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1

Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

PubMed Central

For more than a century, clinical investigators have focused on early life as a source of adult psychopathology. Early theories about psychic conflict and toxic parenting have been replaced by more recent formulations of complex interactions of genes and environment. Although the hypothesized mechanisms have evolved, a central notion remains: early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience confers enduring effects. The mechanisms for these effects remain almost as much a mystery today as they were a century ago. Recent studies suggest that maternal diet can program offspring growth and metabolic pathways, altering lifelong susceptibility to diabetes and obesity. If maternal psychosocial experience has similar programming effects on the developing offspring, one might expect a comparable contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders, including affective disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and eating disorders. Due to their early onset, prevalence, and chronicity, some of these disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are among the highest causes of disability worldwide according to the World Health Organization 2002 report. Consideration of the early life programming and transcriptional regulation in adult exposures supports a critical need to understand epigenetic mechanisms as a critical determinant in disease predisposition. Incorporating the latest insight gained from clinical and epidemiological studies with potential epigenetic mechanisms from basic research, the following review summarizes findings from a workshop on Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders held at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009.

Bale, Tracy L.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Brown, Alan S.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Insel, Thomas R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Reyes, Teresa M.; Simerly, Richard B.; Susser, Ezra S.; Nestler, Eric J.

2011-01-01

2

Early life programming and neurodevelopmental disorders.  

PubMed

For more than a century, clinical investigators have focused on early life as a source of adult psychopathology. Early theories about psychic conflict and toxic parenting have been replaced by more recent formulations of complex interactions of genes and environment. Although the hypothesized mechanisms have evolved, a central notion remains: early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience confers enduring effects. The mechanisms for these effects remain almost as much a mystery today as they were a century ago. Recent studies suggest that maternal diet can program offspring growth and metabolic pathways, altering lifelong susceptibility to diabetes and obesity. If maternal psychosocial experience has similar programming effects on the developing offspring, one might expect a comparable contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders, including affective disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and eating disorders. Due to their early onset, prevalence, and chronicity, some of these disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are among the highest causes of disability worldwide according to the World Health Organization 2002 report. Consideration of the early life programming and transcriptional regulation in adult exposures supports a critical need to understand epigenetic mechanisms as a critical determinant in disease predisposition. Incorporating the latest insight gained from clinical and epidemiological studies with potential epigenetic mechanisms from basic research, the following review summarizes findings from a workshop on Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders held at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009. PMID:20674602

Bale, Tracy L; Baram, Tallie Z; Brown, Alan S; Goldstein, Jill M; Insel, Thomas R; McCarthy, Margaret M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Reyes, Teresa M; Simerly, Richard B; Susser, Ezra S; Nestler, Eric J

2010-08-15

3

Epigenetic programming of the HPA axis: early life decides.  

PubMed

Stress during early life can impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. Here, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology eventually resulting in disease. Early life stress in mice leads to epigenetic marking of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene underpinning sustained expression and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. This epigenetic memory is laid down in the parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus and involves Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the methyl-CpG binding domain protein MeCP2 leading to dissociation from its DNA-binding site and derepression of the AVP gene. The reduced occupancy of MeCP2 during this early stage of life facilitates the development of hypomethylation at the AVP enhancer, which sustains derepression throughout later life and thereby serves to hardwire early life experiences. The sequential order of these events may represent a critical time window for the preventive therapy of severe trauma. PMID:21854166

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2011-08-19

4

Fetal Programming: Early-life Modulations that Affect Adult Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is a common disease, and the number of people diagnosed with it increases every year. Although genetic background and\\u000a environmental exposures play major roles in the development of asthma, one cannot overlook the developmental origin of adult\\u000a disease or fetal programming theory. This review examines the social, genetic, and environmental factors that are associated\\u000a with fetal programming of asthma.

Nathan Drever; George R. Saade; Egle Bytautiene

2010-01-01

5

Neonatal maternal separation and early life programming of the hypoxic ventilatory response in rats.  

PubMed

The neonatal period is critical for central nervous system (CNS) development. Recent studies have shown that this basic neurobiological principle also applies to the neural circuits regulating respiratory activity as exposure to excessive or insufficient chemosensory stimuli during early life can have long-lasting consequences on the performance of this vital system. Although the tactile, olfactory, and auditory stimuli that the mother provides to her offspring during the neonatal period are not directly relevant to respiratory homeostasis, they likely contribute to respiratory control development. This review outlines the rationale for the link between maternal stimuli and programming of the hypoxic ventilatory response during early life, and presents recent results obtained in rats indicating that experimental disruption of mother-pup interaction during this critical period elicits significant phenotypic plasticity of the hypoxic ventilatory response. PMID:15894516

Kinkead, Richard; Genest, Sophie-Emmanuelle; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Lajeunesse, Yves; Laforest, Sylvie; Drolet, Guy; Bairam, Aida

2005-11-15

6

Metabolic programming of long-term outcomes due to fatty acid nutrition in early life.  

PubMed

Understanding of the importance of dietary fatty acids has grown beyond a simple source of energy to complex roles in regulating gene expression and cell and intracellular communication. This is important because the metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus and infant plays a key role in guiding the set point of neural receptors that regulate energy homeostasis and expression of genes that control energy storage and oxidation. Early deviations in these pathways have the potential to lead to lasting adaptations, termed metabolic programming, which may combine to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in later life. The quality of fatty acids in human diets has undergone major changes in the last 50 years, characterized by an increase in ?-6 and decrease in ?-3 fatty acids. Evidence is accumulating to support the concept that the maternal intake of ?-6 and ?-3 fatty acids in gestation and lactation, possibly involving both excess ?-6 and inadequate ?-3 fatty acids, can impact the developing infant tissue lipids and neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways relevant to metabolic programming. Further work is needed to understand the needs for different ?-6 and ?-3 fatty acids during fetal and infant life, and their roles with respect to development of energy homeostasis and metabolism. PMID:21366871

Innis, Sheila M

2011-04-01

7

Forebrain CRF? modulates early-life stress-programmed cognitive deficits.  

PubMed

Childhood traumatic events hamper the development of the hippocampus and impair declarative memory in susceptible individuals. Persistent elevations of hippocampal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), acting through CRF receptor 1 (CRF?), in experimental models of early-life stress have suggested a role for this endogenous stress hormone in the resulting structural modifications and cognitive dysfunction. However, direct testing of this possibility has been difficult. In the current study, we subjected conditional forebrain CRF? knock-out (CRF?-CKO) mice to an impoverished postnatal environment and examined the role of forebrain CRF? in the long-lasting effects of early-life stress on learning and memory. Early-life stress impaired spatial learning and memory in wild-type mice, and postnatal forebrain CRF overexpression reproduced these deleterious effects. Cognitive deficits in stressed wild-type mice were associated with disrupted long-term potentiation (LTP) and a reduced number of dendritic spines in area CA3 but not in CA1. Forebrain CRF? deficiency restored cognitive function, LTP and spine density in area CA3, and augmented CA1 LTP and spine density in stressed mice. In addition, early-life stress differentially regulated the amount of hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory synapses in wild-type and CRF?-CKO mice, accompanied by alterations in the neurexin-neuroligin complex. These data suggest that the functional, structural and molecular changes evoked by early-life stress are at least partly dependent on persistent forebrain CRF? signaling, providing a molecular target for the prevention of cognitive deficits in adults with a history of early-life adversity. PMID:21940453

Wang, Xiao-Dong; Rammes, Gerhard; Kraev, Igor; Wolf, Miriam; Liebl, Claudia; Scharf, Sebastian H; Rice, Courtney J; Wurst, Wolfgang; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M; Baram, Tallie Z; Stewart, Michael G; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

2011-09-21

8

Forebrain CRF1 Modulates Early-Life Stress-Programmed Cognitive Deficits  

PubMed Central

Childhood traumatic events hamper the development of the hippocampus and impair declarative memory in susceptible individuals. Persistent elevations of hippocampal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), acting through CRF receptor 1 (CRF1), in experimental models of early-life stress have suggested a role for this endogenous stress hormone in the resulting structural modifications and cognitive dysfunction. However, direct testing of this possibility has been difficult. In the current study, we subjected conditional forebrain CRF1 knock-out (CRF1-CKO) mice to an impoverished postnatal environment and examined the role of forebrain CRF1 in the long-lasting effects of early-life stress on learning and memory. Early-life stress impaired spatial learning and memory in wild-type mice, and postnatal forebrain CRF overexpression reproduced these deleterious effects. Cognitive deficits in stressed wild-type mice were associated with disrupted long-term potentiation (LTP) and a reduced number of dendritic spines in area CA3 but not in CA1. Forebrain CRF1 deficiency restored cognitive function, LTP and spine density in area CA3, and augmented CA1 LTP and spine density in stressed mice. In addition, early-life stress differentially regulated the amount of hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory synapses in wild-type and CRF1-CKO mice, accompanied by alterations in the neurexin-neuroligin complex. These data suggest that the functional, structural and molecular changes evoked by early-life stress are at least partly dependent on persistent forebrain CRF1 signaling, providing a molecular target for the prevention of cognitive deficits in adults with a history of early-life adversity.

Wang, Xiao-Dong; Rammes, Gerhard; Kraev, Igor; Wolf, Miriam; Liebl, Claudia; Scharf, Sebastian H.; Rice, Courtney J.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Stewart, Michael G.; Muller, Marianne B.; Schmidt, Mathias V.

2012-01-01

9

Family Life Early Education Project (Model Parent Training Program). Evaluation Report Fiscal 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family Life Early Education Project (FLEEP) operated from September 1993 through August 1994 in Chicago public schools. The project sought to assist parents in acquiring skills that foster their young children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development, thus increasing children's readiness for school. To accomplish these goals,…

Craig, Marjorie; Borger, Jeanne

10

Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program Against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY

Karina Weichold; Anett Brambosch; Rainer K. Silbereisen

2012-01-01

11

Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress.  

PubMed

Adverse early life events can induce long-lasting changes in physiology and behavior. We found that early-life stress (ELS) in mice caused enduring hypersecretion of corticosterone and alterations in passive stress coping and memory. This phenotype was accompanied by a persistent increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and was reversed by an AVP receptor antagonist. Altered Avp expression was associated with sustained DNA hypomethylation of an important regulatory region that resisted age-related drifts in methylation and centered on those CpG residues that serve as DNA-binding sites for the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). We found that neuronal activity controlled the ability of MeCP2 to regulate activity-dependent transcription of the Avp gene and induced epigenetic marking. Thus, ELS can dynamically control DNA methylation in postmitotic neurons to generate stable changes in Avp expression that trigger neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations that are frequent features in depression. PMID:19898468

Murgatroyd, Chris; Patchev, Alexandre V; Wu, Yonghe; Micale, Vincenzo; Bockmühl, Yvonne; Fischer, Dieter; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T; Almeida, Osborne F X; Spengler, Dietmar

2009-11-08

12

Adverse effects of nutritional programming during prenatal and early postnatal life, some aspects of regulation and potential prevention and treatments.  

PubMed

Nutritional programming, regulation and some ways for prevention/treatment to ameliorate or normalize adverse outcomes of programming are discussed. Epidemiological studies in human and animal experiments showed that nutrition during fetal and neonatal life may lead to related disorders in adulthood. But several argues may question its validity arising the question of the adequate models used to reproduce human situations. Protein level in milk formula intake by infant during neonatal life is discussed. Body weight at birth reflects the product growth trajectory during fetal life. Low birth weight is considered as the result of an adverse growth trajectory and is often associated with later metabolic diseases in adult age. But, the sum of prenatal growth trajectory, rapid growth in early infancy (catch up growth), early adiposity rebound in childhood must be considered to determine the origins of later diseases in adulthood. The review focuses the regulation of nutritional imprinting on hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms which are complementary. The HPA axis and GH-IGF axis may have a crucial role in the regulation induced by nutritional programming. The persistent alterations seem to be a consequence, at least in part, of elevated insulin levels during "critical periods" of pre- and early postnatal development. Also, leptin seems to play an important role in this complex system. New knowledge about these mechanisms involved suggest the development of new, rational, and effective preventive and/or therapeutic options before and/or after birth. Thus, early infancy may provide an opportunity for intervention aimed at reducing later disease risk. PMID:19996479

Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; Hammon, H M; Metges, C C

2009-10-01

13

Lung Dendritic Cell Developmental Programming, Environmental Stimuli, and Asthma in Early Periods of Life  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are important cells of our innate immune system. Their role is critical in inducing adaptive immunity, tolerance, or allergic response in peripheral organs—lung and skin. The lung DCs are not developed prenatally before birth. The DCs develop after birth presumably during the first year of life; exposures to any foreign antigen or infectious organisms during this period can significantly affect DC developmental programming and generation of distinct DC phenotypes and functions. These changes can have both short-term and long-term health effects which may be very relevant in childhood asthma and predisposition for a persistent response in adulthood. An understanding of DC development at molecular and cellular levels can help in protecting neonates and infants against problematic environmental exposures and developmental immunotoxicity. This knowledge can eventually help in designing novel pharmacological modulators to skew the DC characteristics and immune responses to benefit the host across a lifetime.

Awasthi, Shanjana; Singh, Bhupinder; Welliver, Robert C.; Dietert, Rodney R.

2012-01-01

14

Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life.  

PubMed

Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused on the regulation of insulin secretion and the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in adult rats that were protein-malnourished during lactation. The data available on the topic suggest that the perinatal phase of lactation, when insulted by protein deficit, imprints the adult metabolism and thereby alters the glycemic control. Although hypoinsulinemia programs adult rats to maintain normoglycemia, pancreatic ?-cells are less sensitive to secretion stimuli, such as glucose and cholinergic agents. These pancreatic dysfunctions may be attributed to an imbalance of ANS activity recorded in adult rats that experienced maternal protein restriction. PMID:22967456

de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Gravena, Clarice; de Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas

2012-09-11

15

Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2012-01-01

16

Interplay of early-life nutritional programming on obesity, inflammation and epigenetic outcomes.  

PubMed

The huge health burden accompanying obesity is not only attributable to inadequate dietary and sedentary lifestyle habits, since a predisposing genetic make-up and other putative determinants concerning easier weight gain and fat deposition have been reported. Thus, several investigations aiming to understand energy metabolism and body composition maintenance have been performed considering the participation of perinatal nutritional programming and epigenetic processes as well as inflammation phenomena. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and inheritance-oriented investigations concerning gene-nutrient interactions on energy homoeostasis and metabolic functions have suggested that inflammation could be not only a comorbidity of obesity but also a cause. There are several examples about the role of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and lactation, such as energetic deprivation, protein restriction and excess fat, which determine a cluster of disorders affecting energy efficiency in the offspring as well as different metabolic pathways, which are mediated by epigenetics encompassing the chromatin information encrypted by DNA methylation patterns, histone covalent modifications and non-coding RNA or microRNA. Epigenetic mechanisms may be boosted or impaired by dietary and environmental factors in the mother, intergenerationally or transiently transmitted, and could be involved in the obesity and inflammation susceptibility in the offspring. The aims currently pursued are the early identification of epigenetic biomarkers concerned in individual's disease susceptibility and the description of protocols for tailored dietary treatments/advice to counterbalance adverse epigenomic events. These approaches will allow diagnosis and prognosis implementation and facilitate therapeutic strategies in a personalised 'epigenomically modelled' manner to combat obesity and inflammation. PMID:22390978

Martínez, J Alfredo; Cordero, Paúl; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I

2012-03-06

17

Early Retirement Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early retirement programs offer individuals an alternative to the work ethic while allowing them to maintain job security. Examples are given of several early, partial, and phased retirement programs currently being used in universities and public school systems. (DF)|

Everett, Peter W.

1984-01-01

18

The Quality of Work Life in NAEYC Accredited and Nonaccredited Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared work environments of NAEYC accredited and nonaccredited centers using the Early Childhood Work Environment Survey. Found that innovativeness, goal consensus, opportunities for professional growth, and clarity accounted for the greatest differences between accredited and nonaccredited centers. Also found differences in staff's job…

Bloom, Paula Jorde

1996-01-01

19

Early-Life Programming of Later-Life Brain and Behavior: A Critical Role for the Immune System  

PubMed Central

The immune system is well characterized for its critical role in host defense. Far beyond this limited role however, there is mounting evidence for the vital role the immune system plays within the brain, in both normal, “homeostatic” processes (e.g., sleep, metabolism, memory), as well as in pathology, when the dysregulation of immune molecules may occur. This recognition is especially critical in the area of brain development. Microglia and astrocytes, the primary immunocompetent cells of the CNS, are involved in every major aspect of brain development and function, including synaptogenesis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6 are produced by glia within the CNS, and are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, long-term potentiation, and neurogenesis. Importantly, cytokines are involved in both injury and repair, and the conditions underlying these distinct outcomes are under intense investigation and debate. Evidence from both animal and human studies implicates the immune system in a number of disorders with known or suspected developmental origins, including schizophrenia, anxiety/depression, and cognitive dysfunction. We review the evidence that infection during the perinatal period of life acts as a vulnerability factor for later-life alterations in cytokine production, and marked changes in cognitive and affective behaviors throughout the remainder of the lifespan. We also discuss the hypothesis that long-term changes in brain glial cell function underlie this vulnerability.

Bilbo, Staci D.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

2009-01-01

20

EARLY-LIFE PREDICTORS OF HUMAN LONGEVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of fetal origins of adult degenerative diseases and early-life programming of late-life health and survival is being actively discussed in the scientific literature. This idea is also important for understanding the historical changes in human lifespan through the mechanism of technophysio evolution as suggested by Robert Fogel and Dora Costa. Can this new fascinating concept also be useful

Natalia S. Gavrilova; Leonid A. Gavrilov; Galina N. Evdokushkina; Victoria G. Semyonova

2001-01-01

21

Early-Life Exposure to Testosterone Programs the Hypothalamic Melanocortin System  

PubMed Central

In mammals, males consume more food, which is considered a masculinized behavior, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-specific feeding behavior is unknown. In mice, neonatal testosterone (NT) is critical to masculinize the developing brain, leading to sex differences in reproductive physiology. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are critical to suppress energy intake and POMC innervation of hypothalamic feeding circuits develops to a large extent neonatally. We hypothesized that NT programs the masculinization of energy intake by programming POMC neurons. We tested this hypothesis by comparing control females and control males (CMs) with female mice neonatally androgenized with testosterone (NTFs). We show that increased food intake in CMs is associated with reduced POMC expression and decreased intensity of neuronal projections from POMC neurons within the ARC compared with control females. We found that NTFs display a masculinized energy intake and ARC POMC expression and innervation as observed in CMs, which can be mimicked by neonatal exposure to the androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). NTFs also exhibit hyperleptinemia and a decreased ability of leptin to up-regulate POMC, suppress food intake, and prevent adipose tissue accumulation, independent of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. However, this leptin resistance is specific to NTFs, is not a consequence of masculinization, and is reproduced by neonatal exposure to estrogen but not DHT. Thus, NT programs a sexual differentiation of POMC neurons in female mice via DHT but also predisposes to leptin resistance and obesity in an estrogen-dependent manner.

Nohara, Kazunari; Zhang, Yan; Waraich, Rizwana S.; Laque, Amanda; Tiano, Joseph P.; Tong, Jenny; Munzberg, Heike

2011-01-01

22

Early-life exposure to testosterone programs the hypothalamic melanocortin system.  

PubMed

In mammals, males consume more food, which is considered a masculinized behavior, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-specific feeding behavior is unknown. In mice, neonatal testosterone (NT) is critical to masculinize the developing brain, leading to sex differences in reproductive physiology. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are critical to suppress energy intake and POMC innervation of hypothalamic feeding circuits develops to a large extent neonatally. We hypothesized that NT programs the masculinization of energy intake by programming POMC neurons. We tested this hypothesis by comparing control females and control males (CMs) with female mice neonatally androgenized with testosterone (NTFs). We show that increased food intake in CMs is associated with reduced POMC expression and decreased intensity of neuronal projections from POMC neurons within the ARC compared with control females. We found that NTFs display a masculinized energy intake and ARC POMC expression and innervation as observed in CMs, which can be mimicked by neonatal exposure to the androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). NTFs also exhibit hyperleptinemia and a decreased ability of leptin to up-regulate POMC, suppress food intake, and prevent adipose tissue accumulation, independent of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. However, this leptin resistance is specific to NTFs, is not a consequence of masculinization, and is reproduced by neonatal exposure to estrogen but not DHT. Thus, NT programs a sexual differentiation of POMC neurons in female mice via DHT but also predisposes to leptin resistance and obesity in an estrogen-dependent manner. PMID:21303958

Nohara, Kazunari; Zhang, Yan; Waraich, Rizwana S; Laque, Amanda; Tiano, Joseph P; Tong, Jenny; Münzberg, Heike; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

2011-02-08

23

Teaching parallel programming early  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper, we point out the importance of teaching a basic understanding of parallel computations and parallel programming early in computer science education, in order to give students the necessary expertise to cope with future computer architectures that will exhibit an explicitly parallel programming model. We elaborate on a programming model, namely shared- memory bulk-synchronous parallel programming with

Christoph W. Kessler

2006-01-01

24

Early Childhood Education Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses early childhood education programs: their goals; effectiveness; optimal timing, targeting, and content; and costs and benefits. Early intervention has significant short- and medium-term benefits: most notably it reduces grade repetition and special education costs, and provides quality child care. The effects are greatest for more disadvantaged children. Some model programs have produced exciting improvements in educational attainment

Janet Currie

2001-01-01

25

Early Life Teaching Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These teaching ideas were submitted during the April 2007 workshop on Teaching About the Early Earth. They represent collaborative brainstorming rather than finished products, but they are a useful starting point ...

26

Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

2010-01-01

27

Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

2010-01-01

28

Early Life Conditions and Later Life Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although the idea that early life conditions shape mortality is not new, there has been a resurgence of studies on the topic\\u000a in the last two decades. In our review of this work, we weigh the evidence for the major causal mechanisms, i.e., biological\\u000a imprint and pathway processes, thought to underlie the associations between childhood conditions and adult mortality. We

Jennifer Karas Montez; Mark D. Hayward

29

Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program—IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)—against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5–13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament, self-worth, social problems with peers). Method: Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 1,484). A

Michael Spaeth; Karina Weichold; Rainer K. Silbereisen; Margit Wiesner

2010-01-01

30

Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115

Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

2013-01-01

31

Individualized Early Learning Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A description and discussion of the design, development, implementation, evaluation and effects of the Individualized Early Learning Program (IELP) are presented in this paper. Implemented in Project Follow Through and other school settings, the IELP gives priority to teaching basic skills and concepts needed for school performance to children in…

Wang, Margaret C.; And Others

32

Early life environment and snoring in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no studies of the possible association of early life environment with snoring in adulthood have been published. We aimed to investigate whether early life environment is associated with snoring later in life. METHODS: A questionnaire including snoring frequency in adulthood and environmental factors in early life was obtained from 16,190 randomly selected men and women, aged

Karl A Franklin; Christer Janson; Thórarinn Gíslason; Amund Gulsvik; Maria Gunnbjörnsdottir; Birger N Laerum; Eva Lindberg; Eva Norrman; Lennarth Nyström; Ernst Omenaas; Kjell Torén; Cecilie Svanes

2008-01-01

33

Metabolic Induction and Early Responses of Mouse Blastocyst Developmental Programming following Maternal Low Protein Diet Affecting Life-Long Health  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD), is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5), notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs) including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery.

Eckert, Judith J.; Porter, Richard; Watkins, Adam J.; Burt, Elizabeth; Brooks, Suzanne; Leese, Henry J.; Humpherson, Peter G.; Cameron, Iain T.; Fleming, Tom P.

2012-01-01

34

Early Childhood Programs for a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investments in children during the early years of life are regarded as one of the most effective ways to promote children's learning. This book synthesizes the research base and state of practice of early childhood learning and answers such questions as: What programs are most effective, and who benefits most from them? What are the key…

Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

35

Early-life experience reduces excitation to stress-responsive hypothalamic neurons and re-programs the expression of corticotropin releasing hormone  

PubMed Central

Increased sensory input from maternal care attenuates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress long-term and results in a life-long phenotype of resilience to depression and improved cognitive function. Whereas the mechanisms of this clinically important effect remain unclear, the early, persistent suppression of the expression of the stress neuro-hormone corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamic neurons has been implicated as a key aspect of this experience-induced neuroplasticity. Here we tested if the innervation of hypothalamic CRH neurons of rat pups that received augmented maternal care was altered in a manner that might promote the suppression of CRH expression, and studied the cellular mechanisms underlying this suppression. We found that the number of excitatory synapses and the frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic currents onto CRH-neurons were reduced in ‘care-augmented’ rats compared with controls, as were the levels of the glutamate vesicular transporter vGlut2. In contrast, analogous parameters of inhibitory synapses were unchanged. Levels of the transcriptional repressor, neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), which negatively regulates Crh gene transcription, were markedly elevated in care-augmented rats, and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that this repressor was bound to a cognate element (NRSE) on the Crh gene. Whereas the reduced excitatory innervation of CRH-expressing neurons dissipated by adulthood, increased NRSF levels and repression of CRH expression persisted, suggesting that augmented early-life experience re-programs Crh gene expression via mechanisms involving transcriptional repression by NRSF.

Korosi, A.; Shanabrough, M.; McClelland, S.; Liu, Z-W.; Borok, E.; Gao, X-B.; Horvath, T.L.; Baram, T.Z.

2010-01-01

36

Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.  

PubMed

A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D

2011-12-01

37

Early-Life Experience Decreases Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Morphine CPP in Adulthood via Microglial-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 Expression  

PubMed Central

A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.

2012-01-01

38

Early Childhood Library Specialist Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Early Childhood Library Specialist Program of the School of Library Science, at North Carolina Central University, was organized in 1970 and has the following purposes: (1) to train students to become effective practitioners of early childhood library...

T. Young

1971-01-01

39

Birth Characteristics Associated With Early Intervention Referral, Evaluation for Eligibility, and Program Eligibility in the First Year of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Individual with Disabilities Education Act mandates Early Intervention (EI) services for infants and toddlers with developmental delay. We assessed the percentage of infants at risk for developmental delay due to characteristics present at birth who were referred to Massachusetts EI within 1 year of birth, evaluated for eligibility, and eligible for services. In addition, we identified birth characteristics

Karen M. Clements; Wanda D. Barfield; Milton Kotelchuck; Kimberly G. Lee; Nancy Wilber

2006-01-01

40

EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

41

Veterans Benefits: Current Life Insurance Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administers and supervises several life insurance programs for active servicemembers and veterans. The VA supervises the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) programs...

C. Scott

2010-01-01

42

Early Experience: A Life Span Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews research findings which are contrary to or inconsistent with the view of early experience as a critical and often irreversible determinant of development. It is suggested that the increasing awareness of the value of a life span perspective is leading to major reevaluation of the role of early experience in development. The…

Goldhaber, Dale; Colman, Molly

43

Impacts and the Early Evolution of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The K\\/T event shows that, even today, biospheric cratering is an important process. Impacts were much larger and more frequent\\u000a on the early Earth. In all likelihood impacts posed the greatest challenge to the survival of early life.

Kevin Zahnle; Norman H. Sleep

2006-01-01

44

Programming early considered harmful  

Microsoft Academic Search

The premise of this panel is that most introductory Computer Science courses are too narrowly focused on teaching students a programming language. This is a controversy that has been debated for years, but in recent years seems to have been forgotten. The writers of Computing Curricula 1991 stated:\\

Lewis E. Hitchner; Judith Gersting; Peter B. Henderson; Philip Machanick; Yale N. Patt

2001-01-01

45

Early life predictors of the physiological stress response later in life  

Microsoft Academic Search

People born at a low birth weight are at increased risk of chronic adult disease including coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cognitive decline and depression. Recent human and animal research has suggested programming of physiological stress response as an important linking mechanism. We review evidence from human studies, focusing on biological markers as early life indicators and laboratory-induced stress

Eero Kajantie; Katri Räikkönen

2010-01-01

46

Reactor service life extension program  

SciTech Connect

A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

1990-01-01

47

Reactor service life extension program  

SciTech Connect

A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

1990-12-31

48

RADC cathode life test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This brief is an update of RADC cathode life test program and includes details of evaluation procedures, progress, and future plans. A technique has been developed which permits repeatable temperature measurements on cathode test vehicles using a two-color pyrometer. The setup of the pyrometer for the cathode activity plot measurements is critical. The technique developed, when compared to the previously used measurement procedures, has several advantages: (1) an increase in the repeatability of the measurement data; (2) decreased instrumentation setup time; (3) adjustments eliminating any jarring or jolting of the instrumentation during setup positioning; and (4) different individuals can perform the measurements and obtain similar results.

Bussey, D.; Daniszewski, E.; Novak, M.; Ryan, J.; Wilkinson, J.

1990-12-01

49

The habitat and nature of early life.  

PubMed

Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope. PMID:11234022

Nisbet, E G; Sleep, N H

2001-02-22

50

Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

Schoch, Rainer R.

2009-05-01

51

Animal Models of Early Life Stress: Implications for Understanding Resilience  

PubMed Central

In the mid-1950s, Levine and his colleagues reported that brief intermittent exposure to early life stress diminished indications of subsequent emotionality in rats. Here we review ongoing studies of a similar process in squirrel monkeys. Results from these animal models suggest that brief intermittent exposure to stress promotes the development of arousal regulation and resilience. Implications for programs designed to enhance resilience in human development are discussed.

Parker, Karen J.; Schatzberg, Alan F.

2011-01-01

52

Metabolic Programming in the Immediate Postnatal Life  

PubMed Central

The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment produced increased body weight gains, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. Overnourishment during the suckling period induced several adaptations in the energy circuitry in the hypothalamus of the offspring predisposing them for the onset of obesity later in life. Another approach for a nutritional modification in the immediate postnatal period is the artificial rearing of newborn rat pups on a high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula without changes in the total calorie availability. Hyperinsulinemia, immediately evident in the HC pups, persisted in the post-weaning period even after withdrawal of the HC milk. Significant alterations in pancreatic islets supported chronic hyperinsulinemia in the HC rats. Alterations in the gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides predisposing to hyperphagia were evident during the period of the HC dietary modification. The persistence of these hypothalamic adaptations supported the obese phenotype in adult HC rats. A transgenerational effect gave rise to the development of chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity in the offspring of the HC female rats. Other studies have shown that lactation by a diabetic, obese or malnourished mother resulted in predisposition for the onset of metabolic disorders in the offspring. These observations from animal studies on the metabolic programming effects due to altered nutritional experiences in the immediate postnatal life strongly suggest that altered feeding practices for infants (formula feeding and early introduction of infant foods) could contribute to the rising incidence of overweight/obesity in children and adults.

Patel, Mulchand S.; Srinivasan, Malathi

2011-01-01

53

Constraint Programming and Hybrid Formulations for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conway's game of Life provides an interesting testbed for exploring issues in formulation, symmetry, and optimization with constraint programming and hybrid constraint programming\\/integer programming methods. We examine the issue of finding a maximum density still-life. While basic formulations are unable to solve this problem above size 8, improved formulations and symmetry handling extend this to size 13.

Robert Bosch; Michael Trick

54

Early life recorded in archean pillow lavas.  

PubMed

Pillow lava rims from the Mesoarchean Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa contain micrometer-scale mineralized tubes that provide evidence of submarine microbial activity during the early history of Earth. The tubes formed during microbial etching of glass along fractures, as seen in pillow lavas from recent oceanic crust. The margins of the tubes contain organic carbon, and many of the pillow rims exhibit isotopically light bulk-rock carbonate delta13C values, supporting their biogenic origin. Overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates from the pillow lavas suggest that microbial life colonized these subaqueous volcanic rocks soon after their eruption almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:15105498

Furnes, Harald; Banerjee, Neil R; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Staudigel, Hubert; de Wit, Maarten

2004-04-23

55

Four educational programs in Space Life Sciences.  

PubMed

Four different educational programs impacting Space Life Sciences are described: the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) Program, the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) Program, and the NASA Graduate Research Fellow Program. Each program makes somewhat different demands on the students engaged in them. Each program, at the University of Colorado, involves Space Life Sciences training. While the Graduate Student Research Fellow and NSCORT Programs are discipline oriented, the Advanced Design and CCDS Programs are focused on design, technologies and applications. Clearly, the "training paradigms" differ for these educational endeavors. But, these paradigms can be made to mutually facilitate enthusiasm and motivation. Discipline-oriented academic programs, ideally, must be flexible enough to accommodate the emergent cross-disciplinary needs of Space Life Sciences students. Models for such flexibility and resultant student performance levels are discussed based upon actual academic and professional records. PMID:11537954

Luttges, M W; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

1994-01-01

56

Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan.  

PubMed

The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P < 0.001); those individuals living longest had relatively long telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length. PMID:22232671

Heidinger, Britt J; Blount, Jonathan D; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B; Monaghan, Pat

2012-01-09

57

Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan  

PubMed Central

The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P < 0.001); those individuals living longest had relatively long telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length.

Heidinger, Britt J.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

2012-01-01

58

Early life history: A computer analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical computer calculations, based in part on measurements of ‘young’ stars obtained with an orbiting telescope, may require a reexamination of some of the basic ideas about the composition of the earth's early atmosphere and the origin of life. According to Joel S. Levine, atmospheric geophysicist at the Langley Research Center, ‘the overwhelming majority of chemical evolution experiments since the first in 1952 may have been conducted with the wrong atmospheric mixture.’Astronomical measurements indicate that considerably more ultraviolet (UV) radiation may have been emitted by the young sun in comparison to that emitted by the present sun. Therefore, high levels of such radiation from the young sun, potentially harmful to life, would have been striking the earth at the very time life was being formed.Recent photochemical calculations by Levine and others at Langley state that at the time complex organic molecules (the precursors of living systems) were first formed from atmospheric gases the earth's atmosphere was not composed primarily of methane, ammonia, and hydrogen, as was previously supposed; instead, it was composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor, all resulting from volcanic activity. The calculations indicate that both methane and ammonia were extremely short-lived and that such an atmosphere was photochemically unstable if it existed at all.

Bell, Peter M.

59

Metabolic Programming in the Immediate Postnatal Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment

Mulchand S. Patel; Malathi Srinivasan

2011-01-01

60

NASA's space life sciences training program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours,

G. Coulter; L. Lewis; D. Atchison

1994-01-01

61

Early childhood programs and the education system  

PubMed Central

Policy makers, advocates and experts agree that the current delivery of early childhood development programs is fragmented. Many point to the education system as a better alternative for a more coherent approach that has the necessary infrastructure in place in communities, and is well placed to meet the needs of all young children and their families. In other jurisdictions, early childhood development programs have moved into education. In Canada, provincial and local school authorities are taking on more early childhood programs.

Beach, Jane; Bertrand, Jane

2009-01-01

62

Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

2010-01-01

63

Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

2010-01-01

64

76 FR 18766 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authority under section 1102(f) of the Affordable Care Act to stop accepting applications for the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program...the Affordable Care Act grants the Secretary the authority to stop taking applications for participation in the program based...

2011-04-05

65

Quality in Early Childhood Programs: Reflections from Program Evaluation Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates how program evaluation has contributed to the definition of quality in early childhood programs and what social and cultural conditions have influenced these definitions. First, a review of evaluation reports from the last 3 decades identified three types of quality used to evaluate early childhood programs: (a)…

Lee, Jin-Hee; Walsh, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

66

Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

2012-01-01

67

Early Childhood Library Specialist Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Early Childhood Library Specialist (ECLS) concept was first conceived as the Early Childhood Media Specialist, and was written into a proposal that included a curriculum for the training of such media specialists. Cognizant of the interrelationship of...

T. M. Young

1972-01-01

68

Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.  

PubMed

In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

2007-08-08

69

Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today.

Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.

2007-01-01

70

Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first 600 My of martian history were ripe for life to develop. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface and subsurface water and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life.

Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

2010-04-01

71

34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service program. Early...

2013-07-01

72

Fetal and early postnatal life roots of asthma.  

PubMed

The origins of asthma might be traced back to events occurring during fetal life. Reduced lung development has been shown to be a risk factor both for viral induced wheeze and allergic asthma. The evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, chemical domestic products for cleaning, outdoor pollutants, and reduction in lung function is quite strong. Reduced maternal intake of vitamin E, vitamin D, and zinc, or increased use of paracetamol during pregnancy is associated with increased wheezing outcomes in children. The odds ratio for asthma onset is also increased in infants born from mothers with oligohydramnios, chorioamnionitis, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes and exposed to stressful events. The risk of developing allergic asthma is increased if the child is exposed in the first months of life to synthetic bedding and is enhanced by allergen exposure and an inadequate barrier function of the skin. In conclusion, several lines of evidence support the concept of fetal programming and very early life events in the development of the different phenotypes of asthma. Since some environmental triggers can be easily avoided and some protective factors can be easily implemented all efforts should be made to prevent intrauterine insults and early sensitization. PMID:20925457

De Luca, Giuseppina; Olivieri, Francesca; Melotti, Giulia; Aiello, Giulia; Lubrano, Luigi; Boner, Attilio L

2010-10-01

73

Philatelic Programs on Early North American Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using scripts, publications, and philatelic press descriptions, this study investigates programs for stamp collectors in the early years of radio. NBC's Ivory Stamp Club of the Air was the most prominent of these. Syndicated and locally originated philatelic programming was widespread in the late 1930s and continued into the 1960s in Canada and the USA. Some programs appealed to kids

Stephen D. Perry

2011-01-01

74

Fragmentation and unpredictability of early-life experience in mental disorders.  

PubMed

Maternal sensory signals in early life play a crucial role in programming the structure and function of the developing brain, promoting vulnerability or resilience to emotional and cognitive disorders. In rodent models of early-life stress, fragmentation and unpredictability of maternally derived sensory signals provoke persistent cognitive and emotional dysfunction in offspring. Similar variability and inconsistency of maternal signals during both gestation and early postnatal human life may influence development of emotional and cognitive functions, including those that underlie later depression and anxiety. PMID:22885631

Baram, Tallie Z; Davis, Elysia P; Obenaus, Andre; Sandman, Curt A; Small, Steven L; Solodkin, Ana; Stern, Hal

2012-09-01

75

Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and

Erick Forno; Andrew B Onderdonk; John McCracken; Augusto A Litonjua; Daniel Laskey; Mary L Delaney; Andrea M DuBois; Diane R Gold; Louise M Ryan; Scott T Weiss; Juan C Celedón

2008-01-01

76

HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

Rader, Laura A.

2008-01-01

77

Housing in early life and later mortality.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aim was to examine the influence of domestic crowding and household amenities in early life on later mortality from all causes and specifically from stomach cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study of people whose houses had been surveyed in 1936 and whose household size was known from the 1939 census. Subjects were followed through the National Health Service Central Register from 1951 to 1989. SETTING--The housing survey had been carried out in the midland town of Chesterfield. SUBJECTS--Subjects comprised 8138 men and women born after 1900. RESULTS--A total of 2929 deaths were observed during the follow up period. All causes mortality in the full cohort was not consistently related to any of the housing variables examined, but among subjects who were still children at the time of the housing survey, death rates were higher in those whose houses were crowded or lacked a hot water tap. No associations could be shown between stomach cancer and domestic crowding or food storage facilities; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and domestic crowding or use of gas for cooking; or rheumatic heart disease and domestic crowding. There were few deaths from these causes, however, in subjects who were children at the time of housing survey. CONCLUSIONS--The findings suggest that the housing of young adults in Chesterfield during the 1930s had little effect on their later mortality. Further follow up of the cohort is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the influence of housing at younger ages.

Coggon, D; Barker, D J; Inskip, H; Wield, G

1993-01-01

78

Early Life on Earth: The Ancient Fossil Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is linked intimately with the geological evolution of the early\\u000a Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50–80°C), volcanically and\\u000a hydrothermally active, anoxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats for life were more limited\\u000a until continent-building

Frances Westall

2004-01-01

79

Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants developed a collection of teaching strategies to begin to address the challenge of integrating new scientific advances with effective instructional practices with an emphasis on data analysis and critical review of evidence. The workshop webpage includes the workshop program with links to all presentations and discussion summaries, a collection of recommended readings about early Earth research, ideas for teaching about Early Earth, suggestions on how to teach uncertain science, and classroom activities.

Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

2007-12-01

80

The effectiveness of early childhood development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OverviewEarly childhood development is influenced by characteristics of the child, the family, and the broader social environment. Physical health, cognition, language, and social and emotional development underpin school readiness. Publicly funded, center-based, comprehensive early childhood development programs are a community resource that promotes the well-being of young children. Programs such as Head Start are designed to close the gap in

Laurie M Anderson; Carolynne Shinn; Mindy T Fullilove; Susan C Scrimshaw; Jonathan E Fielding; Jacques Normand; Vilma G Carande-Kulis

2003-01-01

81

Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

2011-01-01

82

Defining and Assessing Early Childhood Program Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, there is a definition of quality of early care and education (ECE) programs that is widely accepted in the early childhood profession. It emphasizes a child-centered approach to raising children, with caring adults who are kind and gentle rather than restrictive and harsh and who protect children's health and safety, while providing a wealth of experiences

Debby Cryer

1999-01-01

83

Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

2011-01-01

84

Safe Playground Equipment for Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Playgrounds for early childhood programs are places where children can play freely--exploring the natural environment, learning about their bodies, creating friendships, and practicing physical skills. In April, 2000, The National Program for Playground Safety released the results of the most comprehensive national survey of child care, school,…

Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan; Olsen, Heather

2005-01-01

85

Development of Life on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For life to exist on a planet there must be water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. Life is probably present beneath the surface of Mars today in regions associated with water.

Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Wentworth, S. J.

2009-03-01

86

The early-life social environment and DNA methylation.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a chemical modification of DNA that confers, upon identical sequences, different identities that are reflected in different gene expression programming. DNA methylation has a well-established role in cellular differentiation by providing a mechanism for one genome to express multiple phenotypes in a multicellular organism. Recent data point however to the possibility that in addition to the innate process of cellular differentiation, DNA methylation can serve as a genome adaptation mechanism, adapting genome function to changing environmental contexts including social environments. A critical time point for this process is early life when cues from the social and physical environments define lifelong trajectories of physical and mental health. DNA methylation and additional epigenetic modifications could therefore serve as molecular links between 'nurture' and 'nature'. Data that are consistent with this new role for DNA methylation as a mechanism for conferring an 'environment' specific identity to DNA will be discussed. PMID:22236068

Szyf, M

2012-02-13

87

Early Life Factors and Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction Breast development and structure is influenced most during the following stages of life - intrauterine, menarche, and pregnancy and lactation. The success of traditional breast cancer epidemiology has been to uncover the relationship of facto...

M. B. Terry

2003-01-01

88

Severe early life stress hampers spatial learning and neurogenesis, but improves hippocampal synaptic plasticity and emotional learning under high-stress conditions in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early life stress increases the risk for developing stress-related pathologies later in life. Recent studies in rats suggest that mild early life stress, rather than being overall unfavorable, may program the hippocampus such that it is optimally adapted to a stressful context later in life. Here, we tested whether this principle of \\

C. A. Oomen; H. Soeters; N. Audureau; L. Vermunt; Hasselt van F. N; E. M. M. Manders; M. Joëls; P. J. Lucassen; H. Krugers

2010-01-01

89

MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

90

Development of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study applied vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test in full-term newborns younger than 2 weeks, to investigate the development and maturation of the sacculo-collic reflex in early life.

Yi-Ho Young; Chun-Nan Chen; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Shou-Jen Wang

2009-01-01

91

The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the locations where the earliest traces of life can be studied are few and far between (Isua, 3.8 Ga; Pilbara and Barberton, 3.5-3.3 Ga), the life that existed in the Early Archaean life has left a wealth of testimony. Structural and chemical fossils found in Early Arcahean `habitats' demonstrate that the biosphere was already in an advanced evolutionary state,

F. Westall; G. Southam

2006-01-01

92

AN EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR HIGH-RISK CHILDREN IN A HEALTH CARE SETTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early intervention programs are designed to provide detection, treatment, and prevention of handicaps, developmental delays, and environmental deprivation as early in a child's life as possible. Health care facilities, especially community health centers, are in a unique position to provide intervention services. The social work and nursing staffs of the Dimock Community Health Center in Roxbury, Massachusetts designed an early

Jane B. Mayer; Renee Meshel

1982-01-01

93

Chemical Defense of Early Life Stages of Benthic Marine Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the

Niels Lindquist

2002-01-01

94

Sex differences in body composition early in life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early development of the percentage of fat and muscle is rarely considered, but is important because excessive fat is related to the development of diabetes and other morbidities later in life. In pediatric medicine, there are few to no data comparing sex differences in body composition in the first months of life despite the fact that males are typically

David A. Fields; Sowmya Krishnan; Amy B. Wisniewski

2009-01-01

95

NASA's space life sciences training program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-08-01

96

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program.  

PubMed

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995. PMID:11537955

Coulter, G; Lewis, L; Atchison, D

1994-01-01

97

Early life factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrct  Osteoporosis is a major public health burden through associated fragility fractures. Bone mass, a composite of bone size and\\u000a volumetric density, increases through early life and childhood to a peak in early adulthood. The peak bone mass attained is\\u000a a strong predictor of future risk of osteoporosis. Evidence is accruing that environmental factors in utero and in early infancy\\u000a may

Chivon Winsloe; Susie Earl; Elaine M. Dennison; Cyrus Cooper; Nicholas C. Harvey

2009-01-01

98

The Birth of Life on the Early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exobiology is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the origin and early evolution of life. For the birth of life to occur, the setting of its cosmic cradle has to be right. The first step is to make early seas and to buildup a benign greenhouse effect that prevents their freezing and/or boiling. Next, an efficient prebiotic chemistry has to operate in this water to synthesize the key macromolecules that could start dividing, thus giving the first sketch of life. This synthesis requires: energy; liquid water; salts like phosphate; organic molecules such as amino acids; mineral surfaces behaving like catalysts of their reaction; etc.

Maurette, Michel

99

The habitat and nature of early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 °C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years

E. G. Nisbet; N. H. Sleep

2001-01-01

100

The habitat and nature of early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500–700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 °C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years

E. G. Nisbet; N. H. Sleep

2001-01-01

101

Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

Pierrehumbert, Raymond (University of Chicago)

2006-02-08

102

Emerging roles of epigenetic mechanisms in the enduring effects of early-life stress and experience on learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in programming gene expression throughout development. In addition, they are key contributors to the processes by which early-life experience fine-tunes the expression levels of key neuronal genes, governing learning and memory throughout life. Here we describe the long-lasting, bi-directional effects of early-life experience on learning and memory. We discuss how enriched postnatal experience enduringly augments spatial

Shawn McClelland; Aniko Korosi; Jessica Cope; Autumn Ivy; Tallie Z. Baram

2011-01-01

103

Showing Progress in Early Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This evaluation report of Oregon's early intervention programs describes the Oregon Preschool Assessment System, presents demographic information, and summarizes results of analysis of data on children's progress. It concludes that the infants and children enrolled (2,740 in 1991) are making substantial gains in all areas assessed. These gains…

Wilson, Darla; Brodsky, Meredith

104

Suffolk Community College Early Childhood Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Program (ECP) at Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) was established to train students in the instruction of young children by providing them with theoretical knowledge, skills training, and practical experience. This report provides information on the philosophy, structure, and outcomes of the ECP. The first section…

Hochman, Darlene; Kaplan, Paul

105

The Economic Impact of Early Life Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Early Intervention for Developmental Delay  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) can result in developmental delay as well as childhood asthma and increased risk of cancer. The high cost of childhood asthma related to ETS exposure has been widely recognized; however, the economic impact of ETS-related developmental delay has been less well understood. Methods and Results The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) has reported adverse effects of prenatal ETS exposure on child development in a cohort of minority women and children in New York City (odds ratio of developmental delay = 2.36; 95% confidence interval 1.22–4.58). Using the environmentally attributable fraction (EAF) approach, we estimated the annual cost of one aspect of ETS-related developmental delay: Early Intervention Services. The estimated cost of these services per year due to ETS exposure is > $50 million per year for New York City Medicaid births and $99 million per year for all New York City births. Conclusion The high annual cost of just one aspect of developmental delay due to prenatal exposure to ETS provides further impetus for increased prevention efforts such as educational programs to promote smoke-free homes, additional cigarette taxes, and subsidizing of smoking cessation programs.

Miller, Thaddeus; Rauh, Virginia A.; Glied, Sherry A.M.; Hattis, Dale; Rundle, Andrew; Andrews, Howard; Perera, Frederica

2006-01-01

106

Emerging roles of epigenetic mechanisms in the enduring effects of early-life stress and experience on learning and memory.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in programming gene expression throughout development. In addition, they are key contributors to the processes by which early-life experience fine-tunes the expression levels of key neuronal genes, governing learning and memory throughout life. Here we describe the long-lasting, bi-directional effects of early-life experience on learning and memory. We discuss how enriched postnatal experience enduringly augments spatial learning, and how chronic early-life stress results in persistent and progressive deficits in the structure and function of hippocampal neurons. The existing and emerging roles of epigenetic mechanisms in these fundamental neuroplasticity phenomena are illustrated. PMID:21338703

McClelland, Shawn; Korosi, Aniko; Cope, Jessica; Ivy, Autumn; Baram, Tallie Z

2011-02-19

107

Plasticity of the Stress Response Early in Life: Mechanisms and Significance  

PubMed Central

The concept that early-life experience influences the brain long-term has been extensively studied over the past 50 years, whereas genetic factors determine the sequence and levels of expression of specific neuronal genes, this genetic program can be modified enduringly as a result of experience taking place during critical developmental periods. This programming is of major importance because it appears to govern many behavioral and physiological phenotypes and promote susceptibility or resilience to disease. An established example of the consequences of early-life experience-induced programming includes the effects of maternal care, where patterns of augmented care result in decreased neuroendocrine stress responses, improved cognition and resilience to depression in the recipients of this care. Here, we discuss the nature and mechanisms of this programming phenomenon, focusing on work from our lab that was inspired by Seymour Levine and his fundamental contributions to the field.

Baram, Tallie Z.

2011-01-01

108

Plasticity of the stress response early in life: mechanisms and significance.  

PubMed

The concept that early-life experience influences the brain long-term has been extensively studied over the past 50 years, whereas genetic factors determine the sequence and levels of expression of specific neuronal genes, this genetic program can be modified enduringly as a result of experience taking place during critical developmental periods. This programming is of major importance because it appears to govern many behavioral and physiological phenotypes and promote susceptibility or resilience to disease. An established example of the consequences of early-life experience-induced programming includes the effects of maternal care, where patterns of augmented care result in decreased neuroendocrine stress responses, improved cognition and resilience to depression in the recipients of this care. Here, we discuss the nature and mechanisms of this programming phenomenon, focusing on work from our lab that was inspired by Seymour Levine and his fundamental contributions to the field. PMID:20862706

Korosi, Aniko; Baram, Tallie Z

2010-11-01

109

The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the locations where the earliest traces of life can be studied are few and far between (Isua, 3.8 Ga; Pilbara and Barberton, 3.5-3.3 Ga), the life that existed in the Early Archaean life has left a wealth of testimony. Structural and chemical fossils found in Early Arcahean `habitats' demonstrate that the biosphere was already in an advanced evolutionary state, i.e., much of the strata preserved from this period appears to have been colonised by morphologically and biochemically diverse bacteria. The Early-Mid Archaean microorganisms were morphologically similar to modern organisms and behaved in the same way, building colonies, biofilms and mats and interacting directly with their immediate substrate and with each other (in consortia). Their metabolic processes included chemolithotrophy, possibly methanogenesis and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Early life was diverse and included thermophilic, acid-tolerant, halo-tolerant to halophilic, and radiation resistant species. With one exception, the traces of early life are subtle, on the scale of tens to hundreds of µm although, where environmental conditions were stable and quiet enough for their development, microbial mats on sediment surfaces could contribute to the formation of stromatolites of about 10 cm in height. The diversity, relative level of evolution and widespread distribution of life by 3.5 Ga implies that it must have evolved much earlier, possibly even before or during the period of late heavy bombardment). However, no record of its appearance and early evolution remains on Earth. Given the conditions on early Mars were generally similar to those on early Earth, i.e., habitable, the Southern Highlands of Mars could potentially host this missing record. Life on early Mars would probably have been similarly subtle in its expression, although there is a possibility of "stumbling" across small macroscopic stromatolites. If life still exists on the planet today, it's in the subsurface and its expression will still be subtle. Westall, F. & Southam, G. 2006. Early life on Earth. AGU Geophys. Monogr., "Archean Geodynamics and Environment"s 164. pp 283-304. Westall, F. et al. 2006. The 3.466 Ga Kitty's Gap Chert, an Early Archaean microbial ecosystem. In Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec Pub., Processes on the Early Earth 405, 105-131. 1 Allwood, A. et al., 2006. Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Australia. Nature, 441, 714-718. 2

Westall, F.; Southam, G.

110

Breast cancer and the importance of early life nutrition.  

PubMed

Epigenetic processes play a central role in regulating the tissue-specific expression of genes. Alterations in these processes can lead to profound changes in phenotype and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including human cancer. There is growing evidence that the environment, particularly variations in diet, during specific developmental periods can induce changes in the epigenome, which are then stably maintained throughout life influencing susceptibility to cancer in later life. This chapter will review the evidence that alterations in early life nutritional exposure can affect breast cancer risk through the altered epigenetic regulation of genes and discuss how detection of such altered epigenetic marks in early life may provide biomarkers to detect individuals at increased risk of disease. PMID:24114486

Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C

2014-01-01

111

Declines in late-life disability: The role of early- and mid-life factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into the reasons for declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks

Vicki A. Freedman; Linda G. Martin; Robert F. Schoeni; Jennifer C. Cornman

2008-01-01

112

The evolutionary pattern of early life history in water currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanation of the characteristics of the early developmental stage of organisms is an important problem in evolutionary biology.\\u000a In studies to date, evolutionary biologists have proposed some theories that successfully explain egg size variation. Mesoscale\\u000a water movements may transport early life stage organisms in the aquatic biosphere. We propose a novel biological view to explain\\u000a the duration of the retention

Kinya Nishimura; Noboru Hoshino

2009-01-01

113

Constraint Programming and Hybrid Formulations for Three Life Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conway's game of Life provides an interesting testbed for exploring issues in formulation, symmetry, and optimization with constraint programming and hybrid constraint programming\\/integer programming methods. We consider three Life pattern-creation problems: finding maximum density still-Lifes, finding smallest immediate predecessor patterns, and finding period-2 oscillators. For the first two problems, integrating integer programming and constraint programming approaches provides a much better

Robert Bosch; Michael Trick

2004-01-01

114

End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life

Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

2010-01-01

115

Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and the Prevalence of Breast Cancer in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of mechanisms linking early-life social environment and breast cancer remains limited. We explore direct and indirect effects of early-life socioeconomic status (SES) on breast cancer prevalence in later life. Using 50-year data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 4,275) and structural equation modeling, we found a negative direct effect of early-life SES, indicating that women from higher-SES family background had lower breast cancer prevalence than women from lower-SES families. Additionally, early-life SES has a positive indirect effect on breast cancer via women's adult SES and age at first birth. Were it not for their higher SES in adulthood and delayed childbearing, women from higher-SES families of origin would have had lower breast cancer prevalence than women from lower-SES families. Yet, early-life SES is associated positively with adult SES and age at first birth, and women's higher adult SES and delayed childbearing are related to higher breast cancer prevalence.

Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anishkin, Andriy; Shen, Yifang

2012-01-01

116

Personal Well-Being of Gifted Students Following Participation in an Early College-Entrance Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, life satisfaction and its correlates were explored through analysis of the experiences and psychological traits of highly gifted students who were accelerated into an early college-entrance program. Happiness, fulfillment in life, assuredness, and good dispositions are constructs that point toward positive character development and…

Boazman, Janette; Sayler, Michael

2011-01-01

117

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of\\u000a substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration\\u000a of a substance.

Alexey V. Melkikh; Vladimir D. Seleznev

2008-01-01

118

Genetic architecture of EEG power spectra in early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG) in 209 5 year old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs to estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to EEG power spectra in early life. Data from same-sex and from opposite-sex twin pairs were used to test for sex differences in genetic influences. Results showed high concordance for EEGs of MZ

G. C. M. Van Baal; E. J. C. De Geus; D. I. Boomsma

1996-01-01

119

Epigenetic changes in early life and future risk of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in incidence of obesity over the past two decades cannot be explained solely by genetic and adult lifestyle factors. There is now considerable evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments also strongly influence the risk of developing obesity in later life. Initially, human studies showed that low birth weight was associated with an increased risk of

K A Lillycrop; G C Burdge

2011-01-01

120

Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

2010-01-01

121

Early Life History of Marine Fish: The Egg Stage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Originating from a series of lectures given at the College of Fisheries, University of Washington, in March/April 1975, this volume gives a brief general description of development and objectives of the study of the early life history of fish and continue...

G. Hempel

1979-01-01

122

Parent HistoriesPatterns of Change in Early Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies that examine the effects of family structure have employed relatively crude measures, typically a snapshot of family intactness at age 14. In this article, we use data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine (a) how one might better construct measures of family structure that reflect change during early life and (b) what analytical and

BRIAN C. MARTINSON; LAWRENCE L. WU

1992-01-01

123

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

124

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

125

How Early Is Too Early to Begin Life Career Planning? The Importance of the Elementary School Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of early and middle childhood experiences to life career planning is discussed. Life career planning is presented as a life skill beginning in infancy. The authors present five premises on which they have based their discussion: Life career development is a life-long, spiraling process; Life career planning includes a series of sub-skills; Career awareness and career exploration form

Carolyn S. Magnuson; Marion F. Starr

2000-01-01

126

Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle  

SciTech Connect

A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

B. Mar

2004-11-04

127

Early life factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major public health burden through associated fragility fractures. Bone mass, a composite of bone size and volumetric density, increases through early life and childhood to a peak in early adulthood. The peak bone mass attained is a strong predictor of future risk of osteoporosis. Evidence is accruing that environmental factors in utero and in early infancy may permanently modify the postnatal pattern of skeletal growth to peak and thus influence risk of osteoporosis in later life. This article describes the latest data in this exciting area of research, including novel epigenetic and translation work, which should help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and give rise to potential public health interventions to reduce the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations. PMID:19968918

Winsloe, Chivon; Earl, Susie; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

2009-12-01

128

Early life permethrin treatment leads to long-term cardiotoxicity.  

PubMed

Environmental, nutritional or hormonal influences in early life may have long-term effects changing homeostatic processes and physiological parameters in adulthood. NF-kB and Nrf2, two of the main transcription factors regulating genes involved in pro-inflammatory and antioxidant responses respectively, can be modified by various stimuli. NF-kB controls immediate early genes and is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth, while Nrf2 protects the heart from oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early life permethrin treatment (1/50 of LD50, from 6th to 21st day of life) on the development of cardiotoxicity in 500-day-old rats. Nrf2 and NF-kB gene expression, calcium level and heart surface area were chosen as biomarkers of toxicity. Six candidate reference genes were first examined and GAPDH resulted the most stable one for RT-qPCR. The comparative expression analysis of the target genes showed 1.62-fold increase in Nrf2 mRNA level, while the NF-kB mRNA in treated rats was not significantly changed compared to control ones. A significant decrease in heart surface area was observed in treated rats (296.59±8.09, mm(2)) with respect to the control group (320.86±4.93, mm(2)). Finally, the intracellular calcium influx in heart of early life treated rats increased 4.33-fold compared to the control one. In conclusion, early life pesticide exposure to low doses of permethrin insecticide, has long-term consequences leading to cardiac hypotrophy, increased calcium and Nrf2 gene expression levels in old age. PMID:23806482

Dhivya Vadhana, M S; Siva Arumugam, S; Carloni, Manuel; Nasuti, Cinzia; Gabbianelli, Rosita

2013-06-24

129

Excess nutrient supply in early life and its later metabolic consequences.  

PubMed

Suboptimal nutrition in early life, both in utero and during infancy, is linked to increased risk of adult obesity and its associated adverse metabolic health problems. Excess nutrient supply during early life can lead to metabolic programming in the offspring. Such overnutrition can occur in the offspring of obese mothers, the offspring of mothers who gain excess weight during gestation, infants of diabetic mothers and infants who undergo rapid growth, particularly weight gain, during early infancy. Postnatal overnutrition is particularly detrimental for infants who are born small for gestational age, who are overfed to attain 'catch-up growth'. Potential mechanisms underlying metabolic programming that results from excess nutrition during early life include resetting of hypothalamic energy sensing and appetite regulation, altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and impaired brown adipose tissue function. More detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in metabolic programming could enable the development of therapeutic strategies for ameliorating its ill effects. Research in this field could potentially identify optimal and appropriate preventative interventions for a burgeoning population at risk of increased mortality and morbidity from obesity and its concomitant metabolic conditions. PMID:23350968

Ojha, Shalini; Saroha, Vivek; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

2013-11-01

130

The challenges of vaccine responses in early life: selected examples.  

PubMed

One of the major challenges in vaccinology is the development of products that are able to induce protective immunity in the early life period. There are clear differences between adult and neonatal immune responses in both mice and humans with respect to both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. As a rule, neonates respond poorly to T-independent polysaccharide antigens and make lower and less persistent antibody responses to T-dependent protein antigens. Nevertheless, B-cell priming in neonates may lead to the generation of memory B cells. Similarly, neonatal cell-mediated immune responses are of lower potency than those generated in adults, and a key factor underlying this phenomenon may be a less effective interaction between antigen and neonatal dendritic cells. In addition to immunological immaturity in the neonate, the presence of inhibitory concentrations of maternally derived antibody imposes a further barrier to effective early life vaccination. Novel vaccination strategies including early priming and subsequent boosting are most likely to counteract these effects and provide protection from exposure to infectious disease in early life. PMID:17559867

Siegrist, C-A

2007-06-07

131

Product life trade-offs: what if products fail early?  

PubMed

Increasing product life allows the embodied emissions in products to be spread across a longer period but can mean that opportunities to improve use-phase efficiency are foregone. In this paper, a model that evaluates this trade-off is presented and used to estimate the optimal product life for a range of metal-intensive products. Two strategies that have potential to save emissions are explored: (1) adding extra embodied emissions to make products more sturdy, increasing product life, and (2) increasing frequency of use, causing early product failure to take advantage of improvements in use-phase efficiency. These strategies are evaluated for two specific case studies (long-life washing machines and more frequent use of vehicles through car clubs) and for a range of embodied and use-phase intensive products under different use-phase improvement rate assumptions. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that products often fail neither at their design life nor at their optimal life. Policy recommendations are then made regarding the targeting of these strategies according to product characteristics and the timing of typical product failure relative to optimal product life. PMID:23343618

Skelton, Alexandra C H; Allwood, Julian M

2013-01-23

132

Early life socioeconomic factors and genomic DNA methylation in mid-life  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modifications may be one mechanism linking early life factors, including parental socioeconomic status (SES), to adult onset disease risk. However, SES influences on DNA methylation patterns remain largely unknown. In a US birth cohort of women, we examined whether indicators of early life and adult SES were associated with white blood cell methylation of repetitive elements (Sat2, Alu and LINE-1) in adulthood. Low family income at birth was associated with higher Sat2 methylation (? = 19.7, 95% CI: 0.4, 39.0 for lowest vs. highest income quartile) and single parent family was associated with higher Alu methylation (? = 23.5, 95% CI: 2.6, 44.4), after adjusting for other early life factors. Lower adult education was associated with lower Sat2 methylation (? = -16.7, 95% CI: -29.0, -4.5). There were no associations between early life SES and LINE-1 methylation. Overall, our preliminary results suggest possible influences of SES across the life-course on genomic DNA methylation in adult women. However, these preliminary associations need to be replicated in larger prospective studies.

Tehranifar, Parisa; Wu, Hui-Chen; Fan, Xiaozhou; Flom, Julie D.; Ferris, Jennifer S.; Cho, Yoon Hee; Gonzalez, Karina; Santella, Regina M.; Terry, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

133

Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo preventivo fondamentale sin dall’epoca prenatale e nelle diverse età della crescita. La condizione metabolica e neuro-endocrino cui è sottoposto il feto è rilevante per la “programmazione metabolica”. E’ dimostrata inoltre l’importanza delle modalità di allattamento e divezzamento con particolare interesse per l’assunzione di proteine nel controllo dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari. La corretta distribuzione di macronutrienti (lipidi, proteine e carboidrati) dall’infanzia all’adolescenza favorisce una crescita corretta e risulta utile a prevenire l’insorgenza dei determinanti di rischio di malattia cardiovascolare in età adulta. Nella presente review verrà esaminato l’impatto della nutrizione dalle più precoci fasi delle vita sul rischio cardiovascolare.

2012-01-01

134

Declines in late-life disability: the role of early- and mid-life factors  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the causes of declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks of disability onset or recovery. Drawing on five waves from 1995 to 2004 of the US Health and Retirement Study, we found for the 75 and older population in the United States that the prevalence of difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) declined from 30.2% in 1995 to 26.0% in 2004, whereas the trend in difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was flat. Onset of ADL limitations also was reduced during this period while recovery increased. Changes in the educational composition of the older population were linked to declines in the prevalence of ADL limitations, but there were also modest contributions of changes in mother's education, self-rated childhood health, and lifetime occupation. Declines in late-life vision impairments and increases in wealth also contributed substantially to the downward trend, and had chronic conditions not increased, it would have been even larger. Reductions in the onset of ADL limitations were partly driven by changes in educational attainment of respondents and their mothers and, in late-life, better vision and wealth. In contrast, the recovery trend was not accounted for by changes in early- or mid-life factors. We conclude that early- and mid-life factors have contributed along with late-life factors to U.S. late-life disability trends mainly through their influence on the onset of, rather than recovery from, limitations.

Freedman, Vicki A.; Martin, Linda G; Schoeni, Robert F; Cornman, Jennifer C

2008-01-01

135

Early life risk factors and puberty implications for cancer prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier age at puberty is a known risk factor for breast cancer and suspected to influence prostate cancer; yet few studies have assessed early life risk factors for puberty. The overall objectives was to determine the relationship between birth-weight-for-gestational-age (BWGA), weight gain in infancy and pubertal status in girls and boys at 10.8 and 11.8 years and who were born

Rosenie Thelus

2010-01-01

136

Moral Neuroeducation from Early Life Through the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality and social development begins before birth in the communication among mother, child and environment, during sensitive\\u000a periods when the child’s brain and body are plastic and epigenetically co-constructed. Triune ethics theory postulates three\\u000a evolved, neurobiologically-based ethics fostered by early life experience. The security ethic is self-protective. The engagement\\u000a ethic is relationally attuned. The imagination ethic can abstract from the

Darcia Narvaez

137

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb

Cada

1991-01-01

138

Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

1998-07-01

139

Phenotypic plasticity early in life constrains developmental responses later.  

PubMed

Plastic stem-elongation responses to the ratio of red:far-red (R:FR) wavelengths enable plants to match their phenotype to local competitive conditions. However, elongation responses early in the life history may occur at the cost of reduced plasticity later in the life history, because elongation influences both allocation patterns and structural integrity. A common-garden experiment was performed to test whether seedling responses to R:FR affect biomass allocation. biomass accumulation, and subsequent plasticity to the cue. Seedlings of Abutilon theophrasti were stimulated to elongate by low R:FR treatments, and subsequent growth and plasticity was compared with nonelongated individuals. Elongated seedlings were less responsive than nonelongated ones to a second bout of low R:FR. Thus, seedling plasticity to R:FR reduces subsequent responsiveness to this cue. This negative association across life-history stages suggests an important constraint on the evolution of plastic stem responses, because selection in A. theophrasti has previously been shown to favor increases in early elongation in combination with increased later elongation. The reduced responsiveness of elongated seedlings to R:FR appeared to result from a structural feedback mechanism, indicating that the opportunity cost of early responses may be lower in environments providing structural support. PMID:11430653

Weinig, C; Delph, L F

2001-05-01

140

Plate tectonics, surface mineralogy, and the early evolution of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the accepted roles of plate tectonics in regulating planetary habitability through the composition of the atmosphere and temperature, and creating continents to enhance land-based evolution and biodiversity, it has a hitherto unexplored role in influencing surface mineralogy with possible implications for early evolution. Plate tectonics creates continents through the accretion of buoyant granitic crust. Erosion of the granites yields specific minerals including quartz, radioactive (uranium-, thorium-bearing) phases and phosphates, which could play a role in early evolution. Radioactive grains could help to concentrate carbon and increase its complexity through irradiation-induced polymerization at the prebiotic stage, and possibly influence mutation rates once life was established. Weathering of phosphate minerals was an important source of phosphorus for the biochemistry that is essential to life. Quartz-rich sands provide a translucent refuge for early photosynthesizers below the harmful effects of ultra-violet irradiation at the surface. Uranium is also important to the development of nuclear power in an advanced civilization. The mineralogy that engenders these processes is distinct from that to be expected on a planet without plate tectonics, where volcanogenic sediments would predominate, and further emphasizes the importance of plate tectonics to the evolution of life.

Parnell, J.

2004-04-01

141

Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life  

PubMed Central

Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI.

Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

2011-01-01

142

Early life soy exposure and age at menarche  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early life feeding regimes, categorized as primarily breast, early formula, early soy, and late soy were defined using infant feeding questionnaires administered during infancy. For this analysis, age at menarche was assessed through questionnaires administered approximately annually between ages 8 and 14.5. Eligible subjects were limited to term, singleton, white females. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at menarche and risk of menarche over the study period. The present analysis included 2,920 girls. Approximately 2% of mothers reported that soy products were introduced into the infant diet at or before 4 months of age (early soy). The median age at menarche [interquartile range (IQR)] in the study sample was 153 months [144–163], approximately 12.8 years. The median age at menarche among early soy fed girls was 149 months (12.4 years) [IQR, 140–159]. Compared to girls fed non-soy based infant formula or milk (early formula), early soy fed girls were at 25% higher risk of menarche throughout the course of follow up (Hazard Ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval, 0.92, 1.71]). Our results also suggest that girls fed soy products in early infancy may have an increased risk of menarche specifically in early adolescence. These findings may be the observable manifestation of mild endocrine disrupting effects of soy isoflavone exposure. However, our study is limited by few soy-exposed subjects and is not designed to assess biological mechanisms. Because soy formula use is common in some populations, this subtle association with menarche warrants more indepth evaluation in future studies.

Adgent, Margaret; Daniels, Julie; Rogan, Walter; Adair, Linda; Edwards, Lloyd; Westreich, Daniel; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele

2012-01-01

143

Effectiveness of the Additional Early Mathematics program for teaching children early mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study of the development of early mathematical competence among young poor arithmetic achievers in the 4–7 year age group. Research has shown that arithmetic difficulties later in life can be explained by an insufficient development of early mathematical competence: i.e. different aspects of early mathematical competence. The different aspects of early mathematical competence

Bernadette A. M. Van De Rijt; Johannes E. H. Van Luit

1998-01-01

144

Early life stress paradigms in rodents: potential animal models of depression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  While human depressive illness is indeed uniquely human, many of its symptoms may be modeled in rodents. Based on human etiology,\\u000a the assumption has been made that depression-like behavior in rats and mice can be modulated by some of the powerful early\\u000a life programming effects that are known to occur after manipulations in the first weeks of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Here we

Mathias V. Schmidt; Xiao-Dong Wang; Onno C. Meijer

2011-01-01

145

Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs. Part of the reason for this is that foundations an...

L. A. Karoly M. R. Kilburn J. H. Bigelow J. P. Caulkins J. S. Cannon

2001-01-01

146

Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across

Andrea de Silva-Sanigorski; Lauren Prosser; Lauren Carpenter; Suzy Honisett; Lisa Gibbs; Marj Moodie; Lauren Sheppard; Boyd Swinburn; Elizabeth Waters

2010-01-01

147

Early Life on Earth: the Ancient Fossil Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is lin= ked intimately with the geological evolution of the early Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50-80=B0C), volcanically and hydrothermally active, a= noxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats = for life were more limited until continent-building processes resulted in= the formation of stable cratons with wide, shallow, continental platforms= in the Mid-Late Archaean. Unfortunately there are no records of the first appearance of life and the earliest isotopic indications of the exist= ence of organisms fractionating carbon in ~3.8 Ga rocks from the Isua greenst= one belt in Greenland are tenuous. Well-preserved microfossils and micro= bial mats (in the form of tabular and domical stromatolites) occur in 3.5-= 3.3 Ga, Early Archaean, sedimentary formations from the Barberton (South Afri= ca) and Pilbara (Australia) greenstone belts. They document life forms that = show a relatively advanced level of evolution. Microfossil morphology inclu= des filamentous, coccoid, rod and vibroid shapes. Colonial microorganism= s formed biofilms and microbial mats at the surfaces of volcaniclastic = and chemical sediments, some of which created (small) macroscopic microbi= alites such as stromatolites. Anoxygenic photosynthesis may already have developed. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes ratios are in the r= ange of those for organisms with anaerobic metabolisms, such as methanogenesi= s, sulphate reduction and photosynthesis. Life was apparently distribute= d widely in shallow-water to littoral environments, including exposed, evaporitic basins and regions of hydrothermal activity. Biomass in t= he early Archaean was restricted owing to the limited amount of energy t= hat could be produced by anaerobic metabolisms. Microfossils resembling o= xygenic photosynthesisers, such as cyanobacteria, probably first occurred in = the later part of the Mid Archaean (~2.9 Ga), concurrent with the tectoni= c development of suitable shallow shelf environments.The development of= an oxygenic metabolism allowed a considerable increase in biomass and in= creased interaction with the geological environment.

Westall, F.

2004-07-01

148

Early childhood teachers' preparation and the quality of program outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of the preparation of effective teachers becomes more critical for teachers of early childhood programs. It has been hypothesized that better program quality depends on better?educated teachers. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the importance of a high level of education for all early childhood education teachers. This issue has intrigued early childhood researchers and has

Olivia N. Saracho; Bernard Spodek

2007-01-01

149

The Early Earth vs. the Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrefutable evidence on how life originated does not exist. Hypotheses regarding its origin, however, are plentiful. Those that have prevailed for most of this century require an atmosphere dominated by ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4), organic synthesis driven by energy sources that are external to the hydrosphere/lithosphere, and a first organism that makes its living by consuming the resulting supply of organic compounds. Diverse lines of evidence have been amassed over the last several decades that refute these particular origin of life hypotheses. For example, geologic evidence, atmospheric photochemistry, and current constraints on the formation of terrestrial planets indicate that a plausible early atmosphere was not dominated by NH3 and CH4, but rather by nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, the location, duration, and quantity of external energy sources are not particularly predictable or reliable, and are not generally effective in driving the reduction reactions required to make organic compounds from N2 and CO2. Finally, revolutions in molecular biology have led to the observation that organisms that synthesize biomass from inorganic starting materials like CO2 populate the deepest and shortest branches on the universal phylogenetic tree of life on Earth. These fundamental developments have permitted new and more geologically consistent ideas about the emergence of life. We argue that plausible hypotheses of the emergence of life on Earth call for a network of energetically favorable gradual synthesis processes in response to normal geologic forces. Inescapable chemical disequilibrium states, established and at least partially maintained in the hydrosphere at or near the dynamic surface of early Earth, can provide the energy for organic and biomolecule synthesis from inorganic source materials. Geologic conditions conducive to the formation of aqueous organic compounds, including precursors to complex biopolymers such as nucleic acids and proteins that are present in all organisms, are probably similar to those at which autotrophic organisms emerged. Hydrothermal systems are perhaps the best example of a normal geologic environment that maintains these minimum necessary conditions for life. These systems are an inevitable consequence of volcanic or impact activity in the presence of liquid water, and were likely more abundant and dynamic on early Earth than today. In further support, modern molecular phylogenies place chemosynthetic thermophilic autotrophs, organisms isolated from and probably ubiquitous in hydrothermal systems, nearest the last common ancestor in the tree of life.

Shock, E. L.; Amend, J. P.; Zolotov, M. Y.

150

Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early

Hertzog, Nancy B.

2012-01-01

151

Early Childhood Programs in Other Nations: Goals and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States interest in the potential early childhood programs have for improving outcomes for children is shared by policymakers and researchers in many other nations. Throughout the world, enrollments in preschool and child care programs are rising. This article reviews international research documenting how participation in early childhood programs influenced children's later development and success in school. Studies conducted in

Sarane Spence Boocock

1995-01-01

152

Quality of Early Childhood Programs in Inclusive and Noninclusive Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed factors contributing to global program quality in 180 community-based child-care centers in North Carolina. Inclusive early-childhood programs scored higher on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Other predictors of global program quality included teacher education, professional experience, and teacher self-ratings of…

Buysse, Virginia; Wesley, Patricia W.; Bryant, Donna; Gardner, Dave

1999-01-01

153

Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

2008-01-01

154

Father Involvement in Early Head Start Programs: A Practitioners Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all Early Head Start programs funded from 1995-1998 was conducted during the winter of 1999-2000 to determine involvement of fathers in the programs and program outreach to involve fathers. Program representatives from 261 programs completed the survey on the World Wide Web or by mail, for a 62.5 percent response rate. Findings…

Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; vanKammen, Welmoet; Summers, JeanAnn; Raikes, Abbie; Laible, Debbie; Wilcox, Brian; Ontai, Lenna; Christensen, Lanette

155

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes inform...

1996-01-01

156

Long-term consequences of stunting in early life.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the impact of stunting, highlights recent research findings, discusses policy and programme implications and identifies research priorities. There is growing evidence of the connections between slow growth in height early in life and impaired health and educational and economic performance later in life. Recent research findings, including follow-up of an intervention trial in Guatemala, indicate that stunting can have long-term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, economic productivity in adulthood and maternal reproductive outcomes. This evidence has contributed to the growing scientific consensus that tackling childhood stunting is a high priority for reducing the global burden of disease and for fostering economic development. Follow-up of randomized intervention trials is needed in other regions to add to the findings of the Guatemala trial. Further research is also needed to: understand the pathways by which prevention of stunting can have long-term effects; identify the pathways through which the non-genetic transmission of nutritional effects is mediated in future generations; and determine the impact of interventions focused on linear growth in early life on chronic disease risk in adulthood. PMID:21929633

Dewey, Kathryn G; Begum, Khadija

2011-10-01

157

The Enzymatic and Metabolic Capabilities of Early Life  

PubMed Central

We introduce the concept of metaconsensus and employ it to make high confidence predictions of early enzyme functions and the metabolic properties that they may have produced. Several independent studies have used comparative bioinformatics methods to identify taxonomically broad features of genomic sequence data, protein structure data, and metabolic pathway data in order to predict physiological features that were present in early, ancestral life forms. But all such methods carry with them some level of technical bias. Here, we cross-reference the results of these previous studies to determine enzyme functions predicted to be ancient by multiple methods. We survey modern metabolic pathways to identify those that maintain the highest frequency of metaconsensus enzymes. Using the full set of modern reactions catalyzed by these metaconsensus enzyme functions, we reconstruct a representative metabolic network that may reflect the core metabolism of early life forms. Our results show that ten enzyme functions, four hydrolases, three transferases, one oxidoreductase, one lyase, and one ligase, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks within central metabolic processes related to sugar and starch metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis, have high frequencies of these enzyme functions. We demonstrate that a large metabolic network can be generated from this small number of enzyme functions.

Goldman, Aaron David; Baross, John A.; Samudrala, Ram

2012-01-01

158

Early Environmental Origins of Neurodegenerative Disease in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), the two most common neurodegenerative disorders in American adults, are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors. In this article we hypothesize that environmental exposures in early life may be of particular etiologic importance and review evidence for the early environmental origins of neurodegeneration. For PD the first recognized environmental cause, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), was identified in epidemiologic studies of drug abusers. Chemicals experimentally linked to PD include the insecticide rotenone and the herbicides paraquat and maneb; interaction has been observed between paraquat and maneb. In epidemiologic studies, manganese has been linked to parkinsonism. In dementia, lead is associated with increased risk in chronically exposed workers. Exposures of children in early life to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury have been followed by persistent decrements in intelligence that may presage dementia. To discover new environmental causes of AD and PD, and to characterize relevant gene–environment interactions, we recommend that a large, prospective genetic and epidemiologic study be undertaken that will follow thousands of children from conception (or before) to old age. Additional approaches to etiologic discovery include establishing incidence registries for AD and PD, conducting targeted investigations in high-risk populations, and improving testing of the potential neurologic toxicity of chemicals.

Landrigan, Philip J.; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Butler, Robert N.; Trasande, Leonardo; Callan, Richard; Droller, Daniel

2005-01-01

159

Early Life Stage Mortality Rates of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of the early life history of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens is critical for rehabilitation of this species. Recruitment of lake sturgeon is known to be variable, but the extent of that variation and mortality rates experienced by early life stages are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify early life stage mortality and explore the

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

160

Early Childhood Health--Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…

Rubin, Lawrence S.

161

Father Involvement in Early Head Start Programs: A Practitioners' Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notes that most Early Head Start children have either a father who lives with them or an involved nonresident father. However, there is considerable variation across programs, with some programs serving a higher percentage of resident fathers, depending on the program setting or population served. Furthermore, programs vary in how they perceive their experience with father involvement, with most (72

Helen Raikes; Kimberly Boller; Welmoet van Kammen; JeanAnn Summers; Abbie Raikes; Debbie Laible; Brian Wilcox; Lenna Ontai; Lanette Christensen

2002-01-01

162

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

163

Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats  

PubMed Central

Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent.

Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

2012-01-01

164

Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders\\u000a later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the\\u000a main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to

Richard Harrington; Andrew Clark

1998-01-01

165

Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume II: Program Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pathways to Quality and Full Implementation Report: What were the characteristics, levels of implementation, and levels of quality of the 17 Early Head Start (EHS) programs in fall 1999, three years into serving families. What pathways did programs take t...

1999-01-01

166

Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To examine the associations of antibiotic exposures during the first 2 years of life and the development of body mass over the first 7 years of life. DESIGN Longitudinal birth cohort study. SUBJECTS A total of 11532 children born at ?2500 g in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based study of children born in Avon, UK in 1991–1992. MEASUREMENTS Exposures to antibiotics during three different early-life time windows (<6 months, 6–14 months, 15–23 months), and indices of body mass at five time points (6 weeks, 10 months, 20 months, 38 months and 7 years). RESULTS Antibiotic exposure during the earliest time window (<6 months) was consistently associated with increased body mass (+0.105 and +0.083 s.d. unit, increase in weight-for-length Z-scores at 10 and 20 months, P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively; body mass index (BMI) Z-score at 38 months +0.067 s.d. units, P=0.009; overweight OR 1.22 at 38 months, P=0.029) in multivariable, mixed-effect models controlling for known social and behavioral obesity risk factors. Exposure from 6 to 14 months showed no association with body mass, while exposure from 15 to 23 months was significantly associated with increased BMI Z-score at 7 years (+0.049 s.d. units, P=0.050). Exposures to non-antibiotic medications were not associated with body mass. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to antibiotics during the first 6 months of life is associated with consistent increases in body mass from 10 to 38 months. Exposures later in infancy (6–14 months, 15–23 months) are not consistently associated with increased body mass. Although effects of early exposures are modest at the individual level, they could have substantial consequences for population health. Given the prevalence of antibiotic exposures in infants, and in light of the growing concerns about childhood obesity, further studies are needed to isolate effects and define life-course implications for body mass and cardiovascular risks.

Trasande, L; Blustein, J; Liu, M; Corwin, E; Cox, LM; Blaser, MJ

2013-01-01

167

Evidence-Based Practices and Programs for Early Childhood Care and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and district administrators, as well as policymakers, are increasingly recognizing that early education and intervention services for young children have a direct and positive impact on later school performance and quality of life. But which programs and services should be operated and funded? To answer that question, this book highlights…

Groark, Christina J., Ed.; Mehaffie, Kelly E., Ed.; McCall, Robert, Ed.; Greenberg, Mark T., Ed.

2006-01-01

168

Fetal growth, early life circumstances, and risk of suicide in late adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in Sweden and Scotland have found early life conditions to be associated with increased risk of attempted and\\u000a completed suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. It is not known, however, whether early life conditions affect suicide\\u000a risk throughout the life course, from adulthood into old age. We examined the effects of early life conditions, including\\u000a markers of fetal

Phoebe Day Danziger; Richard Silverwood; Ilona Koupil

2011-01-01

169

Who Drops out of Early Head Start Home Visiting Programs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Early Head Start home-based programs provide services through weekly home visits to families with children up to age 3, but families vary in how long they remain enrolled. In this study of 564 families in home-based Early Head Start programs, "dropping out" was predicted by specific variations in home visits and certain family…

Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Peterson, Carla A.; Raikes, Helen H.

2008-01-01

170

The Preparation of Early Childhood Special Educators: A Model Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model personnel preparation program, funded by the U.S. Office of Special Education, that trains master's level early childhood special educators is presented. Rde definition is discussed. and the convergence of early childhood and special education as a combined discipline is reviewed. The theoretical perspectives of the program, including cognitive-developmental and ecological frameworks, are described. Coursework and internship arrangements are

Bruce L. Mallory

1983-01-01

171

The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.  

PubMed

Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways. PMID:16581941

Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

2006-03-31

172

Home-based Early Childhood Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines 14 home-based preschool educational programs from six different countries. Data reveals a variety of program objectives, target populations, methods of operation, staffing patterns and facility requirements in addition to the cost of the programs and the methods for evaluating program effectiveness. (RJC)

Lombard, Avima D.

1988-01-01

173

Harvard Life Sciences/HHMI Outreach Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains animations and other resources for several life science topics explored at summer or fall workshops for high school teachers at Harvard UniversityâÂÂs Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Robert A. Lue (Harvard University;); Tara Bennett (Harvard University;); Susan Johnson (Harvard University;)

2010-05-28

174

First Principles for Early Grades Reading Programs in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) program is an oral assessment designed to measure the most basic foundation skills for literacy acquisition in the early grades. EGRA's purpose is to document student performance on early grade reading skills in order to inform ministries…

Roskos, Kathy; Strickland, Dorothy; Haase, Janeen; Malik, Sakil

2009-01-01

175

Old Baggage, New Visions: Shaping Policy for Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses principles to guide policy development for early childhood programs. Argues for an early childhood "ecosystem" that integrates early childhood and child care services. Discusses federal legislation and urges communities to accept responsibility for providing comprehensive academic, health, social, nutrition, and transportation services…

Mitchell, Anne

1989-01-01

176

Learning Comes to Life: An Active Learning Program for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The High/Scope Institute for IDEAS began in the early 1960s as a summer camp program and is now a dynamic learning program for teens that emphasizes working with them in an environment which supports emotional, social, and intellectual development. The High/Scope model for adolescent programs is based on the following principles: (1) adolescents…

Ilfeld, Ellen Meredith

177

Collaborative, Site-Based Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Collaborative, Site-Based Teacher Preparation Program in Early Childhood has transformed the way that the Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Green Bay Pro- fessional Program in Education con- ducts early childhood teacher prepara- tion. Preservice teachers now engage in performance-based learning in col- laboratively supported, community- and public school-based early child- hood settings where they learn to work with culturally, linguistically, and

Patricia E. Ragan

178

Johnson & Johnson: The Live for Life Program (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case describes the initiation, development, and testing of Live for Life, a comprehensive employee-wellness program at J&J. The program was intended to help employees adopt healthier lifestyles, thereby reducing the risk of illness and helping control rising health-care costs. The program was introduced on an experimental basis, with four J&J sites receiving the full program and five sites receiving

Jeffrey Edwards; Peter Greenwood

179

The early life social environment and DNA methylation: DNA methylation mediating the long-term impact of social environments early in life.  

PubMed

Although epidemiological data provides evidence that there is an interaction between genetics (nature) and the social and physical environments (nurture) in human development; the main open question remains the mechanism. The pattern of distribution of methyl groups in DNA is different from cell-type to cell type and is conferring cell specific identity on DNA during cellular differentiation and organogenesis. This is an innate and highly programmed process. However, recent data suggests that DNA methylation is not only involved in cellular differentiation but that it is also involved in modulation of genome function in response to signals from the physical, biological and social environments. We propose that modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental cues early in life serves as a mechanism of life-long genome "adaptation" that molecularly embeds the early experiences of a child ("nurture") in the genome ("nature"). There is an emerging line of data supporting this hypothesis in rodents, non-human primates and humans that will be reviewed here. However, several critical questions remain including the identification of mechanisms that transmit the signals from the social environment to the DNA methylation/demethylation enzymes. PMID:21772123

Szyf, Moshe

2011-08-01

180

Starting Labor: Management Quality of Work Life Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet defines quality of work life programs and describes specific steps organizations should take to successfully begin such efforts. These include union involvement, realistic expectations, joint visioning of the future, formal training, and evalu...

M. Brower

1988-01-01

181

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of LIfe Studies Funding Program (BIQSFP)  

Cancer.gov

Funded Cooperative Groups (CGs) and funded Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support essential biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies which are associated with clinical trial concepts.

182

Life after RCS (Residential Conservation Service Program)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the federal law mandating utilities to provide energy audits expired in June 1989, residential conservation programs throughout the United States have faced an unprecedented transition. But state and utility programs won't disappear - in fact they may be increasing in variety and sophistication now that they are freer to adapt to local conditions. The authors surveyed 60 utilities, public

D. L. White; R. Vories

2009-01-01

183

Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

Iberall, Robbins, E.; Iberall, A. S.

1991-01-01

184

The Early Development of Programming Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper surveys the evolution of high level programming languages during the first decade of computer programming activity. Discussed are the contributions of Zuse (Plankalkul, 1945), Goldstine/von Neumann (Flow Diagrams, 1946), Curry (Composition, 194...

D. E. Knuth L. T. Pardo

1976-01-01

185

Early Head Start Research: Pathways to Quality and Full Implementation in Early Head Start Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a multi-faceted effort, the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project examined the nature and extent of implementation in key program areas and the quality of crucial child development services in 17 research programs funded early in the initiative. Implementation data were collected through three rounds of site visits,…

Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Paulsell, Diane; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen

186

Management Styles and Leadership Behavior Within a Residence Life Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership behavior of Residence Life staff members, the management styles of the organization and their relationship to each other. Staff members and students within the Residence Life Program at Ohio University comprised the sample used. Staff perceptions on the Profile on Organizational…

Moy, James Y. K.; Hales, Loyde W.

187

Starting Labor-Management Quality of Work Life Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes the experiences of the Massachusetts Quality of Working Life Center in assisting the attempted and actual start-up of a number of quality of work life (QWL) programs in 1976 and 1977 and in providing ongoing assistance. Lessons learned by the three sites the center launched, other sites, as well as those sites that chose…

Brower, Michael

188

Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

189

Findings from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs: Communities, Programs, and Families. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early Head Start is a comprehensive, two-generation federal initiative begun in 1995 aimed at enhancing the development of infants and toddlers while strengthening low-income families. This report contains information from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs. Beyond the need for an updated picture of the Early Head Start program, the Survey of…

Vogel, Cheri A.; Aikens, Nikki; Burwick, Andrew; Hawkinson, Laura; Richardson, Angela; Mendenko, Linda; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

2006-01-01

190

Early Childhood Literature Sharing Programs: Public Librarians' Practices and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was undertaken to: (1) develop a schema from an analysis of research information on child development from birth to three years of age with literature sharing implications for library programs; (2) query librarians in the United States who offer early childhood literature sharing programs about their program practices and attitudes via…

Carlson, Ann D.

191

Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific subgroups of children. States have also tended to offer targeted

Jason T. Hustedt; W. Steven Barnett

2011-01-01

192

Development of the Early Childhood Education Program. Basic Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early childhood education program described in this report is a 3-year program of preschool education to prepare 6-year-old rural children to perform tasks and acquire skills expected of the average child at the first grade level. Language, cognition, motor skills, and orienting and attending skills are emphasized. This program is proposed as…

Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

193

Early Childhood Literature Sharing Programs: Public Librarians' Practices and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to: (1) develop a schema from an analysis of research information on child development from birth to three years of age with literature sharing implications for library programs; (2) query librarians in the United States who offer early childhood literature sharing programs about their program practices and attitudes via…

Carlson, Ann D.

194

Neuroanatomical changes in a mouse model of early life neglect  

PubMed Central

Using a novel mouse model of early life neglect and abuse (ENA) based on maternal separation with early weaning, George et al. (BMC Neurosci 11:123, 2010) demonstrated behavioral abnormalities in adult mice, and Bordner et al. (Front Psychiatry 2(18):1–18, 2011) described concomitant changes in mRNA and protein expression. Using the same model, here we report neuroanatomical changes that include smaller brain size and abnormal inter-hemispheric asymmetry, decreases in cortical thickness, abnormalities in subcortical structures, and white matter disorganization and atrophy most severely affecting the left hemisphere. Because of the similarities between the neuroanatomical changes observed in our mouse model and those described in human survivors of ENA, this novel animal model is potentially useful for studies of human ENA too costly or cumbersome to be carried out in primates. Moreover, our current knowledge of the mouse genome makes this model particularly suited for targeted anatomical, molecular, and pharmacological experimentation not yet possible in other species.

Duque, Alvaro; Coman, Daniel; Carlyle, Becky C.; Bordner, Kelly A.; George, Elizabeth D.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hyder, Fahmeed

2013-01-01

195

Assessment of Quality-of-Work-Life Programs for the Transit Industry: Model Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains model programs which provide specific guidance for initiating and maintaining quality-of-work-life programs within a transit agency. Emphasis is on initial activities, policy questions, and potential barriers. A resource guide of print...

G. Greisinger K. D. Warren S. G. Clark

1983-01-01

196

Choosing Furniture for an Early Childhood Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides guidelines for selecting furniture for early childhood settings. Discusses the role of taste, curriculum and space, quality and safety, and budget in making purchasing decisions. Delineates appropriate seat height and table height for children of different ages. (KB)

Meservey, Lynne

2000-01-01

197

Choosing Furniture for an Early Childhood Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides guidelines for selecting furniture for early childhood settings. Discusses the role of taste, curriculum and space, quality and safety, and budget in making purchasing decisions. Delineates appropriate seat height and table height for children of different ages. (KB)|

Meservey, Lynne

2000-01-01

198

The Adolescent Family Life Program and Adoption Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Adolescent Family Life Program, which develops and tests approaches that encourage adoption as an alternative to abortion for pregnant teens. Notes that both abortion and adoption rates have dropped since the program was instituted in 1981; maintains that additional research is needed into factors associated with adoption. Discusses…

Kring, Thomas C.

1998-01-01

199

The Adolescent Family Life Program and Adoption Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Adolescent Family Life Program, which develops and tests approaches that encourage adoption as an alternative to abortion for pregnant teens. Notes that both abortion and adoption rates have dropped since the program was instituted in 1981; maintains that additional research is needed into factors associated with adoption. Discusses…

Kring, Thomas C.

1998-01-01

200

Hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early-life stress: Functional and molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas genetic factors contribute crucially to brain function, early-life events, including stress, exert long-lasting influence on neuronal function. Here, we focus on the hippocampus as the target of these early-life events because of its crucial role in learning and memory. Using a novel immature-rodent model, we describe the deleterious consequences of chronic early-life ‘psychological’ stress on hippocampus-dependent cognitive tasks. We

Kristina A. Fenoglio; Kristen L. Brunson; Tallie Z. Baram

2006-01-01

201

The Effect of Early-Life Stress on Airway Inflammation in Adult Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Neonatal stress induces permanent physiological changes that may influence the immune system. Early-life stress increases asthma disease severity in children. We investigated the effects of early-life stress on allergic airway inflammation using a murine model of asthma coupled to maternal separation as an early-life stress stimulus. Methods: Maternally separated (MS) and unseparated control (CON) mice were sensitized with ovalbumin

Rattanjeet Vig; John R. Gordon; Bernard Thébaud; A. Dean Befus; Harissios Vliagoftis

2010-01-01

202

Factors Associated with Early Attrition from Psychosocial Rehabilitation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with early dropout from a vocationally oriented psychosocial rehabilitation\\u000a (PSR) program for clients with severe mental illness. The sample consisted of 194 individuals who participated in a study\\u000a comparing a supported employment program to a stepwise vocational program. Study participants who dropped out of the PSR program\\u000a within 6 months of study entry were

Brian Harding; Susan Torres-Harding; Gary R. Bond; Michelle P. Salyers; Angela L. Rollins; Teresa Hardin

2008-01-01

203

Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

204

Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative - or complementary - perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research. PMID:19838325

Koe, Amelia S; Jones, Nigel C; Salzberg, Michael R

2009-10-05

205

Early Life Stress as an Influence on Limbic Epilepsy: An Hypothesis Whose Time has Come?  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

Koe, Amelia S.; Jones, Nigel C.; Salzberg, Michael R.

2009-01-01

206

Impact of Early Growth on Postprandial Responses in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 65–75 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life.

Perala, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviska, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.

2011-01-01

207

The Role of Early-Life Socioeconomic Status in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Unraveling Life Course Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examine (1) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES), and (2) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. Methods We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Results Higher levels of mothers’ education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers’ education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers’ education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. Discussion This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival.

Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta

2012-01-01

208

Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

Neugebauer, Roger

2008-01-01

209

Ceramic Material Life Prediction: A Program to Translate Ansys Results to Cares/Life Reliability Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and C...

P. Vonhermann A. Pintz

1994-01-01

210

Early Childhood Education Programs in Kenya: Challenges and Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education in Kenya serves the critical purpose of preparing young children for primary education. Notwithstanding the associated benefits for society as a whole, the government of Kenya is involved minimally. Indeed, parents are responsible for planning, developing and managing different early childhood programs. Consequently,…

Nganga, Lydiah W.

2009-01-01

211

Assessing the effects of an early retirement program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate induced retirement effects of the Norwegian early retirement program “AFP” and emphasize effects caused by relocations of some individuals from disability pension and unemployment to AFP. Theoretical considerations predict that AFP unambiguously induces more early retirement. Analyzing Norwegian register data 1994–96 with parametric and non-parametric methods, we demonstrate that i) economic incentives influence the retirement decision, ii) there

Espen Bratberg; Tor Helge Holmås; Øystein Thøgersen

2004-01-01

212

Quality, Compensation, & Affordability in Early Childhood Programs: An Action Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet is designed to provide strategies and suggestions for raising awareness and taking action on issues related to quality, compensation, and affordability in early childhood programs. Specific materials are designed for early childhood personnel, parents, civic and volunteer organizations, media, and policymakers. However, many of the…

National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

213

Experimental modeling of hypoxia in pregnancy and early postnatal life  

PubMed Central

The important role of equilibrium of environmental factors during the embryo-fetal period is undisputable. Women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to various environmental risk factors such as hypoxia, prenatal viral infections, use of drugs, smoking, complications of birth or stressful life events. These early hazards represent an important risk for structural and/or functional maldevelopment of the fetus and neonates. Impairment of oxygen/energy supply during the pre- and perinatal period may affect neuronal functions and induce cell death. Thus when death of the newborn is not occurring following intrauterine hypoxia, various neurological deficits, including hyperactivity, learning disabilities, mental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, dystonia etc., may develop both in humans and in experimental animals. In our animal studies we used several approaches for modeling hypoxia in rats during pregnancy and shortly after delivery, i.e. chronic intrauterine hypoxia induced by the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, neonatal anoxia by decreased oxygen saturation in 2-day-old pups. Using these models we were able to test potential protective properties of natural (vitamin E, melatonin) and synthetic (stobadine) compounds. Based on our results, stobadine was also able to reduce hypoxia-induced hyperactivity and the antioxidant capacity of stobadine exceeded that of vitamin E and melatonin, and contrary to vitamin E, stobadine had no adverse effects on developing fetus and offspring.

Mach, Mojmir; Dubovicky, Michal; Navarova, Jana; Brucknerova, Ingrid; Ujhazy, Eduard

2009-01-01

214

78 FR 53150 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE...on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation....

2013-08-28

215

76 FR 12977 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation AGENCY...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program...

2011-03-09

216

76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

2011-03-09

217

76 FR 71979 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

2011-11-21

218

Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume III: Program Implementation. Early Head Start Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early Head Start (EHS) is a comprehensive program providing intensive services from before birth to age 3 to promote improved outcomes in child, family, staff, and community development. The third of a 3-volume series designed to share the experiences of the 17 EHS programs participating in the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation…

Paulsell, Diane; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; Rosenberg, Linda; Coolahan, Kathleen; Berlin, Lisa J.

219

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed Central

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders.

Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2013-01-01

220

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently "re-programed" via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting "re-wiring" of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A; Baram, Tallie Z

2013-08-15

221

Estimating the Relative Impact of Early-Life Infection Exposure on Later-Life Tuberculosis Outcomes in a Canadian Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to elucidate effects of early-life influences on later-life tuberculosis outcomes using a dynamic computer simulation model. To illustrate the value of such a model, three research questions are considered: 1) If we implemented an intervention capable of reducing infection rates to varying degrees, what would the impact be on tuberculosis prevalence by age? 2) If there were

Nathaniel D. Osgood; Aziza Mahamoud; Kristen Hassmiller Lich; Yuan Tian; Assaad Al-Azem; Vernon H. Hoeppner

2011-01-01

222

Developmental programming: Variations in early growth and adult disease.  

PubMed

Suboptimal conditions in utero are associated with the development of adult-onset diseases in offspring. Uteroplacental insufficiency in rats is a well-established animal model used to mimic and study the effects of developmental insults relevant to countries of abundant nutrient supply. However, wide-ranging outcomes for the offspring are apparent between the different investigators that use this model and also between cohorts generated in our laboratory. ?We aimed to explore the reasons for variability in rat models of uteroplacental insufficiency between different investigators and also between our own animal cohorts. We suggest differences in growth and disease development reflect uniqueness in susceptibility and highlight the complexity of interactions between genetic potential and environmental exposures. ?The impact of adverse exposures in utero has been described as having far-reaching effects that extend well beyond the first, directly exposed generation. However, the resulting phenotypes are not consistent between generations. This suggests that programmed effects are established de novo in each generation and challenges the prediction of disease. ?Characterization of growth and disease in the numerous rat models has led to our understanding of the impact of early life experiences on adult health. In order to drive the development of preventative and/or treatment strategies, future studies should focus on identifying the initial cause(s) of uteroplacental insufficiency, including genetic origins and the influence of poor diets. PMID:23581813

Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

2013-11-01

223

A Survey of Early Intervention Programs in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this project was to (1) engage in a statewide survey of early intervention programs concerned with the school-age child and his or her family, and (2) to examine a "family impact" model focused on two systems: the family and the school. A particular focus of the survey was on programs whose methods of impacting, (i.e. service…

Farber, Ferne; And Others

224

An Evaluation of the Early Truancy Intervention (ETI) Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the results of a program evaluation of an Early Truancy Intervention (ETI) program in elementary schools in a southern school district. The ETI represents a cooperative effort between a southern district State Attorney's Office, and public elementary schools in the largest county in that district. The results indicate a…

Lawrence, Shawn A.; Lawther, Wendell; Jennison, Victoria; Hightower, Peggy

2011-01-01

225

Creativity in early childhood education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is a critical concept for the successful implementation of educational programs. It is expected that teachers put forth both children's and their own creativity in all activities. In this respect, a teacher guide book was prepared for the purpose of guiding teachers. In this teacher guide book, there are annual and daily plans only to lead teachers the way.

Asli Yildirim

2010-01-01

226

CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PRESENT PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE OF 3 KINDS--(1) AN INVENTORY TYPE WHICH ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY DEFICITS WHICH WILL AFFECT SCHOOL LEARNING AND TO OVERCOME THESE THROUGH EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, (2) A PLAN BASED ON A RECAPITULATION THEORY WHICH ATTEMPTS TO DESCRIBE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND TO COMPENSATE FOR THOSE WHICH A…

LAVATELLI, C.B.

227

The effectiveness of early childhood development programs. A systematic review.  

PubMed

Early childhood development is influenced by characteristics of the child, the family, and the broader social environment. Physical health, cognition, language, and social and emotional development underpin school readiness. Publicly funded, center-based, comprehensive early childhood development programs are a community resource that promotes the well-being of young children. Programs such as Head Start are designed to close the gap in readiness to learn between poor children and their more economically advantaged peers. Systematic reviews of the scientific literature demonstrate effectiveness of these programs in preventing developmental delay, as assessed by reductions in retention in grade and placement in special education. PMID:12668197

Anderson, Laurie M; Shinn, Carolynne; Fullilove, Mindy T; Scrimshaw, Susan C; Fielding, Jonathan E; Normand, Jacques; Carande-Kulis, Vilma G

2003-04-01

228

Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cancer risk to children in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's cancer guidelines (U.S. EPA, 2005) includes both early-life exposures that may result in the occurrence of cancer during childhood and early-life exposures that may contr...

2005-01-01

229

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

230

Biomedical engineering in the early U.S. aerospace program.  

PubMed

Much of the bioinstrumentation in the early U.S. aerospace program in the 1950's was undertaken by the U.S. Air Force, first at Randolph Field, TX, and then at Brooks AFB, TX. We document here some of the equipment and some of the experiences encountered by the early experimenters. This period coincided with the introduction of solid-state circuitry into biomedical instrumentation and also strongly influenced research into the electrochemical interface between metal electrodes and the ionic body environment. The author recalls much of his own early work, as well as his recollections of some of the other early researchers. PMID:2673204

Greatbatch, W

1989-08-01

231

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program B Appendix...Appendix B to Part 50âOverseas Life Insurance Registration Program A. Registration...continuous successful operation in the life insurance business for a period of...

2013-07-01

232

Promoting Community in Early Childhood Programs: A Comparison of Two Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every interaction within an early childhood program either promotes community or disrupts it. Therefore, excellent early childhood programs have in place a process that pulls the energies and abilities of all the members of the school community together so that everyone--children, educators, parents, and community members--develop well. In…

Comer, James P.; Ben-Avie, Michael

2010-01-01

233

Assessment of early-life lead exposure in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Lead is a well-known neurotoxic metal and one of the most toxic chemicals in a child's environment. The aim of this study was to assess early-life lead exposure in a pristine rural area of Bangladesh. The exposure was expected to be very low because of the absence of vehicle traffic and polluting industries. Lead was measured in erythrocytes, urine, and breast milk of 500 randomly selected pregnant women, participating in a randomized food and micronutrient supplementation trial in Matlab (MINIMat). Lead was also measured in urine of their children at 1.5 and 5 years of age, and in rice, well water, cooking pots, and materials used for walls and roof. All measurements were performed using ICPMS. We found that the women had relatively high median erythrocyte lead levels, which increased considerably from early pregnancy to late lactation (81-136microg/kg), probably due to release from bone. Urinary lead concentrations were unchanged during pregnancy (median approximately 3.5microg/L) and non-linearly associated with maternal blood lead levels. Children, at 1.5 and 5 years of age, had a median urinary lead concentration of 4microg/L, i.e., similar to that in their mothers. Rice, the staple food in Matlab, collected from 63 homes of the study sample, contained 1-89microg/kg (median 13microg/kg) dry weight and seems to be an important source of lead exposure. Other sources of exposure may be cooking pots and metal sheet roof material, which were found to release up to 380 and 4200microg/L, respectively, into acidic solutions. Based on breast milk lead concentrations (median 1.3microg/L) a median daily intake of 1.2microg was estimated for 3 months old infants. However, alternatives to breast-feeding are likely to contain more lead, especially rice-based formula. To conclude, lead exposure in women and their children in a remote unpolluted area was found to be surprisingly high, which may be due to their living conditions. PMID:20656285

Bergkvist, C; Kippler, M; Hamadani, J D; Grandér, M; Tofail, F; Berglund, M; Vahter, M

2010-07-24

234

Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.  

PubMed

A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309

Scher, Mark S

2013-01-01

235

Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

2003-01-01

236

Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function  

PubMed Central

Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire lifespan and influencing brain function, behavior and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called “epigenetics” as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value, as well as the negative consequences, of early life stress, exposure to novelty, and poor vs good quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to early life abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in early life and some guidelines are provided.

McEwen, Bruce S.

2008-01-01

237

Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume II: Program Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early Head Start (EHS) is a comprehensive, two-generation program providing intensive services from before birth to age 3 to promote improved outcomes in children's development, family development, staff development, and community development. The second of a 3-volume series designed to share the experiences of the 17 EHS programs participating in…

Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Rosenberg, Linda; Coolahan, Kathleen; Berlin, Lisa J.

238

Early programming of adult diseases in resource poor countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable evidence now exists to suggest that early exposure to nutritional deprivation can have long term consequences to health, with low birth weight now considered a risk factor for later health outcomes such as coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Of importance, such effects are most exaggerated when faced with over-nutrition in later life, forming

A M Prentice; S E Moore

2005-01-01

239

Must Early Life Be Easy? The Rhythm of Major Evolutionary Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we are not to conclude that most planets like Earth have evolved life as intelligent as we are, we must presume Earth is not random. This selection effect, however, also implies that the origin of life need not be as easy as the early appearance of life on Earth suggests. If a series of major evolutionary transitions were required

Robin Hanson

240

Life, Labor, and, Song in New England during the Early Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singing the tunes in this collection will help students understand many of the realities of life during the early years of the United States. From hearth and home to the perils of the sea, and from factory life to Presidential elections, this journal offers a selection of 19 songs to introduce the life and labor of New England people during the…

Scott, John W., Ed.; Scott, John A., Ed.

1998-01-01

241

A randomised controlled trial of two early intervention programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with parent program and home-based  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill development in children, quality of life and stress for parents. Eligible

Jacqueline Roberts; Katrina Williams; Mark Carter; David Evans; Trevor Parmenter; Natalie Silove; Trevor Clark; Anthony Warren

2011-01-01

242

Inhibitor-injection program showing early promise  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the treatment system implemented last year at Trans-Alaska Pipeline's pump stations which employed chemical inhibitors in a large-scale, corrosion-mitigation program. Ultrasonic inspection in 1988 revealed internal corrosion predominantly in low-velocity piping. There, emulsified water had precipitated out of the crude oil and supported microbial corrosion. TAPS developed a systems of manual batch treatment to treat the numerous dead legs in the pump-station facilities along with procedures for monitoring inhibitor effectiveness.

Ricca, P.M. (Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (US))

1991-05-13

243

Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication, the first major report on the Early Head Start national evaluation, focuses on early implementation experiences and tells the story of the 17 programs that helped launch the first nationwide program for low-income infants and toddlers.

Ellen Eliason Kisker; John M. Love; Helen Raikes; Diane Paulsell; Linda Rosenberg; Kathleen Coolahan; Lisa J. Berlin

1999-01-01

244

The Pilbara: one Billion Years of the Early Evolution of Earth's Surface Environments and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pilbara contains the most complete sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks dating from 3.5 to 2.4 Ga. Because many of these rocks have experienced only low-grade metamorphism it is our best available natural laboratory for studying the origins and early evolution of life on Earth (and other planets) and the environments it inhabited. Indeed discoveries of the oldest possible microfossils, stromatolites and molecular fossils, as well as key mineral, geochemical and isotopic evidence of surface environments and the biosphere have all been reported from Pilbara rocks. Unfortunately complex geology and deep weathering (since the Mesozoic) makes interpretation of some of this record ambiguous leading to heated debates over evidence for life and environmental conditions. It is not surprising then that the first stages of the Astrobiology Drilling Program have been drilled in the Pilbara to obtain samples of sedimentary rocks unaffected by modern weathering. The drill cores potentially provide the best evidence yet of when and how life evolved on Earth, the nature of the environments it inhabited and a template for evaluating possible evidence of life from Mars and other planets. This talk will briefly outline the evolution of the Pilbara as one of the Earth's first continents and the interpreted environmental settings of the range of sites being drilled by the Archean Biosphere and Deep Time Drilling Programs. These include 3.52 to 2.5 Ga submarine and lacustrine black shales, 3.45 Ga deep- and shallow-marine banded cherts, 2.72 Ga stromatolite reefs, an interpreted 2.76 Ga paleosol, and banded iron formations.

Barley, M. E.

2004-12-01

245

The Role of Program Quality in Producing Early Childhood Program Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted by the field of early childhood education and by the public that high-quality preschool programs for young children from low-income families can have long-term benefits, although studies of early childhood programs in typical com- munities have often failed to find similar long-term effects. Some argue that variations in the quality or developmental appropriateness of programs can

Ellen C. Frede

246

Learning Effects of an Experimental EFL Program in Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated…

Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.

2012-01-01

247

Learning Effects of an Experimental EFL Program in Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated…

Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.

2012-01-01

248

Early Life Stress Differentially Modulates Distinct Forms of Brain Plasticity in Young and Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

Reichardt, Wilfried; Clark, Kristin; Geiger, Julia; Gross, Claus M.; Heyer, Andrea; Neagu, Valentin; Bhatia, Harsharan; Atas, Hasan C.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Bischofberger, Josef; Haas, Carola A.; Normann, Claus

2012-01-01

249

Impact of Early-Life Stress and Resilience on Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Early-life stress (ELS) has a long-lasting effect on affective function and may entail an increased risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, resilience can play a protective role against developing psychopathology. In this study, we investigated the relationships of depressive symptoms with ELS and resilience in MDD. Materials and Methods Twenty-six patients with MDD as well as age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Each subject was assessed concerning ELS, resilience, and depressive symptom severity with self-report questionnaires. Independent samples t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed to compare ELS and resilience between the patient and control groups. Spearman correlation analyses and linear regression analysis were conducted to investigate significant ELS and resilience factors associated with depressive symptoms. Results In the MDD patient group, subjects reported greater exposure to inter-parental violence, and five factor scores on the resilience scale were significantly lower in comparison to the control group. In linear regression analysis, in regards to resilience, depressive symptom score was significantly associated with self-confidence and self-control factors; however, ELS demonstrated no significant association with depressive symptoms. Conclusion Among resilience factors, self-confidence and self-control may ameliorate depressive symptoms in MDD. ELS, including inter-parental violence, physical abuse and emotional abuse, might be a risk factor for developing depression. Assessment of early-life stress and intervention programs for increasing resilience capacity would be helpful in treating MDD.

Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Kim, Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ham, Byung-Joo; Yang, Jong-Chul

2012-01-01

250

Early life risk factors for adult asthma: A birth cohort study of subjects at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prediction of adult asthma is important, and early prevention strategies should be targeted at those most at risk. Identifying high-risk children at an early age, however, is currently difficult. Objective: We sought to determine those factors present in early life that predict an increased risk of adult asthma. Methods: A prospective cohort study of subjects at risk of asthma

Helen L. Rhodes; Richard Sporik; Peter Thomas; Stephen T. Holgate; Jeremy J. Cogswell

2001-01-01

251

Low early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid and increased proinflammatory signaling  

PubMed Central

Children reared in unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances show increased susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging when they reach the fifth and sixth decades of life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life programs biological systems in a manner that persists across decades and thereby accentuates vulnerability to disease. Here we examine the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing genome-wide transcriptional profiling in healthy adults who were either low or high in socioeconomic status (SES) in early life. Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. Subjects from low-SES backgrounds also showed increased output of cortisol in daily life, heightened expression of transcripts bearing response elements for NF-?B, and greater stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. These disparities were independent of subjects' current SES, lifestyle practices, and perceived stress. Collectively, these data suggest that low early-life SES programs a defensive phenotype characterized by resistance to glucocorticoid signaling, which in turn facilitates exaggerated adrenocortical and inflammatory responses. Although these response patterns could serve adaptive functions during acute threats to well-being, over the long term they might exact an allostatic toll on the body that ultimately contributes to the chronic diseases of aging.

Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Fok, Alexandra K.; Walker, Hope; Lim, Alvin; Nicholls, Erin F.; Cole, Steve; Kobor, Michael S.

2009-01-01

252

Identifying sectarian content for Jewish Early Childhood educational programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified appropriate sectarian content for Jewish Early Childhood education programs. Using a national sample\\u000a of early childhood Jewish educators, a Delphi technique was used to identify specific elements of Jewish history and culture\\u000a considered worthy to be taught to young Jewish children. Seven categories of study were identified: (1) Jewish tradition as\\u000a expressed in Jewish literature beginning with

Miriam Feinberg; Olivia N. Saracho; Bernard Spodek

1990-01-01

253

Decreased Fetal Size Is Associated With ?-Cell Hyperfunction in Early Life and Failure With Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Low birth weight is associated with diabetes in adult life. Accelerated or “catch-up” postnatal growth in response to small birth size is thought to presage disease years later. Whether adult disease is caused by intrauterine ?-cell–specific programming or by altered metabolism associated with catch-up growth is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We generated a new model of intrauterine growth restriction due to fatty acid synthase (FAS) haploinsufficiency (FAS deletion [FASDEL]). Developmental programming of diabetes in these mice was assessed from in utero to 1 year of age. RESULTS—FASDEL mice did not manifest catch-up growth or insulin resistance. ?-Cell mass and insulin secretion were strikingly increased in young FASDEL mice, but ?-cell failure and diabetes occurred with age. FASDEL ?-cells had altered proliferative and apoptotic responses to the common stress of a high-fat diet. This sequence appeared to be developmentally entrained because ?-cell mass was increased in utero in FASDEL mice and in another model of intrauterine growth restriction caused by ectopic expression of uncoupling protein-1. Increasing intrauterine growth in FASDEL mice by supplementing caloric intake of pregnant dams normalized ?-cell mass in utero. CONCLUSIONS—Decreased intrauterine body size, independent of postnatal growth and insulin resistance, appears to regulate ?-cell mass, suggesting that developing body size might represent a physiological signal that is integrated through the pancreatic ?-cell to establish a template for hyperfunction in early life and ?-cell failure with age.

Chakravarthy, Manu V.; Zhu, Yimin; Wice, Mitchell B.; Coleman, Trey; Pappan, Kirk L.; Marshall, Connie A.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

2008-01-01

254

Predicting early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program.  

PubMed

Baccalaureate nursing programs are under increased pressure to graduate greater numbers of students to meet the demands of the nurse workforce of the future. Schools of nursing are admitting larger cohorts of students, but early academic achievement in the nursing major and retention are problematic. Historical predictors of early academic achievement, such as scholastic aptitude, may not be the best for identifying students at risk of early academic failure. Increasingly, baccalaureate nursing programs are relying on standardized nursing aptitude tests to evaluate the readiness of applicants for the nursing major. However, reliable predictors of early academic achievement have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to explore whether scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude are predictive of early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program. Using an exploratory descriptive design, data from 164 sophomore nursing students were examined. The data indicated that scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude together predicted 20.2% of the variance in early academic achievement, with scholastic aptitude accounting for 15.4% of the variance. PMID:17540317

Newton, Sarah E; Smith, Laureen H; Moore, Gary; Magnan, Morris

255

The Implications of the Early Formation of Life on Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most interesting unsolved questions in science today is the question of life on other planets. At the present time it is safe to say that we do not have much of an idea as to whether life is common or exceedingly rare in the universe, and this will probably not be solved for certain unless definitive evidence

Brendon J. Brewer

2008-01-01

256

Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume II: Program Profiles. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication, the first major report on the Early Head Start national evaluation, focuses on early implementation experiences and tells the story of the 17 programs that helped launch the first nationwide program for low-income infants and toddlers.

Ellen Eliason Kisker; John M. Love; Helen Raikes; Diane Paulsell; Linda Rosenberg; Kathleen Coolahan; Lisa J. Berlin

1999-01-01

257

The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development  

PubMed Central

Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, ajuvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism’s developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health.

Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jorg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

2007-01-01

258

Hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early-life stress: functional and molecular aspects.  

PubMed

Whereas genetic factors contribute crucially to brain function, early-life events, including stress, exert long-lasting influence on neuronal function. Here, we focus on the hippocampus as the target of these early-life events because of its crucial role in learning and memory. Using a novel immature-rodent model, we describe the deleterious consequences of chronic early-life 'psychological' stress on hippocampus-dependent cognitive tasks. We review the cellular mechanisms involved and discuss the roles of stress-mediating molecules, including corticotropin releasing hormone, in the process by which stress impacts the structure and function of hippocampal neurons. PMID:16603235

Fenoglio, Kristina A; Brunson, Kristen L; Baram, Tallie Z

2006-04-17

259

Changing Demographics: Past and Future Demands for Early Childhood Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a historical analysis of how demographic changes in the organi- zation of American family life from the mid-1800s to the present have shaped the demand for programs to complement the efforts of families to educate and care for their children. The author asserts that the United States is in the midst of a second child care revolution.

Donald J. Hernandez

260

The Implications of the Early Formation of Life on Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most interesting unsolved questions in science today is the\\u000aquestion of life on other planets. At the present time it is safe to say that\\u000awe do not have much of an idea as to whether life is common or exceedingly rare\\u000ain the universe, and this will probably not be solved for certain unless\\u000adefinitive evidence

Brendon James Brewer

2008-01-01

261

Effect of Early Childhood Education Programs on School Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A specific assessment for testing readiness skills is lacking for children entering kindergarten. This study investigates the influence of early education programs on school readiness and differences between male and female school readiness screening scores upon students' entrance into kindergarten. The study uses 321 school readiness screening…

Allen, Cynthia R.

2009-01-01

262

Issues of Implementation of Early Childhood Education and Support Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document comprises three papers related to the implementation of early childhood education, health care, and support programs. The first paper is a brief reflection on the nature of implementation, based on the contributions of Boudewijn Bekkers. The second is a proceedings chapter by Marian Hanrahan titled "Community Based Innovative…

Prinsen, Bert

263

The Toronto Early Identification and Developmental Program. Report No. 130.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Toronto Early Identification and Developmental Program (E.I.D.P.) has three main aspects: (1) the screening of kindergarten and first grade children in terms of potential learning difficulties; (2) service to the child and family together with supportive help to the school staff; and (3) research in connection with screening instruments. The…

Landrus, G. D.; And Others

264

Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

2007-01-01

265

Involving Spanish-Speaking Families in Early Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes benefits of involving Spanish-speaking families in early education and care programs. Identifies barriers to involvement, including communication difficulties, cultural characteristics, family structure, work schedules, and negative school experiences. Offers strategies to foster participation, including parent-teacher conferences,…

Lundgren, Diane; Morrison, Johnetta Wade

2003-01-01

266

Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs: Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Father involvement in early childhood programs (ECPs) has increased rapidly during the past 10-15 years. This review of our understanding of the current state of father involvement in ECPs employs two theoretical frameworks: ecological perspective and situated fathering. We draw from the research and practice literature to understand the current…

Palm, Glen; Fagan, Jay

2008-01-01

267

How Mothers Orchestrate Their Engagement in an Early Intervention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family-centered approach was espoused in IDEA Part C as the context for service to families with young children experiencing developmental delays. A phenomenological inquiry was conducted to explore how mothers of young children with disabilities orchestrate their engagement in an early intervention program, and to identify factors that support their participation. In-depth interviews were conducted with five mothers of

Patricia Eileen Brennan

2006-01-01

268

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

269

Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs: Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Father involvement in early childhood programs (ECPs) has increased rapidly during the past 10-15 years. This review of our understanding of the current state of father involvement in ECPs employs two theoretical frameworks: ecological perspective and situated fathering. We draw from the research and practice literature to understand the current…

Palm, Glen; Fagan, Jay

2008-01-01

270

Chronically Ill Children in Early Childhood Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Only a small percentage of all chronically ill children under six are currently enrolled in early education programs. Care of chronically ill children in educational settings often entails the delivery of a variety of related services, including transportation; education-based health services; and speech, physical, and occupational therapies.…

Walker, Deborah Klein

1986-01-01

271

Evaluation of an Empowerment Program for Early Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes and evaluates the Go Grrrls Program, a preventive intervention specifically designed for early adolescent girls. The 12-session curriculum was designed to address developmental tasks considered critical for healthy psychosocial development, such as achieving competent gender role identification, establishing an acceptable…

LeCroy, Craig Winston

2004-01-01

272

Evaluation of an Empowerment Program for Early Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and evaluates the Go Grrrls Program, a preventive intervention specifically designed for early adolescent girls. The 12-session curriculum was designed to address developmental tasks considered critical for healthy psychosocial development, such as achieving competent gender role identification, establishing an acceptable…

LeCroy, Craig Winston

2004-01-01

273

Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

2006-01-01

274

Washington Latest to Consolidate Early-Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hoping to break down bureaucracy, use tax dollars more efficiently, and provide a central resource for parents, Washington state has created a new agency to oversee a variety of programs that serve its young children. The Washington Department of Early Learning pulls together more than a dozen services, including child-care licensing, a…

Jacobson, Linda

2006-01-01

275

INCLUSION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAMS: A KALEIDOSCOPE OF DIVERSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs for young children are ever changing, becoming a kaleidoscope of diversity as inclusion is implemented. Inclusion of students wit h diverse levels of disabilities has caused concern from parents and teachers. This arti cle presents some concerns that arise from inclusion and ways of dealing with them. Problem ll areas of education face changes and challenges c onstantly. Early

JoAnn Belk

2005-01-01

276

Staff development in early reading intervention programs: the facilitator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current reform initiatives often call for facilitators to work with teachers and administrators in the change process. Although this facilitating position is becoming more common, little is currently understood about this role and the forms it might take. This study examines the work of four facilitators involved in five different successful reform programs focusing on early reading intervention. These facilitators

Deidre Le Fevre; Virginia Richardson

2002-01-01

277

9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation and elevated temperatures. Other materials of construction, however, are also discussed.

Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

2011-01-06

278

9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

2011-05-27

279

INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

280

Stanford study identifies early-life risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Factors influencing early life non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence include family characteristics, high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and male gender, according to a study published May 22 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

281

Linear programming as a tool in life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear Programming (LP) is a powerful mathematical technique that can be used as a tool in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In\\u000a the Inventory and Impact Assessment phases, in addition to calculating the environmental impacts and burdens, it can be used\\u000a for solving the problem of allocation in multiple-output systems. In the Improvement Assessment phase, it provides a systematic\\u000a approach to

Adisa Azapagic; Roland Clift

1998-01-01

282

Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined\\u000a the relationship of early adolescents’ satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts\\u000a in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets\\u000a in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood

Eva OberleKimberly; Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl; Bruno D. Zumbo

2011-01-01

283

Dietary shifts of a dominant reservoir planktivore during early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied dietary shifts in the early life stages of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, a dominant forage species in North\\u000a American reservoirs. Larval fish and zooplankton samples were collected weekly during spring in Sardis Reservoir, Mississippi,\\u000a USA. Diet and prey electivity data suggested the existence of three dietary niches during early life stages: microzooplankton\\u000a (larvae ?10 mm total length) in

L. E. Miranda; H. Gu

1998-01-01

284

Investigating the Association Between Early Life Parental Care and Stress Responsivity in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the associations between early life experience, endocrine regulation, psychological health, and hippocampal integrity in 37 elderly volunteers. Specifically, a neurodevelopmental and psychological mediation model was tested: Retrospective early life parental care was hypothesized to influence hippocampal integrity and the development of self-esteem. In turn, hippocampal volume (via modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis negative feedback) and self-esteem (via modulation of

Veronika Engert; Claudia Buss; Najmeh Khalili-Mahani; Mehereen Wadiwalla; Katarina Dedovic; Jens C. Pruessner

2010-01-01

285

Findings from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs: Communities, Programs, and Families. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report highlights information from a survey of Early Head Start programs that examined management structures and program services nationally. The report describes program approaches to service delivery, management and staffing, and partnerships. It also examines the characteristics of communities in which Early Head Start programs operate, the characteristics of enrolled families, and the wide range of services programs provide.

Cheri A. Vogel; Nikki Aikens; rew Burwick; Laura Hawkinson; Angela Richardson; Linda Mendenko; Rachel Chazan-Cohen

2006-01-01

286

Maternal effects and early-life performance are associated with parasite resistance across life in free-living Soay sheep.  

PubMed

Maternal effects occur when the maternal phenotype influences that of the offspring in addition to the effects of maternal genes, and may have a considerable influence on offspring parasite resistance. These effects, and the effects of early levels of reproduction and parasite resistance, may persist into later life and even influence ageing rates. Here we analyse a 20-year longitudinal data set collected on a free-living population of Soay sheep, to investigate the associations between a suite of maternal phenotypic traits and early-life performance on measures of parasite resistance across life. Our results show that maternal effects are important in determining offspring parasite resistance, since lambs born as twins and those born to the youngest and oldest mothers show higher parasite burdens. We show that the association between parasite resistance and natal litter size persists into adulthood. We also show that age-specific changes in parasite resistance in males are associated with natal litter size, and that age-specific changes in females are influenced by early-life levels of reproduction and parasite infection. These results add to the growing evidence that conditions experienced by individuals during development can have a profound influence on immediate and late-life performance and may even influence ageing. PMID:20233493

Hayward, A D; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M; Kruuk, L E B

2010-03-17

287

Early retiree reinsurance program. Interim final rule with comment period.  

PubMed

This interim final rule with comment period (IFC) implements the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program, which was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act). The Congress appropriated funding of $5 billion for the temporary program. Section 1102(a)(1) requires the Secretary to establish this temporary program not later than 90 days after enactment of the statute, which is June 21, 2010. The program ends no later than January 1, 2014. The program provides reimbursement to participating employment-based plans for a portion of the cost of health benefits for early retirees and their spouses, surviving spouses and dependents. The Secretary will reimburse plans for certain claims between $15,000 and $90,000 (with those amounts being indexed for plan years starting on or after October 1, 2011). The purpose of the reimbursement is to make health benefits more affordable for plan participants and sponsors so that health benefits are accessible to more Americans than they would otherwise be without this program. PMID:20455301

2010-05-01

288

Understanding the Impact of Early-Life Trauma in Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions to early life trauma can reemerge or be exacerbated in later life as coping resources and abilities are compromised by age-related changes and declines in health. For newly admitted nursing home residents, this can impact their receptiveness to assistance with care and elicit challenging reactions to environmental and situational triggers. Unfortunately, current assessment tools fail to account for reactions

Keith A. Anderson; Noelle L. Fields; Lynn A. Dobb

2011-01-01

289

The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachments on Life Satisfaction in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred and three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered "People in My Life," a measure of attachment relationships, and the…

Nickerson, Amanda B.; Nagle, Richard J.

2004-01-01

290

Consequences of Pain in Early Life and its Remedy: Maternal Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal and childhood pain experience is an unavoidable consequence of modern-day medical practice. Repeated exposure to noxious stimuli is not free from adverse consequences in adult life. Therefore it is important to minimize pain if unavoidable in early life. Parents need to be aware of the various measures available to minimize pain in infants and children. They need to be

Manasi Bhattacharjee; Suman Jain; Rashmi Mathur

2008-01-01

291

Early life protein malnutrition changes exploration of the elevated plus-maze and reactivity to anxiolytics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether protein malnutrition in early life causes lasting changes in reactivity to anxiolytic drugs, exploration of the elevated plus-maze was used. Rat dams during lactation (21 days) and pups after weaning until day 49 of life were fed on 8% casein diet (M rats), while their well-nourished controls received 25% casein (W rats). From day 50

S. S. Almeida; L. M. de Oliveira; F. G. Graeff

1991-01-01

292

Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Application to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs. Part of the reason for this is that foundations an...

L. A. Karoly M. R. Kilburn J. H. Bigelow J. P. Caulkins J. S. Cannon

2001-01-01

293

Modern analogues and the early history of microbial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revealing the geological history of microbial life is very challenging. Microbes rarely are preserved with morphological fidelity, and even when they are, morphology is a poor guide to phylogeny and metabolism. Biological studies of environments considered analogous to those of paleobiological interest on the ancient Earth can inform interpretations and suggest new approaches. This paper reviews recent advances in our

Brendan P. Burns; Roberto Anitori; Philip Butterworth; Ruth Henneberger; Falicia Goh; Michelle A. Allen; Raquel Ibañez-Peral; Peter L. Bergquist; Malcolm R. Walter; Brett A. Neilan

2009-01-01

294

Pricing life insurance contracts with early exercise features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an algorithm based on the Least Squares Monte Carlo method to price life insurance contracts embedding American options. We focus on equity-linked contracts with surrender options and terminal guarantees on benefits payable upon death, survival and surrender. The framework allows for randomness in mortality as well as stochastic volatility and jumps in financial risk factors.

Anna Rita Bacinello; Enrico Biffis; Pietro Millossovich

2009-01-01

295

Initial Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the patterns of association among a number of different factors that may contribute to differences in the initial baseline level of subjective well-being among young people in transition to adulthood. Although we know that life satisfaction is relatively stable throughout adulthood with few factors leading to long term increases or decreases in the baseline of

Eileen Trzcinski; Elke Holst

2007-01-01

296

Theories of the Origin and Early Evolution of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the theory of spontaneous generation was discredited, only religious explanations were offered to explain the origin of life. Alexander Oparin (1894-1980), an atheist, suggested that natural chemical reactions produced biological molecules that came together to form the first living thing. Later, Stanley Miller tested this hypothesis and produced chemical \\

David A DeWitt

2000-01-01

297

Early Archaean life in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the beginning of life on earth during the Archaean period (3800- 2500 m.y. ago) had remained an 'enigma clothed in mystery' and had provided considerable grist for specul ation and debate. In the earlier half of twentieth century, the term Archaean was a syn o- nym for 'Azoic', meaning lifeless, but over the last fifty years, this

A. V. Sankaran

298

Paleolakes and Life on Early Mars (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two distinct directions have begun to elucidate key parameters in the search for extinct life on Mars. Carbonate sediments, deposited about 10,000 years ago in association with biological activity, have been sampled from the paleolake beds of Lake Vanda a...

M. A. Meyer R. A. Wharton C. P. Mckay

1991-01-01

299

NAEYC Early Childhood Program Standards and Accreditation Criteria: The Mark of Quality in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) administers the nation's largest and most widely recognized accreditation system for child care centers, preschools, kindergartens, and other early childhood education programs. The standards and accreditation criteria included in this book were approved by the NAEYC Governing…

Redleaf Press, 2005

2005-01-01

300

Starting early: promoting the mental health of women and girls throughout the life span.  

PubMed

The importance of mental health in the promotion of lifelong health among men and women alike cannot be overstated. However, mental health remains under-addressed within general public health and community health programs. In this report, we focus primarily on the mental health of women and discuss risk factors that can affect the well-being of women throughout the life span. The literature reviewed demonstrates a strong relationship between social and environmental risk factors, such as abuse and family dysfunction in childhood, to health risk behaviors and poor mental health in adulthood. We concluded that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and poor adult mental health could contribute to cycles of intergenerational transmission of risks leading to poor mental and physical health in children of ACEexposed parents. Also, we argue that public health communities can make a difference in women's lifelong health by improving early recognition and treatment of mental health concerns, seeking opportunities to prevent exposures to known risk factors in childhood, and developing targeted parenting interventions. Promoting healthy psychological states and coping mechanisms before, during, and after exposure to adverse events throughout life is also critical. Perhaps such efforts will help to reduce or even break cycles of risk exposure specifically for women and their children. Finally, existing prevention activities and opportunities for promoting the mental health of girls and women are discussed. Ultimately, this report challenges the women's health and public health communities to take action because mental health can have a serious impact on lifelong well-being. PMID:16313205

Lesesne, Catherine A; Kennedy, Christine

2005-11-01

301

Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

302

Drug exposure early in life: functional repercussions of changing neuropharmacology during sensitive periods of brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to drugs early in life can have long-lasting implications for brain structure and function. Effects on the developing nervous system, before homeostatic regulatory mechanisms are properly calibrated, differ from those on mature systems. Recent studies show that permanent alterations in brain pharmacology and cell signaling are induced by early drug exposure, producing hypo- or hyperresponsiveness to environmental or pharmacological

Gregg D Stanwood; Pat Levitt

2004-01-01

303

Early warning of enterprise decline in a life cycle using neural networks and rough set theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early warning of whether an enterprise will fall into decline stage in a near future is a new problem aroused by the enterprise life cycle theory and financial risk management. This paper presents an approach by use of back propagation neural networks and rough set theory in order to give an early warning whether enterprises will fall into a decline

Yu Cao; Xiaohong Chen; Desheng Dash Wu; Miao Mo

2011-01-01

304

Cost and quality-of-life analyses of surgery for early endometrial cancer: Laparotomy versus laparoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cost or quality of life associated with surgical treatment of presumed early-stage endometrial cancer differed on the basis of the surgical approach. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on a consecutive series of women with presumed early-stage endometrial cancer treated at the Women's Cancer Center of Northern California.

Nick M. Spirtos; John B. Schlaerth; Gary M. Gross; Tanya W. Spirtos; Alan C. Schlaerth; Samuel C. Ballon

1996-01-01

305

METHOD FOR EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TESTS USING THREE ATHERINID FISHES AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed methods for obtaining embryos and conducting early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from the embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with three estuarine species of atherinid fishes. Early lif...

306

Early life hypoxic or hypoxic/hypercapnic stress alters acute ventilatory sensitivity in adult mice.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effect of early life conditioning (hypoxia ± hypercapnia) on adult acute ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Mice were exposed to either hypoxia (5% O(2)) or hypoxia/hypercapnia (5% O(2)/8% CO(2)) in a normobaric chamber for 2 h at postnatal day 2 (P2), and then returned to normoxia. At 3 months of age, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured using a plethysmograph system. Results showed that HVR was significantly decreased in the P2-hypoxia mice but not in the P2 hypoxia/hypercapnia mice as compared to the P2-normoxic mice, respectively. However, HCVR was significantly decreased in the P2 hypoxia-hypercapnia group but not in the P2-hypoxia group. These data suggest early postnatal hypoxic stress vs. hypoxic/hypercapnic stress plays different roles in fetal programming of the respiratory control system as shown by altered adult acute ventilatory sensitivity. PMID:22879055

Xu, Kui; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Huang, Pengjing; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Radford, Thomas; Babcock, Gerald; Boron, Walter F; Lamanna, Joseph C

2013-01-01

307

Applying epigenetics to Alzheimer's disease via the latent early-life associated regulation (LEARn) model.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of aging related dementia and has been extensively studied by several groups around the world. A general consensus, based on neuropathology, genetics and cellular and animal models, is that the 4 kDa amyloid ? protein (A?) triggers a toxic cascade that induces microtubule-associated protein ? (MAPT) hyperphosphorylation and deposition. Together, these lesions lead to neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, modeled in animals, that ultimately causes dementia. Genetic studies show that a simple duplication of the A? precursor (APP) gene, as occurs in Down syndrome (trisomy 21), with a 1.5-fold increase in expression, can cause dementia with the complete AD associated neuropathology. The most fully characterized form of AD is early onset familial AD (FAD). Unfortunately, by far the most common form of AD is late onset AD (LOAD). FAD has well-identified autosomally dominant genetic causes, absent in LOAD. It is reasonable to hypothesize that environmental influences play a much stronger role in etiology of LOAD than of FAD. Since AD pathology in LOAD closely resembles FAD with accumulation of both A? and MAPT, it is likely that the environmental factors foster accumulation of these proteins in a manner similar to FAD mutations. Therefore, it is important to identify environmentally driven changes that "phenocopy" FAD in order to find ways to prevent LOAD. Epigenetic changes in expression are complex but stable determinants of many complex traits. Some aspects are regulated by prenatal and early post-natal development, others punctuate specific periods of maturation, and still others occur throughout life, mediating predictable changes that take place during various developmental stages. Environmental agents such as mercury, lead, and pesticides can disrupt the natural epigenetic program and lead to developmental deficits, mental retardation, feminization, and other complex syndromes. In this review we discuss latent early- life associated regulation (LEARn), where apparently temporary changes, induced by environmental agents, become latent and present themselves again at maturity or senescence to increase production of A? that may cause AD. The model provides us with a novel direction for identifying potentially harmful agents that may induce neurodegeneration and dementia later in life and provides hope that we may be able to prevent age-related neurodegenerative disease by "detoxifying" our environment. PMID:22300406

Maloney, Bryan; Sambamurti, Kumar; Zawia, Nasser; Lahiri, Debomoy K

2012-06-01

308

Plate tectonics, surface mineralogy, and the early evolution of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the accepted roles of plate tectonics in regulating planetary habitability through the composition of the atmosphere and temperature, and creating continents to enhance land-based evolution and biodiversity, it has a hitherto unexplored role in influencing surface mineralogy with possible implications for early evolution. Plate tectonics creates continents through the accretion of buoyant granitic crust. Erosion of the

J. Parnell

2004-01-01

309

Contemporary divergence in early life history in grayling (Thymallus thymallus)  

PubMed Central

Background Following colonization of new habitats and subsequent selection, adaptation to environmental conditions might be expected to be rapid. In a mountain lake in Norway, Lesjaskogsvatnet, more than 20 distinct spawning demes of grayling have been established since the lake was colonized, some 20-25 generations ago. The demes spawn in tributaries consistently exhibiting either colder or warmer temperature conditions during spawning in spring and subsequent early development during early summer. In order to explore the degree of temperature-related divergence in early development, a multi-temperature common-garden experiment was performed on embryos from four different demes experiencing different spring temperatures. Results Early developmental characters were measured to test if individuals from the four demes respond differently to the treatment temperatures. There was clear evidence of among-deme differences (genotype - environment interactions) in larval growth and yolk-to-body-size conversion efficiency. Under the cold treatment regime, larval growth rates were highest for individuals belonging to cold streams. Individuals from warm streams had the highest yolk-consumption rate under cold conditions. As a consequence, yolk-to-body-mass conversion efficiency was highest for cold-deme individuals under cold conditions. As we observed response parallelism between individuals from demes belonging to similar thermal groups for these traits, some of the differentiation seems likely to result from local adaptation Conclusion The observed differences in length at age during early larval development most likely have a genetic component, even though both directional and random processes are likely to have influenced evolutionary change in the demes under study.

2011-01-01

310

An early intervention program for children with physical and developmental disabilities: a therapeutic?educational collaboration model program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Intervention Program at the Easter Seal Society of DeSoto, Manatee and Sarasota Counties (Florida) is a therapeutic?educational program for parents and children from birth to 3 years who are “at risk” delayed or handicapped. The Early Intervention Program consists of a multidisciplinary team of: early childhood specialists, a pediatric neurologist, a clinical social worker, physical, occupational and speech

Jeffrey I. Gelfer

1989-01-01

311

Pricing life insurance contracts with early exercise features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe an algorithm based on the Least Squares Monte Carlo method to price life insurance contracts embedding American options. We focus on equity-linked contracts with surrender options and terminal guarantees on benefits payable upon death, survival and surrender. The framework allows for randomness in mortality as well as stochastic volatility and jumps in financial risk factors. We provide numerical experiments demonstrating the performance of the algorithm in the context of multiple risk factors and exercise dates.

Bacinello, Anna Rita; Biffis, Enrico; Millossovich, Pietro

2009-11-01

312

Early Life Exposure to Bisphenol A and Breast Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Excess estrogen exposure in developing individuals increases the risk of developing breast cancer later in life. This excess\\u000a estrogen can originate from high levels of maternal endogenous estrogens or from exposure to exogenous endocrine disrupting\\u000a compounds that mimic estrogen actions. One of those ­compounds is the ubiquitous bisphenol A or BPA, a chemical that has been\\u000a found in over 90%

Maricel V. Maffini; Carlos Sonnenschein; Ana M. Soto

313

Early growth and abdominal fatness in adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether abdominal fatness in adult men is associated with retarded growth in fetal life and infancy. DESIGN--This was a follow up study of (1) men born during 1920-30 whose birthweights and weights at one year were recorded at the time by health visitors; and (2) men born during 1935-43 whose size at birth was

C M Law; D J Barker; C Osmond; C H Fall; S J Simmonds

1992-01-01

314

Determinants of Drug Metabolism in Early Neonatal Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical pharmacology intends to predict drug-specific effects and side effects based on pharmacokinetics (i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (i.e. dose\\/effect relationship). Developmen- tal pharmacology focuses on the maturational aspects of these phenomena during perinatal life and later stages of infancy. In general, phenotypic variation in drug metabolism is based on constitutional, environmental and genetic factors but in

Karel Allegaert; John N. van den Anker; Gunnar Naulaers; Jan de Hoon

2007-01-01

315

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

2007-01-01

316

Developing Mechanisms of Self-Regulation in Early Life  

PubMed Central

Children show increasing control of emotions and behavior during their early years. Our studies suggest a shift in control from the brain's orienting network in infancy to the executive network by the age of 3–4 years. Our longitudinal study indicates that orienting influences both positive and negative affect, as measured by parent report in infancy. At 3–4 years of age, the dominant control of affect rests in a frontal brain network that involves the anterior cingulate gyrus. Connectivity of brain structures also changes from infancy to toddlerhood. Early connectivity of parietal and frontal areas is important in orienting; later connectivity involves midfrontal and anterior cingulate areas related to executive attention and self-regulation.

Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.; Rueda, M. Rosario; Posner, Michael I.

2011-01-01

317

Building Strong Foundations for Early Learning. Department of Education's Guide to Hiqh Quality Early Childhood Education Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is an initial step designed to provide information to local, district, and state educators about the hallmarks of high-quality early childhood programs. It includes short syntheses of research about the characteristics of early education progra...

M. C. Dwyer R. Chait P. McKee

2000-01-01

318

Screening for hearing loss in early childhood programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0–3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children screened as a part of the study, 77% passed an OAE

William D. Eiserman; Lenore Shisler; Terry Foust; Jan Buhrmann; Randi Winston; Karl R. White

2007-01-01

319

Early life stress sensitizes rats to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular inflammation in adult life.  

PubMed

Maternal separation during early life is an established chronic behavioral model of early life stress in rats. It is known that perinatal adverse environments increase activity of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system, specifically Ang II, in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of early life stress augment the sensitivity of the Ang II pathway. Using Wistar Kyoto rats, the maternal separation (MS) protocol was performed by separating approximately half of the male pups from their mother 3 h/d from days 2 to 14 of life. Pups remaining with the mother at all times were used as controls. Maternal separation did not influence the plasma basal parameters, such as blood glucose, insulin, Ang II, Ang 1-7 and plasma renin activity. Furthermore, body weight, blood pressure, and heart rate were similar in MS and control rats. The acute pressor response to Ang II was not different in anesthetized MS and control rats. However, the chronic infusion of Ang II (65 ng/min SC) elicited an exaggerated hypertensive response in MS compared with control rats (P<0.05). Surprisingly, HR was dramatically increased during the second week of Ang II infusion in MS compared with control rats (P<0.05). This enhanced Ang II sensitivity was accompanied by a greater vascular inflammatory response in MS versus control rats. Chronic Ang II infusion increased vascular wall structure in both groups similarly. These data indicate that early life stress sensitizes rats to an increased hemodynamic and inflammatory response during Ang II-induced hypertension. PMID:20026758

Loria, Analia S; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

2009-12-21

320

NASA's Space Biology Outreach Program - Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing and discussing NASA's space missions and research is the goal of the Space Biology Outreach Program Web of Life. Visitors unfamiliar with space biology should definitely check out Space Biology FAQ's on the left hand side menu of the homepage. Questions covered range from those about the effect of weightlessness on the health of the astronauts to the significance of finding life on Mars to the definition of gravity. The Flight Experiments link on the same menu relates almost a dozen experiments that have been performed on space flights. Visitors can read about arterial remodeling and functional adaptations in the space experiment that used rats to model the human arterial system. Additionally, they can learn about how the blood vessels of the rats were examined to detect changes in a gravity-free environment. Finally, teachers should be sure to explore the Learning Resources section, which includes activities, resources, and links for teaching students of all ages.

2012-03-30

321

Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well.

Khochikar, Makarand V.

2011-01-01

322

Cognitive and behavioral development of at risk infants and toddlers exposed to stressful life events: The effects of trauma in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relations between traumatic life events and cognitive, behavioral, and relational competence in an at-risk sample of children between the ages of 11 and 41 months. As part of a larger, ongoing investigation, participants for the current study were 53 children enrolled in Early Head Start programs and their primary caregivers. The children participated in a

Zachary E. Warren

2005-01-01

323

Early-Life Conditions And Mechanisms Of Population Health Vulnerabilities  

PubMed Central

The social status of groups is key to determining health vulnerability at the population level. The impact of material and psychological stresses imposed by social inequities and marginalization is felt most intensely during perinatal/early childhood and puberty/adolescent periods, when developmental genes are expressed and interact with social-physical environments. The influence of chronic psychosocial stresses on gene expression via neuroendocrine regulatory dysfunction is crucial to understanding the biological bases of adult health vulnerability. Studying childhood biology vulnerabilities to neighborhood environments will aid the crafting of multifaceted, multilevel public policy interventions providing immediate benefits and compounded long-term population health yields.

Furumoto-Dawson, Alice; Gehlert, Sarah; Sohmer, Dana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Sacks, Tina

2008-01-01

324

Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can

D. W. Mogk; C. A. Manduca; K. Kirk; M. L. Williams

2007-01-01

325

Early Earth and early life: an extreme environment and extremophiles - application to the search for life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early Earth was an extreme environment compared to the present day Earth: oceans with probably higher salinity and lower Ph, evaporitic conditions in the littoral environment, temperatures 70-80°C, little or no O2 in the atmosphere, pervasive volcanism and hydrothermal activity, and peak bolide activity between 4.0-3.85 b.y. ago. The oldest fossil evidence from 3.45 b.y. old sediments shows that

Frances Westall; André Brack; Bernard Barbier; Marylène Bertrand; A. Chabin

2002-01-01

326

Strain-specific cognitive deficits in adult mice exposed to early life stress.  

PubMed

Early life stress is a prominent risk factor for the development of adult psychopathology. Numerous studies have shown that early life stress leads to persistent changes in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. However, despite recent findings of gene expression changes and structural abnormalities in neurons of the forebrain neocortex, little is known about specific cognitive deficits that can result from early life stress. Here we examined five cognitive functions in two inbred strains of mice, the stress-resilient strain C57Bl/6 and the stress-susceptible strain Balb/c, which were exposed to an infant maternal separation paradigm and raised to adulthood. Between postnatal ages P60 to P90, mice underwent a series of tests examining five cognitive functions: Recognition memory, spatial working memory, associative learning, shifts of attentional sets, and reversal learning. None of these functions were impaired in IMS C57Bl/6 mice. In contrast, IMS Balb/c mice exhibited deficits in spatial working memory and extradimensional shifts of attention, that is, functions governed primarily by the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, like recently discovered changes in frontocortical gene expression, the emergence of specific cognitive deficits associated with the medial prefrontal cortex is also strain-specific. These findings illustrate that early life stress can indeed affect specific cognitive functions in adulthood, and they support the hypothesis that the genetic background and environmental factors are critical determinants in the development of adult cognitive deficits in subjects with a history of early life stress. PMID:21319884

Mehta, Mukti; Schmauss, Claudia

2011-02-01

327

Archean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth.  

PubMed

The oldest fossils found thus far on Earth are c. 3.49- and 3.46-billion-year-old filamentous and coccoidal microbial remains in rocks of the Pilbara craton, Western Australia, and c. 3.4-billion-year-old rocks from the Barberton region, South Africa. Their biogenicity was recently questioned and they were reinterpreted as contaminants, mineral artefacts or inorganic carbon aggregates. Morphological, geochemical and isotopic data imply, however, that life was relatively widespread and advanced in the Archean, between 3.5 and 2.5 billion years ago, with metabolic pathways analogous to those of recent prokaryotic organisms, including cyanobacteria, and probably even eukaryotes at the terminal Archean. PMID:14596897

Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kazmierczak, Józef

2003-11-01

328

Early Life Course Pathways of Adult Depression and Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

Applying cumulative inequality theory, this study examines the extent to which childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal depression increase the risk of major depression and chronic pain in U.S. working-aged adults. Further, I assess whether low socioeconomic status amplifies the risk of adult depression and/or pain. Using data from the 2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=4339), I find that socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal depression during youth increases the risk of adult depression and/or chronic pain. The probability of having chronic pain increases in magnitude over the life course for adults whose parents have lower educational attainment relative to those with more highly educated parents. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances are not completely explained by adulthood socioeconomic status indicators. These findings help illustrate the far-reaching influence of childhood context on adult physical and mental health.

Goosby, Bridget J.

2013-01-01

329

Reported versus confirmed wheeze and lung function in early life  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the relation between parentally reported wheeze (unconfirmed), physician confirmed wheeze, and subsequent lung function. Methods: Children at risk of allergic disease (one parent atopic) were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively from birth. During the first three years of life parents were asked to contact the study team if their child was wheezy. The presence of wheeze was confirmed or not by the primary care or study physician. Respiratory questionnaire and specific airway resistance measurement (sRaw, body plethysmograph) were completed at age 3 years. Results: A total of 454 children were followed from birth to 3 years of age. One hundred and eighty six (40.9%) of the parents reported their child wheezing in the first three years of life, and in 130 (28.6%) the wheeze was confirmed. A total of 428 children attended the three year clinic review, of whom 274 (64%) successfully carried out lung function tests. There was no significant difference in sRaw (kPa·s; geometric mean, 95% CI) between children who had never wheezed (n = 152; 1.03, 1.00 to 1.06) and those with a parentally reported but unconfirmed wheeze (n = 36; 1.02, 0.96 to 1.07, p = 1.00). sRaw was significantly higher in children with a physician confirmed wheeze (n = 86; 1.17, 1.11 to 1.22, p < 0.001) compared to those with no history of wheeze or with unconfirmed wheeze. Conclusions: Children with physician confirmed wheeze have significantly poorer lung function compared to those with parentally reported but unconfirmed and those who have never wheezed. A proportion of parents may have little understanding of what medical professionals mean by the term "wheeze".

Lowe, L; Murray, C; Martin, L; Deas, J; Cashin, E; Poletti, G; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A; Custovic, A

2004-01-01

330

Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation used a non-randomized controlled design to evaluate the effect and feasibility of a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program on immune function, quality of life (QOL), and coping in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Early stage breast cancer patients, who did not receive chemotherapy, self-selected into an 8-week MBSR program or into an assessment only, control group.

Linda Witek-Janusek; Kevin Albuquerque; Karen Rambo Chroniak; Christopher Chroniak; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Herbert L. Mathews

2008-01-01

331

Stable carbon isotopes: possible clues to early life on Mars.  

PubMed

Organic and inorganic carbon in terrestrial near-surface environments are characterized by a marked difference in their 13C/12C ratios which can be traced back in the Earth's sedimentary record over almost 4 billion years. There is no doubt that the bias in favour of 12C displayed by biogenic matter derives, for the most part, from the isotope-selecting properties of the carbon-fixing enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) that is operative in the principal photosynthetic pathway and promotes most of the carbon transfer from the non-living to the living realm. Postulating a universality of biological principles in analogy to the proven universality of the laws of physics and chemistry, we may expect enzymatic reactions in exobiological systems to be beset with B similar kinetic fractionation effects. Hence, the retrieval from the oldest Martian sediments of isotopic fractionations between reduced and oxidized (carbonate) carbon may substantially constrain current conjectures on the possible existence of former life on Mars. PMID:11538127

Schidlowski, M

1992-01-01

332

Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

Goldenfeld, Nigel

2012-02-01

333

76 FR 22713 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program Evaluation...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation is...

2011-04-22

334

Growth Failure in Early Life: An Important Manifestation of Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that girls with Turner syndrome (TS) experience growth failure early in life and to establish model-based normative growth charts for 0- to 8-year-old American girls with TS. Full-term girls with TS who had 5 or more measurements of height obtained during their first 10 years of life prior to initiation

Marsha L. Davenport; Natavut Punyasavatsut; Paul W. Stewart; Daniel F. Gunther; Lars Sävendahl; Virginia P. Sybert

2002-01-01

335

Quality of life and depression in carers of patients with early onset dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the quality of life (QoL) and depression and its correlates in carers living with early onset dementia (EOD) patients.Method: The subjects were 49 carers, either married to or cohabiting with EOD patients, 38 with Alzheimer's disease and 11 with other types of dementia. The Quality of Life – Alzheimer Disease scale (QoL-AD) and Geriatric Depression Scale –

Tor Atle Rosness; Marit Mjørud; Knut Engedal

2011-01-01

336

Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

2010-01-01

337

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

338

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

339

Competitive physical activity early in life is associated with bone mineral density in elderly Swedish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this population-based study of 75-year-old men (n?=?498), we investigated the association between physical activity (PA) early in life and present bone mineral density (BMD).\\u000a We demonstrate that a high frequency of competitive sports early in life is associated with BMD at several bone sites, indicating\\u000a that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Physical activity

M. Nilsson; C. Ohlsson; A. L. Eriksson; K. Frändin; M. Karlsson; Ö. Ljunggren; D. Mellström; M. Lorentzon

2008-01-01

340

Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

Brown, Maria Teresa

2010-01-01

341

Early Childhood Programs and National Service: A Resource Guide for Community-Based Early Childhood Planning. Preliminary Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary guide is designed to help AmeriCorps and other national service programs plan and deliver effective early childhood services. The guide can also be used in community-based planning to incorporate national service organizations in early childhood program initiatives. Following an overview of the roles that AmeriCorps and other…

Collins, Ray; And Others

342

Program-Level Influences on the Measurement of Early Communication for Infants and Toddlers in Early Head Start  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement in early childhood is an increasingly large-scale endeavor addressing purposes of accountability, program improvement, child outcomes, and intervention decision making for individual children. The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is a measure relevant to intervention decision making for infants and toddlers, including response to intervention approaches. The widespread use of the ECI is growing in multiple programs and states. Local

Charles R. Greenwood; Jay Buzhardt; Dale Walker; Waylon J. Howard; Rawni Anderson

2011-01-01

343

Alternative life histories of the genus Lucania : 1. Early ontogeny of L. parva , the rainwater killifish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  This is the first of three papers devoted to the description and interpretation of early morphological development in altricial\\u000a and precocial species within the genusLucania. This study focussed on the early life history of the rainwater killifish,Lucania parva. Reproductively mature specimens were collected in brackish impoundments of the St. Marks National Wildife Refuge in northwest\\u000a Florida, and transported to the

Stephen S. Crawford; Eugene K. Balon

1994-01-01

344

Reproductive life history correlates of early and late sexual maturation in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age at vaginal introitus is bimodally distributed in female domesticated Mongolian gerbils; some exhibit vaginal perforation before eye-opening (day 16), others after weaning (day 25). We found early- and late-maturing female gerbils to ditfer significantly in reproductive life history. Early-maturing females first reproduced when younger. had more litters, with more young per litter, and consequently had more than twice as

MERTICE M. CLARK; CHERYL A. SPENCER; B GALEFJR

1986-01-01

345

34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

2013-07-01

346

Early-Life Malaria Exposure and Adult Outcomes: Evidence from Malaria Eradication in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of exposure to malaria in early childhood on educational attainment and economic status in adulthood by exploiting geographic variation in malaria prevalence in India prior to a nationwide eradication program in the 1950s. We find that the program led to modest increases in household per capita consumption for prime age men, and the effects for men

Michael R. Kremer; David M. Cutler; Monica Singhal; Tom Vogl

2010-01-01

347

Early-life Malaria Exposure and Adult Outcomes: Evidence from Malaria Eradication in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of exposure to malaria in early childhood on educational attainment and economic status in adulthood by exploiting geographic variation in malaria prevalence in India prior to a nationwide eradication program in the 1950s. We find that the program led to modest increases in household per capita consumption for prime age men, and the effects for men

David Cutler; Winnie Fung; Michael Kremer; Monica Singhal; Tom Vogl

2009-01-01

348

California's Early Assessment Program: Its Effectiveness and the Obstacles to Successful Program Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Assessment Program (EAP) has emerged as a national model for states seeking to design policies that increase the number of students who leave high school ready for college and careers. In addition, the two national consortia designing new assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards have recognized the EAP as a model for the…

McLean, Hilary

2012-01-01

349

Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development. PMID:23824728

Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

2013-07-03

350

Slice of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Slice of Life program, which is based on the concept that career education is a lifelong process beginning in the early years. It is a vocational development program that highlights awareness, assessment, training, and placement. (JOW)|

Makowski, Teen Fredell

1982-01-01

351

34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS... § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

2013-07-01

352

34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS... § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

2009-07-01

353

34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS... § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

2010-07-01

354

Labor market transitions of young women over the early life course: A multistate life table analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using detailed panel data on school, work, and family formation history of youth (i.e., NLSY 1979-1991), we examine the dynamic process of labor market transitions women make during young adulthood. Transitions between the states of the labor force (i.e., employment, unemployment, and out of the labor force) are analyzed using multistate life tables, in which labor market and family transitions

Hanam S. Phang

1995-01-01

355

Distributional Effects of Early Childhood Programs and Business Incentives and Their Implications for Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a draft of Chapter 8 of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa. This book analyzes early childhood programs’ effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: 1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar quality to the Chicago Child Parent Center program; 2) the Abecedarian program,

Timothy J. Bartik

2009-01-01

356

How Policymakers Should Deal with the Delayed Benefits of Early Childhood Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is a draft of Chapter 7 of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa. This book analyzes early childhood programs’ effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: 1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar quality to the Chicago Child Parent Center program; 2) the Abecedarian program,

Timothy J. Bartik

2009-01-01

357

Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.  

PubMed

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

Chang, Ku-ming

2011-06-01

358

Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.  

PubMed

Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2012-11-05

359

Composite flywheel durability and life expectancy: test program  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project are to: determine the durability and life expectancy of flywheel rotors; identify critical performance and durability characteristics that control the long-term service and safety of rotors and rotor containments; and develop test procedures that can be used to economically evaluate the performance of flywheels under cyclic loading in the laboratory and to relate that information to long-term service behavior. Approximately half the project is complete, including the following tasks: a material property data base has been assembled for each major material to be used in the flywheels; material property data has been characterized and modeled; the initial version of a generic test program has been designed; and some NDE characterization of all prototype composite flywheels rotors has been conducted.

Kulkarni, S.V.; Reifsnider, K.L.; Boyd, D.M.

1981-07-14

360

A Developmental History of the Georgia Life Skills for Mental Health Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A developmental history of the Georgia Life Skills for Mental Health program is presented. The program's purpose is to help students aged 5-18 learn ways to handle stress, make major life decisions, and form more satisfying interpersonal relationships. In addition to a narrative description of how the program was conceived and developed, the…

Strandmark, John F.; Dusewicz, Russell A.

361

Development of an aging evaluation and life extension program for the Advanced Test Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life extension program has been developed for the US Department of Energy's Advanced Test Reactor. The program is an adaptation of life extension pilot programs at the Surry Unit 1 and Monticello generating stations and is being completed in three phases. In Phase 1, the critical plant components were identified. In Phase 2, existing lifetime analyses and support data

Dwight; J. E. Jr

1988-01-01

362

Improving care at end of life in the ICU: a proposal for early discussion of goals of care.  

PubMed

Improving care at end of life (EOL) in the intensive care unit (ICU) remains a challenge, especially for older adults, who face a high likelihood of mortality or profound functional impairment with admission to the ICU and use of life-sustaining treatment (LST) such as mechanical ventilation. Multiple factors pose a barrier to high-quality EOL care that is consistent with patient preferences and values. This article outlines key contributory factors to this problem and offers, as a solution, a proposal for earlier engagement with decisional surrogates to clearly define the surrogate role; outline the risks, benefits, and alternatives to LSTs in use; and clarify patient-specific goals of care. Nurses should play a pivotal role in the development of programs to implement early discussion of goals of care, and they are instrumental in identifying patients at risk and facilitating early engagement with surrogates in facilities where such programs exist. Research that systematically evaluates outcomes of such protocols is needed to guide policy for patient-centered EOL care in the ICU. PMID:23758112

Seaman, Jennifer B

2013-06-10

363

Early Life Determinants of Physical Activity in 11 to 12 Year Olds: Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine factors in early life (up to age 5 years) that are associated with objectively measured physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants: Children aged 11-12 years from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Main outcome measure: Physical activity levels in counts

Calum Mattocks; Kevin Deere; Sam Leary; Andy Ness; Kate Tilling; Steven N. Blair; Chris Riddoch

2008-01-01

364

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE SMALLMOUTH BASS AT FOUR PH VALUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life stages of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede) were exposed to ammonia concentrations at four different pH values (from 6.5 to 8.7). Acute lethal tests were conducted with juveniles, and partial chronic tests were initiated at the late embryo stage and exte...

365

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

366

Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory.…

Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

2011-01-01

367

Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

2012-01-01

368

Effects of maternally transferred organochlorine contaminants on early life survival in a freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Laboratory research has shown that female fish can pass toxic organochlorines (OCs) from their bodies to their eggs, killing their offspring if sufficient quantities are transferred. We conducted a controlled incubation study using gametes from a wild, OC-contaminated walleye (Sander vitreus) population (Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada) in order to assess among-female variation in offspring early life survival in relation to ova concentrations of planar OCs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls) and a suite of other maternal and ova characteristics. Equal volumes of ova from each female were fertilized, pooled, and incubated together as an experimental cohort. Relative survival of each female's offspring was estimated as the proportion of surviving larvae (at approximately 5 d posthatch) that she contributed to the cohort as determined by microsatellite DNA parentage assignment. Total planar OC concentration (expressed as toxic equivalency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) of ova was positively related to maternal age and size and to ova lipid content. However, early life survival did not decline with increasing ova planar OC concentrations. Similarly, we observed no significant relationships between early life survival and ova thiamine content, ova fatty acid composition, or maternal age or size. Early life survival was more strongly correlated with date of spawn collection, thyroid hormone status of the ova, and ovum size. Maternally transferred planar OCs do not appear to negatively influence female reproductive success in this walleye population. PMID:16268162

Johnston, Thomas A; Miller, Loren M; Whittle, D Michael; Brown, Scott B; Wiegand, Murray D; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Leggett, William C

2005-10-01

369

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHODS FOR GULF TOADFISH, 'OPSANUS BETA', AND RESULTS USING CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/l). However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos...

370

Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.  

PubMed

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

2011-05-02

371

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

372

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

373

Knocking on Academia's Doors: An Inquiry into the Early Careers of Doctors in Life Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early careers of French doctors in life sciences are characterized by the importance of temporary jobs. While most young Ph.D. researchers wish to obtain a job in the French academic sector (which grants them, among other things, lifetime employment), few of them manage to achieve this objective immediately after completing their Ph.D. A majority of young doctors have to

S. Robin; E. Cahuzac

2003-01-01

374

Early life environment and developmental immunotoxicity in inflammatory dysfunction and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells are instrumental in determining the fate of immune responses and are, also, among the most sensitive targets of early life environmental alterations including developmental immunotoxicity (DIT). DIT can impede innate immune cell maturation, disrupt tissue microenvironment, alter immune responses to infectious challenges, and disrupt regulatory responses. Dysregulation of

Cynthia A. Leifer; Rodney R. Dietert

2011-01-01

375

Commentary: H. pylori infection in early life and the problem of imperfect tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori, infection is associated with significant disease outcomes, including peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. While persistent infection appears to be established during childhood, little is known about infection patterns in early life. Goodman et al.1 report a first time infection rate of 27% among 468 children of the Pasitos cohort followed at 6-month intervals from birth to 24 months

Sharon Perry; Julie Parsonnet

2005-01-01

376

Early Manifestations of Personality and Adult Health: A Life Course Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate whether individual personality or temperamental qualities that emerge early and persist over the life course, predict adult midlife health. Specific childhood personality attributes considered include distress proneness, behavioral inhibition, and ability to stay focused on a task. Design: Prospective data are from 569 individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Main Outcome

Laura D. Kubzansky; Laurie T. Martin; Stephen L. Buka

2009-01-01

377

Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2008-01-01

378

Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.  

PubMed

Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2?years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

2013-05-22

379

Early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of current environmental policies is to preserve or return areas to a good ecological status, which should be assessed at the ecosystem level, using several biological elements, together with physical, chemical and pollution elements. This study investigated the use of early life stages of fishes as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with

Sandra Ramos; Eva Amorim; Michael Elliott; Henrique Cabral; Adriano A. Bordalo

380

Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. Methods: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type

Molly M. Lamb; Dana Dabelea; Xiang Yin; Lorraine G. Ogden; Georgeanna J. Klingensmith; Marian Rewers; Jill M. Norris

2010-01-01

381

Development of healthy eating habits early in life. Review of recent evidence and selected guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encouraging healthy eating habit development early in life is a way to prevent the onset of diet-related diseases. This review focuses on the period ranging from the beginning of complementary feeding until the age of 3 years. Its first objective was to review relevant themes in the most recent literature on the development of healthy eating habits in this period.

Camille Schwartz; Petra A. M. J. Scholtens; Amandine Lalanne; Hugo Weenen; Sophie Nicklaus

2011-01-01

382

Associations between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development among Girls in Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at…

Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

2011-01-01

383

Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

2011-01-01

384

Developmental Trajectories of Overweight During Childhood: Role of Early Life Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to identify developmental trajectories of overweight in children and to assess early life influences on these trajectories.Research Methods and Procedures: Participants consisted of 1739 white, black, and Hispanic children who were younger than 2 years at the first survey and were followed up to 12 years of age. Repeated measures of overweight, defined as BMI ?95th

Chaoyang Li; Michael I. Goran; Harsohena Kaur; Nicole Nollen; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2007-01-01

385

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

Leslie E. Holland

1986-01-01

386

Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social…

Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

387

Continuity and Change From Full-Inclusion Early Childhood Programs Through the Early Elementary Period.  

PubMed

A large and well-characterized group of children with mild developmental delays initially enrolled in full-inclusion preschool or kindergarten programs was followed for 3 years. Changes in the type of inclusive placements as children transitioned to first and second grades were monitored, and associations between placement type and child and family characteristics were examined. Results revealed a high level of continuity in that most children remained in partial or full inclusion settings over time. However, a substantial reduction in full-inclusion placements occurred between the 2nd and 3rd year when children were completing the transition to first and second grades. Placements in less inclusive settings were associated with children's levels of cognitive and language development but not their adaptive, social, or behavioral characteristics. A hypothesis was put forward that placement in full-inclusion programs during the early childhood years creates a momentum to continue maximum participation in inclusive settings over time. PMID:20890373

Guralnick, Michael J; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A; Connor, Robert T

2008-06-01

388

Composite-flywheel durability and life. Part I. Test program  

SciTech Connect

It has been demonstrated that flywheels made from composite materials are capable of storing energy at a significantly greater energy density than flywheels made from conventional metals. Composite flywheels which can store up to 80 Wh/kg have been successfully tested. In addition, composite flywheels are inherently safer for applications in vehicles and other devices since the failure of such wheels does not produce large pieces of heavy material that become dangerous projectiles, but generally produces a large number of pieces varying in size from chunks of delaminated laminates to dust and string- or straw-like matter. Composite flywheels are also thought to be more durable since composite materials generally perform very well under long-term and fatigue loading, frequently better than metals. However, the relatively limited experience that has been gained in using composite materials in high performance structures for long periods of time requires that special care be taken to verify the durability of any such design by experimental programs. An experimental program designed to establish the durability and life of the composite flywheel designs available at this time is presented. The objectives of the test program are as follows: to establish the durability and lifetime of flywheel rotors under conditions which include all of the essential details of the spectrum loading that rotors are likely to sustain as an energy storage device for various applications; to identify critical performance and durability characteristics which potentially limit the long term use of the rotor designs currently under development; and to develop test techniques and philosophies which can be used for fatigue testing of flywheels and to relate specimen data to rotor performance. Part I consists of the development of the test plan methodology.

Kulkarni, S.V.; Reifsnider, K.L.

1982-09-01

389

Effects of early elementary Reading Recovery programs on middle-school students: A longitudinal evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do early intervention literacy programs promote long-lasting gains for students in middle school and beyond? By middle school, student performance and achievement in all content areas hinges on demonstrated reading and writing skills. In light of this, early intervention to promote the development of literacy skills is critical. As an early intervention literacy program, Reading Recovery (RR) has provided intensive

Tera Shamey

2008-01-01

390

DNA methylation as a risk factor in the effects of early life stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic marks (e.g., DNA 5-methylcytosine [5mC] content or CpG methylation) within specific gene regulatory regions have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in stress adaptation and resulting health trajectories following early adversity. Yet the developmental programming of the vast majority of the epigenome has not yet been characterized, and its role in the impact of early stress largely unknown. In

Erin L. Kinnally; Caroline Feinberg; David Kim; Kerel Ferguson; Rudolph Leibel; Jeremy D. Coplan; J. John Mann

2011-01-01

391

VA Life Insurance: Premiums and Program Reserves Need More Timely Adjustments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) manages eight life insurance programs that provide about $400 billion in insurance coverage for military personnel and veterans. The largest of these programs, Servicemen's Group iMe Insurance (sGu), is administered...

1992-01-01

392

Impulsivity as a Mediating Mechanism Between Early-Life Adversity and Addiction: Theoretical Comment on Lovic et al. (2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life adversity, impulsivity, and dopaminergic function have all been implicated in adult drug addiction. The article by Lovic, Keen, Fletcher, and Fleming in this issue further elucidates this relationship by demonstrating that early-life adversity can increase impulsivity and decrease behavioral flexibility in adulthood. Recent literature suggests that these results are likely due to structural and functional changes in regions such

Jay Hosking; Catharine A. Winstanley

2011-01-01

393

Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The authors investigated whether early-life residency in certain areas of Iceland marked by distinct differences in milk intake was associated with risk of prostate cancer in a population-based cohort of 8,894 men born between 1907 and 1935. Through linkage to cancer and mortality registers, the men were followed for prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality from study entry (in waves from 1967 to 1987) through 2009. In 2002-2006, a subgroup of 2,268 participants reported their milk intake in early, mid-, and current life. During a mean follow-up period of 24.3 years, 1,123 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, including 371 with advanced disease (stage 3 or higher or prostate cancer death). Compared with early-life residency in the capital area, rural residency in the first 20 years of life was marginally associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.73), particularly among men born before 1920 (hazard ratio = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.56). Daily milk consumption in adolescence (vs. less than daily), but not in midlife or currently, was associated with a 3.2-fold risk of advanced prostate cancer (95% CI: 1.25, 8.28). These data suggest that frequent milk intake in adolescence increases risk of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:22190107

Torfadottir, Johanna E; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Mucci, Lorelei; Aspelund, Thor; Kasperzyk, Julie L; Olafsson, Orn; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Stampfer, Meir; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

2011-12-20

394

Early life benefits and later life costs of a two amino acid deletion in Drosophila simulans.  

PubMed

Linking naturally occurring genotypic variation to the organismal phenotype is critical to our understanding of, and ability to, model biological processes such as adaptation to novel environments, disease, and aging. Rarely, however, does a simple mutation cause a single simple observable trait. Rather it is more common for a mutation to elicit an entangled web of responses. Here, we employ biochemistry as the thread to link a naturally occurring two amino acid deletion in a nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein with physiological benefits and costs in the fly Drosophila simulans. This nuclear encoded gene produces a protein that is imported into the mitochondrion and forms a subunit of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, or cox) of the electron transport chain. We observe that flies homozygous for the deletion have an advantage when young but pay a cost later in life. These data show that the organism responds to the deletion in a complex manner that gives insight into the mechanisms that influence mitochondrial bioenergetics and aspects of organismal physiology. PMID:21143473

Ballard, J William O; Melvin, Richard G

2010-12-28

395

Sustaining Clinical Programs During Difficult Economic Times: A Case Series from the Hospital Elder Life Program  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore strategies used by clinical programs to justify operations to decision-makers using the example of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), an evidence-based, cost-effective program to improve care for hospitalized older adults. DESIGN Qualitative study design utilizing 62 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with HELP staff members and hospital administrators between September 2008 and August 2009. SETTING 19 HELP sites in hospitals across the U.S. and Canada that had been recruiting patients for at least 6 months. PARTICIPANTS and MEASUREMENTS HELP staff and hospital administrator experiences sustaining the program in the face of actual or perceived financial threats, with a focus on factors they believe are effective in justifying the program to decision-makers in the hospital or health system. RESULTS Using the constant comparative method, a standard qualitative analysis technique, three major themes were identified across interviews. Each focuses on a strategy for successfully justifying the program and securing funds for continued operations: 1) interact meaningfully with decision-makers, including formal presentations that showcase operational successes, and also informal means that highlight the benefits of HELP to the hospital or health system; 2) document day-to-day, operational successes in metrics that resonate with decision-maker priorities; and 3) garner support from influential hospital staff that feed into administrative decision-making, particularly nurses and physicians. CONCLUSION As clinical programs face financially challenging times, it is important to find effective ways to justify their operations to decision-makers. Strategies described here may help clinically-effective and cost-effective programs sustain themselves, and thus may help improve care in their institutions.

SteelFisher, Gillian K.; Martin, Lauren A.; Dowal, Sarah L.; Inouye, Sharon K.

2013-01-01

396

Master's Programs in Israeli Colleges of Education: A New Learning Opportunity in Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of advanced studies for the professional staff working in the field of early childhood education (ECE). Until 2001, Israeli MA programs were controlled exclusively by Israeli universities. The article deals with the development of MEd programs in Israeli colleges of education, using the “Early Childhood Education” program to exemplify the

Miriam Mevorach; Mordechai Miron

2011-01-01

397

Unstable Housing–A Significant Challenge for Home Visiting Programs: An Early Head Start Case Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome results of home visiting programs have been mixed and modestly encouraging at best. To further understand this phenomenon it is important to understand what influences participation in home visiting programs. This study explores the relationship between housing stability and level of participation in an Early Head Start home visiting program. The housing needs of 76 Early Head Start

Fredi J. Staerkel; Susan Spieker

2006-01-01

398

Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

Haigh, Karen M.

2009-01-01

399

Pathways to Quality and Full Implementation in Early Head Start Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tells the story of program development in the early years, examining the nature and extent of implementation in key program areas and the quality of child development services for the 17 programs participating in the national evaluation. Reviews evolving program approaches, family engagement, service needs and use, and other areas as well as overall themes found across programs in their

Ellen Eliason Kisker; Diane Paulsell; John M. Love; Helen Raikes

2002-01-01

400

Noncategorical Early Childhood Program for Handicapped Children (NECP): A Model and Demonstration Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program development guide describes the Fairfax County (Virginia) Noncategorical Early Childhood Program (NECP) which serves approximately 75 mildly and moderately handicapped children from 2 to 8 years of age with either a preschool home resource program, a class based preschool program, or a class based primary program. The guide is designed…

Sande, Clay; Nassor, Irene

401

From Angela's Ashes to the Celtic Tiger: Early Life Conditions and Adult Health in Ireland  

PubMed Central

We use data from the Irish census and exploit regional and temporal variation in infant mortality rates over the 20th century to examine effects of early life conditions on later life health. The urban mortality penalty collapsed in Ireland in the years right after World War II. Our main identification is public health interventions centered on improved sanitation and food safety, which we believed played a leading role in eliminating the Irish urban infant mortality penalty. Our estimates suggest that a unit decrease in mortality rates at time of birth reduces the probability of being disabled as an adult by about 12% to 18%.

Delaney, Liam; McGovern, Mark; Smith, James P.

2010-01-01

402

Predictors of Early Adulthood Quality of Life in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives The goal of this study was to determine childhood clinical predictors of quality of life (QoL) in early adulthood in children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 36(out of 62 eligible) children with OCD, interviewed once at childhood baseline (mean age: 12.1±2.1, range: 8.0 – 15.8), and again in early adulthood after an average follow-up interval of 9 years. QoL was measured in adulthood with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results Forty-two percent of children experienced a remission of OCD symptoms by early adulthood. OCD appeared to most strongly impair the interpersonal relationships and work domains of QoL. QoL and severity of OCD and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated in early adulthood. Primary hoarding symptoms in childhood predicted poor QoL in adulthood. Increased symptoms in the forbidden thoughts dimension in both childhood and adulthood were associated with improved adulthood QoL. Conclusions Children for whom OCD symptoms remitted by adulthood showed no evidence of residual impairment in QoL, whereas children whose OCD symptoms failed to remit by adulthood showed at most mild impairment in QoL. Hoarding symptoms in childhood appear to portend not only the persistence of OCD symptoms but also poorer QoL in early adulthood.

Palermo, Sean D.; Bloch, Michael H.; Craiglow, Brittany; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Dombrowski, Philip A.; Panza, Kaitlyn; Smith, Megan E.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Leckman, James F.

2013-01-01

403

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity.  

PubMed

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J; Novak, Matthew F X; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J

2012-05-21

404

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity  

PubMed Central

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life.

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J.; Novak, Matthew F. X.; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

405

Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'  

PubMed Central

Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention) activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1) Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2) Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3) Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4) Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation design is constrained by the lack of a non-K-GFYL control group, short time frames and delayed funding of this large scale evaluation across all intervention settings. However, despite this, the evaluation will generate valuable evidence about the utility of a community-wide environmental approach to preventing childhood obesity which will inform future public health policies and health promotion programs internationally. Trial Registration ACTRN12609001075279

2010-01-01

406

Literacy Behaviors of Preschool Children Participating in an Early Intervention Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the teacher-reported early literacy behaviors of 2,759 preschool children who participated in a state-supported, early-intervention preschool program. Preschool teachers ( n = 240) completed the Literacy Competence Checklist for all c...

J. W. Lloyd K. A. Burgess K. L. Sayeski R. C. Planta

2001-01-01

407

Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that altered DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in prenatal programming and that developmental periods are sensitive to environmental stressors. We hypothesized that exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) during pregnancy could influence DNA methylation patterns of the placenta. Methods In the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, levels of 5’-methyl-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and deoxycytidine (dC) were quantified in placental DNA from 240 newborns. Multiple regression models were used to study placental global DNA methylation and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. Results PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy averaged (25th-75th percentile) 17.4 (15.4-19.3) ?g/m3. Placental global DNA methylation was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposures during whole pregnancy and relatively decreased by 2.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.65, -0.73%, p?=?0.004) for each 5 ?g/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5. In a multi-lag model in which all three trimester exposures were fitted as independent variables in the same regression model, only exposure to PM2.5 during trimester 1 was significantly associated with lower global DNA methylation (-2.13% per 5 ?g/m3 increase, 95% CI: -3.71, -0.54%, p?=?0.009). When we analyzed shorter time windows of exposure within trimester 1, we observed a lower placental DNA methylation at birth during all implantation stages but exposure during the implantation range (6-21d) was strongest associated (-1.08% per 5 ?g/m3 increase, 95% CI: -1.80, -0.36%, p?=?0.004). Conclusions We observed a lower degree of placental global DNA methylation in association with exposure to particulate air pollution in early pregnancy, including the critical stages of implantation. Future studies should elucidate genome-wide and gene-specific methylation patterns in placental tissue that could link particulate exposure during in utero life and early epigenetic modulations.

2013-01-01

408

Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD. PMID:23439689

Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

2013-02-25

409

“Read My Story!” Using the Early Authors Program to Promote Early Literacy Among Diverse, Urban Preschool Children in Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the utility of the Early Authors Program, a 12-month early literacy intervention emphasizing highly meaningful language interactions that was implemented in childcare facilities in an ethnically and linguistically diverse, urban, low-income community. Children learn to be writers and readers by creating their own self-authored, storybook texts, supported by the sensitive guidance of adults. Children (n = 280)

Judith K. Bernhard; Adam Winsler; Charles Bleiker; Jorge Ginieniewicz; Amy L. Madigan

2008-01-01

410

Program-Level Influences on the Measurement of Early Communication for Infants and Toddlers in Early Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement in early childhood is an increasingly large-scale endeavor addressing purposes of accountability, program improvement, child outcomes, and intervention decision making for individual children. The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is a measure relevant to intervention decision making for infants and toddlers, including response to…

Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Jay; Walker, Dale; Howard, Waylon J.; Anderson, Rawni

2011-01-01

411

Status of a digital life and learning program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winona State University in 1997 launched its laptop program, providing every student with a laptop computer to enhance his\\/her studies. Now, in 2009, laptop programs are no longer novelties; they are commonplace with more than 150 programs in higher education institutions across the country.[1] Winona State is a very different institution because of the program. The program has been woven

Kenneth D. Janz; Ken Graetz

2009-01-01

412

Quantitative In Vivo Redox Sensors Uncover Oxidative Stress as an Early Event in Life  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Obstacles in elucidating the role of oxidative stress in aging include difficulties in 1) tracking in vivo oxidants, in 2) identifying affected proteins, and in 3) correlating changes in oxidant levels with lifespan. Here, we used quantitative redox proteomics to determine the onset and the cellular targets of oxidative stress during Caenorhabditis elegans’ lifespan. In parallel, we used genetically encoded sensor proteins to determine peroxide levels in live animals in real time. We discovered that C. elegans encounters significant levels of oxidants as early as during larval development. Oxidant levels drop rapidly as animals mature and reducing conditions prevail throughout the reproductive age, after which age-accompanied protein oxidation sets in. Long-lived daf-2 mutants transition faster to reducing conditions, whereas short-lived daf-16 mutants retain higher oxidant levels throughout their mature life. These results suggest that animals with improved capacity to recover from early oxidative stress have significant advantages later in life.

Knoefler, Daniela; Thamsen, Maike; Koniczek, Martin; Niemuth, Nicholas J.; Diederich, Ann-Kristin; Jakob, Ursula

2012-01-01

413

Patterns of variability in early-life traits of fishes depend on spatial scale of analysis  

PubMed Central

Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across multiple scales. The present study, where a Mediterranean fish (i.e. the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus) was used as a model, shows that spawning date and PLD are spatially more variable at a scale of kilometres than at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres. This study indicates the importance of considering spatial variability of early-life traits of fishes in order to properly delineate connectivity patterns at larval stages (e.g. by means of Lagrangian simulations), thus providing strategically useful information on connectivity and relevant management goals (e.g. the creation of networks of marine reserves).

Di Franco, Antonio; Guidetti, Paolo

2011-01-01

414

Sets, Probability and Statistics: The Mathematics of Life Insurance. [Computer Program.] Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials described here represent the conversion of a highly popular student workbook "Sets, Probability and Statistics: The Mathematics of Life Insurance" into a computer program. The program is designed to familiarize students with the concepts of sets, probability, and statistics, and to provide practice using real life examples. It also…

King, James M.; And Others

415

Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing\\u000a field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention\\u000a has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with\\u000a ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies

Pia Pechtel; Diego A. Pizzagalli

2011-01-01

416

MINI REVIEW Early life events and conditions and breast cancer risk: From epidemiology to etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for breast cancer—documented by intensive epidemi- ological investigations and viewed in the context of general princi- ples of carcinogenesis—can be integrated to an etiologic model comprising 3 principal components: the likelihood of breast can- cer occurrence depends on the number of mammary tissue-specific stem cells, which is determined in early life; all growth-enhancing mammotropic hormones affect the rate

Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Hans-Olov Adami; Anders Ekbom; Chung-Cheng Hsieh; Pagona Lagiou

2008-01-01

417

Variations in interstate migration of men across the early stages of the life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of job characteristics and of length of residence in one place on the likelihood of interstate\\u000a migration for young men at different points in the early life course. An event history analysis of a sample of U.S. white\\u000a males between the ages of 14 and 39 indicates that job rewards and location-specific resources vary at

Gary D. Sandefur

1985-01-01

418

Early-life exposure to a herbicide has enduring effects on pathogen-induced mortality.  

PubMed

Exposure to stressors at formative stages in the development of wildlife and humans can have enduring effects on health. Understanding which, when and how stressors cause enduring health effects is crucial because these stressors might then be avoided or mitigated during formative stages to prevent lasting increases in disease susceptibility. Nevertheless, the impact of early-life exposure to stressors on the ability of hosts to resist and tolerate infections has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here, we show that early-life, 6-day exposure to the herbicide atrazine (mean ± s.e.: 65.9±3.48 µg l(-1)) increased frog mortality 46 days after atrazine exposure (post-metamorphosis), but only when frogs were challenged with a chytrid fungus implicated in global amphibian declines. Previous atrazine exposure did not affect resistance of infection (fungal load). Rather, early-life exposure to atrazine altered growth and development, which resulted in exposure to chytrid at more susceptible developmental stages and sizes, and reduced tolerance of infection, elevating mortality risk at an equivalent fungal burden to frogs unexposed to atrazine. Moreover, there was no evidence of recovery from atrazine exposure. Hence, reducing early-life exposure of amphibians to atrazine could reduce lasting increases in the risk of mortality from a disease associated with worldwide amphibian declines. More generally, these findings highlight that a better understanding of how stressors cause enduring effects on disease susceptibility could facilitate disease prevention in wildlife and humans, an approach that is often more cost-effective and efficient than reactive medicine. PMID:24153383

Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R; Halstead, Neal T; McMahon, Taegan A; Johnson, Steve A; Boughton, Raoul K; Martin, Lynn B

2013-10-23

419

Maternal early life risk factors for offspring birth weight: findings from the add health study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the pathways that link mothers' early life socio economic status (SES) and mothers' experience of childhood maltreatment with birth weight among their later born offspring. Data were drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of school-aged respondents, initially enrolled during adolescence in Wave I (1994-1995) and Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed-up in adulthood in Wave III (2001-2002). Data on offspring birth weight were obtained from nulliparous females (N?=?1,897) who had given birth between Waves II and III. Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which early life maternal risk predicted offspring birth weight, and demonstrated that maternal childhood SES and maternal childhood maltreatment predicted offspring birth weight through several mediated pathways. First, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Second, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Third, adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Fourth, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. Finally, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify maternal childhood maltreatment as an early life risk factor for offspring birth weight among a nationally representative sample of young women, and to demonstrate the mechanisms that link childhood SES and maltreatment to offspring birth weight. These findings suggest the importance of designing and implementing prevention and intervention strategies to address early life maternal social conditions in an effort to improve inter generational child health at birth. PMID:21986991

Gavin, Amelia R; Thompson, Elaine; Rue, Tessa; Guo, Yuqing

2012-04-01

420

Early Life Risk Factors That Contribute to Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that occurs in adults. The natural history of symptoms and risk factors that contribute to IBS may begin in childhood. The aim of this systematic review was to determine what early life factors contribute to the development of IBS in adolescents and adults.METHODS:A computer-assisted search of the PubMed database from 1966 to

Denesh K. Chitkara; Miranda A. L. van Tilburg; Nannette Blois-Martin; William E. Whitehead

2008-01-01

421

Early Life Stress on Brain Structure and Function Across the Lifespan: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with reduced volume of brain regions critical\\u000a for information processing, memory and emotional function. Further, recent studies from our lab utilizing diffusion tensor\\u000a imaging (DTI) have found alterations in the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways among adults exposed to ELS.\\u000a However, it is not clear if

Donna L. Seckfort; Robert Paul; Stuart M. Grieve; Brian Vandenberg; Richard A. Bryant; Leanne M. Williams; C. Richard Clark; Ronald A. Cohen; Steven Bruce; Evian Gordon

2008-01-01

422

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD\\u000a may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine\\u000a aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects\\u000a of the biology of PTSD may reflect

Rachel Yehuda; Janine D. Flory; Laura C. Pratchett; Joseph Buxbaum; Marcus Ising; Florian Holsboer

2010-01-01

423

The Role of an Early-Life Variant of the Oedipus Complex in Motivating Religious Endeavors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A close reading of sources Freud used in writing Totem and Taboo supports the thesis that a predecessor archaic oedipus complex is instrumental in motivating religious worship. This early-life complex manifests a psychodynamic in which birth, growth, and self-realization, to varying degree in each individual, tend to be psychically correlated with diminution and harm vis-à-vis one's procreators. As a result,

Marvin P. Osman

2004-01-01

424

Paracetamol use in early life and asthma: prospective birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if use of paracetamol in early life is an independent risk factor for childhood asthma.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study.Participants 620 children with a family history of allergic disease, with paracetamol use prospectively documented on 18 occasions from birth to 2 years of age, followed until age 7 years.Main outcome measures The primary outcome

Adrian J Lowe; John B Carlin; Catherine M Bennett; Clifford S Hosking; Katrina J Allen; Colin F Robertson; Christine Axelrad; Michael J Abramson; David J Hill; Shyamali C Dharmage

2010-01-01

425

Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants to the early life stages of two marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute, flow-through, spiked-exposure toxicity tests were performed on the early life stages of two marine species using two oil dispersants. The species represent two common near-shore marine taxa: molluscs (red abalone, Haliotis rufescens) and crustaceans (kelp forest mysid, Holmesimysis costata). The dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants and solvents. The toxicity data showed that one

Michael M. Singer; Saji George; Diana Benner; Susan Jacobson; Ronald S. Tjeerdema; Michael L. Sowby

1993-01-01

426

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of

A. Franke; C. Clemmesen

2011-01-01

427

Fetal growth, early life circumstances, and risk of suicide in late adulthood.  

PubMed

Recent studies in Sweden and Scotland have found early life conditions to be associated with increased risk of attempted and completed suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. It is not known, however, whether early life conditions affect suicide risk throughout the life course, from adulthood into old age. We examined the effects of early life conditions, including markers of fetal growth, and social and economic characteristics in adulthood, on risk of suicide by violent and non-violent methods in women and men aged 31-87 years using Cox regression. 11,650 women and men born at the Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden between 1915 and 1929 were followed from 1960 until 2002 using linked records from obstetric archives, Census, population and mortality registries. During 435,039 person-years of follow-up 161 completed suicides (104 in males, 57 in females) were observed. An inverse association was found between lower birthweight-for-gestational age and risk of violent suicide in females, although the association did not reach the conventional level of statistical significance (minimally adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI (0.88-4.63); Table 4). Being male, unmarried, and in the "other or unknown" social class category in adulthood were independently associated with increased rates of suicide. There was a weak association between higher maternal parity and suicide rates. Our findings suggest differences in effects of fetal growth patterns and perinatal circumstances on suicide risk later in life, and suggest that suicide in adults and in the elderly may be influenced by a different combination of factors than those that influence suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:21681547

Danziger, Phoebe Day; Silverwood, Richard; Koupil, Ilona

2011-06-17

428

Prostate cancer risk assessment program. A model for the early detection of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer (except skin cancer) in men. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer, including age, ethnicity, family history, lifestyle, and environmental exposures. Recognition of the importance of the interaction of these factors in prostate cancer has led to an interest in their evaluation as a model both for studying genetic susceptibility patterns and for studying and providing educational tools and preventive interventions. One such model has been developed at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Critical to the implementation of the model has been the establishment of the Prostate Cancer Risk Registry (PCRR) and Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP). Together, they serve as a unique resource for investigating the interaction between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility patterns; exploring the early, premalignant biological markers of prostate cancer; and prospectively assessing the quality of life (QOL) of men at risk. In addition, PRAP facilitates the evaluation of models for prostate cancer risk counseling and screening in the community. This paper describes this model for early detection and risk reduction, along with preliminary data from its first two study aims. The program is particularly relevant in view of the wealth of genetic information emerging from the Human Genome Project. PMID:10204154

Bruner, D W; Baffoe-Bonnie, A; Miller, S; Diefenbach, M; Tricoli, J V; Daly, M; Pinover, W; Grumet, S C; Stofey, J; Ross, E; Raysor, S; Balshem, A; Malick, J; Engstrom, P; Hanks, G E; Mirchandani, I

1999-03-01

429

Early-life stress produces muscle hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization in the adult rat  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain in adults has been associated with early-life stress. To examine the pronociceptive effect of early-life stress, we evaluated cutaneous and muscle nociception and activity in muscle nociceptors in an animal model of neonatal stress, limited bedding, in the rat. In this model, litters are exposed to limited bedding between postnatal days 2 – 9 (neonatal limited bedding, NLB) and controls to standard bedding. In adult NLB-treated rats, mechanical nociceptive threshold in skeletal muscle was ficantly lower (~22%) than in controls. Furthermore, administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in skin as well as produced markedly prolonged hyperalgesia, an effect prevented by spinal intrathecal injection of oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to protein kinase C? (PKC?), a second messenger in nociceptors that has been implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. In electrophysiological studies, mechanical threshold of muscle nociceptors was reduced by ~31% and conduction velocity significantly increased (~28%). These findings indicate that neonatal stress induces apersistent hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization manifest in the adult and that the second messenger PKC? may be a target against which therapies might be directed to treat a chronic pain syndrome that is associated with early-life traumatic stress.

Green, Paul G.; Chen, Xiaojie; Alvarez, Pedro; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

2011-01-01

430

Associations between the COMT Val/Met polymorphism, early life stress, and personality among healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Efforts to identify genetic factors that confer an increased risk for the expression of psychiatric symptoms have focused on polymorphisms in variety of candidate genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Results from previous studies that have examined associations between the functional COMT polymorphism (Val158Met) and mental health have been mixed. In the present study, we examined the relationships between COMT, early life stress, and personality in a healthy adult sample. Consistent with previous studies, we hypothesized that individuals with the low-activity genotype would have higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and that this effect would be more pronounced in females. In addition, we extended the previous literature by investigating the potential influence of early life stress. A total of 486 healthy adults underwent genetic testing and personality assessment. Results revealed that individuals homozygous for the COMT low enzyme activity allele had lower extraversion on the NEO-FFI and demonstrated a trend toward greater neuroticism. These relationships were not influenced by sex or the presence of reported early life stress. The finding that COMT genotype was associated with extraversion, and more weakly with neuroticism, is consistent with previous studies. Future research to clarify the influence of sex and gene–environmental interactions is warranted.

Hoth, Karin F; Paul, Robert H; Williams, Leanne M; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Todd, Elizabeth; Schofield, Peter R; Gunstad, John; Cohen, Ronald A; Gordon, Evian

2006-01-01

431

Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's `other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000ppm ref. ), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.

Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

432

Neurotrophic and neuroimmune responses to early-life Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in rat lungs  

PubMed Central

Early-life respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in children with cystic fibrosis or immune deficits. Although many of its clinical manifestations involve neural reflexes, little information is available on the peripheral nervous system of infected airways. This study sought to determine whether early-life infection triggers a neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory response, the mechanisms of this response, and its relationship with other immunoinflammatory pathways. Weanling and adult rats were inoculated with suspensions containing P. aeruginosa (PAO1) coated on alginate microspheres suspended in Tris-CaCl2 buffer. Five days after infection, rats were injected with capsaicin to stimulate nociceptive nerves in the airway mucosa, and microvascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. PAO1 increased neurogenic inflammation in the extra- and intrapulmonary compartments of weanlings but not in adults. The mechanism involves selective overexpression of NGF, which is critical for the local increase in microvascular permeability and for the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into infected lung parenchyma. These effects are mediated in part by induction of downstream inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially IL-1?, IL-18, and leptin. Our data suggest that neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory mechanisms play important roles in airway inflammation and hyperreactivity associated with P. aeruginosa when infection occurs early in life.

Cardenas, Silvia; Scuri, Mario; Samsell, Lennie; Ducatman, Barbara; Bejarano, Pablo; Auais, Alexander; Doud, Melissa; Mathee, Kalai

2010-01-01

433

Early Life Experience Shapes the Functional Organization of Stress-Responsive Visceral Circuits  

PubMed Central

Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits.

Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

434

Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother  

PubMed Central

While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada.

Gray, C

1998-01-01

435

The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

2012-12-01

436

Epigenetics of gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring health: the time for action is in early stages of life.  

PubMed

The epidemic increase of type 2 diabetes and obesity in developed countries cannot be explained by overnutrition, physical inactivity and/or genetic factors alone. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular a shortage or excess of nutrients is associated with increased risks for many complex diseases later in life. An impressive example for the 'fetal origins of adult disease' is gestational diabetes mellitus which usually presents in 1% to >10% of third trimester pregnancies. Intrauterine hyperglycemia is not only associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but also with increased lifelong risks of the exposed offspring for obesity, metabolic, cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal overnutrition (and similarly undernutrition) lead to persistent epigenetic changes in developmentally important genes, influencing neuroendocrine functions, energy homeostasis and metabolism. The concept of fetal programming has important implications for reproductive medicine. Because during early development the epigenome is much more vulnerable to environmental cues than later in life, avoiding adverse environmental factors in the periconceptional and intrauterine period may be much more important for the prevention of adult disease than any (i.e. dietetic) measures in infants and adults. A successful pregnancy should not primarily be defined by the outcome at birth but also by the health status in later life. PMID:23515667

Lehnen, Harald; Zechner, Ulrich; Haaf, Thomas

2013-03-20

437

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS: We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992-2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS: Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80-84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation. PMID:22368726

Schonberg, Mara A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A; McCarthy, Ellen P

2012-01-01

438

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992–2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80–84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation

Schonberg, Mara A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

2011-01-01

439

Animal Crackers, Milk, and a Good Book: Creating a Successful Early Childhood Literacy Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood literacy program called Begin with Books and provides ideas for starting up, finding, and administering similar programs in public libraries. Topics include corporate sponsors; staffing; partnering with community organizations; training; scheduling; and budget information. (LRW)

Oakes, Susan; Virbick, Diane E.

2001-01-01

440

Early Childhood Programs and the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual describes the many roles of early childhood programs in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment and prevention. It is designed primarily for use by preschools, day care centers, family day care providers and Head Start Programs. The m...

D. D. Broadhurst M. Edmunds R. A. MacDicken

1979-01-01

441

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Visceral Pain in Later Life: Importance of Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA.

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2012-01-01

442

Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume I: Cross-Site Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication, the first major report on the Early Head Start national evaluation, focuses on early implementation experiences and tells the story of the 17 programs that helped launch the first nationwide program for low-income infants and toddlers.

Ellen Eliason Kisker; John M. Love; Helen Raikes; Diane Paulsell; Linda Rosenberg; Kathleen Coolahan; Lisa J. Berlin

1999-01-01

443

Early Life Arsenic Exposure and Acute and Long-term Responses to Influenza A Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic is a significant global environmental health problem. Exposure to arsenic in early life has been shown to increase the rate of respiratory infections during infancy, reduce childhood lung function, and increase the rates of bronchiectasis in early adulthood. Objective: We aimed to determine if early life exposure to arsenic exacerbates the response to early life influenza infection in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to arsenic in utero and throughout postnatal life. At 1 week of age, a subgroup of mice were infected with influenza A. We then assessed the acute and long-term effects of arsenic exposure on viral clearance, inflammation, lung structure, and lung function. Results: Early life arsenic exposure reduced the clearance of and exacerbated the inflammatory response to influenza A, and resulted in acute and long-term changes in lung mechanics and airway structure. Conclusions: Increased susceptibility to respiratory infections combined with exaggerated inflammatory responses throughout early life may contribute to the development of bronchiectasis in arsenic-exposed populations. Citation: Ramsey KA, Foong RE, Sly PD, Larcombe AN, Zosky GR. 2013. Early life arsenic exposure and acute and long-term responses to influenza A infection in mice. Environ Health Perspect 121:1187–1193;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306748

Foong, Rachel E.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme R.

2013-01-01

444

78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources...Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early...

2013-05-24

445

78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources...HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early...

2013-05-01

446

78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources...Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early...

2013-02-13

447

78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources...Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early...

2013-02-13

448

V-22 Dynamic Display Simulation (VDDS)avionics program risk reduction and life cycle support through the use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

V-22 Dynamic Display Simulation (VDDS) is a family of display simulation products developed to emulate any combination of the V-22 aircraft's cockpit displays. VDDS was developed early in the V-22 program to emulate real “glass cockpit” displays. It uses Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) technology and is being maintained for the life of the V-22 aircraft. Our experience with VDDS

J. A. Negro; D. Dusseau; P. Bruce

1999-01-01

449

Guidelines for Early Intervention Programs, Based on a Conference: Health Issues in Early Intervention Programs (Washington, D.C., May 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The monograph presents guidelines for early intervention services for handicapped infants and their families. Guidelines are the result of a 1980 conference on health issues in early identification programs. Three state of the art papers are included: "Infancy, What We Know and What We Need to Know as a Basis for Intervention" by A. Korner;…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. School of Public Health.

450

Early Childhood Standards for Programs for Three- and Four-Year Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Massachusetts Board of Education is required to establish standards for prekindergarten programs serving 3- and 4-year-olds in whole- or half-day programs. This document presents the standards to be used by programs receiving Chapter 188 Early Childhood funds. The program standards are intended to guide ongoing development, evaluation, and…

Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Malden. Early Learning Services.

451

Tacoma Public Schools Early Childhood Program, Tacoma, Washington: Combined Local, State, and Federal Funds Support a Large-Scale Early Childhood Program in the Public Schools. Model Programs--Childhood Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Tacoma Public Schools Early Childhood Program is a comprehensive effort to give economically disadvantaged children an early education program which will have continuity and long-range effectiveness. Involving 5 years of education (3-year-olds through grade 3), the program uses the Responsive Environment Model, which has as its objectives the…

American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

452

Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma: findings from the Children's Health Study.  

PubMed Central

Early-life experiences and environmental exposures have been associated with childhood asthma. To investigate further whether the timing of such experiences and exposures is associated with the occurrence of asthma by 5 years of age, we conducted a prevalence case-control study nested within the Children's Health Study, a population-based study of > 4,000 school-aged children in 12 southern California communities. Cases were defined as physician-diagnosed asthma by age 5, and controls were asthma-free at study entry, frequency-matched on age, sex, and community of residence and countermatched on in utero exposure to maternal smoking. Telephone interviews were conducted with mothers to collect additional exposure and asthma histories. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Asthma diagnosis before 5 years of age was associated with exposures in the first year of life to wood or oil smoke, soot, or exhaust (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.96), cockroaches (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.03-4.02), herbicides (OR = 4.58; 95% CI, 1.36-15.43), pesticides (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.17-4.89), and farm crops, farm dust, or farm animals (OR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.07-3.28). The ORs for herbicide, pesticide, farm animal, and crops were largest among children with early-onset persistent asthma. The risk of asthma decreased with an increasing number of siblings (ptrend = 0.01). Day care attendance within the first 4 months of life was positively associated with early-onset transient wheezing (OR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.28-4.59). In conclusion, environmental exposures during the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma risk.

Salam, Muhammad Towhid; Li, Yu-Fen; Langholz, Bryan; Gilliland, Frank Davis

2004-01-01

453

Early-life experience alters response of developing brain to seizures  

PubMed Central

Prolonged seizures during childhood are associated with behavior problems, memory impairment and school failure. No effective treatment currently exists after seizures to mitigate neuronal injury and long-term neurological sequelae for children with epilepsy. We studied the therapeutic efficacy of early-life environment on seizure-induced behavioral deficits, neuronal injury and the inflammatory reaction using the kainic acid (KA) seizure model. Two rearing conditions, maternal separation for 3-hours daily versus maternal care in an enriched environment, were followed by single housing for the former (Deprived) and group housing in an enriched environment for the latter (Enriched). To examine the influence of differential rearing on the behavioral effects of early-life seizures, KA was injected on P21. On P28, marked reduction in exploratory behavior was noted after seizures only in the Deprived group. To investigate seizure-induced hippocampal injury, a separate group of rats were injected with KA on P35 since consistent seizure-induced neuronal injury is observed only in mature rats. Brains of rats sacrificed on P37 displayed a significant reduction in DNA fragmentation and microglial activation in Enriched compared to Deprived animals. Our results suggest that a nurturing early environment can enhance the ability of the developing brain to recover from seizures and provide a buffer against their damaging effects. While the nurturing environment was neuroprotective, the combination of deprived rearing and the insult of early-life seizures resulted in significant behavioral deficits, an increase in neuronal injury and activation of microglia in young rats.

Kazl, Cassandra; Foote, L. Tracy; Kim, Min-Jung; Koh, Sookyong

2009-01-01

454

Is Early Life Wheeze Associated with Lung Function at Age 6 Years?  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of wheeze is unknown and the role of early life wheeze in subsequent health is not clearly understood. Our goal was to calculate the age-specific incidence of wheeze and determine whether wheezing at particular times in early life was predictive of abnormal airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), percent predicted FEV1 and current asthma at age 6 years. Methods Using data from a birth cohort study with annual report of wheezing (Childhood Allergy Study) and spirometry and methacholine challenge at age 6 years, the age-specific incidence of wheeze was determined using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the associations between the presence of age-specific wheezing and the outcomes of current asthma, AHR and percent predicted FEV1 at age 6 years. Results The 6-year cumulative incidence of wheezing was higher for boys (66.2%, 95% CI 59.8%, 72.6%) than girls (47.6% 95% CI 41.4%, 53.8%). There was no age when wheezing was more strongly associated with either AHR or percent predicted FEV1 at 6 years. Only wheeze in the fifth year among males and in females, both wheezing in the fourth and fifth years were positively predictive of current asthma at age 6. This is likely due to the definition of current asthma (ever doctor diagnosis and either medication or symptoms in last year). Eczema, parental asthma history and total cord blood IgE did not affect these associations. Conclusions Wheezing at any particular time in early life may not be predictive of early childhood lung function.

Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

2013-01-01

455

Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Early Growth Response Gene 1 during Postnatal Development of Two Inbred Strains of Mice Exposed to Early Life Stress  

PubMed Central

Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent changes in GR and egr-1 expression that arise early during postnatal developmental are reversible by chronic fluoxetine treatment during adolescence and adulthood.

Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

2010-01-01

456

Early life stress, MAOA, and gene-environment interactions predict behavioral disinhibition in children.  

PubMed

Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth-3 years) stressors to influence behavior in prepubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK, is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first 3 years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3.5 years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1.5 and 2.5 years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of prepubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR- stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

Enoch, M-A; Steer, C D; Newman, T K; Gibson, N; Goldman, D

2009-09-09

457

Alcohol problems in later life: Evaluation of a model community education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is the development and evaluation of a three hour multimedia community education program on alcohol problems in later life. Designed for families, older adults and service providers, the program provides information and skills needed to recognize and to take appropriate action with regard to alcohol abuse among the elderly. Compared to a control group, program participants had significant gains

Clara C. Pratt; Vicki L. Schmall; Willetta Wilson; Alida Benthin

1992-01-01

458

Evaluation of a Life Skills Program for Women Inmates in Michigan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a life skills program that focuses on addressing the special needs of female inmates. Analyses of pre- and post-test scores of program participants compared emotional empathy, self-esteem, coping resources, problem solving, parenting stress, employability, and well-being. Results suggest tat the program does address some of…

Schram, Pamela J.; Morash, Merry

2002-01-01

459

Planning for Life. A Compendium of Nationally Recognized Career Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This compendium, which is designed to provide readers with a variety of career planning (CP) program ideas, contains abstracts summarizing 10 elementary, middle, and high school CP programs identified as exemplary by a national review team. Explained in chapter 1 are the primary objectives of the Planning for Life program, which is jointly…

National Consortium of State Career Guidance Supervisors, Columbus, OH.

460

Feasibility of Implementing the Strong for Life Program in Community Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe the results of the dissemination of an efficacious, home-based exercise program called Strong for Life as it was implemented in a nationwide, volunteer caregiving program called Faith in Action, including training of volunteers who implemented the program, recruitment of older adult participants, exercise adherence, and…

Etkin, Caryn D.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Harris, Bette Ann; Latham, Nancy; Jette, Alan

2006-01-01

461

Program Evaluation: Infant and Early Childhood Education. A Comprehensive Toolkit for the Evaluation and Improvement of Infant and Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing the need to support the work of educators and others in evaluating the quality of early childhood programs, this toolkit provides a framework for continuous program improvement based on a 6-phase planning process focused on assessing childrens progress and on analyzing the quality of teaching and organizational effectiveness. The…

Edwards, Betty; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen

462

Program Evaluation: Infant and Early Childhood Education. A Comprehensive Toolkit for the Evaluation and Improvement of Infant and Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need to support the work of educators and others in evaluating the quality of early childhood programs, this toolkit provides a framework for continuous program improvement based on a 6-phase planning process focused on assessing childrens progress and on analyzing the quality of teaching and organizational effectiveness. The guide…

Edwards, Betty; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen

463

Early Education Pilot Program Using a Developmentally Appropriate Practice for Children with Language and Learning Problems: The GEL Program (Guidelines for Early Learning). A Condensed Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the GEL (Guidelines for Early Learning) Program developed by the Easter Seal Society of Southwest Florida which serves children, aged 4-6 years, with language, learning, and/or developmental problems. Developmental theories of Piaget and Chomsky and the model of David Weikart's High Scope Program were used to develop the GEL…

Gelfer, Jeffrey Ian

464

A Parent-Focused Early Intervention Program for Autism: Who Gets Access?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The EarlyBird program is a psycho-educational early intervention program for parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). It aims to provide parents with skills to increase their child's communication and manage challenging behaviour using behavioural techniques. Method: Two interlinked studies examined access to the…

Birkin, Christina; Anderson, Angelika; Seymour, Fred; Moore, Dennis W.

2008-01-01

465

Teachers' Perceptions of Interpersonal Mentoring Relationships in One Early Childhood Mentoring Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a greater understanding of the interpersonal relationships between mentors and mentees in one early childhood, teacher-initiated, mentoring program. The mentoring program was designed to facilitate the induction process of newly-employed teachers into the university-based early childhood center.…

Beaunae, Cathrine

2009-01-01

466

The University of Minnesota youth and AIDS projects’ adolescent early intervention program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adolescents may be abbreviated by delays in health care delivery. Methods of linking youth with services have not been well studied. With support from the Special Projects of National Significance Program, the Youth and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Projects’ (YAP) Adolescent Early Intervention Program offers early intervention health care services to all affected

Gary Remafedi

1998-01-01

467

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. 674.58 Section 674.58 Education...Cancellation § 674.58 Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1) An institution...

2010-07-01

468

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. 674.58 Section 674.58 Education...Cancellation § 674.58 Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1) An institution...

2013-07-01