidebook are ways to initiate or improve early recognition and intervention (ERI) programs in public schools. Suggested for starting a program to find at risk or handicapped children before they and their teachers experience failure are three phases, which involve finding an idea, enlisting support, and beginning with a pilot…

  7. RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

  8. Redescription of Paraliparis holomelas Gilbert, 1896 (Teleostei: Liparidae), with a description of early life history stages

    E-print Network

    of early life history stages Morgan S. Busby* and Rachael L. Cartwright National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Conservation Engineering Division, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, WA 98115, USA (e-mail: Morgan.Busby

  9. A comparative study of the life satisfaction of early retirement military officers 

    E-print Network

    Graves, Russ Thomas

    2005-11-01

    inferential statistical procedures including One-Way Analysis of Variance, chi-square tests of independence, and independent-samples t tests, revealed that early retirement military officers experienced slightly lower measures of life satisfaction in general...

  10. Critical Elements and Practices of Transition Programs Linking Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Younghee

    This paper examines how various elements of five early- childhood-to-elementary school transition programs are being developed and carried out. Five transition programs were identified and investigated in regard to shared leadership and decisionmaking among stakeholders, comprehensive and integrated services, family involvement and empowerment,…

  11. The role of the early-life environment in the development of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-02-01

    A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. PMID:25459574

  12. Influence of Early Life Events on Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Jean E; Segar, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    The transition from the fetal to the extrauterine environment is associated with complex physiological adjustments and involves numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic adjustments to ensure successful adaptation to the postnatal life. While such changes are in response to the altered environment in which the newborn finds itself, external changes affecting the fetal environment could impact the integrity of these mechanisms and increase susceptibility to diseases later in life. The present article reviews some of the mechanisms involved in the transition from fetal to postnatal life and focuses of how our health as adults is dependent on the conditions we experienced in-utero. PMID:18528483

  13. Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) gas cell life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, E. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Harvey, G. A.; Park, J. H.; Richardson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) will use gas filter correlation radiometry to measure the atmospheric concentration profiles of HCl, HF, NO, and CH4 from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The need to contain the gases for the gas filter measurements has resulted in the development of gas cells and the need for a life test program to demonstrate that the gas cells will perform their functions for extended periods (several years) of time. This report describes the tests in the life test program, the test apparatus used, and the analysis techniques developed. The report also presents data obtained during the first 14 months of the test program.

  14. Linking Family Life and Health Professionals, Volunteers, and Family Life Students in a Community Hospice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruit, Dorothy

    This paper describes the Portage County, Ohio community hospice program, emphasizing the linkages between family life specialists, health professionals, volunteers, and students. Hospice service is defined as a specialized, home-based program for the management of pain and other symptoms of terminal illness, with the family as the unit of care.…

  15. Searching for Life: Early Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.

  16. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

  17. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing—the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories—and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. PMID:25833848

  18. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-01

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. PMID:25833848

  19. The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90.

    E-print Network

    The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90. Projects eligible for Life Safety Funding should generally meet all of the following be a continuation of an existing operation or line of research. 4. Any Life Safety project must be the best life

  20. Oakton Community College: Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program. Program Description Based on Grant Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, Sheila

    The Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program is a 21-week program of intensive training that provides limited-English-proficient Hispanic, Indian, and Pakistani adult students with the required skills for entry-level positions in the child care field. Courses in early childhood focus on child growth and development, introduction to…

  1. Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

    1990-01-01

    The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was

  2. Early Life History of the Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens (Mitchell), in the Red Lakes, Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Pycha; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

    1955-01-01

    The early life history of the yellow perch, an important commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, has been studied with special reference to length at scale formation, growth rate during first season of life, and food habits as they relate to growth and survival. Scales are fully imbricated in the area of 12th to 14th lateral line scales at

  3. The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum women Andrea Gonzalez a,d,*, Jennifer M. Jenkins b , Meir Steiner c Psychoneuroendocrinology (2009) 34, 76--86 KEYWORDS Diurnal cortisol; Awakening response; Early adversity; Postpartum

  4. Early Care, Education, and Family Life in Rural Fiji: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis

    2005-01-01

    As a member of a delegation of educators, physicians, and lay people to rural Fiji the author shares her experiences and reflections of early care, education, and family life on a small, remote island. She discusses her visits to the village and boarding school, and her interactions with teachers, children, and parents in the early childhood…

  5. Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

  6. Inhibitor-injection program showing early promise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricca

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the treatment system implemented last year at Trans-Alaska Pipeline's pump stations which employed chemical inhibitors in a large-scale, corrosion-mitigation program. Ultrasonic inspection in 1988 revealed internal corrosion predominantly in low-velocity piping. There, emulsified water had precipitated out of the crude oil and supported microbial corrosion. TAPS developed a systems of manual batch treatment to treat the

  7. Identifying sectarian content for Jewish Early Childhood educational programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Feinberg; Olivia N. Saracho; Bernard Spodek

    1990-01-01

    This study identified appropriate sectarian content for Jewish Early Childhood education programs. Using a national sample\\u000a of early childhood Jewish educators, a Delphi technique was used to identify specific elements of Jewish history and culture\\u000a considered worthy to be taught to young Jewish children. Seven categories of study were identified: (1) Jewish tradition as\\u000a expressed in Jewish literature beginning with

  8. Characteristics of Unified and Separate Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Special Education Programs: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Lora Fader

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of course content, field experiences, and program administration at 14 unified early childhood/early child special education (ECE/ECSE) and 13 separate ECE or ECSE undergraduate teacher preparation programs. Students from unified programs and ECSE (but not ECE) programs had a balance of ECE course content…

  9. Predicting early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program.

    PubMed

    Newton, Sarah E; Smith, Laureen H; Moore, Gary; Magnan, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Baccalaureate nursing programs are under increased pressure to graduate greater numbers of students to meet the demands of the nurse workforce of the future. Schools of nursing are admitting larger cohorts of students, but early academic achievement in the nursing major and retention are problematic. Historical predictors of early academic achievement, such as scholastic aptitude, may not be the best for identifying students at risk of early academic failure. Increasingly, baccalaureate nursing programs are relying on standardized nursing aptitude tests to evaluate the readiness of applicants for the nursing major. However, reliable predictors of early academic achievement have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to explore whether scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude are predictive of early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program. Using an exploratory descriptive design, data from 164 sophomore nursing students were examined. The data indicated that scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude together predicted 20.2% of the variance in early academic achievement, with scholastic aptitude accounting for 15.4% of the variance. PMID:17540317

  10. The possible long-term effects of early-life circadian rhythm disturbance on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in early life with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to early life sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years. PMID:24902476

  11. Life Satisfaction and Maladaptive Behaviors in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael D.; Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 ("n" = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2…

  12. Inhibitor-injection program showing early promise

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, P.M. (Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (US))

    1991-05-13

    This paper reports on the treatment system implemented last year at Trans-Alaska Pipeline's pump stations which employed chemical inhibitors in a large-scale, corrosion-mitigation program. Ultrasonic inspection in 1988 revealed internal corrosion predominantly in low-velocity piping. There, emulsified water had precipitated out of the crude oil and supported microbial corrosion. TAPS developed a systems of manual batch treatment to treat the numerous dead legs in the pump-station facilities along with procedures for monitoring inhibitor effectiveness.

  13. Toxicogenomic and Phenotypic Analyses of Bisphenol-A Early-Life Exposure Toxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Siew Hong; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chuan; Duan, Zhenghua; Zhu, Lin; Ung, Choong Yong; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ong, Choon Nam; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol-A is an important environmental contaminant due to the increased early-life exposure that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. This study aimed to use zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to capture transcriptomic and phenotypic changes for inference of signaling pathways, biological processes, physiological systems and identify potential biomarker genes that are affected by early-life exposure to bisphenol-A. Phenotypic analysis using wild-type zebrafish larvae revealed BPA early-life exposure toxicity caused cardiac edema, cranio-facial abnormality, failure of swimbladder inflation and poor tactile response. Fluorescent imaging analysis using three transgenic lines revealed suppressed neuron branching from the spinal cord, abnormal development of neuromast cells, and suppressed vascularization in the abdominal region. Using knowledge-based data mining algorithms, transcriptome analysis suggests that several signaling pathways involving ephrin receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, synaptic long-term potentiation, axonal guidance, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and tight junction were deregulated. Physiological systems with related disorders associated with the nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular, blood and reproductive systems were implicated, hence corroborated with the phenotypic analysis. Further analysis identified a common set of BPA-targeted genes and revealed a plausible mechanism involving disruption of endocrine-regulated genes and processes in known susceptible tissue-organs. The expression of 28 genes were validated in a separate experiment using quantitative real-time PCR and 6 genes, ncl1, apoeb, mdm1, mycl1b, sp4, U1SNRNPBP homolog, were found to be sensitive and robust biomarkers for BPA early-life exposure toxicity. The susceptibility of sp4 to BPA perturbation suggests its role in altering brain development, function and subsequently behavior observed in laboratory animals exposed to BPA during early life, which is a health-risk concern of early life exposure in humans. The present study further established zebrafish as a model for toxicogenomic inference of early-life chemical exposure toxicity. PMID:22194820

  14. Integrated life sciences technology utilization development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The goal of the TU program was to maximize the development of operable hardware and systems which will be of substantial benefit to the public. Five working prototypes were developed, and a meal system for the elderly is now undergoing evaluation. Manpower utilization is shown relative to the volume of requests in work for each month. The ASTP mobile laboratories and post Skylab bedrest study are also described.

  15. Cognitive and behavioral development of at risk infants and toddlers exposed to stressful life events: The effects of trauma in early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary E. Warren

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between traumatic life events and cognitive, behavioral, and relational competence in an at-risk sample of children between the ages of 11 and 41 months. As part of a larger, ongoing investigation, participants for the current study were 53 children enrolled in Early Head Start programs and their primary caregivers. The children participated in a

  16. Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, M S

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial partnerships, generate information on the social and economic cost of programming in Europe and help maintain Europe's lead in this critical area of research. PMID:17637096

  17. Pricing life insurance contracts with early exercise features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinello, Anna Rita; Biffis, Enrico; Millossovich, Pietro

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm based on the Least Squares Monte Carlo method to price life insurance contracts embedding American options. We focus on equity-linked contracts with surrender options and terminal guarantees on benefits payable upon death, survival and surrender. The framework allows for randomness in mortality as well as stochastic volatility and jumps in financial risk factors. We provide numerical experiments demonstrating the performance of the algorithm in the context of multiple risk factors and exercise dates.

  18. Programming the EDSAC: Early Programming Activity at the University of Cambridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Campbell-kelly

    1998-01-01

    The EDSAC computer was completed at Cambridge University, England, in May 1949. By early 1950, a programming system had been set up, and the EDSAC began to attract a number of regular users. The article describes the development of the programming system between the first operation of the machine in May 1949 and the end of that year. Subsequent programming

  19. Programming the EDSAC: Early Programming Activity at the University of Cambridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Campbell-Kelly

    1980-01-01

    The EDSAC computer was completed at Cambridge University, England, in May 1949. By early 1950 a programming system had been set up and the EDSAC began to attract a number of regular users. This article describes the development of the programming system between the first operation of the machine in May 1949 and the end of that year. Subsequent programming

  20. The sporting life: Athletic activities during early adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol E. Kirshnit; Mark Ham; Maryse H. Richards

    1989-01-01

    The decline in sports participation that begins in early adolescence has been well documented, and there has been considerable controversy regarding the reasons for this attrition. The present study addressed the attrition process by focusing on the subjective experience of sports as a function of grade, gender, and sport context. Following the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method, 401 5th–9th-grade

  1. Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Svanes, Øistein; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Johannessen, Ane; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Bråtveit, Magne; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarin; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jögi, Rain; Macsali, Ferenc; Norbäck, Dan; Omenaas, Ernst Reidar; Real, Francisco Gómez; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Wieslander, Gunilla; Zock, Jan-Paul; Aasen, Tor; Dratva, Julia; Svanes, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Rationale There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking’s detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure. Objectives In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning’s unhealthy effects. Methods The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent´s educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection <5 years, born during winter months, maternal age at birth >35 years) was investigated. Main Results Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6), adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2–1.8]) and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3–2.2]) were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: ?1 year 0.9 [0.7–1.3]; 1–4 years 1.5 [1.1–2.0]; ?4 years 1.6 [1.2–2.1]). The association of wheeze with cleaning activity ?4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5–2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96–1.8]; pinteraction 0.035). Conclusions Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life. PMID:26168149

  2. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David S; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-01-10

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766

  3. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  4. Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs: Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Glen; Fagan, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Father involvement in early childhood programs (ECPs) has increased rapidly during the past 10-15 years. This review of our understanding of the current state of father involvement in ECPs employs two theoretical frameworks: ecological perspective and situated fathering. We draw from the research and practice literature to understand the current…

  5. The Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention: Mothers Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhue, Rebecca; Onslow, Mark; Quine, Susan; O'Brian, Sue; Hearne, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The Lidcombe Program is a behavioral treatment for early stuttering which is implemented by parents, typically the mother. Despite this, there is limited detailed knowledge about mothers' experiences of administering the treatment. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of 16 mothers during their…

  6. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  7. Early School Admissions Program: Staff Handbook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mabel; And Others

    The descriptions and procedures in this handbook were developed and compiled at the request of staff members of the Early School Admissions Program. It was felt that specific information relating to the suggested use of classroom materials and equipment would assist in upgrading teaching techniques, planning cognitively based learning experiences,…

  8. An Alternative Undergraduate Teacher Preparation Program in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying; Gelfer, Jeffrey; Filler, John

    2003-01-01

    The realities of a multi-racial, multi-ethnic, and multi-ability student population demand a unique and nontraditional approach characterized by an individualization sensitive to group identity. The primary goal of this alternative Early Childhood Studies/Education Program with a degree of Bachelor of Science is to provide a comprehensive…

  9. Investing in Early Childhood: Increasing Funding for Smart Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for America's Children, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Voices for America's Children member Kansas Action for Children, partnered with state and local organizations to increase funding for Smart Start Kansas, a successful early care and education program. Kansas Children's Campaign, an initiative of Kansas Action for Children, collaborated with a key state organization, legislators,…

  10. Developing Early Intervention Programs for Emotionally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Judith

    The proceedings of a 3 day institute on early intervention programs for emotionally handicapped preschool children include two brief presentations on parent relations and toilet training of children with developmental problems. Described is an individualized approach to working with parents which focuses on helping mothers to acquire attitudes and…

  11. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dunn; W. Daugherty; B. Hackney; E. Hoffman; E. Skidmore

    2011-01-01

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials

  12. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Daugherty; K. Dunn; B. Hackney; E. Hoffman; E. Skidmore

    2011-01-01

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity

  13. Learning Effects of an Experimental EFL Program in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated…

  14. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

  15. The RAISE Connection Program for Early Psychosis: Secondary Outcomes and Mediators and Moderators of Improvement.

    PubMed

    Marino, Leslie; Nossel, Ilana; Choi, Jean C; Nuechterlein, Keith; Wang, Yuanjia; Essock, Susan; Bennett, Melanie; McNamara, Karen; Mendon, Sapna; Dixon, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to explore secondary outcomes of a coordinated specialty care program for persons with early psychosis, including quality of life and recovery, as well as to explore mediators and moderators of improvement in occupational and social functioning and symptoms. Sixty-five individuals across two sites were enrolled and received services for up to 2 years. Trajectories for individuals' outcomes over time were examined using linear and quadratic mixed-effects models with repeated measures. In addition, baseline prognostic factors of participant improvement in social and occupational functioning were explored based on previous literature and expert opinion of the analytic team. Results demonstrate that the program was effective in improving quality of life and recovery over time. Furthermore, processing speed was identified as a significant moderator of improvement in occupational Global Assessment of Function, and treatment fidelity, engagement, and family involvement were identified as mediators of improvement in social and occupational functioning. PMID:25900546

  16. Mucosal Immune Development in Early Life: Setting the Stage.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Sylvia; Perdijk, Olaf; van Neerven, R J Joost; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2015-08-01

    Our environment poses a constant threat to our health. To survive, all organisms must be able to discriminate between good (food ingredients and microbes that help digest our food) and bad (pathogenic microbes, viruses and toxins). In vertebrates, discrimination between beneficial and harmful antigens mainly occurs at the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, digestive, urinary and genital tract. Here, an extensive network of cells and organs form the basis of what we have come to know as the mucosal immune system. The mucosal immune system is composed of a single epithelial cell layer protected by a mucus layer. Different immune cells monitor the baso-lateral side of the epithelial cells and dispersed secondary lymphoid organs, such as Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles are equipped with immune cells able to mount appropriate and specific responses. This review will focus on the current knowledge on host, dietary and bacterial-derived factors that shape the mucosal immune system before and after birth. We will discuss current knowledge on fetal immunity (both responsiveness and lymphoid organ development) as well as the impact of diet and microbial colonization on neonatal immunity and disease susceptibility. Lastly, inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed as an example of how the composition of the microbiota might predispose to disease later in life. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in mucosal immune development and tolerance will aid nutritional intervention strategies to improve health in neonatal and adult life. PMID:25666708

  17. Transition Program Practices: Improving Linkages between Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Younghee; Mangione, Peter L.

    Whether the transition to primary school is smooth or abrupt for children depends on whether early childhood and elementary school programs work together to build bridges between their services. This report presents several examples of collaborative efforts to smooth the transition to school. Specifically, it describes how various elements of five…

  18. Early life exposure to malaria and cognition in adulthood: evidence from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the impact of early life malaria exposure on cognition in sample of Mexican adults, using the nationwide introduction of malaria eradication efforts to identify causal impacts. The core findings are that birth year exposure to malaria eradication was associated with increases in Raven Progressive Matrices test scores and consumption expenditures, but not schooling. Additionally, cohorts born after eradication both entered and exited school earlier than their pre-eradication counterparts. These effects were only seen for men and explanations for this are assessed. Collectively, these findings suggest that improvements in infant health help explain secular increases in cognitive test scores, that better cognition may link early life health to adulthood earnings, and that human capital investments through childhood and young adulthood respond sensitively to market returns to early life endowment shocks. PMID:22906550

  19. Evaluation of a Classwide Teaching Program for Developing Preschool Life Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2007-01-01

    Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5?years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed. PMID:17624068

  20. Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112

  1. Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

  2. Molecules Clarify a Cnidarian Life Cycle – The “Hydrozoan” Microhydrula limopsicola Is an Early Life Stage of the Staurozoan Haliclystus antarcticus

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Lucília S.; Collins, Allen G.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Life cycles of medusozoan cnidarians vary widely, and have been difficult to document, especially in the most recently proposed class Staurozoa. However, molecular data can be a useful tool to elucidate medusozoan life cycles by tying together different life history stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic data from fast-evolving molecular markers (mitochondrial 16S, nuclear ITS1, and nuclear ITS2) show that animals that were presumed to be a hydrozoan, Microhydrula limopsicola (Limnomedusae, Microhydrulidae), are actually an early stage of the life cycle of the staurozoan Haliclystus antarcticus (Stauromedusae, Lucernariidae). Conclusions/Significance Similarity between the haplotypes of three markers of Microhydrula limopsicola and Haliclystus antarcticus settles the identity of these taxa, expanding our understanding of the staurozoan life cycle, which was thought to be more straightforward and simple. A synthetic discussion of prior observations makes sense of the morphological, histological and behavioral similarities/congruence between Microhydrula and Haliclystus. The consequences are likely to be replicated in other medusozoan groups. For instance we hypothesize that other species of Microhydrulidae are likely to represent life stages of other species of Staurozoa. PMID:20418959

  3. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  4. Findings from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs: Communities, Programs, and Families. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheri A. Vogel; Nikki Aikens; rew Burwick; Laura Hawkinson; Angela Richardson; Linda Mendenko; Rachel Chazan-Cohen

    2006-01-01

    This report highlights information from a survey of Early Head Start programs that examined management structures and program services nationally. The report describes program approaches to service delivery, management and staffing, and partnerships. It also examines the characteristics of communities in which Early Head Start programs operate, the characteristics of enrolled families, and the wide range of services programs provide.

  5. Continuing Effects of Early Enrichment in Adult Life: The Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Sunar, Diane; Bekman, Sevda; Baydar, Nazli; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Long-term studies of early intervention, spanning over decades, are scarce in the United States and nonexistent in the rest of the world. The Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP) is the only non-U.S. example to date. This paper reports a new follow-up assessment of the long-term outcomes of TEEP, an intervention carried out in 1983-1985 with…

  6. Competitive physical activity early in life is associated with bone mineral density in elderly Swedish men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nilsson; C. Ohlsson; A. L. Eriksson; K. Frändin; M. Karlsson; Ö. Ljunggren; D. Mellström; M. Lorentzon

    2008-01-01

    Summary  In this population-based study of 75-year-old men (n?=?498), we investigated the association between physical activity (PA) early in life and present bone mineral density (BMD).\\u000a We demonstrate that a high frequency of competitive sports early in life is associated with BMD at several bone sites, indicating\\u000a that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Physical activity

  7. Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    2002-01-01

    Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

  8. Crystals, colloids, or molecules?: Early controversies about the origin of life and synthetic life.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Crystals, colloids, and (macro-)molecules have played major roles in theoretical concepts and experimental approaches concerning the generation of life from the mid-19th century on. The notion of the crystallization of life out of a nonliving fluid, a special case of the doctrine of spontaneous generation, was most prominently incorporated into Schleiden's and Schwann's version of cell theory. Refutation at the end of the 19th century of spontaneous generation of life and cells, in particular by Pasteur, Remak, and Virchow, not only gave rise to the flourishing fields of microbiology and cytology, but it also opened up research on synthetic life. These approaches focused on growth and form and colloidal chemistry on the one hand, and on the specificity of organisms' macromolecules and chemical reactions on the other. This article analyzes the contribution of these approaches to synthetic life research and argues that researchers' philosophical predilections and basic beliefs have played important roles in the choice of experimental and theoretical approaches towards synthetic life. PMID:23502562

  9. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic’s health effects. Conclusions As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic’s relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. PMID:23859881

  10. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  11. Immunologic development early in life following severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wang; A. Rahm; J. Bonfiglio; K. Schechtman; L. Bacharier; R. Strunk; M. Castro

    2004-01-01

    RationaleImmune response following viral infection usually involves Th1-mediated response; however, severe RSV appears to be associated with the development of asthma, a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, we sought to understand the early immunologic response to the first RSV infection in a prospectively enrolled study of 206 hospitalized infants in the RSV Bronchiolitis in Early Life (RBEL) cohort (follow-up 2.7 ± 1.1

  12. Reproductive life history correlates of early and late sexual maturation in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MERTICE M. CLARK; CHERYL A. SPENCER; B GALEFJR

    1986-01-01

    Age at vaginal introitus is bimodally distributed in female domesticated Mongolian gerbils; some exhibit vaginal perforation before eye-opening (day 16), others after weaning (day 25). We found early- and late-maturing female gerbils to ditfer significantly in reproductive life history. Early-maturing females first reproduced when younger. had more litters, with more young per litter, and consequently had more than twice as

  13. Causes and consequences of early-life health.

    PubMed

    Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We examine the consequences of child health for economic and health outcomes in adulthood, using height as a marker of childhood health. After reviewing previous evidence, we present a conceptual framework that highlights data limitations and methodological problems that complicate the study of this topic. We then present estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes--including schooling, employment, earnings, health, and cognitive ability--measured in five data sets from early to late adulthood. These results indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Height is also positively associated with better economic, health, and cognitive outcomes. These associations are only partially explained by the higher average educational attainment of taller individuals. We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults survey to document the associations between health, cognitive development, and growth in childhood. Even among children with the same mother, taller siblings score better on cognitive tests and progress through school more quickly. Part of the differences found between siblings arises from differences in their birth weights and lengths attributable to mother's behaviors while pregnant. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood. PMID:21302429

  14. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia. PMID:25140503

  15. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination of caught specimens, in combination with laboratory studies to test food quality, measure feeding rates, and validation of periodicities in accretional growth structures (e.g. "daily rings" in statoliths). PMID:12846042

  16. Dynamic Symmetry Breaking in Constraint Programming and Linear Programming Hybrids: Still Life as a Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. Petrie; Barbara M. Smith; Neil Yorke-Smith

    The efficient solving of many CSPs has been achieved by hybrid methods that combine Constraint Programming (CP) and Linear Programming (LP). One such case is the 'Maximum Density Still Life' problem. An obstacle to overcome in order to solve this problem efficiently is the inherent symmetry. Symmetry in Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) can lead to redundant search, since subtrees may

  17. 77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

  18. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life

    PubMed Central

    Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted. PMID:24369133

  19. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 ?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. PMID:24713117

  20. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  1. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  2. Early life environment and developmental immunotoxicity in inflammatory dysfunction and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Leifer; Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-01-01

    Components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells are instrumental in determining the fate of immune responses and are, also, among the most sensitive targets of early life environmental alterations including developmental immunotoxicity (DIT). DIT can impede innate immune cell maturation, disrupt tissue microenvironment, alter immune responses to infectious challenges, and disrupt regulatory responses. Dysregulation of

  3. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie E. Holland

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

  4. Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

  5. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  6. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2?years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  7. Effects of maternally transferred organochlorine contaminants on early life survival in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Thomas A; Miller, Loren M; Whittle, D Michael; Brown, Scott B; Wiegand, Murray D; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Leggett, William C

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory research has shown that female fish can pass toxic organochlorines (OCs) from their bodies to their eggs, killing their offspring if sufficient quantities are transferred. We conducted a controlled incubation study using gametes from a wild, OC-contaminated walleye (Sander vitreus) population (Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada) in order to assess among-female variation in offspring early life survival in relation to ova concentrations of planar OCs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls) and a suite of other maternal and ova characteristics. Equal volumes of ova from each female were fertilized, pooled, and incubated together as an experimental cohort. Relative survival of each female's offspring was estimated as the proportion of surviving larvae (at approximately 5 d posthatch) that she contributed to the cohort as determined by microsatellite DNA parentage assignment. Total planar OC concentration (expressed as toxic equivalency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) of ova was positively related to maternal age and size and to ova lipid content. However, early life survival did not decline with increasing ova planar OC concentrations. Similarly, we observed no significant relationships between early life survival and ova thiamine content, ova fatty acid composition, or maternal age or size. Early life survival was more strongly correlated with date of spawn collection, thyroid hormone status of the ova, and ovum size. Maternally transferred planar OCs do not appear to negatively influence female reproductive success in this walleye population. PMID:16268162

  8. Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Blood Pressure in the CARDIA Study

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Blood Pressure in the CARDIA explain these links and relate the model to blood pressure change over a 10-year period in the Coronary Outcome Measures: These variables were used to predict initial systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP

  9. TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

  10. Early-in-life thermal performance of UOâ--PuOâ fast reactor fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Baker; R. D. Leggett

    1979-01-01

    Results from the combined analyses of two thermal performance tests, HEDL P-19 and HEDL P-20 are described. The tests were designed to provide data on the power required to cause incipient fuel melting early in life under conditions prototypic of FFTF driver fuel pins and similar FBR fuel systems.

  11. Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we

  12. EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SAND LANCE (AMMODYTES), WITH EVIDENCE FOR SPAWNING OF A. DUBIUS IN

    E-print Network

    EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SAND LANCE (AMMODYTES), WITH EVIDENCE FOR SPAWNING OF A. DUBIUS IN FORTUNE. Newfoundland. indicate that sand lance (Ammodytes sp.) larvae occur annually in Fortune Bay from February, when for the consistent polymodality in length.frequency distribution of sand lance larvae from the Newfoundland area

  13. Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)

    E-print Network

    Lailvaux, Simon

    Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

  14. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  15. Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design

    E-print Network

    Yang, Maria

    Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design. This work is conducted in the context of an amorphous photovoltaic (PV) panel, using data gathered from the National Solar Radiation Database, as well as realistic data collected from an experimental hardware setup

  16. Dimensions of Social Capital and Life Adjustment in the Transition to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Erath, Stephen A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with…

  17. EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

  18. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

  19. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  20. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  1. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  2. Is Epigenetics an Important Link between Early Life Events and Adult Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Waterland

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in complex chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity, remains largely uncharacterized. Extensive work in animal models is

  3. Screening for hearing loss in early childhood programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Eiserman; Lenore Shisler; Terry Foust; Jan Buhrmann; Randi Winston; Karl R. White

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0–3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children screened as a part of the study, 77% passed an OAE

  4. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  5. The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program - Preparing the way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biro, Ronald; Munsey, Bill; Long, Irene

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to the goals and methods adopted in the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) for preparing scientists and engineers for space-related life-sciences research and operations. The SLSTP is based on six weeks of projects and lectures which give an overview of payload processing and experiment flow in the space environment. The topics addressed in the course of the program include descriptions of space vehicles, support hardware, equipment, and research directions. Specific lecture topics include the gravity responses of plants, mission integration of a flight experiment, and the cardiovascular deconditioning. The SLSTP is shown to be an important part of the process of recruiting and training qualified scientists and engineers to support space activities.

  6. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...

  7. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  8. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation and elevated temperatures. Other materials of construction, however, are also discussed.

  9. Life Cycle Program Management and Evaluation: An Heuristic Approach. Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeske, George W.

    This monograph is divided into two parts. Part 1 is meant to serve as a conceptual guide for those facilitating or conducting life-cycle program-management workshops focused on any of the life-cycle stages of: (1) problem finding; (2) program design; (3) program development; (4) program implementation; (5) program maintenance and improvement; and…

  10. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  11. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  12. Ceramic material life prediction: A program to translate ANSYS results to CARES/LIFE reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonhermann, Pieter; Pintz, Adam

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and CARES. Knowledge of compiling and linking FORTRAN programs is also required. Maximum use is made of existing routines (from other CARES interface programs and ANSYS routines) to extract the finite element results and prepare the neutral file for input to the reliability analysis. FORTRAN and machine language routines as described are used to read the ANSYS results file. Sub-element stresses are computed and written to a neutral file using FORTRAN subroutines which are nearly identical to those used in the NASCARES (MSC/NASTRAN to CARES) interface.

  13. Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

  14. TOXICITY OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE TO FATHEAD MINNOWS, 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS', IN ACUTE AND EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline in three acute exposures and two early life-stage exposures. Mean LC50's were 10.8, 9.37, and 7.58 mg/l at 24, 48, and 96 hr, respectively. In the first early life-stage test, control fish were smaller than...

  15. Early life experiences as determinants of leadership role occupancy: The importance of parental influence and rule breaking behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Avolio; Maria Rotundo; Fred O. Walumbwa

    2009-01-01

    The limited behavioral genetics research reported in the leadership literature has not investigated the degree to which early life experiences predict future emergence into leadership roles. This is the first study to focus on parenting style and early life experiences of rule breaking, and their relationships to leadership roles assumed in adulthood, while controlling for genetic and personality contributions. Using

  16. Sickle blade life-history and the transition to agriculture: an early Neolithic case study from Southwest Asia

    E-print Network

    Kohler, Tim A.

    Sickle blade life-history and the transition to agriculture: an early Neolithic case study from September 2009 Received in revised form 7 December 2009 Accepted 9 December 2009 Keywords: Neolithic Lithics-life histories during the early Neolithic in the Southern Levant. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1

  17. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

  18. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevic?iene?, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Thomsen C, Wright J, Athersuch TJ, Avellana N, Basagaña X, Brochot C, Bucchini L, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, Casas M, Estivill X, Fairley L, van Gent D, Gonzalez JR, Granum B, Gražulevi?ien? R, Gutzkow KB, Julvez J, Keun HC, Kogevinas M, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Sabidó E, Schwarze PE, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Want EJ, Zeman F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2014. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design. Environ Health Perspect 122:535–544;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204 PMID:24610234

  19. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS), an element of Human Systems Research and Technology s (HSRT) Life Support and Habitation Program (LSH), has been NASA s primary sponsor of life support research and technology development for the agency. Over its history, ALS sponsored tasks across a diverse set of institutions, including field centers, colleges and universities, industry, and governmental laboratories, resulting in numerous publications and scientific articles, patents and new technologies, as well as education and training for primary, secondary and graduate students, including minority serving institutions. Prior to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced on January 14th, 2004 by the President, ALS had been focused on research and technology development for long duration exploration missions, emphasizing closed-loop regenerative systems, including both biological and physicochemical. Taking a robust and flexible approach, ALS focused on capabilities to enable visits to multiple potential destinations beyond low Earth orbit. ALS developed requirements, reference missions, and assumptions upon which to structure and focus its development program. The VSE gave NASA a plan for steady human and robotic space exploration based on specific, achievable goals. Recently, the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) was chartered by NASA s Administrator to determine the best exploration architecture and strategy to implement the Vision. The study identified key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance the reference exploration missions and to prioritize near-term and far-term technology investments. This technology assessment resulted in a revised Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) technology investment plan. A set of new technology development projects were initiated as part of the plan s implementation, replacing tasks previously initiated under HSRT and its sister program, Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT). The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program, has recently been initiated to perform directed life support technology development in support of Constellation and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). ELS) has replaced ALS, with several major differences. Thermal Control Systems have been separated into a new stand alone project (Thermal Systems for Exploration Missions). Tasks in Advanced Food Technology have been relocated to the Human Research Program. Tasks in a new discipline area, Habitation Engineering, have been added. Research and technology development for capabilities required for longer duration stays on the Moon and Mars, including bioregenerative system, have been deferred.

  20. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65?years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women.

  1. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. PMID:21470621

  2. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  3. Altered Short-Term Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex After Early Life Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Hernan, A.E.; Holmes, G. L.; Isaev, D.; Scott, R. C.; Isaeva, E.

    2012-01-01

    Seizures during development are a relatively common occurrence and are often associated with poor cognitive outcomes. Recent studies show that early life seizures alter the function of various brain structures and have long-term consequences on seizure susceptibility and behavioral regulation. While many neocortical functions could be disrupted by epileptic seizures we have concentrated on studying the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as disturbance of PFC functions is involved in numerous co-morbid disorders associated with epilepsy. In the present work we report an alteration of short-term plasticity in the PFC in rats that have experienced early life seizures. The most robust alteration occurs in the layer II/III to layer V network of neurons. However short-term plasticity of layer V to layer V network was also affected, indicating that the PFC function is broadly influenced by early life seizures. These data strongly suggest that repetitive seizures early in development cause substantial alteration in PFC function, which may be an important component underlying cognitive deficits in individuals with a history of seizures during development. PMID:23064435

  4. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T.; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81–3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100–300?°C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  5. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  6. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  7. Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed. PMID:23311554

  8. Recognizing the geological signature of early life on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Marshall, Craig P.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    2004-03-01

    Our research is relevant to the search for life on other planets in two ways. Firstly, our ultimate goal is to understand the mechanisms and environmental context of biospheric evolution on the early Earth by identifying the fossils (be they morphological, ultrastructural, or chemical) of early prokaryotes and eukaryotes, determining their biological affinities, and examining their patterns of evolution through intervals of environmental change. This approach, in which sedimentary geology, optical and electronic microscopy, and microchemistry are used in combination, is applicable to Martian sediments. Indeed, terrestrial discoveries provide a comparative data base for evaluating extraterrestrial materials.

  9. An Analysis of Early Career Principals' Experience with Induction Programs and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correll, Craig Alan

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater emphasis on support, guidance and orientation programs for early career teachers, referred to as induction programs. Though on a smaller scale, similar induction programs have been implemented for early career principals as well. This study provides information on whether such programs have a positive…

  10. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD. PMID:23439689

  11. Early Career Hire Rapid Training and Development Program: Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Betsy N.; Solish, Benjamin S.; Halatek, Lauren; Rieber, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the industrialized workforce, particularly in the aerospace industry, has resulted in a very large generation gap in the workforce. The disproportionate size of Baby Boomers, increasing longevity and declining birth rates has made this phenomenon a reality that no organization can ignore. It is now critical that aerospace organizations prepare themselves for this watershed transformation in the workforce and take the initiative to prepare the incoming workforce with the skills and knowledge necessary to stay at the forefront. Last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched a pioneering training program, known as Phaeton, to provide the knowledge, practice, experience, mentoring opportunities, and project life cycle exposure to our incoming generation of engineers. After 14 months of operation, now is the time to discuss the preliminary results of this new program.

  12. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Yael R.; Cox, Laura M.; Kirigin, Francis F.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M.; Goldfarb, David S.; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment. PMID:26123276

  13. Associations Between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development Among Girls in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N = 100), assessed at four time points over 2 years beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique, in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the start of the study. Analyses replicated the previously established association between sexual abuse and earlier onset of maturation and earlier age at menarche. Physical abuse was related to a more rapid tempo of pubertal development across the period assessed. These results strengthen previous investigations of childhood maltreatment and puberty, highlighting the complexity and specificity of early life experiences for later development. PMID:22337616

  14. A noise-induced mechanism for biological homochirality of early life self-replicators

    E-print Network

    Jafarpour, Farshid; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The observed single-handedness of biological amino acids and sugars has long been attributed to autocatalysis. However, the stability of homochiral states in deterministic autocatalytic systems relies on cross inhibition of the two chiral states, an unlikely scenario for early life self-replicators. Here, we present a theory for a stochastic individual-level model of autocatalysis due to early life self-replicators. Without chiral inhibition, the racemic state is the global attractor of the deterministic dynamics, but intrinsic multiplicative noise stabilizes the homochiral states, in both well-mixed and spatially-extended systems. We conclude that autocatalysis is a viable mechanism for homochirality, without imposing additional nonlinearities such as chiral inhibition.

  15. Spawning and Early Life History of the Freshwater Drum in Lewis and Clark Lake, Missouri River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald V. Swedberg; Charles H. Walburg

    1970-01-01

    The early life history of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, was studied in 1965–67 to determine factors influencing year-class strength in a main stem Missouri River reservoir. Fish spawning occurred over a period of 6–7 weeks in June and July when water temperatures reached 18 C. Fecundity of fish 307 to 386 mm long and 6–9 years old ranged from 34,000

  16. Responses of early life history stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis to chlorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Middaugh; John A. Couch; Allan M. Crane

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass,Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses.\\u000a \\u000a Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developing embryos were exposed continuously to TRC in flowing water at 1.0–3.0\\u000a ppt salinity and 18±1C. Fifty-six percent of the control group (no TRC

  17. Reproductive ecology and early life history of a lacustrine sculpin, Cottus extensus (Teleostei, Cottidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Ruzycki; Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Clyde Lay

    1998-01-01

    Using a variety of sampling techniques and observations we describe aspects of the reproductive ecology and early life-history of Bear Lake sculpin, Cottus extensus, a species endemic to Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho. Adult sculpin spawned in shallow water (0.5–6.0 m depths) in cavities beneath large cobbles and boulders. During 1993, egg mass densities were highest (> 4.0 m2) at 1.0–2.0 m

  18. A comparative study of the life satisfaction of early retirement military officers

    E-print Network

    Graves, Russ Thomas

    2005-11-01

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE LIFE SATISFACTION OF EARLY RETIREMENT MILITARY OFFICERS A Dissertation by RUSS THOMAS GRAVES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Dissertation by RUSS THOMAS GRAVES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee...

  19. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Negri; Claudia Vollhardt; Craig Humphrey; Andrew Heyward; Ross Jones; Geoff Eaglesham; Katharina Fabricius

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000?gl?1. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300?gl?1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic

  20. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  1. Early-life Stress, Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, and Serotonin Transporter Gene: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Kaufman, Joan; Gelernter, Joel; Smith, Eric L.P.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Kaffman, Arie; Gorman, Jack M.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Owens, Michael S.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have indicated a gene by environment interaction between serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. In addition, persistent elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations following early-life adversity has been posited to underlie the subsequent development of major depression. This pilot study tested the hypothesis that elevations of juvenile CSF CRF concentrations are, in part, determined by an interaction between polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR and early-life stress. Nine juvenile male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) had been raised under variable foraging demand (VFD) conditions, a nonhuman primate model of early-life stress, whereas nine subjects were normatively raised under LFD (low foraging demand) conditions. Genotyping revealed that four (44.4%) of the VFD-reared monkeys possessed at least one “s” allele whereas five VFD monkeys were of the l/l genotype. Of the nine LFD subjects, two (22%) had the s/l genotype and seven had the l/l genotype. A “juvenile” CSF sample was obtained at approximately three years of age. CSF CRF concentrations were elevated specifically in the VFD “s/s” and “s/l” allele group in comparison to each of the remaining three groups, indicating a gene by environment (GxE) interaction. PMID:20692103

  2. Early-life stress, corticotropin-releasing factor, and serotonin transporter gene: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Jeremy D; Abdallah, Chadi G; Kaufman, Joan; Gelernter, Joel; Smith, Eric L P; Perera, Tarique D; Dwork, Andrew J; Kaffman, Arie; Gorman, Jack M; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies have indicated a gene-by-environment interaction between serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. In addition, persistent elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations following early-life adversity has been posited to underlie the subsequent development of major depression. This pilot study tested the hypothesis that elevations of juvenile CSF CRF concentrations are, in part, determined by an interaction between polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR and early-life stress. Nine juvenile male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) had been raised under variable foraging demand (VFD) conditions, a nonhuman primate model of early-life stress, whereas nine subjects were normatively raised under LFD (low foraging demand) conditions. Genotyping revealed that four (44.4%) of the VFD-reared monkeys possessed at least one "s" allele whereas five VFD monkeys were of the l/l genotype. Of the nine LFD subjects, two (22%) had the s/l genotype and seven had the l/l genotype. A "juvenile" CSF sample was obtained at approximately 3 years of age. CSF CRF concentrations were elevated specifically in the VFD "s/s" and "s/l" allele group in comparison to each of the remaining three groups, indicating a gene-by-environment (G×E) interaction. PMID:20692103

  3. Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's `other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000ppm ref. ), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.

  4. Impact of early life stress on the pathogenesis of mental disorders: relation to brain oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Stefania; Colaianna, Marilena; Curtis, Logos

    2015-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable part of human life and it is experienced even before birth. Stress to some extent could be considered normal and even necessary for the survival and the regular psychological development during childhood or adolescence. However, exposure to prolonged stress could become harmful and strongly impact mental health increasing the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have attempted to clarify how the human central nervous system (CNS) reacts to early life stress, focusing mainly on neurobiological modifications. Oxidative stress, defined as a disequilibrium between the oxidant generation and the antioxidant response, has been recently described as a candidate for most of the observed modifications. In this review, we will discuss how prolonged stressful events during childhood or adolescence (such as early maternal separation, parental divorce, physical violence, sexual or psychological abuses, or exposure to war events) can lead to increased oxidative stress in the CNS and enhance the risk to develop psychiatric diseases such as anxiety, depression, drug abuse or psychosis. Defining the sources of oxidative stress following exposure to early life stress might open new beneficial insights in therapeutic approaches to these mental disorders. PMID:25564385

  5. The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Anne W.; Granger, Douglas A.; Riis, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children’s life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children’s environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

  6. Early Life Experience Shapes the Functional Organization of Stress-Responsive Visceral Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits. PMID:21497616

  7. Neurotrophic and neuroimmune responses to early-life Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Silvia; Scuri, Mario; Samsell, Lennie; Ducatman, Barbara; Bejarano, Pablo; Auais, Alexander; Doud, Melissa; Mathee, Kalai

    2010-01-01

    Early-life respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in children with cystic fibrosis or immune deficits. Although many of its clinical manifestations involve neural reflexes, little information is available on the peripheral nervous system of infected airways. This study sought to determine whether early-life infection triggers a neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory response, the mechanisms of this response, and its relationship with other immunoinflammatory pathways. Weanling and adult rats were inoculated with suspensions containing P. aeruginosa (PAO1) coated on alginate microspheres suspended in Tris-CaCl2 buffer. Five days after infection, rats were injected with capsaicin to stimulate nociceptive nerves in the airway mucosa, and microvascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. PAO1 increased neurogenic inflammation in the extra- and intrapulmonary compartments of weanlings but not in adults. The mechanism involves selective overexpression of NGF, which is critical for the local increase in microvascular permeability and for the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into infected lung parenchyma. These effects are mediated in part by induction of downstream inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially IL-1?, IL-18, and leptin. Our data suggest that neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory mechanisms play important roles in airway inflammation and hyperreactivity associated with P. aeruginosa when infection occurs early in life. PMID:20543002

  8. The Effect of Early Life Antibiotic Exposures on Diarrheal Rates Among Young Children in Vellore, India

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Westreich, Daniel; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Adair, Linda S.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Ward, Honorine D.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment of childhood illnesses is common in India. In addition to contributing to antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics might result in increased susceptibility to diarrhea through interactions with the gastrointestinal microbiota. Breast milk, which enriches the microbiota early in life, may increase the resilience of the microbiota against perturbations by antibiotics. Methods In a prospective observational cohort study, we assessed whether antibiotic exposures from 0–5 months affected rates of diarrhea up to age 3 years among 465 children from Vellore, India. Adjusting for treatment indicators, we modeled diarrheal rates among children exposed and unexposed to antibiotics using negative binomial regression. We further assessed whether the effect of antibiotics on diarrheal rates was modified by exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months. Results More than half of children (n=267, 57.4%) were given at least one course of antibiotics in the first 6 months of life. The adjusted relative incidence rate of diarrhea was 33% higher among children who received antibiotics under 6 months of age compared to those who did not (incidence rate ratio: 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.57). Children who were exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age did not have increased diarrheal rates following antibiotic use. Conclusions Antibiotic exposures early in life were associated with increased rates of diarrhea in early childhood. Exclusive breastfeeding might protect against this negative impact. PMID:25742244

  9. Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

  10. Epigenetics of gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring health: the time for action is in early stages of life

    PubMed Central

    Lehnen, Harald; Zechner, Ulrich; Haaf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic increase of type 2 diabetes and obesity in developed countries cannot be explained by overnutrition, physical inactivity and/or genetic factors alone. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular a shortage or excess of nutrients is associated with increased risks for many complex diseases later in life. An impressive example for the ‘fetal origins of adult disease’ is gestational diabetes mellitus which usually presents in 1% to >10% of third trimester pregnancies. Intrauterine hyperglycemia is not only associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but also with increased lifelong risks of the exposed offspring for obesity, metabolic, cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal overnutrition (and similarly undernutrition) lead to persistent epigenetic changes in developmentally important genes, influencing neuroendocrine functions, energy homeostasis and metabolism. The concept of fetal programming has important implications for reproductive medicine. Because during early development the epigenome is much more vulnerable to environmental cues than later in life, avoiding adverse environmental factors in the periconceptional and intrauterine period may be much more important for the prevention of adult disease than any (i.e. dietetic) measures in infants and adults. A successful pregnancy should not primarily be defined by the outcome at birth but also by the health status in later life. PMID:23515667

  11. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  12. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  13. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  14. Ph.D. Life Sciences Program Doctor of Philosophy in Science

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Ph.D. Life Sciences Program Doctor of Philosophy in Science Department(s) School of Life Science of Philosophy in Life Sciences will have fulfilled their professional goals, and will be competitive for career College College of Sciences Program Assessment Coordinator Jenifer Utz Five-Year Implementation Dates 2010

  15. Special Issue Introduction: Career and Life Planning Key Feature within Comprehensive Guidance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drier, Harry N.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rationale for including life planning in career guidance programs, describing how each of the following is served by life planning: counseling, assessment, credential portfolios, career and labor market information, employability skills, and work experience. Outlines elements of a comprehensive career and life planning program. (SK)

  16. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  17. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  18. Interactions Between Innate Immunity Genes and Early-Life Risk Factors in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Jung, Young-Ho; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Yu, Ho-Sung; Kim, Young-Joon; Kang, Mi-Jin; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Kang Seo; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common chronic disease. Many factors could affect the development of AR. We investigated early-life factors, such as delivery mode, feeding method, and use of antibiotics during infancy, which could affect the development of AR. In addition, how interactions between these factors and innate gene polymorphisms influence the development of AR was investigated. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,828 children aged 9-12 years was conducted. Three early-life factors and AR were assessed by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were done. Polymorphisms of TLR4 (rs1927911) and CD14 (rs2569190) were genotyped. Results Use of antibiotics during infancy increased the risk of AR (aOR [95% CI] 1.511 [1.222-2.037]) and atopic AR (aOR [95% CI], 1.565 [1.078-2.272]). There were synergistic interactions between caesarean delivery, formula feeding, and use of antibiotics in the rate of atopic AR (aOR [95% CI], 3.038 [1.256-7.347]). Additional analyses revealed that the risk for the development of AR or atopic AR subjects with the TLR4 CC genotype were highest when all the 3 early-life factors were present (aOR [95% CI], 5.127 [1.265-20.780] for AR; 6.078 [1.499-24.649] for atopic AR). In addition, the risk for the development of AR or atopic AR in subjects with the CD14 TT genotype were highest when all the 3 early-life factors were present (aOR [95% CI], 5.960 [1.421-15.002] for AR; 6.714 [1.440-31.312] for atopic AR). Conclusions Delivery mode, feeding method, and use of antibiotics during infancy appeared to have synergistic interactions in the development of AR. Gene-environment interactions between polymorphism of innate genes and early- life risk factors might affect the development of AR. PMID:25840711

  19. Early life-stage and multigeneration toxicity study with bisphenol A and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Staples, Charles A; Tilghman Hall, A; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Klecka, Gary M

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory guidelines for long term testing to assess the toxicity of xenobiotic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) with fish have focused on survival, growth, and development in early life stages. Early life stages are critical windows of exposure, but do not address later phases in the life cycle, such as reproduction, that are equally important for the continued survival of the organisms. Residual amounts of BPA are released to surface water. BPA has, therefore, been the subject of considerable toxicity testing with fish and other aquatic organisms. A long term multigeneration test with fish has been conducted to better interpret the environmental relevance of detectable levels of BPA. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 444 days over the course of three generations that included F0 reproducing adults, F1 eggs grown to be reproducing adults, and F2 eggs. Endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction, and vitellogenin concentrations. Concentrations tested ranged from 1 to 1,280 ?g/L. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) of 640 ?g/L and higher for growth parameters show few differences between age or generation. Reproductive NOEC in F0 and F1 breeding pairs were 640 and 160 ?g/L, respectively. The lowest NOEC related to survival, growth and development or reproduction was 16 ?g/L for F2 hatching success. This long term study covered both early life and adult reproduction stages that allowed examination of all critical windows of exposure. Overall, NOEC ranging from 16 to 1,280 ?g/L were found, which are well above median and upper 95th percentile concentrations of BPA in fresh waters in North America and Europe (0.081 and 0.47 ?g/L and 0.01 and 0.035 ?g/L, respectively). The likelihood is low that measured concentrations of BPA in surface water would affect fish, even if exposed over more than one generation. PMID:21700340

  20. Early-life nutritional environment and spatial navigation in the water shrew, Sorex palustris (Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F

    2004-10-01

    Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris. PMID:15907068

  1. Is Early Life Wheeze Associated with Lung Function at Age 6 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of wheeze is unknown and the role of early life wheeze in subsequent health is not clearly understood. Our goal was to calculate the age-specific incidence of wheeze and determine whether wheezing at particular times in early life was predictive of abnormal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), percent predicted FEV1 and current asthma at age 6 years. Methods Using data from a birth cohort study with annual report of wheezing (Childhood Allergy Study) and spirometry and methacholine challenge at age 6 years, the age-specific incidence of wheeze was determined using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the associations between the presence of age-specific wheezing and the outcomes of current asthma, AHR and percent predicted FEV1 at age 6 years. Results The 6-year cumulative incidence of wheezing was higher for boys (66.2%, 95% CI 59.8%, 72.6%) than girls (47.6% 95% CI 41.4%, 53.8%). There was no age when wheezing was more strongly associated with either AHR or percent predicted FEV1 at 6 years. Only wheeze in the fifth year among males and in females, both wheezing in the fourth and fifth years were positively predictive of current asthma at age 6. This is likely due to the definition of current asthma (ever doctor diagnosis and either medication or symptoms in last year). Eczema, parental asthma history and total cord blood IgE did not affect these associations. Conclusions Wheezing at any particular time in early life may not be predictive of early childhood lung function. PMID:19205282

  2. 34 CFR 303.210 - Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs. 303.210 Section 303.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  3. “Read My Story!” Using the Early Authors Program to Promote Early Literacy Among Diverse, Urban Preschool Children in Poverty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith K. Bernhard; Adam Winsler; Charles Bleiker; Jorge Ginieniewicz; Amy L. Madigan

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the utility of the Early Authors Program, a 12-month early literacy intervention emphasizing highly meaningful language interactions that was implemented in childcare facilities in an ethnically and linguistically diverse, urban, low-income community. Children learn to be writers and readers by creating their own self-authored, storybook texts, supported by the sensitive guidance of adults. Children (n = 280)

  4. "Read My Story!" Using the Early Authors Program to Promote Early Literacy among Diverse, Urban Preschool Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhard, Judith K.; Winsler, Adam; Bleiker, Charles; Ginieniewicz, Jorge; Madigan, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the utility of the Early Authors Program, a 12-month early literacy intervention emphasizing highly meaningful language interactions that was implemented in childcare facilities in an ethnically and linguistically diverse, urban, low-income community. Children learn to be writers and readers by creating their own…

  5. Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

  6. A Comparison of Early Immersion and Classes d'Accueil Programs at the Kindergarten Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiv, Ellen

    A study was carried out to assess the French language proficiency of students enrolled in two different programs at the kindergarten level in Montreal: an early immersion program and a "class d'accueil" program. Three groups of students were tested: (1) an early immersion class; (2) a "classe d'accueil," or class for immigrant children, located in…

  7. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  8. Early Life Stress, MAOA, and Gene-Environment Interactions Predict Behavioral Disinhibition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Steer, Colin D.; Newman, Timothy K.; Gibson, Nerea; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth – 3 years) stressors to influence behavior in pre-pubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, U.K., is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first three years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3 ½ years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of pre-pubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR - stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

  9. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schokker, Dirkjan; Zhang, Jing; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and immune development have been described recently. Here we studied whether the early life administration of antibiotics has long-lasting effects on the pig’s intestinal microbial community and on gut functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the long-lasting effect of early-life treatment, piglets were divided into three different groups receiving the following treatments: 1) no antibiotics and no stress, 2) antibiotics and no stress, and 3) antibiotics and stress. All treatments were applied at day four after birth. Sampling of jejunal content for community scale microbiota analysis, and jejunal and ileal tissue for genome-wide transcription profiling, was performed at day 55 (~8 weeks) and day 176 (~25 weeks) after birth. Antibiotic treatment in combination with or without exposure to stress was found to have long-lasting effects on host intestinal gene expression involved in a multitude of processes, including immune related processes. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained in this study indicate that early life (day 4 after birth) perturbations have long-lasting effects on the gut system, both in gene expression (day 55) as well as on microbiota composition (day 176). At day 55 high variance was observed in the microbiota data, but no significant differences between treatment groups, which is most probably due to the newly acquired microbiota during and right after weaning (day 28). Based on the observed difference in gene expression at day 55, it is hypothesized that due to the difference in immune programming during early life, the systems respond differently to the post-weaning newly acquired microbiota. As a consequence, the gut systems of the treatment groups develop into different homeostasis. PMID:25658611

  10. The known knowns, the known unknowns, and beyond: early life history perspective for the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life history research has been crucial for understanding and managing fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes and beyond. Much is known about spawning sites, temperatures at spawning, incubation periods, spawning substrates, and other factors surrounding reproduction for ma...

  11. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  12. Programmed life span in the context of evolvability.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Joshua; Martins, André C R

    2014-09-01

    Population turnover is necessary for progressive evolution. In the context of a niche with fixed carrying capacity, aging contributes to the rate of population turnover. Theoretically, a population in which death is programmed on a fixed schedule can evolve more rapidly than one in which population turnover is left to a random death rate. Could aging evolve on this basis? Quantitative realization of this idea is problematic, since the short-term individual fitness cost is likely to eliminate any hypothetical gene for programmed death before the long-term benefit can be realized. In 2011, one of us proposed the first quantitative model based on this mechanism that robustly evolves a finite, programmed life span. That model was based on a viscous population in a rapidly changing environment. Here, we strip this model to its essence and eliminate the assumption of environmental change. We conclude that there is no obvious way in which this model is unrealistic, and that it may indeed capture an important principle of nature's workings. We suggest aging may be understood within the context of the emerging science of evolvability. PMID:25141139

  13. National Program on Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Education Program and Research Support Literature--A State of the Art Review. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James O.

    A review of early childhood programs of the sixties is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: Converging Forces and Orthodoxies; Educational Programming; Review Criteria and Procedures; Program Review Structural Outline; Instructional Systems; Delivery Systems; Evaluation Systems; and Support Systems. The problems of…

  14. Early life environment and developmental immunotoxicity in inflammatory dysfunction and disease

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Cynthia A.; Dietert, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    Components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells are instrumental in determining the fate of immune responses and are, also, among the most sensitive targets of early life environmental alterations including developmental immunotoxicity (DIT). DIT can impede innate immune cell maturation, disrupt tissue microenvironment, alter immune responses to infectious challenges, and disrupt regulatory responses. Dysregulation of inflammation, such as that observed with DIT, has been linked with an increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases in both children and adults. In this review, we discuss the relationship between early-life risk factors for innate immune modulation and promotion of dysregulated inflammation associated with chronic inflammatory disease. The health risks from DIT-associated inflammation may extend beyond primary immune dysfunction to include an elevated risk of several later-life, inflammatory-mediated diseases that target a wide range of physiological systems and organs. For this reason, determination of innate immune status should be an integral part of drug and chemical safety evaluation.

  15. Promoting our understanding of neural plasticity by exploring developmental plasticity in early and adult life.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs Domínguez, Paloma

    2014-08-01

    Developmental plasticity (DP) is widely considered to be a property of early life stages, but evidence suggests it can be reactivated in mature brains. For example, recent developments on animal models suggest that experience in enriched environments (EE) can induce DP and enable adult recovery from amblyopia; even when the typical critical period for that recovery has closed. An interesting body of evidence suggests that extrapolation of the rejuvenatory power of that paradigm in mature human brains is feasible. These studies show that exposure to EE throughout life is associated with a delay, or even prevention, of age-related cognitive deficits. Consequently, it can be concluded that DP might underlie the neuroprotective effects against a neurocognitive breakdown that have been observed, and that EE exposure later in life might induce DP in a similar way to early EE exposure. Thus, the DP might exert its influence beyond the typical developing age ranges: childhood and adolescence. Although further research is still required, the observation of EE related neuroprotective effects are a breakthrough in the study of DP in humans and new advances in our understanding of neural plasticity have thus been reached. PMID:24942566

  16. Predictors of work-related sensitisation, allergic rhinitis and asthma in early work life.

    PubMed

    Kellberger, Jessica; Peters-Weist, Astrid S; Heinrich, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Susanne; Vogelberg, Christian; Roller, Diana; Genuneit, Jon; Weinmayr, Gudrun; von Mutius, Erika; Heumann, Christian; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2014-09-01

    Although work-related asthma and allergies are a huge burden for society, investigation of occupational exposures in early work life using an unexposed reference group is rare. Thus, the present analyses aimed to assess the potential impact of occupational exposure and other risk factors on the prevalence of work-related sensitisation and incidence of allergic rhinitis/asthma using a population-based approach and taking into account an unexposed reference group. In SOLAR (Study on Occupational Allergy Risks) II, German participants of ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase II were followed from childhood (9-11 years) until early adulthood (19-24 years). Data on 1570 participants were available to fit predictive models. Occupational exposure was not statistically significantly associated with disease prevalence/incidence. Sensitisation in childhood, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke exposure during puberty, sex and study location were statistically significant predictors of outcome. Our results indicate that occupational exposure is of little relevance for work-related sensitisation prevalence and allergic rhinitis/asthma incidence in early work life, while other risk factors can be used to improve career guidance for adolescents. Further research on the role of a potential healthy hire effect and the impact of longer exposure duration is needed. PMID:24969650

  17. Peanut sensitisation and allergy: influence of early life exposure to peanuts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rachel L; Miles, Lisa M; Lunn, Joanne; Devereux, Graham; Dearman, Rebecca J; Strid, Jessica; Buttriss, Judith L

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the influence of early life exposure (maternal and childhood) to peanuts and the subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts during childhood. Studies were identified using electronic databases and bibliography searches. Studies that assessed the impact of non-avoidance compared with avoidance or reduced quantities of peanuts or peanut products on either sensitisation or allergy to peanuts, or both outcomes, were eligible. Six human studies were identified: two randomised controlled trials, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies. In addition, published animal and mechanistic studies, relevant to the question of whether early life exposure to peanuts affects the subsequent development of peanut sensitisation, were reviewed narratively. Overall, the evidence reviewed was heterogeneous, and was limited in quality, for example, through lack of adjustment for potentially confounding factors. The nature of the evidence has therefore hindered the development of definitive conclusions. The systematic review of human studies and narrative expert-led reviews of animal studies do not provide clear evidence to suggest that either maternal exposure, or early or delayed introduction of peanuts in the diets of children, has an impact upon subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts. Results from some animal studies (and limited evidence from human subjects) suggest that the dose of peanuts is an important mediator of peanut sensitisation and tolerance; low doses tend to lead to sensitisation and higher doses tend to lead to tolerance. PMID:20100372

  18. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  19. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

  20. Composite flywheel durability and life expectancy: test program

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.V.; Reifsnider, K.L.; Boyd, D.M.

    1981-07-14

    The goals of this project are to: determine the durability and life expectancy of flywheel rotors; identify critical performance and durability characteristics that control the long-term service and safety of rotors and rotor containments; and develop test procedures that can be used to economically evaluate the performance of flywheels under cyclic loading in the laboratory and to relate that information to long-term service behavior. Approximately half the project is complete, including the following tasks: a material property data base has been assembled for each major material to be used in the flywheels; material property data has been characterized and modeled; the initial version of a generic test program has been designed; and some NDE characterization of all prototype composite flywheels rotors has been conducted.

  1. For better or worse: reduced adult lifespan following early-life stress is transmitted to breeding partners

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stress–early stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320

  2. Targeting regulatory T cells to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life

    PubMed Central

    Ndure, Jorjoh; Flanagan, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses too many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs). It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limiting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine-induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future. PMID:25309517

  3. The relation between insecure attachment and posttraumatic stress: Early life versus adulthood traumas.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined the relations between insecure attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among community-dwelling older adults with exposure to a broad range of traumatic events. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance predicted more severe symptoms of PTSD and explained unique variance in symptom severity when compared to other individual difference measures associated with an elevated risk of PTSD, including NEO neuroticism and event centrality. A significant interaction between the developmental timing of the trauma and attachment anxiety revealed that the relation between PTSD symptoms and attachment anxiety was stronger for individuals with current PTSD symptoms associated with early life traumas compared to individuals with PTSD symptoms linked to adulthood traumas. Analyses examining factors that account for the relation between insecure attachment and PTSD symptoms indicated that individuals with greater attachment anxiety reported stronger physical reactions to memories of their trauma and more frequent voluntary and involuntary rehearsal of their trauma memories. These phenomenological properties of trauma memories were in turn associated with greater PTSD symptom severity. Among older adults with early life traumas, only the frequency of involuntary recall partially accounted for the relation between attachment anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Our differential findings concerning early life versus adulthood trauma suggest that factors underlying the relation between attachment anxiety and PTSD symptoms vary according to the developmental timing of the traumatic exposure. Overall our results are consistent with attachment theory and with theoretical models of PTSD according to which PTSD symptoms are promoted by phenomenological properties of trauma memories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26147517

  4. High Novelty-Seeking Rats Are Resilient to Negative Physiological Effects of the Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1–14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs’ already high physiological response to stress – stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs’ (but not bHRs’) neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals’ response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals. PMID:24090131

  5. Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2010-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier. PMID:20739029

  6. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  7. Long-term impact of early life events on physiology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Boersma, G J; Bale, T L; Casanello, P; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Suchecki, D; Tamashiro, K L

    2014-09-01

    This review discusses the effects of stress and nutrition throughout development and summarises studies investigating how exposure to stress or alterations in nutrition during the pre-conception, prenatal and early postnatal periods can affect the long-term health of an individual. In general, the data presented here suggest that that anything signalling potential adverse conditions later in life, such as high levels of stress or low levels of food availability, will lead to alterations in the offspring, possibly of an epigenetic nature, preparing the offspring for these conditions later in life. However, when similar environmental conditions are not met in adulthood, these alterations may have maladaptive consequences, resulting in obesity and heightened stress sensitivity. The data also suggest that the mechanism underlying these adult phenotypes might be dependent on the type and the timing of exposure. PMID:24690036

  8. Influence of Nutritional Deprivations in Early Life on Learning Behavior of Rats as Measured by Performance in a Water Maze

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD H. BARNES; SUSAN ROBERTSON CUNNOLD

    Learning behavior was studied in rats that were subjected to different forms of nutritional deprivation in early life. Food deprivation during the first 3 weeks of life was achieved by increasing the number of rat pups nursing from one lactating female. At 3 weeks of age rats were weaned and some were fed an extremely low protein diet for 8

  9. The ~3.4 billion-year-old Strelley Pool Sandstone: a new window into early life on Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wacey; Nicola McLoughlin; Owen R. Green; John Parnell; Crispin A. Stoakes; Martin D. Brasier

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and understanding of the early fossil record on Earth is vital to the success of missions searching for life on other planets. Despite this, the evidence for life on Earth before ~3.0 Ga remains controversial. The discovery of new windows of preservation in the rock record more than 3.0 Ga would therefore be helpful to enhance our understanding

  10. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. PMID:24246856

  11. Investigating the early-life determinants of illness in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Zar, H J; Barnett, W; Myer, L; Stein, D J; Nicol, M P

    2015-06-01

    Respiratory disease is the predominant cause of illness in children globally. We describe a unique multidisciplinary South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), to investigate the incidence, risk factors, aetiology and long-term impact of early lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) on child health. Pregnant women from a poor, peri-urban community with high exposure to infectious diseases and environmental risk factors are enrolled with 1000 mother-child pairs followed for at least 5?years. Biomedical, environmental, psychosocial and demographic risk factors are longitudinally measured. Environmental exposures are measured using monitors placed at home visits. Lung function is measured in children at 6?weeks, annually and during LRTI episodes. Microbiological investigations including microbiome and multiplex PCR measures are done longitudinally and at LRTI episodes. The DCHS is a unique African birth cohort study that uses sophisticated measures to comprehensively investigate the early-life determinants of child health in an impoverished area of the world. PMID:25228292

  12. Serpentinization and its implications for life on the early Earth and Mars.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Mitch; Blake, David; Hoehler, Tori; McCollom, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Ophiolites, sections of ocean crust tectonically displaced onto land, offer significant potential to support chemolithoautotrophic life through the provision of energy and reducing power during aqueous alteration of their highly reduced mineralogies. There is substantial chemical disequilibrium between the primary olivine and pyroxene mineralogy of these ophiolites and the fluids circulating through them. This disequilibrium represents a potential source of chemical energy that could sustain life. Moreover, E (h)-pH conditions resulting from rock- water interactions in ultrabasic rocks are conducive to important abiotic processes antecedent to the origin of life. Serpentinization--the reaction of olivine- and pyroxene-rich rocks with water--produces magnetite, hydroxide, and serpentine minerals, and liberates molecular hydrogen, a source of energy and electrons that can be readily utilized by a broad array of chemosynthetic organisms. These systems are viewed as important analogs for potential early ecosystems on both Earth and Mars, where highly reducing mineralogy was likely widespread in an undifferentiated crust. Secondary phases precipitated during serpentinization have the capability to preserve organic or mineral biosignatures. We describe the petrology and mineral chemistry of an ophiolite-hosted cold spring in northern California and propose criteria to aid in the identification of serpentinizing terranes on Mars that have the potential to harbor chemosynthetic life. PMID:16689652

  13. Development of a theory-based sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention program for Chinese early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingfang; Fongkaew, Warunee; Senaratana, Wilawan; Tonmukayakul, Ouyporn

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based program for Chinese early adolescents in order to promote their sexual and reproductive health and to prevent HIV infection. The program was designed based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and a needs assessment among the stakeholders. A technical collaborative action research approach was applied. The study's participants were 102 early adolescents in a public middle school in mainland China, with the involvement of other key stakeholders, including 15 teachers and 12 parents. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in the scores of sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills after the program's implementation. Meanwhile, qualitative data from the early adolescents' reflection indicated that the content was useful and comprehensive, the trainers were friendly and knowledgeable, and participatory learning with an "edutainment" style was especially impressive. Additionally, the early adolescents expressed that they could apply the knowledge and skills in their daily life, which would benefit themselves and their family and peers. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model could be explored in a non-Western context and the program was shown to be acceptable for use in a Chinese middle school setting. PMID:20727088

  14. PATHWAYS FOR UREA PRODUCTION DURING EARLY LIFE OF AN AIR BREATHING TELEOST, THE AFRICAN CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS BURCHELL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BENDIK F. TERJESEN; TERRY D. CHADWICK; JOHAN A. J. VERRETH; IVAR RØNNESTAD

    Embryos and larvae of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus excrete significant quantities of urea. The present study focused on the potential urea-generating pathways during early development of this teleost; uricolysis, argininolysis and the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC). Uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and ureidoglycollate lyase of the uricolytic pathway were expressed in all early life stages and in adult liver of C. gariepinus.

  15. Some physiological effects of cadmium on the early life stages of the estuarine teleost Fundulus similis 

    E-print Network

    McCulloch, Wayne LeRoy

    1977-01-01

    . , Southern Illinois University Chairman of Advisory Conimi ttee: Dr, 8. N. Neff Acute I;oxicity studies on two early life stages of i-u?dulus simi )is indicated ". haI tivo week post hatch larvae are m~re sensitive o cadmium ~x"closure t, han 5-6 day... indebted to Dr Jerry M. Neff whose advise and support made the completion ~f this degree poss- ible. I would also like to thank the members of our lab who have given help and advise during the course of study. This study has been supported in part...

  16. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and...ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention...

  17. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Niño, an Early Child Development Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Peairson; Ann M. Berghout Austin; Cyle Nielsen de Aquino; Elizabeth Urbieta de Burró

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Niño, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at least half the child's life.

  18. Neuropeptides as mediators of the early-life impact on the brain; implications for alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The brain is constantly exposed to external and internal input and to function in an ever-changing environment we are dependent on processes that enable the brain to adapt to new stimuli. Exposure to postnatal environmental stimuli can interfere with vital adaption processes and cause long-term changes in physiological function and behavior. Early-life alterations in brain function may result in impaired ability to adapt to new situations, in altered sensitivity to challenges later in life and thereby mediate risk or protection for psychopathology such as alcohol use disorders (AUD). In clinical research the studies of mechanisms, mediators, and causal relation between early environmental factors and vulnerability to AUD are restricted and attempts are made to find valid animal models for studies of the early-life influence on the brain. This review focuses on rodent models and the effects of adverse and naturalistic conditions on peptide networks within the brain and pituitary gland. Importantly, the consequences of alcohol addiction are not discussed but rather neurobiological alterations that can cause risk consumption and vulnerability to addiction. The article reviews earlier results and includes new data and multivariate data analysis with emphasis on endogenous opioid peptides but also oxytocin and vasopressin. These peptides are vital for developmental processes and it is hypothesized that early-life changes in peptide networks may interfere with neuronal processes and thereby contribute the individual vulnerability for AUD. The summarized results indicate a link between early-life rearing conditions, opioids, and ethanol consumption and that the ethanol-induced effects and the treatment with opioid antagonists later in life are dependent on early-life experiences. Endogenous opioids are therefore of interest to further study in the early-life impact on individual differences in vulnerability to AUD and treatment outcome. PMID:22783165

  19. Annual program analysis of the NASA Space Life Sciences Research and Education Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The basic objectives of this contract are to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad are recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system. To fulfill the contract objectives, a cadre of staff and visiting scientists, consultants, experts, and subcontractors has been assembled into a unique organization dedicated to the space life sciences. This organization, USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences, provides an academic atmosphere, provides an organizational focal point for science and educational activities, and serves as a forum for the participation of eminent scientists in the biomedical programs of NASA. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate adherence to the requirement of Contract NAS9-18440 for a written review and analysis of the productivity and success of the program. In addition, this report makes recommendations for future activities and conditions to further enhance the objectives of the program and provides a self-assessment of the cost performance of the contract.

  20. Modifiable early-life risk factors for childhood adiposity and overweight: an analysis of their combined impact and potential for prevention1234

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Barton, Benjamin D; Law, Catherine M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early life may be a “critical period” when appetite and regulation of energy balance are programmed, with lifelong consequences for obesity risk. Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between the number of early-life risk factors and obesity outcomes among children in a prospective birth cohort (Southampton Women's Survey). Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Obesity outcomes examined when the children were aged 4 and 6 y were BMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–assessed fat mass, overweight, or obesity (International Obesity Task Force). Data were available for 991 mother-child pairs, with children born between 1998 and 2003. Results: Of the children, 148 (15%) had no early-life risk factors, 330 (33%) had 1, 296 (30%) had 2, 160 (16%) had 3, and 57 (6%) had 4 or 5. At both 4 and 6 y, there were positive graded associations between number of early-life risk factors and each obesity outcome (all P < 0.001). After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001). Conclusions: Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood. These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:25646335

  1. The effects of early life stress on the epigenome: From the womb to adulthood and even before.

    PubMed

    Provençal, Nadine; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to early life stress (ELS), such as childhood abuse and neglect is a well established major risk factor for developing psychiatric and behavioral disorders later in life. Both prenatal and postnatal stressors have been shown to have a long-lasting impact on adult pathological states where the type and timing of the stressor are important factors to consider. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the biological embedding of ELS. A number of studies now indicate that the epigenome is responsive to external environmental exposures, including the social environment, both during intra-uterine development and after birth. In this review, we summarize the evidence of long-lasting effects of ELS on mental health and behavior and highlight common and distinct epigenetic effects of stress exposure at different stages during development. These stages include postnatal stress, prenatal stress, i.e. in utero and stress occurring pre-conception, i.e. effects of stress exposure transmitted to the next generation. We also delineate the evidence for the possible molecular mechanisms involved in epigenetic programming by ELS and how these maybe distinct, according to the timing of the stress exposure. PMID:25218020

  2. Development of individual differences in stress responsiveness: an overview of factors mediating the outcome of early life experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanne E. F. Claessens; Nikolaos P. Daskalakis; Rixt van der Veen; Melly S. Oitzl; E. Ronald de Kloet; Danielle L. Champagne

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  Human epidemiology and animal studies have convincingly shown the long-lasting impact of early life experiences on the development\\u000a of individual differences in stress responsiveness in later life. The interplay between genes and environment underlies this phenomenon.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We provide an overview of studies investigating the impact of early life experiences on the development of individual differences\\u000a in neuroendocrine stress responsiveness in

  3. Composite-flywheel durability and life. Part I. Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.V.; Reifsnider, K.L.

    1982-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that flywheels made from composite materials are capable of storing energy at a significantly greater energy density than flywheels made from conventional metals. Composite flywheels which can store up to 80 Wh/kg have been successfully tested. In addition, composite flywheels are inherently safer for applications in vehicles and other devices since the failure of such wheels does not produce large pieces of heavy material that become dangerous projectiles, but generally produces a large number of pieces varying in size from chunks of delaminated laminates to dust and string- or straw-like matter. Composite flywheels are also thought to be more durable since composite materials generally perform very well under long-term and fatigue loading, frequently better than metals. However, the relatively limited experience that has been gained in using composite materials in high performance structures for long periods of time requires that special care be taken to verify the durability of any such design by experimental programs. An experimental program designed to establish the durability and life of the composite flywheel designs available at this time is presented. The objectives of the test program are as follows: to establish the durability and lifetime of flywheel rotors under conditions which include all of the essential details of the spectrum loading that rotors are likely to sustain as an energy storage device for various applications; to identify critical performance and durability characteristics which potentially limit the long term use of the rotor designs currently under development; and to develop test techniques and philosophies which can be used for fatigue testing of flywheels and to relate specimen data to rotor performance. Part I consists of the development of the test plan methodology.

  4. Prenatal and Early Life Exposure to Stressful Life Events and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Population-Based Studies in Sweden and England

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Dheeraj; Golding, Jean; Magnusson, Cecilia; Steer, Colin; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been suggested as a potential risk factor for offspring Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but the literature is limited and inconsistent. We tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to stressful life events would be associated with increased risks of offspring ASD, and that these risks would be highest for exposures during the prenatal period. Methods and Results We used prospectively collected data from two large population based studies in Sweden and England. In the Swedish study of 4429 ASD cases and 43277 controls, our exposure comprised the occurrence of any severe life event before and during pregnancy and the child's early life. In the English study (maximum n?=?11554, ASD n?=?72), we studied the risk of offspring ASD in relation to a combined maternal exposure to multiple (up to 42) common and rare life events, as well as their perceived impact upon the mother during pregnancy and early life. In crude and adjusted regression analyses in both studies, we found no evidence of an association between prenatal life events, or their number and perceived impact and the risk of offspring ASD. Sub-group analysis of ASD with and without intellectual disability in the Swedish study yielded similar results. Conclusion We found no evidence to support the hypotheses that exposure to stressful life events during the prenatal period is associated with an increased risk of offspring ASD. PMID:22719977

  5. Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention) activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1) Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2) Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3) Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4) Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation design is constrained by the lack of a non-K-GFYL control group, short time frames and delayed funding of this large scale evaluation across all intervention settings. However, despite this, the evaluation will generate valuable evidence about the utility of a community-wide environmental approach to preventing childhood obesity which will inform future public health policies and health promotion programs internationally. Trial Registration ACTRN12609001075279 PMID:20507634

  6. Trans-generational Effects of Early Life Stress: The Role of Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Claudia; Lee-McDermott, Zoe; Medina, Liorimar Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Using a rodent paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), we examined whether IMS-triggered behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes of the stress-susceptible mouse strain Balb/c are propagated across generations. These phenotypes include impaired emotional behavior and deficits in executive cognitive functions in adulthood, and they are associated with increased acetylation of histone H4K12 protein (acH4K12) in the forebrain neocortex. These behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes are transmitted to the first progeny of IMS Balb/c mothers, but not fathers, and cross-fostering experiments revealed that this transmission is triggered by maternal behavior and modulated by the genetic background of the pups. In the continued absence of the original stressor, this transmission fades in later progenies. An adolescent treatment that lowers the levels of acH4K12 in IMS Balb/c mice augments their emotional abnormality but abolishes their cognitive deficits. Conversely, a treatment that further elevates the levels of acH4K12 improved the emotional phenotype but had no effects on the cognitive deficits. Moreover, treatments that prevent the emergence of either emotional or cognitive deficits in the mother also prevent the establishment of such deficits in her offspring, indicating that trans-generational effects of early life stress can be prevented. PMID:24786242

  7. Growth retardation at early life and metabolic adaptation among North Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-K; Nam, S-Y; Hoffman, D J

    2015-08-01

    The high prevalence of obesity is a major public health issue and contributes to the 'double burden' of disease in developing countries. Early exposure to poor nutrition may cause metabolic adaptations that, when accompanied by exposure to 'affluent' nutrition, may increase the risk for obesity and other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine differences in energy metabolism and nutritional status between normal-height and growth-retarded North Korean children living in South Korea. A total of 29 children were recruited and underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient (RQ), anthropometrics and dietary intake. There was no difference in REE or any assessment of obesity between the growth-retarded and normal-height children. Children who were classified as growth retarded (HAZ<-1.0) or stunted (HAZ<-2.0) had a significantly higher RQ (?=0.036 or 0.060, respectively, P=0.018 or 0.016), independent of sex, age, fat-free mass, fat mass and food quotient, compared with children with normal height. The results from this study, the first from an Asian population, add to the growing body of literature suggesting that undernutrition early in life results in adaptations in energy metabolism that favor fat deposition, increasing the risk of stunted children becoming overweight or obese later in life. Continued research on this topic is warranted, given the continued rise in the prevalence of the double burden in transitional countries. PMID:25997456

  8. Intestinal Microbial Diversity during Early-Life Colonization Shapes Long-Term IgE Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cahenzli, Julia; Köller, Yasmin; Wyss, Madeleine; Geuking, Markus B.; McCoy, Kathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microbial exposure following birth profoundly impacts mammalian immune system development. Microbiota alterations are associated with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders with elevated serum IgE as a hallmark. The previously reported abnormally high serum IgE levels in germ-free mice suggests that immunoregulatory signals from microbiota are required to control basal IgE levels. We report that germ-free mice and those with low-diversity microbiota develop elevated serum IgE levels in early life. B cells in neonatal germ-free mice undergo isotype switching to IgE at mucosal sites in a CD4 T-cell- and IL-4-dependent manner. A critical level of microbial diversity following birth is required in order to inhibit IgE induction. Elevated IgE levels in germ-free mice lead to increased mast-cell-surface-bound IgE and exaggerated oral-induced systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, appropriate intestinal microbial stimuli during early life are critical for inducing an immunoregulatory network that protects from induction of IgE at mucosal sites. PMID:24237701

  9. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lasse Fast; Hansen, Michael M; Pertoldi, Cino; Holdensgaard, Gert; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-12-22

    Knowledge of local adaptation and adaptive potential of natural populations is becoming increasingly relevant due to anthropogenic changes in the environment, such as climate change. The concern is that populations will be negatively affected by increasing temperatures without the capacity to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits. These populations spawn in rivers that experience different temperature conditions during the time of incubation of eggs and embryos. They were reared in a common-garden experiment at three different temperatures. Quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) exceeded neutral molecular differentiation (FST) for two traits, indicating local adaptation. A temperature effect was observed for three traits. However, this effect varied among populations due to locally adapted reaction norms, corresponding to the temperature regimes experienced by the populations in their native environments. Additive genetic variance and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes. PMID:18755673

  10. Dimensions of social capital and life adjustment in the transition to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Gregory S; Erath, Stephen A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2011-11-01

    The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult, life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with parents, peers, and romantic partners that served as indicators of a latent construct of social capital depth, and (b) a measure of number of close friends. In follow-up interviews at age 24, participants reported on their behavioral adjustment, educational attainment, and arrests and illicit substance use. Early-adolescent assessments of behavioral adjustment and academic performance served as controls; data on what were construed as interpersonal assets (teacher-rated social skills) and opportunities (family income) were also collected at this time. Results showed that depth was associated with overall better young-adult adjustment, net of prior adjustment, and assets and opportunities. Breadth was only modestly associated with later outcomes, and when its overlap with depth was taken into account, breadth predicted higher levels of subsequent externalizing problems. These findings are consistent with the notion that social capital is multidimensional and that elements of it confer distinct benefits during an important life transition. PMID:22822281

  11. Phenotypic and fitness consequences of maternal nest-site choice across multiple early life stages.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Timothy S; Warner, Daniel A; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-02-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. picta hibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the effects of the incubation nest with that of the hibernation nest. Incubation nest explained little variation in phenotypes at spring emergence, but winter nest site was important. We found no evidence that mothers select nest sites specific to reaction norms of their own offspring, suggesting that females may select nest sites with microhabitats that broadly meet similar requirements across the population. After hibernation, we released hatchlings to assess performance and phenotypic selection during dispersal. Hibernation nest site influenced physiological performance during dispersal, and we detected nonlinear selection on hatchling carapace length. Our experiment demonstrates that nest-site choice has substantial effects on phenotypic variation and fitness across multiple early life stages. PMID:23691653

  12. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  13. Michigan Early Childhood Education Preschool Program Process Evaluation Report, 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; Quimper, Barry E.

    This document reports the findings of a process evaluation of the Saginaw, Michigan Early Childhood Education Preschool program for 4-year-olds at risk of academic failure. As of January, 1992, a total of 292 pupils were attending the program at 9 sites. The goal of the program is to enable 4-year-olds to develop school readiness skills. Program

  14. Michigan Early Childhood Education Preschool Program Process Evaluation Report, 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; Quimper, Barry E.

    This document reports the findings of a process evaluation of the Saginaw, Michigan Early Childhood Education Preschool program for 4-year-olds at risk of academic failure. As of December, 1992, a total of 279 pupils were attending the program at 8 sites. The goal of the program is to enable 4-year-olds to develop school readiness skills. Program

  15. Maximizing the Impact of State Early Childhood Home Visitation Programs. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NGA Center for Best Practices, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical time for cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Many states have invested in comprehensive early childhood care and education systems that offer a wide range of supports and services to families from the prenatal period through school entry. Home visiting programs are an important component of state early

  16. Supporting Our Youngest Children: Early Head Start Programs in 2010. Brief No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie; Ewen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Since 1965, Head Start has provided high quality early education and comprehensive support services to the nation's poorest children from ages 3 through school age. In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of poor children under age 3 and pregnant women. Head Start and Early Head Start's…

  17. 77 FR 13343 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug...FDA-2011-N-0788] Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational...Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device...Including Certain First in Human (FIH) Studies...intended to facilitate early feasibility studies...

  18. 78 FR 23941 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug...FDA-2011-N-0788] Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational...Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device...Including Certain First in Human (FIH) Studies...intended to facilitate early feasibility studies...

  19. Early life social isolation alters corticotropin-releasing factor responses in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lukkes, Jodi L.; Summers, Cliff H.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Stress induced by early life social isolation leads to long-lasting alterations in stress responses and serotonergic activity. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurotransmitter that mediates stress responses and alters serotonergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that the stress of early life isolation enhances responses to CRF in adulthood by determining the effect of CRF infusions into the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN) on serotonin (5-HT) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of adult rats using in vivo microdialysis. Juvenile male rats were either isolated or housed in groups of 3 for a 3 week period beginning on postnatal day 21 after which, all rats were group-reared for an additional 2 weeks. Following the isolation/re-socialization procedure, infusion of 100 ng CRF into the dRN decreased 5-HT release in the NAc of group-reared rats. This treatment did not significantly affect 5-HT release in the NAc of isolation-reared animals. In contrast, infusion of 500 ng CRF into the dRN transiently increased 5-HT release in the NAc of both group-reared and isolated animals with isolated animals showing a more prolonged serotonergic response. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining for CRF receptors in the dRN showed that CRF2 receptor levels were increased in the dRN of isolation-reared animals when compared to group-reared rats. Taken together, the results suggest that isolation during the early part of development causes alterations in both CRF receptor levels and CRF-mediated serotonergic activity. These effects may underlie the increased sensitivity to stress observed in isolates. PMID:19010398

  20. Exposure to traffic and early life respiratory infection: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mary B; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Ljungman, Petter L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros; Melly, Steven J; Mittleman, Murray A; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-27

    We examined whether proximity to a major roadway and traffic density around the home during pregnancy are associated with risk of early life respiratory infection in a pre-birth cohort in the Boston area. We geocoded addresses for 1,263 mother-child pairs enrolled during the first trimester of pregnancy in Project Viva during 1999-2002. We calculated distance from home to nearest major roadway and traffic density in a 100?m buffer around the home. We defined respiratory infection as maternal report of ?1 doctor-diagnosed pneumonia, bronchiolitis, croup, or other respiratory infection from birth until the early childhood visit (median age 3.3). We used relative risk regression models adjusting for potential confounders to estimate associations between traffic exposures and risk of respiratory infection. Distance to roadway during pregnancy was associated with risk of respiratory infection. In fully adjusted models, relative risks (95% CI) for respiratory infection were: 1.30 (1.08, 1.55) for <100?m, 1.15 (0.93, 1.41) for 100 to <200?m, and 0.95 (0.84, 1.07) for 200 to <1,000?m compared with living ?1,000?m away from a major roadway. Each interquartile range increase in distance to roadway was associated with an 8% (95% CI 0.87, 0.98) lower risk, and each interquartile range increase in traffic density was associated with a 5% (95% CI 0.98, 1.13) higher risk of respiratory infection. Our findings suggest that living close to a major roadway during pregnancy may predispose the developing lung to infection in early life. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24678045

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of Interpersonal Mentoring Relationships in One Early Childhood Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaunae, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a greater understanding of the interpersonal relationships between mentors and mentees in one early childhood, teacher-initiated, mentoring program. The mentoring program was designed to facilitate the induction process of newly-employed teachers into the university-based early childhood center.…

  2. A Parent-Focused Early Intervention Program for Autism: Who Gets Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkin, Christina; Anderson, Angelika; Seymour, Fred; Moore, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The EarlyBird program is a psycho-educational early intervention program for parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). It aims to provide parents with skills to increase their child's communication and manage challenging behaviour using behavioural techniques. Method: Two interlinked studies examined access to the…

  3. Early Literacy Program, Grades 1 and 2, 1992-93. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, John S.

    A study evaluated the Early Literacy program that served 2,278 underachieving pupils in grades one (1,655) and two (623) who appeared unlikely to learn to read successfully without additional reading instruction. The Early Literacy program teacher and each small group of pupils worked together each day for 40-45 minutes on reading and writing…

  4. Do Early Childhood Programs Have Lasting Effects on Children? Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Early Intervention in Low Birthweight Premature Infants: Results at 18 Years of Age for the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP)" (M.C. McCormick, J.…

  5. Implementing an Early Intervention Program for Residential Students Who Present with Suicide Risk: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…

  6. Vermont Core Standards and Self-Assessment Tool for Center-Based Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Agency of Human Services, Waterbury.

    In response to the desire to create for child development services a unified system which shares common standards for quality and respects the diversity and uniqueness of individuals and of programs, a committee of the Early Childhood Work Group collected and compared all the different standards now in force for the early childhood programs in the…

  7. Environmental oxygen conditions during the origin and early evolution of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towe, Kenneth M.

    The well-known sensitivity of proteins and nucleic acids to UV-radiation requires that some internally consistent protection scenario be envisioned for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth. Although a variety of ozone-surrogates has been proposed, the available biochemical, geochemical and geological evidence best supports the conclusion that free oxygen was available at levels capable of providing at least a moderate ozone screen. Levels of oxygen near 1-2% of the present atmospheric level are consistent with such a screen, and with: (1) the biochemical needs of early procaryotes considered phylogenetically more primitive than the oxygen-producing Cyanobacteria; (2) the rare-earth element data from the oxide facies of the 3.8 Byr-old Isua banded-iron formations; (3) the nature and phylogenetic distribution of superoxide dismutases; (4) the need for aerobic recycling of early photosynthetic productivity dictated by the distribution of ancient sedimentary iron and organic carbon; (5) the incompatibility of dissolved reduced sulfur (to support anoxygenic photosynthesis) and ferrous iron (to support banded iron-formations) in the surface waters of the world oceans; and (6) the comparative oxygen and UV-sensitivities of modern procaryotes.

  8. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

  9. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  10. Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, 1979-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S.; Powers, Janet V.

    1990-01-01

    Publications of research sponsored by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program from 1979 to 1989 are listed. The CELSS Program encompasses research and technology with the goal of developing an autonomous bioregenerative life support system that continually recycles the solid, liquid, and gaseous materials essential for human life. The bibliography is divided into four major subject areas: food production, nutritional requirements, waste management, and systems management and control.

  11. Summary of the 1974 Evaluation of the Clinch-Powell Educational Cooperative Early Childhood Education Program: An Early Childhood Education Program in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vicki M.; O'Fallon, O. K.

    The Clinch-Powell Educational Cooperative Early Education project was designed to provide preschool experience for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in rural Appalachia who would otherwise not have been able to attend a preschool program. In addition, the program was designed: (1) to provide children with the opportunity to socialize with other…

  12. Early Education Pilot Program Using a Developmentally Appropriate Practice for Children with Language and Learning Problems: The GEL Program (Guidelines for Early Learning). A Condensed Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfer, Jeffrey Ian

    The paper describes the GEL (Guidelines for Early Learning) Program developed by the Easter Seal Society of Southwest Florida which serves children, aged 4-6 years, with language, learning, and/or developmental problems. Developmental theories of Piaget and Chomsky and the model of David Weikart's High Scope Program were used to develop the GEL…

  13. An assessment of oil spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 1: Early life history

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Moulton, L.L. [MJM Research, Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Gilbertson, L.G. [Genesis Technical Services, Pacific Beach, WA (United States); Maki, A.W. [Exxon Co. U.S.A., Houston, TX (United States); Skalski, J.R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses results of field programs initiated within a few days of the spill and designed to assess spill effects on critical early life stages of pink salmon in postspill years. Samples of water and stream sediments from throughout the spill area were used to define the exposure of pink salmon to residual hydrocarbons from the spill. Mean sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) up to 300 ppb were measured in oiled streams in 1989 and generally followed a downward trend toward background in 1990 and 1991. These PAH concentrations were then used in regression analyses of potential effects on key early life stages of pink salmon. Water samples taken from both nearshore feeding and rearing areas and offshore migratory areas show that hydrocarbon concentrations were from one to four orders of magnitude lower than concentrations reported in the literature to cause acute or chronic effects on fish species. The postspill field and laboratory studies of pink salmon early life stages included examination of potential effects on 1989, 1990, and 1991 eggs, fry, and juveniles. 28 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. An NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation links early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Aven, Linh; Paez-Cortez, Jesus; Achey, Rebecca; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Ram-Mohan, Sumati; Cruikshank, William W; Fine, Alan; Ai, Xingbin

    2014-02-01

    Children who are exposed to environmental respiratory insults often develop asthma that persists into adulthood. In this study, we used a neonatal mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation to understand the long-term effects of early childhood insults on airway structure and function. We showed that OVA sensitization and challenge in early life led to a 2-fold increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) innervation (P<0.05) and persistent airway hyperreactivity (AHR). In contrast, OVA exposure in adult life elicited short-term AHR without affecting innervation levels. We found that postnatal ASM innervation required neurotrophin (NT)-4 signaling through the TrkB receptor and that early-life OVA exposure significantly elevated NT4 levels and TrkB signaling by 5- and 2-fold, respectively, to increase innervation. Notably, blockade of NT4/TrkB signaling in OVA-exposed pups prevented both acute and persistent AHR without affecting baseline airway function or inflammation. Furthermore, biophysical assays using lung slices and isolated cells demonstrated that NT4 was necessary for hyperreactivity of ASM induced by early-life OVA exposure. Together, our findings show that the NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation plays a critical role in the alteration of the ASM phenotype during postnatal growth, thereby linking early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway dysfunction. PMID:24221086

  15. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.

  16. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.

  17. Sustaining Clinical Programs During Difficult Economic Times: A Case Series from the Hospital Elder Life Program

    PubMed Central

    SteelFisher, Gillian K.; Martin, Lauren A.; Dowal, Sarah L.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore strategies used by clinical programs to justify operations to decision-makers using the example of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), an evidence-based, cost-effective program to improve care for hospitalized older adults. DESIGN Qualitative study design utilizing 62 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with HELP staff members and hospital administrators between September 2008 and August 2009. SETTING 19 HELP sites in hospitals across the U.S. and Canada that had been recruiting patients for at least 6 months. PARTICIPANTS and MEASUREMENTS HELP staff and hospital administrator experiences sustaining the program in the face of actual or perceived financial threats, with a focus on factors they believe are effective in justifying the program to decision-makers in the hospital or health system. RESULTS Using the constant comparative method, a standard qualitative analysis technique, three major themes were identified across interviews. Each focuses on a strategy for successfully justifying the program and securing funds for continued operations: 1) interact meaningfully with decision-makers, including formal presentations that showcase operational successes, and also informal means that highlight the benefits of HELP to the hospital or health system; 2) document day-to-day, operational successes in metrics that resonate with decision-maker priorities; and 3) garner support from influential hospital staff that feed into administrative decision-making, particularly nurses and physicians. CONCLUSION As clinical programs face financially challenging times, it is important to find effective ways to justify their operations to decision-makers. Strategies described here may help clinically-effective and cost-effective programs sustain themselves, and thus may help improve care in their institutions. PMID:22091501

  18. Investigating alternatives to the fish early-life stage test: a strategy for discovering and annotating adverse outcome pathways for early fish development.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. PMID:24115264

  19. INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24115264

  20. Early life determinants of physical activity in 11 to 12 year olds: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine factors in early life (up to age 5 years) that are associated with objectively measured physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants Children aged 11-12 years from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Main outcome measure Physical activity levels in counts per minute (cpm) and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity for seven days measured with a uniaxial actigraph accelerometer. Results Valid actigraph data, defined as at least three days of physical activity for at least 10 hours a day, were collected from 5451 children. Several factors were associated with physical activity at ages 11-12 years. Regression coefficients are compared with the baseline of “none” for categorical variables: maternal brisk walking during pregnancy (regression coefficient 5.0, 95% confidence interval ?8.5 to 18.5; cpm for <1 h/wk and ?2 h/wk of physical activity 17.7, 5.3 to 30.1), maternal swimming during pregnancy (21.5, 10.9 to 32.1 and cpm for <1 h/wk and ?2 h/wk of physical activity 24.2, 7.8 to 40.7), parents’ physical activity when the child was aged 21 months (28.5, 15.2 to 41.8 and cpm of physical activity for either parent active and both parents active 33.5, 17.8 to 49.3), and parity assessed during pregnancy (2.9, ?7.6 to 13.4 and cpm of physical activity for 1 and ?2 parity 21.2, 7.1 to 35.3). Conclusions Few factors in early life predicted later physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Parents’ physical activity during pregnancy and early in the child’s life showed a modest association with physical activity of the child at age 11-12 years, suggesting that active parents tend to raise active children. Helping parents to increase their physical activity therefore may promote children’s activity. PMID:18037616

  1. Early-postnatal changes in adiposity and lipids profile by transgenerational developmental programming in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Ayuso, Miriam; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, both deficiency and excess, induces changes in the intrauterine environment and the metabolic status of the offspring, playing a key role in the growth, status of fitness/obesity and appearance of metabolic disorders during postnatal life. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be only limited to the first generation of descendants, the offspring directly exposed to metabolic challenges, but to subsequent generations. This study evaluated, in a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance, the existence and extent of transgenerational developmental programming effects. Pre- and postnatal development, adiposity and metabolic features were assessed in the second generation of piglets, descendant of sows exposed to either undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy. The results indicated that these piglets exhibited early-postnatal increases in adiposity and disturbances in lipid profiles compatible with the early prodrome of metabolic syndrome, with liver tissue also displaying evidence of paediatric liver disease. These features indicative of early-life metabolic disorders were more evident in the males that were descended from overfed grandmothers and during the transition from milk to solid feeding. Thus, this study provides evidence supporting transgenerational developmental programming and supports the necessity for the development of strategies for avoiding the current epidemics of childhood overweight and obesity. PMID:25107535

  2. Environmental control on early life stages of flatfishes in the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2009-06-01

    Several flatfishes spawn in oceanic waters and pelagic larvae are transported inshore to settle in the nursery areas, usually estuaries, where they remain during their juvenile life. Nursery areas appear as extremely important habitats, not only for juveniles but also for the earlier planktonic larval fish. Yet, the majority of nursery studies tend to focus only on one development stage, missing an integrative approach of the entire early life that fishes spent within a nursery ground. Thus, the present study assessed the influence of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the larval and juvenile flatfishes, throughout their nursery life in the Lima Estuary. Between April 2002 and April 2004, fortnightly subsurface ichthyoplankton samples were collected and juveniles were collected from October 2003 until September 2005. Larval assemblages comprised nine flatfish species, while only six were observed among the juvenile assemblages. Solea senegalensis and Platichthys flesus were the most abundant species of both fractions of the Lima Estuary flatfishes. Larval flatfish assemblages varied seasonally, without relevant differences between lower and middle estuary. Platichthys flesus dominated the spring samples and summer and autumn periods were characterized by an increase of overall abundance and diversity of larval flatfishes, mainly S. senegalensis, associated with temperature increase and reduced river flow. On the contrary, during the winter abundance sharply decreased, as a consequence of higher river run-off that might compromised the immigration of incompetent marine larvae. Juvenile flatfishes were more abundant in the middle and upper areas of the estuary, but the species richness was higher near the river mouth. Sediment type, distance from the river mouth, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were identified as the main environmental factors structuring the juvenile flatfish assemblages. Juveniles were spatially discrete, with the most abundant species S. senegalensis and P. flesus associated with the middle and upper estuary, while the remaining species were associated with the lower estuarine areas. The larval fraction exhibited distinct dynamics from the juvenile estuarine flatfish community. Larval flatfishes showed a strong seasonal structure mainly regulated by biological features as the spawning season and also by seasonal variations of water characteristics. On the other hand, juvenile flatfishes were markedly controlled by site specific characteristics such as sediments structure, distance from the river mouth and salinity regime. The present study emphasized the idea that the environmental control varies throughout the ontogenetic development, stressing the importance of integrating all the early life of a species in flatfish nursery studies.

  3. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms. PMID:25120258

  4. Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sloboda, Deborah M.; Li, Minglan; Patel, Rachna; Clayton, Zoe E.; Yap, Cassandra; Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies. PMID:24864200

  5. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

  6. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b?=??0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: ?0.71 to ?0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b?=??0.89, 95% CI: ?1.58 to ?0.20) and (b?=??0.65, 95% CI: ?1.25 to ?0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b?=??0.70, 95% CI: ?1.35 to ?0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  7. Chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Mank, M.; Swigert, J. [Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A 28-day post-hatch early life-stage development toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effects of acetone on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In this study, less than 24-hour old fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mL acetone/L and a negative control for a 4-day pre-hatch period and 28 days following hatch. During the pre-hatch period, no adverse effects on embryo survival or hatching success were observed in any of the treatment groups tested when compared to the negative control. From completion of matching to test termination, fathead minnows exposed to 4.0 mL acetone/L, experienced reduced survival, a statistically significant reduction in growth and impairment of critical behavioral functions when compared to the negative control group. Growth of fathead minnows exposed to 2.0 mL acetone/L also experienced a statistically significant effect upon growth when compared to the negative control, however, survival and behavior were not affected during the post-hatch period. Survival, growth, and behavior of fathead minnows exposed to 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mL acetone/L from hatching to test termination was comparable to the control group. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows exposed to acetone during early life-stage development was 1.0 mL acetone/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 2.0 mL acetone/L. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated to be 1.4 mL acetone/L.

  8. Evolutionarily-conserved prefrontal-amygdalar dysfunction in early-life anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Rasmus M.; Shackman, Alexander J.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Williams, Lisa E.; McFarlin, Daniel R.; Rogers, Gregory M.; Shelton, Steven E.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Davidson, Richard J.; Fox, Andrew S.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are endowed with a biology that renders them more reactive to novelty and potential threat. When extreme, this anxious temperament (AT) confers elevated risk for the development of anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. These disorders are highly prevalent, debilitating, and can be challenging to treat. The high-risk AT phenotype is expressed similarly in children and young monkeys and mechanistic work demonstrates that the central nucleus (Ce) of the amygdala is an important substrate. While it is widely believed that the flow of information across the structural network connecting the Ce to other brain regions underlies primates' capacity for flexibly regulating anxiety, the functional architecture of this network has remained poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in anesthetized young monkeys and quietly resting children with anxiety disorders to identify an evolutionarily-conserved pattern of functional connectivity relevant to early-life anxiety. Across primate species and levels of awareness, reduced functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a region thought to play a central role in the control of cognition and emotion, and the Ce was associated with increased anxiety assessed outside the scanner. Importantly, high-resolution 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging provided evidence that elevated Ce metabolism statistically mediates the association between prefrontal-amygdalar connectivity and elevated anxiety. These results provide new clues about the brain network underlying extreme early-life anxiety and set the stage for mechanistic work aimed at developing improved interventions for pediatric anxiety. PMID:24863147

  9. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh) [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)] [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia)] [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)] [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  10. A low ?-linolenic intake during early life increases adiposity in the adult guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) during early life may impact adult adipose tissue (AT) development. We investigated the effects of ?-linolenic acid (ALA) intake during the suckling/weaning period on AT development and metabolic markers in the guinea pig (GP). Methods Newborn GP were fed a 27%-fat diet (w/w %) with high (10%-ALA group), moderate (2.4%-ALA group) or low (0.8%-ALA group) ALA content (w/w % as total FA) until they were 21 days old (d21). Then all animals were switched to a 15%-fat diet containing 2% ALA (as total FA) until 136 days of age (d136). Results ALA and docosapentaenoic acid measured in plasma triglycerides (TG) at d21 decreased with decreasing ALA intake. Total body fat mass was not different between groups at d21. Adipose tissue TG synthesis rates and proliferation rate of total adipose cells, as assessed by 2H2O labelling, were unchanged between groups at d21, while hepatic de novo lipogenesis was significantly 2-fold increased in the 0.8%-ALA group. In older GP, the 0.8%-ALA group showed a significant 15-%-increased total fat mass (d79 and d107, p < 0.01) and epididymal AT weight (d136) and tended to show higher insulinemia compared to the 10%-ALA group. In addition, proliferation rate of cells in the subcutaneous AT was higher in the 0.8%-ALA (15.2 ± 1.3% new cells/5d) than in the 10%-ALA group (8.6 ± 1.7% new cells/5d, p = 0.021) at d136. AT eicosanoid profiles were not associated with the increase of AT cell proliferation. Conclusion A low ALA intake during early postnatal life promotes an increased adiposity in the adult GP. PMID:20205840

  11. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  12. Early-life seizures result in deficits in social behavior and learning

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Swann, John W.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Children with epilepsy show a high co-morbidity with psychiatric disorders and autism. One of the critical determinants of a child’s behavioral outcome with autism and cognitive dysfunction is the age of onset of seizures. In order to examine whether seizures during postnatal days 7–11 result in learning and memory deficits and behavioral features of autism we administered the inhalant flurothyl to induce seizures in C57BL/6 mice. Mice received three seizures per day for five days starting on postnatal day 7. Parallel control groups consisted of similarly handled animals that were not exposed to flurothyl and naïve mice. Subjects were then processed through a battery of behavioral tests in adulthood: elevated-plus maze, nose-poke assay, marble burying, social partition, social chamber, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze. Mice with early-life seizures had learning and memory deficits in the training portion of the Morris water maze (p < 0.05) and probe trial (p < 0.01). Mice with seizures showed no differences in marble burying, the nose-poke assay, or elevated plus-maze testing compared to controls. However, they showed a significant difference in the social chamber and social partition tests. Mice with seizures during postnatal days 7–11 showed a significant decrease in social interaction in the social chamber test and had a significant impairment in social behavior in the social partition test. Together, these results indicate that early life seizures result in deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory tasks and produce long-term disruptions in social behavior. PMID:24685665

  13. An NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation links early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Aven, Linh; Paez-Cortez, Jesus; Achey, Rebecca; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Ram-Mohan, Sumati; Cruikshank, William W.; Fine, Alan; Ai, Xingbin

    2014-01-01

    Children who are exposed to environmental respiratory insults often develop asthma that persists into adulthood. In this study, we used a neonatal mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation to understand the long-term effects of early childhood insults on airway structure and function. We showed that OVA sensitization and challenge in early life led to a 2-fold increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) innervation (P<0.05) and persistent airway hyperreactivity (AHR). In contrast, OVA exposure in adult life elicited short-term AHR without affecting innervation levels. We found that postnatal ASM innervation required neurotrophin (NT)-4 signaling through the TrkB receptor and that early-life OVA exposure significantly elevated NT4 levels and TrkB signaling by 5- and 2-fold, respectively, to increase innervation. Notably, blockade of NT4/TrkB signaling in OVA-exposed pups prevented both acute and persistent AHR without affecting baseline airway function or inflammation. Furthermore, biophysical assays using lung slices and isolated cells demonstrated that NT4 was necessary for hyperreactivity of ASM induced by early-life OVA exposure. Together, our findings show that the NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation plays a critical role in the alteration of the ASM phenotype during postnatal growth, thereby linking early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway dysfunction.—Aven, L., Paez-Cortez, J., Achey, R., Krishnan, R., Ram-Mohan, S., Cruikshank, W. W., Fine, A., Ai X. An NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation links early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway hyperreactivity. PMID:24221086

  14. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and ?(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n?=?182; PIAMA, n?=?244; and INMA, n?=?355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (? -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, ?(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277

  15. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy. PMID:25270249

  16. Early life stress produces compulsive-like, but not impulsive, behavior in females.

    PubMed

    Brydges, Nichola M; Holmes, Megan C; Harris, Anjanette P; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Adverse experiences during childhood are associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In particular, childhood abuse and neglect are risk factors for addictive disorders, such as substance misuse and pathological gambling. Impulsivity and compulsivity are key features of these disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether childhood adversity might increase vulnerability for addictive disorders through promotion of compulsive and impulsive behaviors. Rats were exposed to a brief, variable childhood or prepubertal stress protocol (Postnatal Days 25-27), and their behavior in a delay discounting task was compared with that of control animals in adulthood. Prepubertal stress produced compulsive-type behavior in females. Specifically, stressed females displayed inappropriate responses during a choice phase of the task, perseverating with nosepoke responding instead of choosing between 2 levers. Stressed females also showed learning impairments during task training. However, prepubertal stress was not associated with the development of impulsive behavior, as rates of delay discounting were not affected in either sex. Childhood adversity may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of addictive disorders by increasing perseveration in females. Perseverative behavior may therefore provide a viable therapeutic target for preventing the development of addictive disorders in individuals exposed to childhood adversity. These effects were not seen in males, highlighting sex differences in response to early life stress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030429

  17. Early Life Stress Produces Compulsive-Like, but Not Impulsive, Behavior in Females

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences during childhood are associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In particular, childhood abuse and neglect are risk factors for addictive disorders, such as substance misuse and pathological gambling. Impulsivity and compulsivity are key features of these disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether childhood adversity might increase vulnerability for addictive disorders through promotion of compulsive and impulsive behaviors. Rats were exposed to a brief, variable childhood or prepubertal stress protocol (Postnatal Days 25–27), and their behavior in a delay discounting task was compared with that of control animals in adulthood. Prepubertal stress produced compulsive-type behavior in females. Specifically, stressed females displayed inappropriate responses during a choice phase of the task, perseverating with nosepoke responding instead of choosing between 2 levers. Stressed females also showed learning impairments during task training. However, prepubertal stress was not associated with the development of impulsive behavior, as rates of delay discounting were not affected in either sex. Childhood adversity may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of addictive disorders by increasing perseveration in females. Perseverative behavior may therefore provide a viable therapeutic target for preventing the development of addictive disorders in individuals exposed to childhood adversity. These effects were not seen in males, highlighting sex differences in response to early life stress. PMID:26030429

  18. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The potential effects of high CO2 and associated ocean acidification (OA) in marine fishes and other non-calcified organisms are less well understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of early life stages (ELS) of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to a series of experimental manipulation of CO2 levels. Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and pH 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, or heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in the pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in the control treatment. There is no significant difference between the left and right otolith areas in each treatment. However, the average otolith area of larvae in the pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control. Such alterations in the developmental abnormalities and otolith size of marine medaka larvae due to elevated-CO2 levels suggests that this species will be increasingly challenged by future OA. Further studies of the impacts of OA on marine fish to assess whether or not the environmental influence in one generation can affect the later life history and the phenotype of subsequent generations are needed.

  19. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs.

    PubMed

    Herring, M J; Putney, L F; St George, J A; Avdalovic, M V; Schelegle, E S; Miller, L A; Hyde, D M

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O3) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA+O3) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA+O3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli. PMID:25545987

  20. Gene Transfer and the Reconstruction of Life's Early History from Genomic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogarten, J. Peter; Fournier, Gregory; Zhaxybayeva, Olga

    2008-03-01

    The metaphor of the unique and strictly bifurcating tree of life, suggested by Charles Darwin, needs to be replaced (or at least amended) to reflect and include processes that lead to the merging of and communication between independent lines of descent. Gene histories include and reflect processes such as gene transfer, symbioses and lineage fusion. No single molecule can serve as a proxy for the tree of life. Individual gene histories can be reconstructed from the growing molecular databases containing sequence and structural information. With some simplifications these gene histories can be represented by furcating trees; however, merging these gene histories into web-like organismal histories, including the transfer of metabolic pathways and cell biological innovations from now-extinct lineages, has yet to be accomplished. Because of these difficulties in interpreting the record retained in molecular sequences, correlations with biochemical fossils and with the geological record need to be interpreted with caution. Advances to detect and pinpoint transfer events promise to untangle at least a few of the intertwined histories of individual genes within organisms and trace them to the organismal ancestors. Furthermore, analysis of the shape of molecular phylogenetic trees may point towards organismal radiations that might reflect early mass extinction events that occurred on a planetary scale.

  1. Changes in the interrelationship between leptin, resistin and adiponectin in early neonatal life.

    PubMed

    Marinoni, Emanuela; Corona, Giovanna; Ciardo, Francesca; Letizia, Claudio; Moscarini, Massimo; Di Iorio, Romolo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between leptin,adiponectin and resistin in the fetal and early postnatal period and the association of these hormones with anthropometric and metabolic indexes. Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were measured in maternal and neonatal circulation at delivery and on the 3rd day after birth in 40 healthy newborns and their mothers Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in fetuses that in newborn infants on 3rd day after delivery, whereas concentration of adiponectin and resistin were maintained in either maternal and neonatal circulation after delivery. Leptin serum concentrations correlated with those of adiponectin in the fetal circulation, but not in neonatal life. On the other hand no correlation was found between leptin and resistin levels in cord blood, whereas a positive correlation between leptin and resistin concentrations was present in the neonatal circulation on 3rd day. Fetal leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels are largely independent of maternal influences and immediately after birth, important changes in the relation among adipokines occurred compared to intrauterine life. PMID:20036853

  2. The consequences of pain in early life: injury-induced plasticity in developing pain pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schwaller, Fred; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pain in infancy influences pain reactivity in later life, but how and why this occurs is poorly understood. Here we review the evidence for developmental plasticity of nociceptive pathways in animal models and discuss the peripheral and central mechanisms that underlie this plasticity. Adults who have experienced neonatal injury display increased pain and injury-induced hyperalgesia in the affected region but mild injury can also induce widespread baseline hyposensitivity across the rest of the body surface, suggesting the involvement of several underlying mechanisms, depending upon the type of early life experience. Peripheral nerve sprouting and dorsal horn central sensitization, disinhibition and neuroimmune priming are discussed in relation to the increased pain and hyperalgesia, while altered descending pain control systems driven, in part, by changes in the stress/HPA axis are discussed in relation to the widespread hypoalgesia. Finally, it is proposed that the endocannabinoid system deserves further attention in the search for mechanisms underlying injury-induced changes in pain processing in infants and children. PMID:24494675

  3. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  4. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine in a preindustrial population

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Rickard, Ian J.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with insufficient nutrition during development often experience poorer later-life health and evolutionary fitness. The Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that poor early-life nutrition induces physiological changes that maximize fitness in similar environments in adulthood and that metabolic diseases result when individuals experiencing poor nutrition during development subsequently encounter good nutrition in adulthood. However, although cohort studies have shown that famine exposure in utero reduces health in favorable later-life conditions, no study on humans has demonstrated the predicted fitness benefit under low later-life nutrition, leaving the evolutionary origins of such plasticity unexplored. Taking advantage of a well-documented famine and unique datasets of individual life histories and crop yields from two preindustrial Finnish populations, we provide a test of key predictions of the PAR hypothesis. Known individuals from fifty cohorts were followed from birth until the famine, where we analyzed their survival and reproductive success in relation to the crop yields around birth. We were also able to test whether the long-term effects of early-life nutrition differed between individuals of varying socioeconomic status. We found that, contrary to predictions of the PAR hypothesis, individuals experiencing low early-life crop yields showed lower survival and fertility during the famine than individuals experiencing high early-life crop yields. These effects were more pronounced among young individuals and those of low socioeconomic status. Our results do not support the hypothesis that PARs should have been favored by natural selection and suggest that alternative models may need to be invoked to explain the epidemiology of metabolic diseases. PMID:23918366

  5. Life might be rare despite its early emergence on Earth: a Bayesian analysis of the probability of abiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Spiegel; Edwin L. Turner

    2011-01-01

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young-Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in

  6. Risk of metabolic syndrome in adults exposed to the great Chinese famine during the fetal life and early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X Zheng; Y Wang; W Ren; R Luo; S Zhang; J H Zhang; Q Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:To determine whether exposure to the Chinese famine during fetal life and early childhood was associated with a greater risk of metabolic syndrome in later life.Subjects\\/Methods:We used data of adults from the 2008 annual physical examinations in Public Health Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing. To minimize misclassification of the famine exposure periods, subjects

  7. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca)

    PubMed Central

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60??g·L?1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60??g·L?1). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2??g·L?1) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  8. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris. PMID:24100467

  9. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  10. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanya M.; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J.; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution. PMID:17372199

  11. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).

    PubMed

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 ?g · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 ?g · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 ?g · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench. PMID:24772417

  12. Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryota; Kataoka, Chisato; Kashiwada, Shosaku

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to SNC contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of SNC concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l(-1)). Pure SNCs were immediately ionized to Ag(+) in seawater and concentrations of ?50 ?g l(-1) SNC had a significant detrimental effect on fertilization, larval metamorphosis, and primary polyp growth. Exposure to 50 ?g l(-1) SNC did not significantly affect larval survival; however, the larvae were deformed and lost their ability to metamorphose. At the highest concentration (500 ?g l(-1) SNC), all gametes, larvae, and primary polyps died. These experiments provide the first data on the effects of silver-nanomaterial-contaminated seawater on cnidarians, and suggest that silver nanomaterials can influence the early development of corals through anthropogenic wastewater inputs. PMID:25047545

  13. Latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance thresholds of early life stages of corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, E. S.; Keith, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Schmidt-Roach, S.; Baird, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Organisms living in habitats characterized by a marked seasonal temperature variation often have a greater thermal tolerance than those living in more stable habitats. To determine the extent to which this hypothesis applies to reef corals, we compared thermal tolerance of the early life stages of five scleractinian species from three locations spanning 17° of latitude along the east coast of Australia. Embryos were exposed to an 8 °C temperature range around the local ambient temperature at the time of spawning. Upper thermal thresholds, defined as the temperature treatment at which the proportion of abnormal embryos or median life span was significantly different to ambient controls, varied predictably among locations. At Lizard Island, the northern-most site with the least annual variation in temperature, the proportion of abnormal embryos increased and life span decreased 2 °C above ambient in the two species tested. At two southern sites, One Tree Island and Lord Howe Island, where annual temperature variation was greater, upper temperature thresholds were generally 4 °C or greater above ambient for both variables in the four species tested. The absolute upper thermal threshold temperature also varied among locations: 30 °C at Lizard Island; 28 °C at One Tree Island; 26 °C at Lord Howe Island. These results support previous work on adult corals demonstrating predictable differences in upper thermal thresholds with latitude. With projected ocean warming, these temperature thresholds will be exceeded in northern locations in the near future, adding to a growing body of evidence indicating that climate change is likely to be more detrimental to low latitude than high latitude corals.

  14. Links between early childhood programs and maternal employment in three countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siv S. Gustafsson; Frank P. Stafford

    1995-01-01

    Early childhood programs are usually viewed as a service that promotes children's development. In addition, these programs often serve a broader purpose of enabling mothers with young children to join the paid labor force. Therefore, government poli- cies relating to the provision and use of child care programs reflect such economic and social factors as the demand for women workers

  15. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  16. An Early Childhood Program Matrix: Pulling the Pieces Together for Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneke, Sallee; Ruther, Gina; Fowler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The early childhood program matrix in this article delineates the various requirements of nine publicly funded programs in Illinois that provide services to young children and families. The first section of the matrix addresses the design of each program and logistics, such as funding, payment, eligibility, and amount of services. The second…

  17. How Does Early Feedback in an Online Programming Course Change Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    How does early feedback change the programming problem solving in an online environment and help students choose correct approaches? This study was conducted in a sample of students learning programming in an online course entitled Introduction to C++ and OOP (Object Oriented Programming) using the ANGEL learning management system platform. My…

  18. Creating High-Quality Preschool: Ideas for Supporting Early Learning Programs. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing that a quality preschool program is key to children's high achievement, this videotape presents a U.S. Department of Education teleconference on creating high quality preschool programs and federal funding available for such programs. Panelists from the Department include the director of the Early Childhood Institute in the Office of…

  19. Programs for Children with Special Needs in Iran: The Importance of Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekpour, Mokhtar

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss programs that serve children with special needs in Iran, as well as early intervention. These programs are provided through two separate governmental organizations: the Well-Fare Department, and Special Education Organization. These programs include different types of habilitation services such as (a)…

  20. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Training and Personnel in Early Childhood Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Four papers discuss training and personnel in early childhood education. The concepts developed by the Division of Training Programs in seeking to award a grant for planning inservice training programs are described by J. Gerald Minskoff as is the role of a training coordinator. An evaluation of a pilot program to train teacher aides is presented…

  1. Should Rewards Have a Place in Early Childhood Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Virginia M.; O'Flynn, Janet C.; Reineke, June; Sonsteng, Kathleen; Gartrell, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Does the use of rewards to motivate children to learn or to follow classroom rules run counter to fostering a true desire for mastery? This column, which consists of two separate articles, provides the opposing opinions of the authors regarding the appropriateness of giving rewards in an early childhood classroom. In "Using Rewards in the Early

  2. Evaluation of a Life Skills Program for Women Inmates in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Pamela J.; Morash, Merry

    2002-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a life skills program that focuses on addressing the special needs of female inmates. Analyses of pre- and post-test scores of program participants compared emotional empathy, self-esteem, coping resources, problem solving, parenting stress, employability, and well-being. Results suggest tat the program does address some of…

  3. Feasibility of Implementing the Strong for Life Program in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkin, Caryn D.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Harris, Bette Ann; Latham, Nancy; Jette, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the results of the dissemination of an efficacious, home-based exercise program called Strong for Life as it was implemented in a nationwide, volunteer caregiving program called Faith in Action, including training of volunteers who implemented the program, recruitment of older adult participants, exercise adherence, and…

  4. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

  5. Bacterial Interactions in Early Life Stages of Marine Cold Water Fish.

    PubMed

    Hansen; Olafsen

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract The intensive rearing of various fish species in aquaculture has revealed intimate relationships between fish and bacteria that eventually may affect establishment of a "normal" mucosal microflora or result in disease epizootics. Interactions between bacteria and mucosal surfaces play important roles both at the egg and larval stages of marine fish. Bacterial adhesion and colonization of the egg surface occur within hours after fertilization. The diverse flora which eventually develops on the egg appears to reflect the bacterial composition and load of the ambient water, but species-specific adhesion at the egg surface may also play a role in development of the egg epiflora. Proteolytic enzymes produced by members of the adherent epiflora may cause serious damage to the developing egg and may also affect further adhesion of the epiflora. Ingestion of bacteria at the yolk sac stage results in establishment of a primary intestinal microflora which seems to persist beyond first feeding. Establishment of a gut microflora is likely to undergo several stages, resulting in an "adult" microflora weeks to months after first feeding. Ingested bacteria may serve as an exogenous supply of nutrients or essential factors at an early life stage. Early exposure to high bacterial densities is probably important for immune tolerance, and thus for the establishment of a protective intestinal microflora. Successful rearing of early life stages of several marine fish species depends on knowledge of the complex interactions among the cultured organisms and the bacterial communities which develop at the mucosal surfaces and in the ambient water and rearing systems. The routine use of antibiotics during rearing of fish larvae is not advisable, since it may increase the risk of promoting antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the indigenous microflora of the larvae. The use of probiotics has proven advantageous in domestic animal production, and the search for effective probiotics may have a great potential in aquaculture of marine organisms. Bacteria with antagonistic effects against fish pathogens have been successfully administered to several fish species, resulting in decreased mortality or increased growth rate.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n1p1.html PMID:10384006

  6. Soluble ferric iron as an effective protective agent against UV radiation: Implications for early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2007-11-01

    Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 1-10]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A similar situation occurred on the primitive Earth during the development of early life in the Archean [Berkner, L.V., Marshall, L.C., 1965. J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (3), 225-261; Kasting, J.F., 1993. Science 259, 920-926]. It is known that some cellular and/or external components can shield organisms from damaging UV radiation or quench its toxic effects [Olson, J.M., Pierson, B.K., 1986. Photosynth. Res. 9, 251-259; García-Pichel, F., 1998. Origins Life Evol. B 28, 321-347; Cockell, C., Rettberg, P., Horneck, G., Scherer, K., Stokes, M.D., 2003. Polar Biol. 26, 62-69]. The effectiveness of iron minerals for UV protection has also been reported [Phoenix, V.R., Konhauser, K.O., Adams, D.G., Bottrell, S.H., 2001. Geology 29 (9), 823-826], but nothing is known about the effect of iron in solution. Here we demonstrate the protective effect of soluble ferric iron against UV radiation on acidophilic photosynthetic microorganisms. These results offer an interesting alternative means of protection for life on the surface of early Mars and Earth, especially in light of the geochemical conditions in which the sedimentary minerals, jarosite and goethite, recently reported by the MER missions, were formed [Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., Bell III, J.F., Brückner, J., Cabrol, N.A., Calvin, W., Carr, M.H., Christensen, P.R., Clark, B.C., Crumpler, L., Des Marais, D.J., d'Uston, C., Economou, T., Farmer, J., Farrand, W., Folkner, W., Golombek, M., Gorevan, S., Grant, J.A., Greeley, R., Grotzinger, J., Haskin, L., Herkenhoff, K.E., Hviid, S., Johnson, J., Klingelhöfer, G., Knoll, A.H., Landis, G., Lemmon, M., Li, R., Madsen, M.B., Malin, M.C., McLennan, S.M., McSween, H.Y., Ming, D.W., Moersch, J., Morris, R.V., Parker, T., Rice Jr., J.W., Richter, L., Rieder, R., Sims, M., Smith, M., Smith, P., Soderblom, L.A., Sullivan, R., Wänke, H., Wdowiak, T., Wolff, M., Yen, A., 2004. Science 306, 1698-1703; Klingelhöfer, G., Morris, R.V., Bernhardt, B., Schröder, C., Rodionov, D.S., de Souza Jr., P.A., Yen, A., Gellert, R., Evlanov, E.N., Zubkov, B., Foh, J., Bonnes, U., Kankeleit, E., Gütlich, P., Ming, D.W., Renz, F., Wdowiak, T., Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., 2004. Science 306, 1740-1745].

  7. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

  8. Life sciences flight experiments program, life sciences project division, procurement quality provisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods are defined for implementing quality assurance policy and requirements for life sciences laboratory equipment, experimental hardware, integration and test support equipment, and integrated payloads.

  9. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH... § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers...

  10. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  11. Bottom of the Heap: Having Heavier Competitors Accelerates Early-Life Telomere Loss in the European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss. PMID:24386235

  12. Medical Exploring: A Program for Early Exposure to Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachtel, Thomas; And Others

    1976-01-01

    "Medical Exploring," a program for young men and women interested in health careers, is the largest and one of the fastest growing of the career special interest programs of the Boy Scouts of America's Exploring Division. History, organization, and program of the group are described and discussed. (JT)

  13. The “worm” programs—early experience with a distributed computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Shoch; Jon A. Hupp

    1982-01-01

    The “worm” programs were an experiment in the development of distributed computations: programs that span machine boundaries and also replicate themselves in idle machines. A “worm” is composed of multiple “segments,” each running on a different machine. The underlying worm maintenance mechanisms are responsible for maintaining the worm—finding free machines when needed and replicating the program for each additional segment.

  14. 62 FR 18966 - Early Head Start Program Grant Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-04-17

    ...years of life, proper nutrition, routine well-child...to promote a healthy pregnancy and birth, and...care and outcomes of pregnancy: A randomized trial...Relationships between nutrition during pregnancy and subsequent...

  15. 60 FR 14548 - Early Head Start Program Grant Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-03-17

    ...years of life, proper nutrition, routine well-child...to promote a healthy pregnancy and birth, and...care and outcomes of pregnancy: A randomized trial...Relationships between nutrition during pregnancy and subsequent...

  16. Functional limitations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells limit type I interferon, T cell responses and virus control in early life.

    PubMed

    Belnoue, Elodie; Fontannaz, Paola; Rochat, Anne-Françoise; Tougne, Chantal; Bergthaler, Andreas; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality from viral infection remains a major global health concern: viruses causing acute infections in immunologically mature hosts often follow a more severe course in early life, with prolonged or persistent viral replication. Similarly, the WE strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-WE) causes acute self-limiting infection in adult mice but follows a protracted course in infant animals, in which LCMV-specific CD8? T cells fail to expand and control infection. By disrupting type I IFNs signaling in adult mice or providing IFN-? supplementation to infant mice, we show here that the impaired early life T cell responses and viral control result from limited early type I IFN responses. We postulated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), which have been identified as one major source of immediate-early IFN-I, may not exert adult-like function in vivo in the early life microenvironment. We tested this hypothesis by studying pDC functions in vivo during LCMV infection and identified a coordinated downregulation of infant pDC maturation, activation and function: despite an adult-like in vitro activation capacity of infant pDCs, the expression of the E2-2 pDC master regulator (and of critical downstream antiviral genes such as MyD88, TLR7/TLR9, NF-?B, IRF7 and IRF8) is downregulated in vivo at baseline and during LCMV infection. A similar pattern was observed in response to ssRNA polyU, a model ligand of the TLR7 viral sensor. This suggests that the limited T cell-mediated defense against early life viral infections is largely attributable to / regulated by infant pDC responses and provides incentives for novel strategies to supplement or stimulate immediate-early IFN-? responses. PMID:24376875

  17. Functional Limitations of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Limit Type I Interferon, T Cell Responses and Virus Control in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Belnoue, Elodie; Fontannaz, Paola; Rochat, Anne-Françoise; Tougne, Chantal; Bergthaler, Andreas; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Pinschewer, Daniel D.; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality from viral infection remains a major global health concern: viruses causing acute infections in immunologically mature hosts often follow a more severe course in early life, with prolonged or persistent viral replication. Similarly, the WE strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-WE) causes acute self-limiting infection in adult mice but follows a protracted course in infant animals, in which LCMV-specific CD8+ T cells fail to expand and control infection. By disrupting type I IFNs signaling in adult mice or providing IFN-? supplementation to infant mice, we show here that the impaired early life T cell responses and viral control result from limited early type I IFN responses. We postulated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), which have been identified as one major source of immediate-early IFN-I, may not exert adult-like function in vivo in the early life microenvironment. We tested this hypothesis by studying pDC functions in vivo during LCMV infection and identified a coordinated downregulation of infant pDC maturation, activation and function: despite an adult-like in vitro activation capacity of infant pDCs, the expression of the E2-2 pDC master regulator (and of critical downstream antiviral genes such as MyD88, TLR7/TLR9, NF-?B, IRF7 and IRF8) is downregulated in vivo at baseline and during LCMV infection. A similar pattern was observed in response to ssRNA polyU, a model ligand of the TLR7 viral sensor. This suggests that the limited T cell-mediated defense against early life viral infections is largely attributable to / regulated by infant pDC responses and provides incentives for novel strategies to supplement or stimulate immediate-early IFN-? responses. PMID:24376875

  18. FOSPA Program Description. Parent-Child Programs: District 742 Community Education's Early Childhood Family Education Project [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoodecheck, Jeanne; Kearns, Ellen

    The Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity (FOSPA) program, an Early Childhood/Family Education program for parents and their 4-year-old children, is described. FOSPA is a nationally validated Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act demonstration project in the St. Cloud Community Schools district of Minnesota. Based on research…

  19. NEW EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE CALIFORNIA GRUNION (LEURESTHES TENUIS) AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    California grunion were continuously exposed as embryos and fry to technical chlorpyrifos in two toxicity tests conducted in the same exposure apparatus. The first test, a 35-day early life-stage (ELS) test, began with approximately 2.5-day-old embryos that were exposed in flow-t...

  20. Continuous Exposure to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) During Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 10,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L (low) or 140 fish/L (high), and wate...

  1. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  2. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  3. Relative sensitivity of early life stages of Arctic grayling, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout to nine inorganics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

    1991-01-01

    The acute toxicity of nine inorganics associated with placer mining sediments to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) was determined in soft water (hardness, 41 mg liter-1 CaCO3) at 12 degrees C. The relative toxicities of the inorganics varied by four orders of magnitude; from most toxic to least

  4. Age at first molar emergence in early Miocene Afropithecus turkanensis and life-history evolution in the Hominoidea

    E-print Network

    Smith, Tanya M.

    Age at first molar emergence in early Miocene Afropithecus turkanensis and life-history evolution by Sivapithecus parvada (Function, Phylogeny, and Fossils: Miocene Hominoid Evolution and Adaptations, 1997, 173. 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Miocene hominoid; dentition; dental eruption

  5. Continuous exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus during early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss(Walbaum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 100,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L or 140 fish/L, with a tank flow rat...

  6. "A Day in the Life": Advancing a Methodology for the Cultural Study of Development and Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Julia; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Tapanya, Sombat; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Young, Susan; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology of an ecological investigation of aspects of culture in the interactional construction of early childhood in diverse global communities: Peru, Italy, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Regarding culture as a dynamic dimension of the child's socialisation, the approach taken was to film a "day in the life"…

  7. Ecological Patterns of Early Life Stages of Fishes in a Large River-Floodplain of the San Francisco Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TED R. SOMMER; WILLIAM C. HARRELL; RYON KURTH; FREDERICK FEYRER; STEVEN C. ZEUG

    2004-01-01

    We examined assemblage patterns of early life stages of fishes for two major tributaries of the upper San Francisco Estuary: (1) Sacramento River channel, and (2) Yolo Bypass, the river's seasonal floodplain. Over four hydrologically diverse years (1999-2002), we collected 15 species in Yolo Bypass egg and larval samples, 18 species in Yolo Bypass rotary screw trap samples, and 10

  8. 2 Understanding and quantifying mortality in pelagic, early life stages of marine 3 organisms --Old challenges and new perspectives

    E-print Network

    North, Elizabeth W.

    U N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Preface 2 Understanding and quantifying mortality in pelagic that variable mortality is the most impor- 6 tant factor controlling the population dynamics of marine organ- 7 of understanding and quantifying mortality in pelagic, early life 11 stages of marine organisms has been the focus

  9. Exposure to farming in early life and development of asthma and allergy: a cross-sectional survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Riedler; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer; Marco Waser; Soyoun Maisch; David Carr; Rudi Schierl

    2001-01-01

    Summary Background A farming environment protects against development of asthma, hay fever, and atopic sensitisation in children. We aimed to establish whether increased exposure to microbial compounds has to occur early in life to affect maturation of the immune system and thereby reduces risk for development of allergic diseases. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in rural areas of Austria,

  10. A FATHEAD MINNOW 'PIMEPHALES PROMELAS' EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHOD EVALUATION AND EXPOSURE TO FOUR ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 32-day test was developed at the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth for conducting early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with fathead minnows Pimephales promelas. These test procedures were evaluated by using the prescribed methods to establish estimated maximum acceptabl...

  11. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  12. Toxicity of uranium mine receiving waters to early life stage fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G Pyle; S. M Swanson; D. M Lehmkuhl

    2002-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, nickel, and molybdenum in aquatic systems around northern Saskatchewan uranium mines are an environmental concern. Early life stage fathead minnows were used to assess toxicity from several aquatic systems near the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium operations. Hatching success of fish embryos exposed to waters receiving contaminants associated with uranium ore milling was reduced by

  13. Early development and estimated life cycle of the mesopelagic copepod Pareuchaeta elongata in the southern Japan Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ikeda; K. Hirakawa

    1996-01-01

    Life cycle of the mesopelagic copepod Pareuchaeta elongata was investigated combining laboratory rearing data on the eggs, nauplii, and early copepodites with field growth data on the late copepodites. Examination and incubation at near the in situ temperature (0.5°C) of egg sacs collected from the field indicated that the clutch size was 13 to 24 eggs (mean: 20), hatching time

  14. Early Life Events Carry Over to Influence Pre-Migratory Condition in a Free-Living Songbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg W. Mitchell; Christopher G. Guglielmo; Nathaniel T. Wheelwright; Corey R. Freeman-Gallant; D. Ryan Norris

    2011-01-01

    Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking early life events and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1st year survival and

  15. Minutes of the 12th Joint NASA/DARA-DLR Life Sciences Program Working Group Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This report contains the final minutes of the 12th Joint NASA/DARA-DLR Life Sciences Program Working Group Meeting and includes the presentations made by participants. Separate abstracts have been submitted for articles from this report.

  16. Early Childhood Programs in the States: Report of a December 1972 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    A report of the first conference on implementing State early childhood programs, sponsored by the ECS Early Childhood Project, is presented. Speeches provided are: (1) "The States Are Moving in Child Development" by Robert E. McNair; (2) "Our Evolving Social Policy for Children: Fact or Fiction" by Edward Zigler; (3) "State Responsibility and…

  17. Early Care and Education: Policy Considerations for Ensuring High-Quality Pre-K Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Cohen, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Interest in early care and education (ECE), also referred to as an early childhood education, has escalated in recent years. The interest is bipartisan, as evidenced by the multiple ECE-related bills already introduced by the 113th Congress. Further, 39 states have implemented prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. In 2013, 27 governors mentioned ECE…

  18. Classroom Challenges in Developing an Intercultural Early Learning Program for Refugee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dachyshyn, Darcey; Kirova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at piloting an intercultural, multilingual, early learning program that was genuinely responsive to the circumstances and early learning needs of preschool refugee children and parents from three ethnocultural communities--Somali, Sudanese, and Kurdish--in a large city in Western Canada. We discuss the unique…

  19. Designing a Measurement Framework for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott R.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Roloff, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The overall architecture and major components of a measurement system designed and evaluated to support Response to Intervention (RTI) in the areas of language and literacy in early childhood programs are described. Efficient and reliable measurement is essential for implementing any viable RTI system, and implementing such a system in early

  20. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…