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1

Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

PubMed Central

For more than a century, clinical investigators have focused on early life as a source of adult psychopathology. Early theories about psychic conflict and toxic parenting have been replaced by more recent formulations of complex interactions of genes and environment. Although the hypothesized mechanisms have evolved, a central notion remains: early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience confers enduring effects. The mechanisms for these effects remain almost as much a mystery today as they were a century ago. Recent studies suggest that maternal diet can program offspring growth and metabolic pathways, altering lifelong susceptibility to diabetes and obesity. If maternal psychosocial experience has similar programming effects on the developing offspring, one might expect a comparable contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders, including affective disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and eating disorders. Due to their early onset, prevalence, and chronicity, some of these disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are among the highest causes of disability worldwide according to the World Health Organization 2002 report. Consideration of the early life programming and transcriptional regulation in adult exposures supports a critical need to understand epigenetic mechanisms as a critical determinant in disease predisposition. Incorporating the latest insight gained from clinical and epidemiological studies with potential epigenetic mechanisms from basic research, the following review summarizes findings from a workshop on Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopmental Disorders held at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009.

Bale, Tracy L.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Brown, Alan S.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Insel, Thomas R.; McCarthy, Margaret M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Reyes, Teresa M.; Simerly, Richard B.; Susser, Ezra S.; Nestler, Eric J.

2011-01-01

2

Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.  

PubMed

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374

Vickers, Mark H

2014-01-01

3

Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease  

PubMed Central

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis.

Vickers, Mark H.

2014-01-01

4

Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions.  

PubMed

It has been >20 y since epidemiologic studies showed a relation between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted. However, the mechanisms by which a phenomenon that occurs in early life can have long-term effects on the function of a cell and therefore on the metabolism of an organism many years later are only starting to emerge. These mechanisms include 1) permanent structural changes in an organ resulting from suboptimal concentrations of an important factor during a critical period of development, eg, the permanent reduction in ? cell mass in the endocrine pancreas; 2) persistent alterations in epigenetic modifications (eg, DNA methylation and histone modifications) that lead to changes in gene expression (eg, several transcription factors are susceptible to programmed changes in gene expression through such mechanisms); and 3) permanent effects on the regulation of cellular aging (eg, increases in oxidative stress that lead to macromolecular damage, including that to DNA and specifically to telomeres, can contribute to such effects). Further understanding of such processes will enable the development of preventive and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21543536

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

2011-12-01

5

Epigenetic programming of neuroendocrine systems during early life.  

PubMed

Arginine vasopressin plays a pivotal role in the control of long-lasting effects of early-life stress on the brain. We previously reported that maternal separation in mice persistently upregulates Avp gene expression associated with reduced DNA methylation of a region in the Avp enhancer. This early-life stress-responsive region serves as a binding site for the methyl-CpG binding protein 2, which in turn is controlled through neuronal activity. We also found that the ability of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 to regulate transcription of the Avp gene and induce DNA methylation occurred through the recruitment of components of the epigenetic machinery. Understanding the sequential events involved in the epigenetic regulation of a gene should allow for targeted approaches aimed at reprogramming expression during development and possibly later life. PMID:24036596

Murgatroyd, Chris

2014-01-01

6

Nutrition in early life, immune-programming and allergies: the role of epigenetics.  

PubMed

Early life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. The associated parallel rise in metabolic diseases including obesity, childhood type 2-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease highlights the interplay between modern dietary patterns and increasing abnormalities of both immune and metabolic health. The low-grade inflammation that characterize these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) suggests a central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programing is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect the fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients such as folic acid levels, which have clear epigenetic effects on programming. Here we examine the current knowledge of the nutritional-programming of immune health and how research into nutritional-epigenetics in the context of allergic disease as one of the earliest onset NCDs can expand our knowledge to discover the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures in early life to prevent later disease risk. PMID:24053699

Amarasekera, Manori; Prescott, Susan L; Palmer, Debra J

2013-09-01

7

Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse early life events can induce long-lasting changes in physiology and behavior. We found that early-life stress (ELS) in mice caused enduring hypersecretion of corticosterone and alterations in passive stress coping and memory. This phenotype was accompanied by a persistent increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and was reversed by an AVP receptor

Chris Murgatroyd; Alexandre V Patchev; Yonghe Wu; Vincenzo Micale; Yvonne Bockmühl; Dieter Fischer; Florian Holsboer; Carsten T Wotjak; Osborne F X Almeida; Dietmar Spengler

2009-01-01

8

FRANK A. BEACH AWARD: Programming of Neuroendocrine Function by Early-Life Experience: A Critical Role for the Immune System  

PubMed Central

Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal E. coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition.

Bilbo, Staci D.

2013-01-01

9

Frank A. Beach award: programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: a critical role for the immune system.  

PubMed

Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal Escherichia coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. PMID:23474365

Bilbo, Staci D

2013-05-01

10

Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2012-01-01

11

Early Life Exposures and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

12

The Early Years: "Life" Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2013-01-01

13

Early-Life Exposure to Testosterone Programs the Hypothalamic Melanocortin System  

PubMed Central

In mammals, males consume more food, which is considered a masculinized behavior, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-specific feeding behavior is unknown. In mice, neonatal testosterone (NT) is critical to masculinize the developing brain, leading to sex differences in reproductive physiology. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are critical to suppress energy intake and POMC innervation of hypothalamic feeding circuits develops to a large extent neonatally. We hypothesized that NT programs the masculinization of energy intake by programming POMC neurons. We tested this hypothesis by comparing control females and control males (CMs) with female mice neonatally androgenized with testosterone (NTFs). We show that increased food intake in CMs is associated with reduced POMC expression and decreased intensity of neuronal projections from POMC neurons within the ARC compared with control females. We found that NTFs display a masculinized energy intake and ARC POMC expression and innervation as observed in CMs, which can be mimicked by neonatal exposure to the androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). NTFs also exhibit hyperleptinemia and a decreased ability of leptin to up-regulate POMC, suppress food intake, and prevent adipose tissue accumulation, independent of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. However, this leptin resistance is specific to NTFs, is not a consequence of masculinization, and is reproduced by neonatal exposure to estrogen but not DHT. Thus, NT programs a sexual differentiation of POMC neurons in female mice via DHT but also predisposes to leptin resistance and obesity in an estrogen-dependent manner.

Nohara, Kazunari; Zhang, Yan; Waraich, Rizwana S.; Laque, Amanda; Tiano, Joseph P.; Tong, Jenny; Munzberg, Heike

2011-01-01

14

Consensus statement understanding health and malnutrition through a systems approach: the ENOUGH program for early life.  

PubMed

Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum's one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of health and disease processes requiring measurements of physiological processes, as well as environmental and social factors, which may alter the expression of genetic information. Analysis of physiological processes with omics technologies to assess systems' responses has only become available over the past decade and remains costly. Studies of environmental and social conditions known to alter health are often not connected to biomedical research. While these facts are widely accepted, developing and conducting comprehensive research programs for health are often beyond financial and human resources of single research groups. We propose a new research program on essential nutrients for optimal underpinning of growth and health (ENOUGH) that will use systems approaches with more comprehensive measurements and biostatistical analysis of the many biological and environmental factors that influence undernutrition. Creating a knowledge base for nutrition and health is a necessary first step toward developing solutions targeted to different populations in diverse social and physical environments for the two billion undernourished people in developed and developing economies. PMID:24363221

Kaput, Jim; van Ommen, Ben; Kremer, Bas; Priami, Corrado; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Morine, Melissa; Pepping, Fre; Diaz, Zoey; Fenech, Michael; He, Yiwu; Albers, Ruud; Drevon, Christian A; Evelo, Chris T; Hancock, Robert E W; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; Lumey, L H; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Muller, Michael; Murgia, Chiara; Radonjic, Marijana; Sobral, Bruno; West, Keith P

2014-01-01

15

Cost-Effective Early Childhood Development Programs: A Synthesis of Evidence in the First Decade of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In recent years, greater attention has been given to promoting child well-being throughout the entire period of early childhood. We summarize evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of early childhood development programs from birth to age 10. Findings from17 estimates of 16 programs were emphasized. Birth to age 3 interventions including nutritional education and home visitation show family, health

Arthur J. Reynolds; Judy A. Temple; Barry A. White

16

Early Life Teaching Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These teaching ideas were submitted during the April 2007 workshop on Teaching About the Early Earth. They represent collaborative brainstorming rather than finished products, but they are a useful starting point ...

17

Early Childhood Education Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses early childhood education programs: their goals; effectiveness; optimal timing, targeting, and content; and costs and benefits. Early intervention has significant short- and medium-term benefits: most notably it reduces grade repetition and special education costs, and provides quality child care. The effects are greatest for more disadvantaged children. Some model programs have produced exciting improvements in educational attainment

Janet Currie

2001-01-01

18

Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

2010-01-01

19

Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115

Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

2013-01-01

20

Early assembly of cellular life.  

PubMed

Popular hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of prebiotic molecules and cellular life capable of growth and division are not always agreed upon. In this manuscript, information on early bacterial life on Earth is examined using information from several disciplines. For example, knowledge can be integrated from physics, thermodynamics, planetary sciences, geology, biogeochemistry, lipid chemistry, primordial cell structures, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, metabolism and genetics. The origin of life also required a combination of elements, compounds and environmental physical-chemical conditions that allowed cells to assemble in less than a billion years. This may have been widespread in the subsurface of the early Earth located at microscopic physical domains. PMID:12732262

Trevors, J T

2003-04-01

21

Micromodule Life Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on a micromodule life test program to determine the Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of a typical analog and a typical digital micromodule when tested for ten-thousand (10,000) hours under load at elevated temperature. The causes of microm...

F. E. Farmer

1966-01-01

22

Early-in-life performance of short rod duplex pellet screening (D-1) test (AWBA Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the early-in-life irradiation performance of the D-1 test. The D-1 test is a screening test of the duplex pellet prebreeder reactor fuel concept consisting of a cylindrical thoria pellet surrounded by an annulus containing urania enriched in uranium-235. The design of the test, which includes duplex pellet annuli of three different compositions (UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/-ZrO/sub 2/, and UO/sub 2/-ZrO/sub 2/-CaO), is described and results of nondestructive and destructive examinations after operation at 13 to 15 kW/ft for 32.6 days are presented. It is concluded that there are no deficiencies in the early-in-life performance of the duplex pellets. The UO/sub 2/-ZrO/sub 2/ annuli show greater densification than the other two fuel types; however, this does not result in detrimental performance. On the basis of these findings, test irradiation was continued.

Sphar, C.D.; Sherman, J.

1982-08-01

23

Early-life programming of susceptibility to dysregulation of glucose metabolism and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

There is increasing epidemiological evidence in humans which associates low birthweight with later metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. There is evidence that nutritional and hormonal factors (e.g. maternal protein restriction, exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids) markedly influence intra-uterine growth and development. A picture is also emerging of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that may underlie these effects. This review focuses on recent research directed towards understanding the molecular basis of the relationship between indices of poor early growth and the subsequent development of glucose intolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus using animal models that attempt to recreate the process of programming via an adverse intra-uterine or neonatal environment. Emphasis is on the chain of events and potential mechanisms by which adverse adaptations affect pancreatic-beta-cell insulin secretion and the sensitivity to insulin of key metabolic processes, including hepatic glucose production, skeletal-muscle glucose disposal and adipose-tissue lipolysis. Unravelling the molecular details involved in metabolic programming may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of impaired glucoregulation and Type 2 diabetes.

Holness, M J; Langdown, M L; Sugden, M C

2000-01-01

24

Medical Students as Hospice Volunteers: Reflections on an Early Experiential Training Program in End-of-Life Care Education.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Despite an increase in the content of palliative medicine curricula in medical schools, students are rarely exposed to end-of-life (EOL) care through real-patient experiences during their preclinical education. Objective: To evaluate the utility and impact of exposure to EOL care for first year medical students (MS-1s) through a hospice volunteer experience. Methods: Patients and Families First (PFF), a hospice volunteer training program in EOL care, was piloted on three cohorts of MS-1s as an elective. Fifty-five students received 3 hours of volunteer training, and were then required to conduct at least two consecutive hospice visits on assigned patients to obtain course credit. Students' reflective essays on their experiences were analyzed using qualitative methodology and salient themes were extracted by two investigators independently and then collaboratively. Results: The following five themes were identified from students' reflective essays: perceptions regarding hospice patients; reactions regarding self; normalcy of EOL care at home; impact of witnessing death and dying; and suggestions for improving EOL care education for medical students. Conclusion: Hospice volunteering during preclinical years may provide valuable experiential training for MS-1s in caring for seriously ill patients and their families by fostering personal reflection and empathic skills, thereby providing a foundation for future patient encounters during clinical training. PMID:24754869

Mott, Melissa L; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Marschke, Michael; Levine, Stacie

2014-06-01

25

Early Childhood Programs for a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investments in children during the early years of life are regarded as one of the most effective ways to promote children's learning. This book synthesizes the research base and state of practice of early childhood learning and answers such questions as: What programs are most effective, and who benefits most from them? What are the key components…

Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

26

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

27

LifeSat - Program overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LifeSat is a reusable reentry satellite for use by NASA and the international space life sciences community. It will be employed beginning in late 1994, to understand the effects of the space environment (i.e., high energy space radiation and microgravity) on biological systems. This paper describes the program for LifeSat.

Gilbreath, William P.; Dunning, Robert W.; Richardson, Michael L.

1990-01-01

28

Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.  

PubMed

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?(0/0)) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?(0/0) offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?(0/0) pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

Gunn, Benjamin G; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A; Corteen, Nicole L; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

2013-12-11

29

Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.  

PubMed

A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D

2011-12-01

30

Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry.

Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

31

The "early life" origins of obesity-related health disorders: new discoveries regarding the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed traits in the global cardiometabolic health crisis.  

PubMed

Popular media reports concerning the causes of the current global obesity pandemic and its related sequelae-the cardiometabolic syndrome-are often couched in terms of dramatic changes in diet and lifestyle around the world; namely, drastically increasing dietary intakes of high energy foods and plummeting levels of daily physical activity-the hallmarks of the so called "nutrition transition." Far less attention is generally drawn to the important role phenotypic plasticity during early life (i.e., "developmental programming") plays in the cardiometabolic health crisis. Recently, however, researchers working within the field of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) and epigenetics have extended our understanding of the role played by these developmental processes and capacities in health and disease even further by investigating the transmissible nature of developmentally programmed cardiometabolic traits to subsequent generations. In this review, after briefly revisiting the fundamental discoveries of first-generation DOHaD research, I consider how recent discoveries regarding the transmissibility of developmentally acquired traits are providing new insights into the current global cardiometabolic pandemic, and how a better understanding of developmental programming-including transmissibility-are essential for the conceptualization and implementation of public health initiatives aimed at stemming this global health crisis. PMID:24249592

Benyshek, Daniel C

2013-12-01

32

The Family & Life Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

Brand, Mellie R.

33

Life After the Ban: An Assessment of US Syringe Exchange Programs' Attitudes About and Early Experiences With Federal Funding  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We aimed to determine whether syringe exchange programs (SEPs) currently receive or anticipate pursuing federal funding and barriers to funding applications following the recent removal of the long-standing ban on using federal funds for SEPs. Methods. We conducted a telephone-administered cross-sectional survey of US SEPs. Descriptive statistics summarized responses; bivariate analyses examined differences in pursuing funding and experiencing barriers by program characteristics. Results. Of the 187 SEPs (92.1%) that responded, 90.9% were legally authorized. Three received federal funds and 116 intended to pursue federal funding. Perceived federal funding barriers were common and included availability and accessibility of funds, legal requirements such as written police support, resource capacity to apply and comply with funding regulations, local political and structural organization, and concern around altering program culture. Programs without legal authorization, health department affiliation, large distribution, or comprehensive planning reported more federal funding barriers. Conclusions. Policy implementation gaps appear to render federal support primarily symbolic. In practice, funding opportunities may not be available to all SEPs. Increased technical assistance and legal reform could improve access to federal funds, especially for SEPs with smaller capacity and tenuous local support.

Martin, Erika G.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Mann, Marita R.; Beletsky, Leo

2012-01-01

34

EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

35

Service Life Prediction Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Service Life Prediction Technology Program is part of the Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program under the area of Strategic Sustainment. The overall goal of IHPRPT is to double the state-of-the-art national rocket propul...

J. Fillerup R. Pritchard

1998-01-01

36

Early program development and implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs for the development and operation of meteorological satellites from the TIROS 1 satellite and the establishment of NASA through the 1960's are described. The technical problems confronted in the development of the early satellite systems are discussed in addition to issues in international involvement and program support. The TIROS and Nimbus series satellites are primarily addressed.

Tepper, M.

1982-01-01

37

Development of Life on Early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable conditions are meet. Perhaps it could start in a very short interval during the first tens of millions of years after crustal formation. Even with impact-driven extinction events, such a short start-up time would allow life to restart multiple times until it persevered. If panspermia is considered, life could be introduced as soon as liquid surface water was present and could instantly thrive and spread.

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

2009-01-01

38

The habitat and nature of early life.  

PubMed

Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope. PMID:11234022

Nisbet, E G; Sleep, N H

2001-02-22

39

Early evolution without a tree of life  

PubMed Central

Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre.

2011-01-01

40

Physiological consequences of early-life insult.  

PubMed

The most commonly observed severe lung injuries in early life are the respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in children. Both diseases are characterised by alveolar instability, fluid filled airspace and some degree of airway obstruction. In the acute phase, collapsed alveoli can be reopened with positive end-expiratory pressure and lung recruitment. New insight into the physiology of lung recruitment suggests that the shape of the pressure-volume curve is defined by the change in rate of alveolar opening and closing. Reduced lung volumes and severe ventilation maldistribution are found in the acute phase but may persist during childhood. Any severe lung injury in this early phase of life can cause significant structural and functional damage to the developing lung. Follow-up studies of children with chronic lung disease have shown that the functional abnormalities will improve but may still be present in later childhood. PMID:16765295

Schibler, Andreas

2006-06-01

41

Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

Schoch, Rainer R.

2009-05-01

42

Reactor service life extension program  

SciTech Connect

A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

1990-01-01

43

Reactor service life extension program  

SciTech Connect

A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

1990-12-31

44

DNA memories of early social life.  

PubMed

The foundations of brain architecture are established early in life through a continuous series of dynamic interactions in which environmental conditions and personal experiences have a significant impact on how genetic predispositions are expressed. New scientific research shows that early social experiences can actually influence how genes are expressed. Thus, the old-school concepts that genes are "chiseled in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. The discovery of the epigenome provides an explanation, at the molecular level, for why and how early positive and negative social experiences give rise to a biological memory that can have lifelong impacts. Signatures associated with the epigenome can be temporary or permanent, affect multiple organ systems, and increase the risk not only for poor physical and mental health outcomes but also for impairments in future learning capacity and behavior. Here, we focus on recent evidence for a role of epigenetic DNA modifications as a potential mechanism that explains how early social life experiences become embedded in the circuitry of the developing brain and are associated with lifelong consequences. PMID:22575695

Hoffmann, A; Spengler, D

2014-04-01

45

Metals in Microbes, A Potential Biosignature for the Early Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an interesting question which energy metabolisms did maintain the early life activity? To clarify this very attractive question, we have expected that metals in microbes are one of possible biosignature for seeking the early life.

Miyazaki, J.; Chang, Q.; Senda, R.; Suzuki, K.; Takai, K.

2010-04-01

46

Symbiogenesis and the early evolution of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of symbiogenesis was introduced in 1909 by the Russian biologist Constantin Merezhkowsky as "the origin of organisms by the combination or by the association of two or several beings which enter into symbiosis". In this article we develop this idea, associated to the Freeman Dyson's hypothesis, applied to the early evolutive stages of life, considering that it could be a possible main rule in the appearance and development of life conditions on Earth and elsewhere. A cooperative, synergistic strategy should be considered as having been the determinant in the development of the survival of the fittest, especially under extremely adverse environmental conditions. This concept must be also applied to the first communities of cells as the base supporting evolution of the early "tree of life". Cells, like we have previously described, can be included in a new cellular concept entitled, "symbiocell", since survival of the community under such adverse conditions required a cooperative, synergistic strategy. Similar principles could also be used to understand chemical pre-biotic evolution. We believe that astrobiologists should consider it as a new approach to understand organic and biological evolution.

Carrapico, Francisco; Rodrigues, Telma

2005-09-01

47

Expert Panel Workshop on Early-Life Events and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) sponsored an Expert Panel Workshop on Early-Life Events and Cancer on May 25, 2011. There is emerging epidemiological and animal evidence that early-life events and exposures are important determinants of cancer development later in life. However, understanding how to study the impact of early-life exposures on human cancers later in life is a new challenge for cancer research.

48

The future is now: early life events preset adult behaviour.  

PubMed

To consider the evidence that human and animal behaviours are epigenetically programmed by lifetime experiences. Extensive PubMed searches were carried out to gain a broad view of the topic, in particular from the perspective of human psychopathologies such as mood and anxiety disorders. The selected literature cited is complemented by previously unpublished data from the authors' laboratories. Evidence that physiological and behavioural functions are particularly sensitive to the programming effects of environmental factors such as stress and nutrition during early life, and perhaps at later stages of life, is reviewed and extended. Definition of stimulus- and function-specific critical periods of programmability together with deeper understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation will deliver greater appreciation of the full potential of the brain's plasticity while providing evidence-based social, psychological and pharmacological interventions to promote lifetime well-being. PMID:23790203

Patchev, A V; Rodrigues, A J; Sousa, N; Spengler, D; Almeida, O F X

2014-01-01

49

Four educational programs in Space Life Sciences.  

PubMed

Four different educational programs impacting Space Life Sciences are described: the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) Program, the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) Program, and the NASA Graduate Research Fellow Program. Each program makes somewhat different demands on the students engaged in them. Each program, at the University of Colorado, involves Space Life Sciences training. While the Graduate Student Research Fellow and NSCORT Programs are discipline oriented, the Advanced Design and CCDS Programs are focused on design, technologies and applications. Clearly, the "training paradigms" differ for these educational endeavors. But, these paradigms can be made to mutually facilitate enthusiasm and motivation. Discipline-oriented academic programs, ideally, must be flexible enough to accommodate the emergent cross-disciplinary needs of Space Life Sciences students. Models for such flexibility and resultant student performance levels are discussed based upon actual academic and professional records. PMID:11537954

Luttges, M W; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

1994-01-01

50

Metabolic Programming in the Immediate Postnatal Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment

Mulchand S. Patel; Malathi Srinivasan

2011-01-01

51

Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.  

PubMed

A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues. PMID:22008232

Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

2011-12-01

52

Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.  

PubMed

In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

2007-08-14

53

Tucson Early Education Model. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fifth in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Tucson Early Education Model (TEEM) located at the University of Arizona. The model is designed for Head Start programs and kindergarten through third…

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Arizona Center for Educational Research and Development.

54

Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

1981-01-01

55

Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

2013-01-01

56

Fragmentation and Unpredictability of Early-Life Experience in Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Maternal sensory signals in early life play a crucial role in programming the structure and function of the developing brain, promoting vulnerability or resilience to emotional and cognitive disorders. In rodent models of early-life stress, fragmentation and unpredictability of maternally derived sensory signals provoke persistent cognitive and emotional dysfunction in offspring. Similar variability and inconsistency of maternal signals during both gestation and early postnatal human life may influence development of emotional and cognitive functions, including those that underlie later depression and anxiety.

Baram, Tallie Z.; Solodkin, Ana; Davis, Elysia P.; Stern, Hal; Obenaus, Andre; Sandman, Curt A.; Small, Steven L.

2012-01-01

57

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

1996-01-01

58

Special Education/Early Childhood Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes the Special Education/Early Childhood Program at the George Washington University--a 1 year, full time, noncategorical master's degree program to prepare special education professionals to service the needs of developmentally handicapped children, either in direct teaching roles or as special education early childhood…

George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Dept. of Special Education.

59

Early Life on Earth: The Ancient Fossil Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is linked intimately with the geological evolution of the early\\u000a Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50–80°C), volcanically and\\u000a hydrothermally active, anoxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats for life were more limited\\u000a until continent-building

Frances Westall

2004-01-01

60

Space Life Support Engineering Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the second year of research relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. Emphasis was directed toward concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis in an effort to begin optimizing the system needed for water purification. Four appendices are attached. The first covers the ASPEN modeling of the closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) and its thermodynamic analysis. The second is a report on the dynamic model development for water regulation in humans. The third regards the development of an interactive computer-based model for determining exercise limitations. The fourth attachment is an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an ECLSS.

Seagrave, Richard C.

1993-01-01

61

Promoting School and Life Success Through Early Childhood Family Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article\\u000a presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost\\u000a effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

Kevin J. Swick

2009-01-01

62

Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

Swick, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

63

Home Life Programming for Educables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a demonstration project (1971-1974) to devise and test a program for retardates: to promote and reinforce (1) homemaking skills, (2) economic independence acquired at school and in 'on-the-job' training and (3) to expand training to a...

1974-01-01

64

Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

2011-01-01

65

Early Life Factors and Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction Breast development and structure is influenced most during the following stages of life - intrauterine, menarche, and pregnancy and lactation. The success of traditional breast cancer epidemiology has been to uncover the relationship of facto...

M. B. Terry

2003-01-01

66

Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

Coats, Alfred C.

2001-01-01

67

The effectiveness of early childhood development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

OverviewEarly childhood development is influenced by characteristics of the child, the family, and the broader social environment. Physical health, cognition, language, and social and emotional development underpin school readiness. Publicly funded, center-based, comprehensive early childhood development programs are a community resource that promotes the well-being of young children. Programs such as Head Start are designed to close the gap in

Laurie M Anderson; Carolynne Shinn; Mindy T Fullilove; Susan C Scrimshaw; Jonathan E Fielding; Jacques Normand; Vilma G Carande-Kulis

2003-01-01

68

Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

2011-01-01

69

Heavy drinking in early adulthood and outcomes at mid life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHeavy drinking in early adulthood among Blacks, but not Whites, has been found to be associated with more deleterious health outcomes, lower labor market success and lower educational attainment at mid-life. This study analysed psychosocial pathways underlying racial differences in the impact of early heavy alcohol use on occupational and educational attainment at mid-life.MethodsOutcomes in labor market participation, occupational prestige

F. A. Sloan; P. R. Costanzo; D. Belsky; E. Holmberg; P. S. Malone; Y. Wang; S. Kertesz

2010-01-01

70

3 Early Life on Earth and Analogies to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the prime necessities of life is liquid water [87]. The presence of liquid water on a planet therefore naturally leads to the question of whether that planet hosted or still hosts life. Although there is much dispute at the moment as to how much water Mars had in its early history and at what temperature, there is sufficient

Frances Westall

2005-01-01

71

Early life experience alters response of adult neurogenesis to stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal deprivation produces persistent abnormalities in behavioral and neuroendocrine functions associated with the hippocampus, a brain region that shows considerable structural change in response to experience throughout life. Here we show that adverse experience early in life affects the regulation of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. More specifically, a decrease in cell proliferation and immature neuron production are observed in

Christian Mirescu; Jennifer D Peters; Elizabeth Gould

2004-01-01

72

Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

2008-01-01

73

Safe Playground Equipment for Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playgrounds for early childhood programs are places where children can play freely--exploring the natural environment, learning about their bodies, creating friendships, and practicing physical skills. In April, 2000, The National Program for Playground Safety released the results of the most comprehensive national survey of child care, school,…

Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan; Olsen, Heather

2005-01-01

74

Reduced cortical thickness in veterans exposed to early life trauma.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. PMID:24862391

Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

2014-08-30

75

Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

Pierrehumbert, Raymond (University of Chicago) [University of Chicago

2006-02-08

76

Early-life estrogens and prostate cancer in an animal model  

PubMed Central

While early-life estrogens are thought to play a physiologic role in prostate gland development, inappropriate estrogenic exposures either in dose, type or temporally can reprogram the prostate gland and increase susceptibility to abnormal prostate growth with aging including carcinogenesis. This review discusses the evidence for developmental estrogenic reprogramming that leads to adult prostate disease in a rat model. We propose that estrogen imprinting of the prostate is mediated through both structural reorganization of the gland early in life and epigenomic reprogramming that permits life-long memory of the inappropriate developmental exposures including heightened sensitivity to rising estradiol levels with aging. Complex interactions between early epigenetic programming and later-life experiences results in an emergence of multiple epigenomic outcomes, with some contributing to carcinogenesis with aging.

Prins, G. S.; Ho, S.-M.

2014-01-01

77

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-01-01

78

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program.  

PubMed

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995. PMID:11537955

Coulter, G; Lewis, L; Atchison, D

1994-01-01

79

Evaluation of the Meaning of Life Program in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 2009-2010 academic year, 10 schools participated in the Meaning of Life educational program, an adaption of the popular U.S. Laws of Life program. The program sought to encourage each participant to develop a personal approach to finding meaning in life. To evaluate the success of the program, we conducted a study to compare measures of…

Kasler, Jonathan; White, Gwyne W.; Elias, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

80

The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the locations where the earliest traces of life can be studied are few and far between (Isua, 3.8 Ga; Pilbara and Barberton, 3.5-3.3 Ga), the life that existed in the Early Archaean life has left a wealth of testimony. Structural and chemical fossils found in Early Arcahean `habitats' demonstrate that the biosphere was already in an advanced evolutionary state, i.e., much of the strata preserved from this period appears to have been colonised by morphologically and biochemically diverse bacteria. The Early-Mid Archaean microorganisms were morphologically similar to modern organisms and behaved in the same way, building colonies, biofilms and mats and interacting directly with their immediate substrate and with each other (in consortia). Their metabolic processes included chemolithotrophy, possibly methanogenesis and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Early life was diverse and included thermophilic, acid-tolerant, halo-tolerant to halophilic, and radiation resistant species. With one exception, the traces of early life are subtle, on the scale of tens to hundreds of µm although, where environmental conditions were stable and quiet enough for their development, microbial mats on sediment surfaces could contribute to the formation of stromatolites of about 10 cm in height. The diversity, relative level of evolution and widespread distribution of life by 3.5 Ga implies that it must have evolved much earlier, possibly even before or during the period of late heavy bombardment). However, no record of its appearance and early evolution remains on Earth. Given the conditions on early Mars were generally similar to those on early Earth, i.e., habitable, the Southern Highlands of Mars could potentially host this missing record. Life on early Mars would probably have been similarly subtle in its expression, although there is a possibility of "stumbling" across small macroscopic stromatolites. If life still exists on the planet today, it's in the subsurface and its expression will still be subtle. Westall, F. & Southam, G. 2006. Early life on Earth. AGU Geophys. Monogr., "Archean Geodynamics and Environment"s 164. pp 283-304. Westall, F. et al. 2006. The 3.466 Ga Kitty's Gap Chert, an Early Archaean microbial ecosystem. In Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec Pub., Processes on the Early Earth 405, 105-131. 1 Allwood, A. et al., 2006. Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Australia. Nature, 441, 714-718. 2

Westall, F.; Southam, G.

81

Paleolakes and life on early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two distinct directions have begun to elucidate key parameters in the search for extinct life on Mars. Carbonate sediments, deposited about 10,000 years ago in association with biological activity, have been sampled from the paleolake beds of Lake Vanda and Meirs in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. These samples are being analyzed for simple biological signatures that remain in cold and dry paleolake sediments, namely microfossils, percent carbonate, and total organic carbon. Our second initiative is the study of Colour Lake, in the Canadian Arctic, that periodically maintains a perennial ice cover. Physical measurements started this year will be used to determine one end point for ice covered lake environments and will be compared to continuous measurements from Antarctic lakes started in November 1985. Interestingly, Colour Lake also supports benthic mat communities, but the low pH precludes carbonate deposition. This research will broaden our knowledge base for what conditions are necessary for ice covered lake formation and what biological signatures will remain in paleolake deposits.

Meyer, M. A.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.

1991-01-01

82

Nutrition and brain development in early life.  

PubMed

Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. PMID:24684384

Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

2014-04-01

83

Space Life-Support Engineering Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

84

Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?  

PubMed

The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B

2014-01-01

85

DNA methylation, ageing and the influence of early life nutrition.  

PubMed

It is well established that genotype plays an important role in the ageing process. However, recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may also influence the onset of ageing-associated diseases and longevity. Epigenetics is defined as processes that induce heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence. The major epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA. Such processes are involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression, cell differentiation and genomic imprinting. However, epigenetic dysregulation is frequently seen with ageing. Relatively little is known about the factors that initiate such changes. However, there is emerging evidence that the early life environment, in particular nutrition, in early life can induce long-term changes in DNA methylation resulting in an altered susceptibility to a range of ageing-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on the changes in DNA methylation that occur during ageing; their role in the ageing process and how early life nutrition can modulate DNA methylation and influence longevity. Understanding the mechanisms by which diet in early life can influence the epigenome will be crucial for the development of preventative and intervention strategies to increase well-being in later life. PMID:25027290

Lillycrop, Karen A; Hoile, Samuel P; Grenfell, Leonie; Burdge, Graham C

2014-08-01

86

Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?  

PubMed Central

The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.

Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

2014-01-01

87

Showing Progress in Early Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation report of Oregon's early intervention programs describes the Oregon Preschool Assessment System, presents demographic information, and summarizes results of analysis of data on children's progress. It concludes that the infants and children enrolled (2,740 in 1991) are making substantial gains in all areas assessed. These gains…

Wilson, Darla; Brodsky, Meredith

88

Early Modern Language Programs in Hungary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides insight into the teaching of modern languages to young learners in Hungary. Demonstrates how different the educational context is from the United States and how the Prussian educational tradition still influences today's processes. Also discussed are language teachers, resources of early language programs, young learners' attitudes and…

Nikolov, Marianne

2000-01-01

89

The California State University Early Assessment Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California State University (CSU) requires entering freshmen to be proficient in English reading and writing, as demonstrated on proficiency measures. Currently, approximately 46 percent of incoming college freshmen need remediation in English reading and writing. To assist these students, CSU instituted an Early Assessment Program (EAP),…

Knudson, Ruth E.; Zitzer-Comfort, Carol; Quirk, Matthew; Alexander, Pia

2008-01-01

90

Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.  

PubMed

Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also. PMID:9588114

Morus, I R

1998-01-01

91

Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

1996-01-01

92

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life  

PubMed Central

The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

2012-01-01

93

Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

Peske, Patric O.

94

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

95

Early Residential Life: Vassar College in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a human and historical perspective of residential life in the early days of Vassar College. Reviews the contributions of Maria Mitchell, a pioneer astronomer and academician who made a considerable contribution to the concept of student development through living and learning. (JAC)

Pillinger, Barbara Baxter

1984-01-01

96

Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

2008-08-01

97

Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

2010-01-01

98

From Early Intervention to Early Childhood Programs: Timeline for Early Successful Transitions (TEST)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than one million transitions between early intervention services and early childhood programs are facilitated annually for youngsters with special needs. To be successful, these transitions require planning and ongoing communication between all parties. This article substantiates the need for a timeline/checklist and provides a model of…

Brandes, Joyce A.; Ormsbee, Christine K.; Haring, Kathryn A.

2007-01-01

99

On the possibility of life on early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

1990-01-01

100

Targeted early childhood programming. The promise half fulfilled.  

PubMed

A group of 169 children was followed up from birth to second grade in a community-based early identification and early intervention project. Periodic assessments of health and function yielded profiles of concerns. Over the first five years of life, 39% of the children had health concerns, 20% had cognitive concerns, 25% had motor concerns, 15% had social adjustment problems, and 12% had early attentional problems. Children at the highest risk of having reading and behavioral problems in second grade were those with early attentional disability. At the second-grade level, 31% of the children with early attention concerns were one full grade behind in reading and 38% had behavioral problems; among the youngsters without early attentional concerns, 6% demonstrated a reading delay and 8% had behavioral problems. In addition, children of highly educated mothers were more likely to benefit from the multidisciplinary program than were children of less educated mothers, for whom the intervention effected only a modest improvement when contrasted with randomly selected comparison children. For instance, among children with early cognitive problems and whose mothers had little education, 31% of these children had reading problems in second grade as opposed to 10% of those whose mothers had high educational attainment. Similarly, 39% of children with the combined risks of low maternal education and early attentional problems had reading problems in second grade compared with none of the attention-problem children of highly educated mothers. This study shows that while early identification of health and developmental problems can be carried out in a community-based project, strategies for the early intervention of developmental concerns among children of low socioeconomic status remain less than completely effective. PMID:2431616

Palfrey, J S; Walker, D K; Sullivan, M; Levine, M D

1987-01-01

101

Excess nutrient supply in early life and its later metabolic consequences.  

PubMed

Suboptimal nutrition in early life, both in utero and during infancy, is linked to increased risk of adult obesity and its associated adverse metabolic health problems. Excess nutrient supply during early life can lead to metabolic programming in the offspring. Such overnutrition can occur in the offspring of obese mothers, the offspring of mothers who gain excess weight during gestation, infants of diabetic mothers and infants who undergo rapid growth, particularly weight gain, during early infancy. Postnatal overnutrition is particularly detrimental for infants who are born small for gestational age, who are overfed to attain 'catch-up growth'. Potential mechanisms underlying metabolic programming that results from excess nutrition during early life include resetting of hypothalamic energy sensing and appetite regulation, altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and impaired brown adipose tissue function. More detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in metabolic programming could enable the development of therapeutic strategies for ameliorating its ill effects. Research in this field could potentially identify optimal and appropriate preventative interventions for a burgeoning population at risk of increased mortality and morbidity from obesity and its concomitant metabolic conditions. PMID:23350968

Ojha, Shalini; Saroha, Vivek; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

2013-11-01

102

Product life trade-offs: what if products fail early?  

PubMed

Increasing product life allows the embodied emissions in products to be spread across a longer period but can mean that opportunities to improve use-phase efficiency are foregone. In this paper, a model that evaluates this trade-off is presented and used to estimate the optimal product life for a range of metal-intensive products. Two strategies that have potential to save emissions are explored: (1) adding extra embodied emissions to make products more sturdy, increasing product life, and (2) increasing frequency of use, causing early product failure to take advantage of improvements in use-phase efficiency. These strategies are evaluated for two specific case studies (long-life washing machines and more frequent use of vehicles through car clubs) and for a range of embodied and use-phase intensive products under different use-phase improvement rate assumptions. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that products often fail neither at their design life nor at their optimal life. Policy recommendations are then made regarding the targeting of these strategies according to product characteristics and the timing of typical product failure relative to optimal product life. PMID:23343618

Skelton, Alexandra C H; Allwood, Julian M

2013-02-01

103

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D. W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D. G.

2006-01-01

104

Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo preventivo fondamentale sin dall’epoca prenatale e nelle diverse età della crescita. La condizione metabolica e neuro-endocrino cui è sottoposto il feto è rilevante per la “programmazione metabolica”. E’ dimostrata inoltre l’importanza delle modalità di allattamento e divezzamento con particolare interesse per l’assunzione di proteine nel controllo dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari. La corretta distribuzione di macronutrienti (lipidi, proteine e carboidrati) dall’infanzia all’adolescenza favorisce una crescita corretta e risulta utile a prevenire l’insorgenza dei determinanti di rischio di malattia cardiovascolare in età adulta. Nella presente review verrà esaminato l’impatto della nutrizione dalle più precoci fasi delle vita sul rischio cardiovascolare.

2012-01-01

105

Declines in late-life disability: the role of early- and mid-life factors  

PubMed Central

Investigations into the causes of declines in late-life disability have largely focused on the role of contemporaneous factors. Adopting a life-course perspective as a backdrop, in this paper we ask whether there also has been a role for selected early- and mid-life factors in the decline, and if so whether these factors have been operating through changes in the risks of disability onset or recovery. Drawing on five waves from 1995 to 2004 of the US Health and Retirement Study, we found for the 75 and older population in the United States that the prevalence of difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL) declined from 30.2% in 1995 to 26.0% in 2004, whereas the trend in difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was flat. Onset of ADL limitations also was reduced during this period while recovery increased. Changes in the educational composition of the older population were linked to declines in the prevalence of ADL limitations, but there were also modest contributions of changes in mother's education, self-rated childhood health, and lifetime occupation. Declines in late-life vision impairments and increases in wealth also contributed substantially to the downward trend, and had chronic conditions not increased, it would have been even larger. Reductions in the onset of ADL limitations were partly driven by changes in educational attainment of respondents and their mothers and, in late-life, better vision and wealth. In contrast, the recovery trend was not accounted for by changes in early- or mid-life factors. We conclude that early- and mid-life factors have contributed along with late-life factors to U.S. late-life disability trends mainly through their influence on the onset of, rather than recovery from, limitations.

Freedman, Vicki A.; Martin, Linda G; Schoeni, Robert F; Cornman, Jennifer C

2008-01-01

106

Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

2007-01-01

107

Early-life stress and neurometabolites of the hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)–an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density\\/functional integrity–using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult

Jeremy D. Coplan; Sanjay J. Mathew; Chadi G. Abdallah; Xiangling Mao; John G. Kral; Eric L. P. Smith; Leonard A. Rosenblum; Tarique D. Perera; Andrew J. Dwork; Patrick R. Hof; Jack M. Gorman; Dikoma C. Shungu

2010-01-01

108

THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC HAKE MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The early life history of Pacific hake. Merluccius productus. is described from laboratory and field studies. At ambient,temperatures,(11 0_13°C) egg hatching,takes about 100-120 hours; complete absorption of the yolk takes about 150-200 hours. Respiration rates for first feeding larvae at 12°C are 4.8-6.8 I'l\\/mg per hour. Growth rates for at least the first 20 days are slow compared,with other

Kevin M. Bailey

109

DNA Methylation as a Risk Factor in the Effects of Early Life Stress  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic marks (eg, DNA 5-methylcytosine [5mC] content or CpG methylation) within specific gene regulatory regions have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in stress adaptation and resulting health trajectories following early adversity. Yet the developmental programming of the vast majority of the epigenome has not yet been characterized, and its role in the impact of early stress largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among early life stress, whole-epigenome and candidate stress pathway gene (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT) methylation patterns, and adult behavioral stress adaptation in a non-human primate model. Early in life, experimental variable foraging demand (VFD) stress or control conditions were administered to two groups each of 10 female bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) and their mothers. As adults (3–13 years of age), these females were assessed for behavioral adaptation to stress across four conditions of increasing intensity. Blood DNA 5-HTT 5mC status was determined using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and total 5mC content was determined using ELISA. Neither stress reactivity nor DNA methylation differed based on early life stress. However, we found that both greater 5-HTT and whole-genome 5mC was associated with enhanced behavioral stress reactivity following early life stress, but not control conditions. Therefore, regardless of developmental origin, greater DNA methylation conferred a genomic background of “risk” in the context of early stress. We suggest that this may arise from constrained plasticity in gene expression needed for stress adaptation early in development. This risk may have wider implications for psychological and physical stress adaptation and health.

Kinnally, Erin L.; Feinberg, Caroline; Kim, David; Ferguson, Kerel; Leibel, Rudolph; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mann, J. John

2011-01-01

110

Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life  

PubMed Central

Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI.

Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

2011-01-01

111

Epigenetic changes in early life and future risk of obesity.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in incidence of obesity over the past two decades cannot be explained solely by genetic and adult lifestyle factors. There is now considerable evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments also strongly influence the risk of developing obesity in later life. Initially, human studies showed that low birth weight was associated with an increased risk of obesity but increasingly there is evidence that overnutrition in the early life can also increase susceptibility to future obesity. These findings have now been replicated in animal models, which have shown that both maternal under- and overnutrition can induce persistent changes in gene expression and metabolism. The mechanism by which the maternal nutritional environment induces such changes is beginning to be understood and involves the altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence that shows that early-life environment can induce altered epigenetic regulation leading to the induction of an altered phenotype. The demonstration of a role for altered epigenetic regulation of genes in the developmental induction of obesity opens the possibility that interventions, either through nutrition or specific drugs, may modify long-term obesity risk and combat this rapid rise in obesity. PMID:20548303

Lillycrop, K A; Burdge, G C

2011-01-01

112

Life Stress Impairs Self-Control in Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The importance of self-control to a wide range of developmental outcomes prompted the current investigation of negative life events and self-control in early adolescence. In three prospective, longitudinal studies, negative life events reported by the mother (in Study 1) or child (in Studies 2 and 3) predicted rank-order decreases in self-control over time. In all studies, self-control was measured at two different time points using questionnaires completed by three separate raters, including a classroom teacher who knew the child well and two other raters (parents, caregivers, and/or the child himself/herself). Psychological distress measured in Studies 2 and 3 mediated the deleterious effects of negative life events on self-control. These findings extend prior experimental laboratory research documenting the acute effects of stress on self-control.

Duckworth, Angela L.; Kim, Betty; Tsukayama, Eli

2013-01-01

113

Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

Shaw, Benjamin A.

2006-01-01

114

The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life  

PubMed Central

Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model.

Perez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

2012-01-01

115

Developmental neuroplasticity: roles in early life seizures and chronic epilepsy.  

PubMed

Both clinical and experimental studies suggest that the immature nervous system is unusually susceptible to seizures during critical periods in postnatal life. A late onset of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic inhibition could conceivably play a contributing role in this phenomenon. Numerous studies have shown that neural systems that use GABA in the neonatal brain are different than those of adulthood. GABA is an excitatory neurotransmitter that likely plays a neurotrophic role in neuronal differentiation. Other reports suggest that unique, possibly transient, GABAergic interneuron populations exist in the embryonic and neonatal nervous system. At these early times in development, the immature nervous system is remarkably resistant to seizure generation. However, as the hippocampus and neocortex enter the critical period of enhanced seizure susceptibility, inhibitory GABA systems mature rapidly. At this time, blockade of GABA type A (GABAA) receptors produce unusually severe seizure discharges. In hippocampus, concurrent exuberant outgrowth of recurrent excitatory axon collaterals and synapses appear to play a role in the generation of these seizures. As the hippocampus matures, these axons are morphologically remodeled and nearly 50% of branches within arbors are pruned. This pruning of axon branches corresponds in time with the decrease in seizure susceptibility that characterizes adulthood. Developmental remodeling of neuronal connectivity is a common feature of most areas of the central nervous system. Results from an audiogenic seizure model of early onset epilepsy suggest that prevention of axon arbor remodeling by transient sensory deprivation can lead to a permanent overinnervation of target nuclei and chronic seizure susceptibility. Early life seizures may have a similar effect. Recent results in one model have shown that repeated seizures induced by intrahippocampal injections of tetanus toxin during a critical period results in a chronic epilepsy. Future studies should attempt to determine if the synchronized discharging of early-life seizures prevents the remodeling of neuronal connectivity that normally takes place during postnatal development and results in an overinnervated and chronically hyperexcitable hippocampus. PMID:10514815

Swann, J W; Pierson, M G; Smith, K L; Lee, C L

1999-01-01

116

The Enzymatic and Metabolic Capabilities of Early Life  

PubMed Central

We introduce the concept of metaconsensus and employ it to make high confidence predictions of early enzyme functions and the metabolic properties that they may have produced. Several independent studies have used comparative bioinformatics methods to identify taxonomically broad features of genomic sequence data, protein structure data, and metabolic pathway data in order to predict physiological features that were present in early, ancestral life forms. But all such methods carry with them some level of technical bias. Here, we cross-reference the results of these previous studies to determine enzyme functions predicted to be ancient by multiple methods. We survey modern metabolic pathways to identify those that maintain the highest frequency of metaconsensus enzymes. Using the full set of modern reactions catalyzed by these metaconsensus enzyme functions, we reconstruct a representative metabolic network that may reflect the core metabolism of early life forms. Our results show that ten enzyme functions, four hydrolases, three transferases, one oxidoreductase, one lyase, and one ligase, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks within central metabolic processes related to sugar and starch metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis, have high frequencies of these enzyme functions. We demonstrate that a large metabolic network can be generated from this small number of enzyme functions.

Goldman, Aaron David; Baross, John A.; Samudrala, Ram

2012-01-01

117

Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across

Andrea de Silva-Sanigorski; Lauren Prosser; Lauren Carpenter; Suzy Honisett; Lisa Gibbs; Marj Moodie; Lauren Sheppard; Boyd Swinburn; Elizabeth Waters

2010-01-01

118

Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scope: To investigate the role of early life processes, endocrine mediators and number of susceptible cells on adult life breast cancer risk. Method: Five interlinked component projects covering the spectrum from endometrial to adult life. Progress report...

D. Trichopoulos P. Lagiou H. Adami A. Ekbom P. Hall

2006-01-01

119

Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To investigate the role of early life processes endocrine mediators and number of susceptible cells on adult life breast cancer risk. Method: Five interlinked component projects covering the spectrum from endometrial to adult life. Progress report: Compon...

D. Trichopoulos

2007-01-01

120

Japanese Studies on the Early Ocean Life of Juvenile Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all the salmon resources in Japan have been supported by artificial enhance- ment, and because of the success of this program the population size of chum salmon (Oncorhyn- chus keta) has increased dramatically since the early 1970s. About 90% of Japan's salmon catch is chum; 5-10% is pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and 0.5% masu (O. masou). Therefore, biological research

Hiroshi Mayama; Yukimasa Ishida

121

LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework, approach, and methods for identifying and evaluating environmental burdens associated with the life cycles of materials and services, from cradle-to-grave. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Sustainab...

122

Space life sciences: Programs and projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

1989-01-01

123

Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs. Part of the reason for this is that foundations an...

L. A. Karoly M. R. Kilburn J. H. Bigelow J. P. Caulkins J. S. Cannon

2001-01-01

124

Planetary Perspective on Life on Early Mars and the Early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of early life on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.

Sleep, Norman H.; Zahnle, Kevin

1996-01-01

125

Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats  

PubMed Central

Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent.

Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

2012-01-01

126

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

127

Telomeres and Early-Life Stress: An Overview  

PubMed Central

The long-term sequelae of adverse early-life experiences have long been a focus in psychiatry, with a historic neurobiological emphasis on physiological systems that are demonstrably stress-responsive, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroimmune function. However, there has been increasing recognition in the general medical literature that such sequelae might encompass more pervasive alterations in health status and physiology. Recent findings in telomere biology have suggested a new avenue for exploring the adverse health effects of childhood maltreatment. Telomere length in proliferative tissues declines with cell replication, and the effect can be accelerated by such factors as inflammation, oxidative stress, radiation, and toxins. Reduced telomere length, as a proxy for cellular aging, has been associated with numerous chronic somatic diseases that are generally considered to be diseases of aging, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. More recently, shorter telomeres have been demonstrated in several psychiatric conditions, particularly depression. Sustained psychosocial stress of a variety of types in adulthood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres. Now, emerging work suggests a robust, and perhaps dose-dependent, relationship with early-life stress. These findings present new opportunities to re-conceptualize the complex relationships between experience, physical and psychiatric disease, and aging.

Price, Lawrence H.; Kao, Hung-Teh; Burgers, Darcy E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

2012-01-01

128

The Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.

Macelroy, Robert D.

1990-01-01

129

Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders\\u000a later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the\\u000a main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to

Richard Harrington; Andrew Clark

1998-01-01

130

The Economic Development Effects of Early Childhood Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project provided estimates of the economic development effects (the creation of jobs and earnings) of early childhood programs other than pre-K programs. At the state level, the effects involve the jobs created and earnings created for state residents by investments in early childhood programs. The project also provided estimates of the jobs and earnings for state residents created per

Bartik Timothy J

2007-01-01

131

Early Childhood Programs in Other Nations: Goals and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States interest in the potential early childhood programs have for improving outcomes for children is shared by policymakers and researchers in many other nations. Throughout the world, enrollments in preschool and child care programs are rising. This article reviews international research documenting how participation in early childhood programs influenced children's later development and success in school. Studies conducted in

Sarane Spence Boocock

1995-01-01

132

SLIC: An Early Literacy Program for Classroom Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Supporting Literacy in the Classroom (SLIC), an early literacy program for classroom teachers that was developed in an urban school district. Discusses the components of the SLIC program: read alouds, shared reading, guided reading, and interactive writing. Reviews successful early literacy programs and describes classroom methods to…

Herb, Beth S.; Bufalino, Janet M.

1997-01-01

133

Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early

Hertzog, Nancy B.

2012-01-01

134

Choosing Life Skills: A Guide for Selecting Life Skills Programs for Adult and Juvenile Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for teaching selected life skills to adult and juvenile offenders are presented in this document. The general purpose of life skills programming is to help persons live more successfully and to function better in their multiple roles as members of a family, community, and workforce. Life skills training is treated as an educational…

Coffey, Osa D.; Knoll, John F.

135

Early Life Trauma and Attachment: Immediate and Enduring Effects on Neurobehavioral and Stress Axis Development  

PubMed Central

Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother–infant interactions. This stimulation provides “hidden regulators” of pups’ behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

Rincon-Cortes, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M.

2014-01-01

136

Biodemography of exceptional longevity: early-life and mid-life predictors of human longevity.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies, and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (aged less than 25 years) had significantly higher chances of living to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33-3.11, p = .001). Paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 years and beyond differ in physical characteristics at a young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men who were born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the U.S. Social Security Administration database and linked to U.S. World War I civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls who were matched by calendar year of birth, race, and place of draft registration in 1917. Results showed a negative association between "stout" body build (being in the heaviest 15 percent of the population) and survival to age 100. Having the occupation of "farmer" and a large number of children (4 or more) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. The results of both studies demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

2012-01-01

137

Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

2010-01-01

138

The memorable life of Hosmer A. Johnson, early midwestern laryngologist.  

PubMed

Hosmer A. Johnson, one of the early laryngologists in the Midwest, graduated in 1852 from Rush Medical College, and was the first intern in Chicago. With four other faculty members he left Rush in 1859 to establish what subsequently became the Northwestern University Medical School. He taught many subjects and was extremely active in local and national societies. An interest in diseases of the chest led him into laryngology and he became a charter member of the American Laryngological Association, where he reported on congenital tumors of the larynx, laryngeal paralysis, and cancer of the larynx. Dr. Johnson was a master of six or seven foreign languages, a versatile civic leader, a talented orator, and was greatly admired for his medical skills. The breadth of his accomplishments and character made for a truly memorable life. PMID:6354036

Friedberg, S A

1983-01-01

139

Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

Iberall, Robbins, E.; Iberall, A. S.

1991-01-01

140

The early life social environment and DNA methylation: DNA methylation mediating the long-term impact of social environments early in life.  

PubMed

Although epidemiological data provides evidence that there is an interaction between genetics (nature) and the social and physical environments (nurture) in human development; the main open question remains the mechanism. The pattern of distribution of methyl groups in DNA is different from cell-type to cell type and is conferring cell specific identity on DNA during cellular differentiation and organogenesis. This is an innate and highly programmed process. However, recent data suggests that DNA methylation is not only involved in cellular differentiation but that it is also involved in modulation of genome function in response to signals from the physical, biological and social environments. We propose that modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental cues early in life serves as a mechanism of life-long genome "adaptation" that molecularly embeds the early experiences of a child ("nurture") in the genome ("nature"). There is an emerging line of data supporting this hypothesis in rodents, non-human primates and humans that will be reviewed here. However, several critical questions remain including the identification of mechanisms that transmit the signals from the social environment to the DNA methylation/demethylation enzymes. PMID:21772123

Szyf, Moshe

2011-08-01

141

Life cycle cost based program decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.

Dick, James S.

1991-01-01

142

Harvard Life Sciences/HHMI Outreach Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains animations and other resources for several life science topics explored at summer or fall workshops for high school teachers at Harvard UniversityâÂÂs Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology.

Robert A. Lue (Harvard University;); Tara Bennett (Harvard University;); Susan Johnson (Harvard University;)

2010-05-28

143

Suffolk County Community College: Early Childhood Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews Suffolk County Community College's (New York) Early Childhood Program. The document begins with an overview of the program's goals, intentions, student requirements, recent student outcomes, and recommendations for future goals and focuses of the program. The program's intent is to prepare individuals for working with young…

Hochman, Darlene; Cummings, Kathleen; Elek-Fisk, Elvira; Jefferson, Marcia; Means, Robin; Weber, Alan

144

Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education (DARCEE). Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the first in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education (DARCEE) which was established at the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, Tennessee, in…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

145

Early Head Start Relationships: Association with Program Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…

Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.

2013-01-01

146

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of LIfe Studies Funding Program (BIQSFP)  

Cancer.gov

Funded Cooperative Groups (CGs) and funded Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support essential biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies which are associated with clinical trial concepts.

147

Old Baggage, New Visions: Shaping Policy for Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses principles to guide policy development for early childhood programs. Argues for an early childhood "ecosystem" that integrates early childhood and child care services. Discusses federal legislation and urges communities to accept responsibility for providing comprehensive academic, health, social, nutrition, and transportation services…

Mitchell, Anne

1989-01-01

148

Using Second Life in Programming's Communities of Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach to teaching and learning computer programming, using the three-dimensional virtual world\\u000a Second Life® to develop a programming community of practice. Our students have developed their programming projects as part\\u000a of this community as an alternative way of learning. The learning of programming is a difficult process, with many students\\u000a experiencing difficulties which result in

Micaela Esteves; Ricardo Antunes; Benjamim Fonseca; Leonel Morgado; Paulo Martins

2008-01-01

149

Hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early-life stress: Functional and molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas genetic factors contribute crucially to brain function, early-life events, including stress, exert long-lasting influence on neuronal function. Here, we focus on the hippocampus as the target of these early-life events because of its crucial role in learning and memory. Using a novel immature-rodent model, we describe the deleterious consequences of chronic early-life ‘psychological’ stress on hippocampus-dependent cognitive tasks. We

Kristina A. Fenoglio; Kristen L. Brunson; Tallie Z. Baram

2006-01-01

150

The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST): 5 y of successful multidisciplinary collaborative research.  

PubMed

Differences in nutritional experiences during sensitive periods in early life, both before and after birth, can program a person's future development, metabolism, and health. A better scientific understanding of early nutrition programming holds enormous potential for implementing preventive strategies to enhance individuals' long-term health, well-being, and performance. This understanding could reduce costs of health care and social services and may enhance the wealth of societies. The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) brought together a multidisciplinary team of international scientists and leaders in key areas of the early nutrition programming field from 40 major research centers across 16 European countries. The project had a total budget of 16.5 million Euros and was funded by the European Communities under the Sixth Framework Program for Research and Technical Development and coordinated by the Children's Hospital at Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The integrated program of work combined experimental studies in humans, prospective observational studies, and mechanistic animal work, including physiologic studies, cell culture models, and molecular biology techniques. The project lasted from April 2005 to October 2010. After the end of the project, the Early Nutrition Academy (http://www.early-nutrition.org) continues to serve as a platform for the exchange of information, scientific collaboration, and training activities in the area of programming. This article highlights some of the scientific results, achievements, and efforts of EARNEST. PMID:21974891

Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans

2011-12-01

151

Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on…

Levine, James A.; And Others

152

Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

153

Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

2003

154

Challenges and opportunities in research on early-life events/exposures and cancer development later in life.  

PubMed

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer, and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs. These traditional hurdles might be mitigated by leveraging several existing large-scale prospective studies in the United States (US) and globally, as well as birth databases and birth cohorts, in order to launch both association and mechanistic studies of early-life exposures and cancer development later in life. Dedicated research funding will be needed to advance this paradigm shift in cancer research, and it seems justified by its potential to produce transformative understanding of how cancer develops over the life-course. This in turn has the potential to transform cancer prevention strategies through interventions in early-life rather than later in life, as is the current practice, where it is perhaps less effective. PMID:22527169

Mahabir, Somdat; Aagaard, Kjersti; Anderson, Lucy M; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A; Hoover, Robert N; Linet, Martha S; Medina, Daniel; Potischman, Nancy; Tretli, Steinar; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Troisi, Rebecca

2012-06-01

155

The Life of a Logic Programming System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logic Programming and the Prolog language have a major role in Computing. Prolog, and its derived languages, have been widely\\u000a used in a impressive variety of application domains. Thus, a bit of the history of Logic Programming reflects in the history\\u000a of systems such as Dec-10 Prolog [32], M-Prolog [15], C-Prolog [19], Quintus Prolog [20], SICStus Prolog [6], BIM-Prolog [17],

Vítor Santos Costa

2008-01-01

156

Systems approach to life-cycle design of pavements. Volume 3: LIFE2 program listing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the third volume of a three-volume report which documents an automated system (LIFE2) for analyzing pavement designs and maintenance and repair strategies based on life-cycle costs. LIFE2 models existing Corps of Engineers criteria for designing rigid and flexible pavements for airfields, roads, and streets. The program includes analytical procedures for evaluating earthwork, drainage, and frost protection requirements

E. S. Lindow

1979-01-01

157

Impact of Early Growth on Postprandial Responses in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 65–75 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life.

Perala, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviska, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.

2011-01-01

158

CARES/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. CARES/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element analysis programs to evaluate component reliability due to inherent surface and/or volume type flaws. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker law. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled by using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. The probabilistic time-dependent theories used in CARES/LIFE, along with the input and output for CARES/LIFE, are described. Example problems to demonstrate various features of the program are also included.

Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

2003-01-01

159

Spacelab 1 and the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program (LSFEP) was established by NASA in 1978 to plan and direct efforts necessary to conduct a continuing program of in-flight life science investigations throughout the Space Shuttle era. The Spacelab 1 (SL-1) mission, conducted from November 28 to December 8, 1983, was to verify Spacelab performance through a variety of scientific experiments including life science. A description is given of the seven NASA life sciences experiments, which consisted of four human experiments, a fungus experiment, a plant experiment, and radiation experiments. Ten life sciences experiments from the European Space Agency were also flown. The experiments include studies of the circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa, the nutation of Helianthus annus, the vestibular function during weightlessness, the influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man, and the adaptation of vestibulo-spinal reflex mechanisms during space flight.

Bush, W. H.; Clark, R. S.

1984-01-01

160

Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.  

PubMed

To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk. PMID:12527407

Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

2003-01-20

161

Experimental modeling of hypoxia in pregnancy and early postnatal life  

PubMed Central

The important role of equilibrium of environmental factors during the embryo-fetal period is undisputable. Women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to various environmental risk factors such as hypoxia, prenatal viral infections, use of drugs, smoking, complications of birth or stressful life events. These early hazards represent an important risk for structural and/or functional maldevelopment of the fetus and neonates. Impairment of oxygen/energy supply during the pre- and perinatal period may affect neuronal functions and induce cell death. Thus when death of the newborn is not occurring following intrauterine hypoxia, various neurological deficits, including hyperactivity, learning disabilities, mental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, dystonia etc., may develop both in humans and in experimental animals. In our animal studies we used several approaches for modeling hypoxia in rats during pregnancy and shortly after delivery, i.e. chronic intrauterine hypoxia induced by the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, neonatal anoxia by decreased oxygen saturation in 2-day-old pups. Using these models we were able to test potential protective properties of natural (vitamin E, melatonin) and synthetic (stobadine) compounds. Based on our results, stobadine was also able to reduce hypoxia-induced hyperactivity and the antioxidant capacity of stobadine exceeded that of vitamin E and melatonin, and contrary to vitamin E, stobadine had no adverse effects on developing fetus and offspring.

Mach, Mojmir; Dubovicky, Michal; Navarova, Jana; Brucknerova, Ingrid; Ujhazy, Eduard

2009-01-01

162

Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11?-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be addressed.

Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

2014-01-01

163

First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

164

Early Outcomes of the GEAR UP Program. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…

Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy

2008-01-01

165

Directory of Selected Early Childhood Programs, 1991-1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory of selected early childhood programs sponsored by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) includes project grants in the following program categories administered by the Office of Special Education Programs: the Division of Innovation and Development (DID), the Division of Personnel Preparation (DPP), and…

Decker, Marcia J., Ed.

166

Evaluation of a Classwide Teaching Program for Developing Preschool Life Skills  

PubMed Central

Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5?years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed.

Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T

2007-01-01

167

Choosing Furniture for an Early Childhood Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides guidelines for selecting furniture for early childhood settings. Discusses the role of taste, curriculum and space, quality and safety, and budget in making purchasing decisions. Delineates appropriate seat height and table height for children of different ages. (KB)

Meservey, Lynne

2000-01-01

168

Neurotrophic factors in women with crack cocaine dependence during early abstinence: the role of early life stress  

PubMed Central

Background Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in the pathophysiology of alcohol and drug dependence and have been related to early life stress driving developmental programming of neuroendocrine systems. Methods We conducted a follow-up study that aimed to assess the plasma levels of glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5) in crack users during 3 weeks of early abstinence in comparison with healthy controls. We performed a comprehensive clinical assessment in female inpatients with crack cocaine dependence (separated into 2 groups: participants with (CSA+) and without (CSA?) a history of childhood sexual abuse) and a group of nonuser control participants. Results Our sample included 104 women with crack cocaine dependence and 22 controls; of the women who used crack cocaine, 22 had a history of childhood sexual abuse and 82 did not. The GDNF plasma levels in the CSA+ group increased dramatically during 3 weeks of detoxification. In contrast, those in the CSA? group showed lower and stable levels of GDNF under the same conditions. Compared with the control group, BDNF plasma levels remained elevated and NGF levels were reduced during early abstinence. We found no differences in NT3 and NT4/5 between the patients and controls. However, within-group analyses showed that the CSA+ group exhibited higher levels of NT4/5 than the CSA? group at the end of detoxification. Limitations Some of the participants were using neuroleptics, mood stabilizers or antidepressants; our sample included only women; memory bias could not be controlled; and we did not investigate the possible confounding effects of other forms of stress during childhood. Conclusion This study supports the association between early life stress and peripheral neurotrophic factor levels in crack cocaine users. During early abstinence, plasmastic GDNF and NT4/5 were the only factors to show changes associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

Viola, Thiago Wendt; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Pezzi, Julio Carlos; Bauer, Moises Evandro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

169

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently "re-programed" via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting "re-wiring" of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A; Baram, Tallie Z

2013-01-01

170

Integrated life sciences technology utilization development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the TU program was to maximize the development of operable hardware and systems which will be of substantial benefit to the public. Five working prototypes were developed, and a meal system for the elderly is now undergoing evaluation. Manpower utilization is shown relative to the volume of requests in work for each month. The ASTP mobile laboratories and post Skylab bedrest study are also described.

1975-01-01

171

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

172

Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cancer risk to children in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's cancer guidelines (U.S. EPA, 2005) includes both early-life exposures that may result in the occurrence of cancer during childhood and early-life exposures that may contr...

2005-01-01

173

Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2011-01-01

174

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...followed by random assignment of a second group of equal number to each...analysis of data derived from early life stage toxicity tests; however...versus each concentration. A second technique is to identify treatment...criteria. (A) An early life stage toxicity test is...

2009-07-01

175

40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...followed by random assignment of a second group of equal number to each...analysis of data derived from early life stage toxicity tests; however...versus each concentration. A second technique is to identify treatment...criteria. (A) An early life stage toxicity test is...

2010-07-01

176

Early rehabilitation programs after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: evidence and criticism.  

PubMed

During the past several decades, early rehabilitation programs for the care of patients with colorectal surgery have gained popularity. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the implementation of these evidence-based detailed perioperative care protocols is useful for early recovery of patients after colorectal resection. Patients cared for based on these protocols had a rapid recovery of bowel movement, shortened length of hospital stay, and fewer complications compared with traditional care programs. However, most of the previous evidence was obtained from studies of early rehabilitation programs adapted to open colonic resection. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effects of early rehabilitation after laparoscopic rectal resection, although this procedure seems to be associated with a higher morbidity than that reported with traditional care. In this article, we review previous studies and guidelines on early rehabilitation programs in patients undergoing rectal surgery. We investigated the status of early rehabilitation programs in rectal surgery and analyzed the limitations of these studies. We also summarized indications and detailed protocol components of current early rehabilitation programs after rectal surgery, focusing on laparoscopic resection. PMID:24379571

Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Heung-Kwon; In, Myung-Hoon

2013-12-14

177

Early rehabilitation programs after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: Evidence and criticism  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, early rehabilitation programs for the care of patients with colorectal surgery have gained popularity. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the implementation of these evidence-based detailed perioperative care protocols is useful for early recovery of patients after colorectal resection. Patients cared for based on these protocols had a rapid recovery of bowel movement, shortened length of hospital stay, and fewer complications compared with traditional care programs. However, most of the previous evidence was obtained from studies of early rehabilitation programs adapted to open colonic resection. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effects of early rehabilitation after laparoscopic rectal resection, although this procedure seems to be associated with a higher morbidity than that reported with traditional care. In this article, we review previous studies and guidelines on early rehabilitation programs in patients undergoing rectal surgery. We investigated the status of early rehabilitation programs in rectal surgery and analyzed the limitations of these studies. We also summarized indications and detailed protocol components of current early rehabilitation programs after rectal surgery, focusing on laparoscopic resection.

Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Heung-Kwon; In, Myung-Hoon

2013-01-01

178

Early life trauma and directional brain connectivity within major depression.  

PubMed

Objective: Early life trauma (ELT) is a significant risk factor for the onset of depression. Emerging findings indicate ELT is associated with enhanced amygdala reactivity to aversive stimuli in never-depressed healthy controls as well as those with acute depression but may be absent in non-ELT exposed depressed. The precise mechanism mediating these differences in amygdala reactivity remains unclear. Method: The authors used Granger causality methods to evaluate task-based directional connectivity between medial or lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala in 20 unmedicated patients with current major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19 healthy matched controls while participants engaged in an affective variant of the flanker task comparing response to sad and neutral faces. These data were correlated with childhood trauma history. Results: Exposure to ELT was associated with failure of inhibition within the MDD group based on medial PFC-amygdala connectivity. In contrast, non-ELT exposed MDD was associated with a negative causal pathway from medial prefrontal cortex to amygdala, despite reduced dorsolateral PFC input in comparison to healthy controls. Neither MDD group demonstrated significant lateral PFC-amygdala connectivity in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusions: Failure of the circuit implicated in emotion regulation was associated with a significant history of ELT but not with MDD more broadly. Non-ELT related depression was associated with intact regulation of emotion despite the absence of difference in severity of illness. These findings indicate opposing system-level differences within depression relative to ELT are expressed as differential amygdala reactivity. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4815-4826, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24737710

Grant, Merida M; White, David; Hadley, Jennifer; Hutcheson, Nathan; Shelton, Richard; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

2014-09-01

179

Early Life Factors and Risk of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children <6-year-old (218 embryonal, 81 alveolar, 60 others) diagnosed in 1988–2008. Controls (205, 173), frequency matched on birth year (1986–2007), were randomly selected from the birth rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type RMS, embryonal, and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000–5250?g) children for term births [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (0.85, 1.92)] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95% CI): 1.21 (0.81, 1.81)]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95% CI: 1.02, 2.87) was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all RMS subtypes among children of fathers ?35?years old at child birth (95% CI: 1.00, 1.75), independent of all covariates. Our finding of positive association on male sex for all RMS types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood RMS.

Shrestha, Anshu; Ritz, Beate; Ognjanovic, Simona; Lombardi, Christina A.; Wilhelm, Michelle; Heck, Julia E.

2013-01-01

180

Systemic Arterial Pressure at Maturity in Rats Following Chronic Hypoxia in Early Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe effect of prolonged hypoxemia in early life on systemic arterial blood pressure at maturity was assessed in Sprague–Dawley rats.MethodsAnimals hypoxic in early life (12 males, 10 females) were raised in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.12) for the first 10 days of life and subsequently raised in normoxia, along with age-matched controls (11 males, 9 females). At 2 months of age,

Bryan Ross; Matthew McIntosh; Demetra Rodaros; Terence E. Hébert; Charles V. Rohlicek

2010-01-01

181

Must Early Life Be Easy? The Rhythm of Major Evolutionary Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we are not to conclude that most planets like Earth have evolved life as intelligent as we are, we must presume Earth is not random. This selection effect, however, also implies that the origin of life need not be as easy as the early appearance of life on Earth suggests. If a series of major evolutionary transitions were required

Robin Hanson

182

Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to situate the emergence of life on the early Earth within the scientific issues of the operational and mechanistic description of life, the conditions and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, together with bottom-up molecular fabrication and biomolecular nanofabrication and top-down miniaturization approaches to the origin of terrestrial life.

Jortner, Joshua

2006-01-01

183

Life, Labor, and, Song in New England during the Early Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singing the tunes in this collection will help students understand many of the realities of life during the early years of the United States. From hearth and home to the perils of the sea, and from factory life to Presidential elections, this journal offers a selection of 19 songs to introduce the life and labor of New England people during the…

Scott, John W., Ed.; Scott, John A., Ed.

1998-01-01

184

Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

Neugebauer, Roger

2008-01-01

185

The Marketing of Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how established marketing concepts and techniques can help early childhood organizations better specify their objectives, determine the most appropriate product-market strategies to fit available resources, develop a viable plan of action for each product offering, and establish a control/reappraisal plan. (Author/RDN)

Boyd, Harper W., Jr.; Caldwell, Bettye M.

1984-01-01

186

Life Support Requirements and Challenges for NASA's Constellation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program, which includes the mission objectives of establishing a permanently-manned lunar Outpost, and the exploration of Mars, poses new and unique challenges for human life support systems that will require solutions beyond the Shuttle and International Space Station state of the art systems. In particular, the requirement to support crews for 210 days duration at the lunar outpost with limited resource resupply capability wilt require closed-loop regenerative life support systems with minimal expendables. Planetary environmental conditions such as lunar dust and extreme temperatures, as well as the capability to support frequent and extended-duration EVA's will be particularly challenging. This presentation will summarize the key program and mission life support requirements for the Constellation Program and the unique challenges they present for technology and architecture development.

Carasquillo, Robyn

2007-01-01

187

Diagnostic Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative case studies of four early childhood special education programs selected to represent a variety of approaches to early childhood special education decision making, as well as different community settings (urban, suburban, and rural), were detailed. Case analyses specified issues in diagnostic assessment and were used to develop a set of programmatic guidelines for diagnostic assessment.

Martha L. Thurlow; James E. Ysseldyke; Camilla A. Lehr; Paula A. Nania

1989-01-01

188

Early Life Stress Differentially Modulates Distinct Forms of Brain Plasticity in Young and Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

Reichardt, Wilfried; Clark, Kristin; Geiger, Julia; Gross, Claus M.; Heyer, Andrea; Neagu, Valentin; Bhatia, Harsharan; Atas, Hasan C.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Bischofberger, Josef; Haas, Carola A.; Normann, Claus

2012-01-01

189

Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.  

PubMed

The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the (summary) scale scores were adequate representations of the information obtained by the individual items. The DIF analyses identified a number of cases of DIF, which, among other things, contributed to detection of possible problems in the HAD Scale. It was concluded that DIF analyses are relevant when important analyses based on multi-item scales are made. A new way to evaluate the validity of questionnaires was developed. The results from questionnaires completed by patients were compared against results from open ended interviews with the same patients rated by observers. The idea was that if results were similar, the patients had then probably understood and completed the questionnaire items as intended. On the other hand, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires and interviews was excellent, indicating very good validity. The median weighted kappa for the EORTC QLQ-C30 was 0.85 (range 0.49-1.00); it was 0.79 (range 0.65-0.95) for the HAD Scale, and 0.92 (range 0.51-1.00) for the DBCG 89 Questionnaire. However, the study identified a mechanism called selective reporting, which may affect results from most HRQL questionnaires: in order to provide correct and useful answers some patients do not report symptoms they believe are irrelevant to the study, e.g., symptoms unrelated to cancer. This mechanism may lead to bias if results from patients are compared to results from populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have a priori hypotheses for all these potential comparisons. Therefore, a staff survey involving experienced doctors and nurses was conduc

Groenvold, Mogens

2010-09-01

190

76 FR 12977 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program...

2011-03-09

191

The Kindergarten Intervention Program: Development of an Early Mental Health Program Using Trained Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Kindergarten Intervention Program in Los Angeles, a model for recruiting, training, and supervising volunteers to help kindergarten students with special needs. Provides specific steps for initiating an early intervention mental health program using trained volunteers. (TE)

Munn, Janelle; And Others

1989-01-01

192

A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted. PMID:24607261

Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

2014-03-01

193

Translation of etiology into evidence-based prevention: the life skills program IPSY.  

PubMed

IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) is a universal life skills program aiming at the promotion of generic intra- and interpersonal life skills, substance specific skills (for example, resistance skills), school bonding, knowledge, and the prevention of substance misuse with a focus on alcohol and tobacco in youth. This program is based on the WHO's life skills approach as well as on theories and empirical findings concerning the development of substance misuse during early adolescence. IPSY is implemented by teachers over three years of schooling (grades 5-7 in Germany). Guided by models of translational research dealing with conditions of a successful translation of etiological findings into evidence-based prevention programs, the chapter highlights the results of a more than ten-year research program focusing on the development and evaluation of the IPSY program. Findings on long-term general effects, mediators and moderators of program effectiveness, and cross-cultural transferability of the program to other European countries are summarized and discussed in light of dissemination issues. PMID:24753280

Weichold, Karina

2014-01-01

194

Low early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid and increased proinflammatory signaling  

PubMed Central

Children reared in unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances show increased susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging when they reach the fifth and sixth decades of life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life programs biological systems in a manner that persists across decades and thereby accentuates vulnerability to disease. Here we examine the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing genome-wide transcriptional profiling in healthy adults who were either low or high in socioeconomic status (SES) in early life. Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. Subjects from low-SES backgrounds also showed increased output of cortisol in daily life, heightened expression of transcripts bearing response elements for NF-?B, and greater stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6. These disparities were independent of subjects' current SES, lifestyle practices, and perceived stress. Collectively, these data suggest that low early-life SES programs a defensive phenotype characterized by resistance to glucocorticoid signaling, which in turn facilitates exaggerated adrenocortical and inflammatory responses. Although these response patterns could serve adaptive functions during acute threats to well-being, over the long term they might exact an allostatic toll on the body that ultimately contributes to the chronic diseases of aging.

Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Fok, Alexandra K.; Walker, Hope; Lim, Alvin; Nicholls, Erin F.; Cole, Steve; Kobor, Michael S.

2009-01-01

195

Integrating the life course perspective into a local maternal and child health program.  

PubMed

For many decades, early access to prenatal care has been considered the gold standard for improving birth outcomes. In Contra Costa County, a diverse urban and suburban county of over one million people in the San Francisco Bay Area, the Family Maternal and Child Health Programs of Contra Costa Health Services (CCHS) have seen high rates of early entry into prenatal care since 2000. Yet despite our best efforts to increase access to quality prenatal care, our rates of low birth weight and infant mortality, especially among African Americans, continue to be high. When we were introduced to the Life Course Perspective in 2003 as an organizational framework for our programmatic activities, we recognized that emerging scientific evidence in the literature demonstrated the importance of social and environmental factors in determining health and health equity, and supported a general impression in the field that prenatal care was not enough to improve birth outcomes. The Life Course Perspective suggests that many of the risk and protective factors that influence health and wellbeing across the lifespan also play an important role in birth outcomes and in health and quality of life beyond the initial years. In this article, we describe the Life Course Perspective and how one local Maternal and Child Health Program adopted and adapted this paradigm by creating and launching a Life Course Initiative to guide our programs and services. The Life Course Initiative implemented by CCHS is designed to reduce inequities in birth outcomes, improve reproductive potential, and change the health of future generations by introducing a longitudinal, integrated, and ecological approach to implementing maternal and child health programs. PMID:21630077

Pies, Cheri; Parthasarathy, Padmini; Posner, Samuel F

2012-04-01

196

An Evaluation of Computer Based Activities in an Early Intervention Program. A Report to the Early Special Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated ways of using computer-based learning activities to complement curriculum practices in preschool programs with an early intervention component through the use of computer-based learning activities. Particular attention was given to supporting the development of young children's early mathematical skills. The study took…

Elliott, Alison; Hall, Neil

197

Exit Criteria in Early Childhood Programs for Handicapped Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the existence of written exit criteria, as well as descriptions of existing criteria, was obtained from 178 surveys completed by early childhood education programs for handicapped children across the United States. Approximately half of the programs had formal written exit criteria. The most commonly cited criterion was chronological age. Other factors, such as formal test results, team staffing

Martha L. Thurlow; Camilla A. Lehr; James E. Ysseldyke

1987-01-01

198

Scaling Up Quality in Early Childhood Programs: New Jersey's Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool systems changed significantly in New Jersey in 1998 when the State's Supreme Court required the poorest school districts to implement high quality, intensive preschool programs for all three- and four-year-olds. Since the first year of implementation in 1999, New Jersey's Abbott districts have been providing preschoolers with access to quality early childhood programs defined by state certified teachers, class

Nancy Lauter; Cynthia Rice

2008-01-01

199

Assessment Practices in Model Early Childhood Special Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined assessment practices in 54 model programs for early education of handicapped children (ages prenatal through six years). Results showed only 19 tests were used by at least five programs; only one device was used by over one-half. Although technical adequacy was reportedly an important factor in selection, analysis revealed only three…

Lehr, Camilla A.; And Others

1987-01-01

200

Early Childhood Program Standards for Three and Four Year Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the Massachusetts Early Childhood Program Standards and Learning Guidelines for Three- and Four-Year-Olds, required for programs receiving funding through Community Partnerships for Children (CPC). The standards were developed in accord with the accreditation process of the National Association for the Education of Young…

Franklin, Sandra Putnam; Lamana, Annette; Van Thiel, Lisa

201

A Hospital Clinic Early Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aural Habilitation Program of Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Canada) provides weekly, individualized aural habilitation sessions for parents of young children with hearing impairments and offers guidance in creating a listening, learning environment in the home. Strategies for developing parents' skills and confidence are described.…

Simser, Judith I.; Steacie, Pamela

1993-01-01

202

Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

2011-01-01

203

Developing Microcomputer Programs for Early Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an adaptation of a language experience approach, microcomputer programs were designed to develop the literacy skills of four 4-year-old nursery school children. In order to document the design process, the intervention procedures, and their effects, case studies were made. Instruction was based on a highly interactive strategy with short,…

Moxley, Roy A.; Barry, Pamela J.

204

Modulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Early-Life Environmental Challenges Triggering Immune Activation  

PubMed Central

The immune system plays an important role in the communication between the human body and the environment, in early development as well as in adulthood. Per se, research has shown that factors such as maternal stress and nutrition as well as maternal infections can activate the immune system in the infant. A rising number of research studies have shown that activation of the immune system in early life can augment the risk of some psychiatric disorders in adulthood, such as schizophrenia and depression. The mechanisms of such a developmental programming effect are unknown; however some preliminary evidence is emerging in the literature, which suggests that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be involved. A growing number of studies have shown that pre- and postnatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus can modulate the number of proliferating and differentiating neural progenitors in the adult hippocampus, and this can have an effect on behaviours of relevance to psychiatric disorders. This review provides a summary of these studies and highlights the evidence supporting a neurogenic hypothesis of immune developmental programming.

Egeland, Martin; Pariante, Carmine M.; Zunszain, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

205

Virtual Reality for Life Skills Education: Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program evaluation was completed for a Virtual Reality (VR) pilot project intended to aid deaf children in learning various life skills which they may be at risk of not adequately learning. Such skills include crossing the street safely, exiting a building during a fire drill, and avoiding situations in which strangers may harm them. The VR was…

Vogel, Jennifer; Bowers, Clint; Meehan, Cricket; Hoeft, Raegan; Bradley, Kristy

2004-01-01

206

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program  

Cancer.gov

Funded National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies with or without Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) proposals which are associated with NCI clinical trial concepts.

207

Learning Effects of an Experimental EFL Program in Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated…

Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.

2012-01-01

208

Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program  

NSF Publications Database

Division CAREER contacts listed on the CAREER Web page, at http://www.nsf.gov/career. Program information, including "Frequently Asked Questions" (NSF 02-113) and a Proposal Submission Checklist, can be accessed on the CAREER Web page at: http://www.nsf.gov/career. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Web site at http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?gpm.

209

Early Memories as a Guide to Client Movement through Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the theory of the significance of early memories used as a projective tool by Adlerian psychologists. Describes a procedure for elicitation and interpretation of early memories and provides several examples of their use in an encouraging therapeutic context. Attempts to show effectiveness of this technique in assessing client issues and…

Slavik, Steve

1991-01-01

210

Promoting Community in Early Childhood Programs: A Comparison of Two Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every interaction within an early childhood program either promotes community or disrupts it. Therefore, excellent early childhood programs have in place a process that pulls the energies and abilities of all the members of the school community together so that everyone--children, educators, parents, and community members--develop well. In…

Comer, James P.; Ben-Avie, Michael

2010-01-01

211

Searching for Life: Early Earth, Mars and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.

DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

212

Metabolic programming: Role of nutrition in the immediate postnatal life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Although genes and dietary habits are generally implicated in the aetiology of the prevailing obesity epidemic, the steep\\u000a increase in the incidence of obesity within a relatively short span of time suggests that other contributing factors may be\\u000a at play. The role of nutritional experience during the very early periods of life is increasingly being recognized as contributing\\u000a to growth

M. S. Patel; M. Srinivasan; S. G. Laychock

2009-01-01

213

Critical Elements and Practices of Transition Programs Linking Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how various elements of five early- childhood-to-elementary school transition programs are being developed and carried out. Five transition programs were identified and investigated in regard to shared leadership and decisionmaking among stakeholders, comprehensive and integrated services, family involvement and empowerment,…

Jang, Younghee

214

The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development  

PubMed Central

Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, ajuvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism’s developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health.

Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jorg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

2007-01-01

215

RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

216

Stanford study identifies early-life risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Factors influencing early life non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence include family characteristics, high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and male gender, according to a study published May 22 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

217

The Role of Program Quality in Producing Early Childhood Program Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted by the field of early childhood education and by the public that high-quality preschool programs for young children from low-income families can have long-term benefits, although studies of early childhood programs in typical com- munities have often failed to find similar long-term effects. Some argue that variations in the quality or developmental appropriateness of programs can

Ellen C. Frede

218

Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes.  

PubMed

Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A

2013-01-01

219

Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and\\/or behavioural disorders.\\u000a It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder\\u000a (ADHD), modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for\\u000a susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic

Toni-Lee Sterley; Fleur M Howells; Vivienne A Russell

2011-01-01

220

Where Need Meets Opportunity: Youth Development Programs for Early Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early adolescence is a time of burgeoning independence, autonomy, and focus on peers. It is also a time when individual interests, skills, and preferences become salient to young people. Not surprisingly, out-of-school programs designed to capture the interest of early teens are diverse in focus and varied in structure, ranging from sports teams to drop-in recreation centers, from museum apprenticeships

Jane Quinn

221

Nonmarine stromatolites and the search for early life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available evidence permits one to conclude that streams flowed and lakes developed on Mars sometime in the remote past. The lessons learned from the Earth's earliest fossil record suggest that stromatolites might have formed on Mars, speculating that: (1) biopoesis occurred on Mars during its earliest history; (2) life evolved and diversified; (3) life inhabited aqueous environments; and (4) sunlight was an important environmental resource. The most likely place to find stromatolites and possibly microbial fossils on Mars would be in ancient lake and stream deposits. If thermal spring deposits can be identified, then they too are sites for biogeological investigations. Other aspects of this study are presented.

Awramik, S. M.

1991-01-01

222

Predicting early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program.  

PubMed

Baccalaureate nursing programs are under increased pressure to graduate greater numbers of students to meet the demands of the nurse workforce of the future. Schools of nursing are admitting larger cohorts of students, but early academic achievement in the nursing major and retention are problematic. Historical predictors of early academic achievement, such as scholastic aptitude, may not be the best for identifying students at risk of early academic failure. Increasingly, baccalaureate nursing programs are relying on standardized nursing aptitude tests to evaluate the readiness of applicants for the nursing major. However, reliable predictors of early academic achievement have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to explore whether scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude are predictive of early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program. Using an exploratory descriptive design, data from 164 sophomore nursing students were examined. The data indicated that scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude together predicted 20.2% of the variance in early academic achievement, with scholastic aptitude accounting for 15.4% of the variance. PMID:17540317

Newton, Sarah E; Smith, Laureen H; Moore, Gary; Magnan, Morris

2007-01-01

223

Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents  

PubMed Central

During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS.

Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

2014-01-01

224

Early life and later determinants of adult disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contribution of socioeconomic, behavioural and biological factors operating in fetal and infant life, childhood and adulthood to risk for cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and non-insulin-dependent diabetes in middle age has become an important research issue. All 1142 babies born in Newcastle upon Tyne in May and June 1947 were recruited into a prospective cohort study of child health

DW Lamont; L Parker; MA Cohen; M White; SMA Bennett; NC Unwin; AW Craft; KGMM Alberti

1998-01-01

225

Modern analogues and the early history of microbial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revealing the geological history of microbial life is very challenging. Microbes rarely are preserved with morphological fidelity, and even when they are, morphology is a poor guide to phylogeny and metabolism. Biological studies of environments considered analogous to those of paleobiological interest on the ancient Earth can inform interpretations and suggest new approaches. This paper reviews recent advances in our

Brendan P. Burns; Roberto Anitori; Philip Butterworth; Ruth Henneberger; Falicia Goh; Michelle A. Allen; Raquel Ibañez-Peral; Peter L. Bergquist; Malcolm R. Walter; Brett A. Neilan

2009-01-01

226

Early Life History of the Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens (Mitchell), in the Red Lakes, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early life history of the yellow perch, an important commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, has been studied with special reference to length at scale formation, growth rate during first season of life, and food habits as they relate to growth and survival. Scales are fully imbricated in the area of 12th to 14th lateral line scales at

Richard L. Pycha; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1955-01-01

227

Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators, and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the project was to investigate the role of early life processes, endocrine mediators and number of susceptible cells on adult life breast cancer risk. Based on the hypothesis that breast cancer risk is a function of number of mammary gland cell...

D. Trichopoulos

2011-01-01

228

The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachments on Life Satisfaction in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred and three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered "People in My Life," a measure of attachment relationships, and the…

Nickerson, Amanda B.; Nagle, Richard J.

2004-01-01

229

A Growth Model for Academic Program Life Cycle (APLC): A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic program life cycle concept states each program's life flows through several stages: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. A mixed-influence diffusion growth model is fitted to enrolment data on academic programs to analyze the factors determining progress of academic programs through their life cycles. The regression analysis yield…

Acquah, Edward H. K.

2010-01-01

230

Narrowing sex differentials in life expectancy in the industrialized world: Early 1970's to early 1990's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the early 1970's and 1990's, twelve industrialized nations experienced for the first time a narrowing of their sex differences in life expectancy at age zero. In another set of countries, the differential has not yet reached a stage of convergence, although in some of these nations the female advantage appears to be increasing at a slower pace than ever

Frank Trovato; N. M. Lalu

1996-01-01

231

METHOD FOR EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TESTS USING THREE ATHERINID FISHES AND RESULTS WITH CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed methods for obtaining embryos and conducting early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from the embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with three estuarine species of atherinid fishes. Early lif...

232

Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

2008-01-01

233

Birth weight, cognitive development, and life chances: A comparison of siblings from childhood into early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample (CNLSY79), we sought to elaborate the complex interplay between childhood health and educational development over the early life course. Our approach made use of sibling comparisons to estimate the relationship between birth weight, cognitive development, and timely high school completion in models that spanned childhood, adolescence, and into early

Jacob E. Cheadle; Bridget J. Goosby

2010-01-01

234

Host Fish Identification and Early Life Thermal Requirements for the Federal Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa, WML) is a Federal endangered species historically inhabiting at least 34 river systems in 12 Midwestern states. Only four populations are currently known to exist, including one confirmed reproducing population in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway (NSR) bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. Recovery efforts are limited by a lack of life history information, particularly which species of fish serve as host to the mussel's parasitic larvae (glochidia). Since 1997, biologists at the University of Minnesota have tried to identify host fish for the WML. Department of the Interior colleagues working in western Wisconsin at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's La Crosse Fishery Resources Office and Genoa National Fish Hatchery, the National Park Service's St. Croix NSR, and the U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) in La Crosse joined the team in 2001 to expand and accelerate the laboratory host fish identification program by making use of the well-equipped aquatic research facilities at UMESC. We report on several WML early life history investigations conducted at UMESC since autumn 2003 to identify suitable host fish species and evaluate thermal requisites for the development of glochidia into free-living juvenile mussels.

Steingraeber, Mark; Newton, Teresa

2005-01-01

235

The NASA Life Sciences experiment program for Shuttle/Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Life Sciences experiment program for the Shuttle/Spacelab has basically two scientific objectives. The first objective is related to an understanding and interpretation of the medical data from Skylab. The second objective is concerned with a utilization of the space environment, notably the very low g field, as an experimental variable in a broad range of fundamental studies. The program considered will use the pressurized module, almost exclusively, and will aim toward the greatest investigator participation in flight that is possible. Facilities must be provided to support such requirements as tissue biopses, blood, urine and tissue collections, and microbial and plant manipulations.

Winter, D.

1978-01-01

236

9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

2011-05-27

237

9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation and elevated temperatures. Other materials of construction, however, are also discussed.

Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

2011-01-06

238

Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

Nemeth, Noel N.

2002-01-01

239

Polycomb binding precedes early-life stress responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer.  

PubMed

Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development. PMID:24599304

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2014-01-01

240

Early life hypoxic or hypoxic/hypercapnic stress alters acute ventilatory sensitivity in adult mice.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effect of early life conditioning (hypoxia ± hypercapnia) on adult acute ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Mice were exposed to either hypoxia (5% O(2)) or hypoxia/hypercapnia (5% O(2)/8% CO(2)) in a normobaric chamber for 2 h at postnatal day 2 (P2), and then returned to normoxia. At 3 months of age, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured using a plethysmograph system. Results showed that HVR was significantly decreased in the P2-hypoxia mice but not in the P2 hypoxia/hypercapnia mice as compared to the P2-normoxic mice, respectively. However, HCVR was significantly decreased in the P2 hypoxia-hypercapnia group but not in the P2-hypoxia group. These data suggest early postnatal hypoxic stress vs. hypoxic/hypercapnic stress plays different roles in fetal programming of the respiratory control system as shown by altered adult acute ventilatory sensitivity. PMID:22879055

Xu, Kui; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Huang, Pengjing; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Radford, Thomas; Babcock, Gerald; Boron, Walter F; Lamanna, Joseph C

2013-01-01

241

Early Life Exposure to Bisphenol A and Breast Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Excess estrogen exposure in developing individuals increases the risk of developing breast cancer later in life. This excess\\u000a estrogen can originate from high levels of maternal endogenous estrogens or from exposure to exogenous endocrine disrupting\\u000a compounds that mimic estrogen actions. One of those ­compounds is the ubiquitous bisphenol A or BPA, a chemical that has been\\u000a found in over 90%

Maricel V. Maffini; Carlos Sonnenschein; Ana M. Soto

242

NASA space life sciences research and education support program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

Jones, Terri K.

1995-01-01

243

Narrowing sex differentials in life expectancy in the industrialized world: early 1970's to early 1990's.  

PubMed

Between the early 1970's and 1990's, twelve industrialized nations experienced for the first time a narrowing of their sex differences in life expectancy at age zero. In another set of countries, the differential has not yet reached a stage of convergence, although in some of these nations the female advantage appears to be increasing at a slower pace than ever before. We discuss the demographic and epidemiologic conditions for this new and largely unanticipated trend, as well as its applied and theoretical implications in the context of the following questions: (1) Is the observed change a function of males' faster pace of gains in life expectancy since the early 1970s? (2) What is the relationship between country differences in socioeconomic development (as measured by GNP) and the degree of convergence in the sex gap in average length of life? (3) What is the degree of association between temporal change in age-sex specific death rates and change in the sex gap in life expectancy over the twenty-year interval between the early 1970s and early 1990s? Our results indicate that where some convergence has taken place, in relation to women, men have experienced more rapid gains in survival; the higher a nation's level of social and economic development, the greater the amount of convergence in male and female life expectancies. The most pronounced age-specific association with the changing sex gap in longevity is that of ages 25-59, where the greater reductions in male mortality, as compared to that for females, contributed to a significant portion of the observed convergence in life expectancy across industrialized nations. PMID:8909108

Trovato, F; Lalu, N M

1996-01-01

244

Understanding the potency of stressful early life experiences on brain and body function.  

PubMed

Early life experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire life span and influencing brain function, behavior, and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of early life adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called "epigenetics" as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value as well as the negative consequences, of early life stress, exposure to novelty, and poor-quality vs good-quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to early life abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in early life and some guidelines are provided. PMID:18803958

McEwen, Bruce S

2008-10-01

245

Father/Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the support for increased involvement of parents in their children's schooling and the positive contribution men can make to children's development, it is important to reach out specifically to fathers or other significant males in parent involvement efforts for pre-kindergarten and early childhood programs. This digest discusses barriers to…

McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.

246

Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

2006-01-01

247

Investing in Early Childhood: Increasing Funding for Smart Start Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, Voices for America's Children member Kansas Action for Children, partnered with state and local organizations to increase funding for Smart Start Kansas, a successful early care and education program. Kansas Children's Campaign, an initiative of Kansas Action for Children, collaborated with a key state organization, legislators,…

Voices for America's Children, 2005

2005-01-01

248

EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

MCGAHAN, F.E.

249

Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

Griffin, Sherri

250

The Role of Schools in Sustaining Early Childhood Program Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of articles in this journal issue have documented effects of early childhood programs on children's cognitive abilities, achievement, and social adjustment as they mature to become schoolchildren, adolescents, and young adults. This article careful- ly considers the role that school experiences play in transmitting and sustaining the cognitive gains made by children in preschool. The author discusses the

Doris R. Entwisle

1995-01-01

251

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

252

School-Community Program in Early Childhood Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the Program in Early Childhood Development (PECD), a school-community project initially funded under Title III to provide identification, diagnostic, and intervention services for 3-to 5-year-old children in Evanston, Illinois prior to kindergarten entry. Two major sections deal with screening procedures (in such areas as…

Holliday, Frances B.; Olswang, Lesley B.

253

Bile acid metabolism in early life: studies of amniotic fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile acid metabolism of the human fetus was ex- amined in early gestation (weeks 13-19) and compared with the full-term fetus from the analysis of amniotic fluid collected from healthy pregnant women. Total individual bile acids were deter- mined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after solvolysis and hydrolysis of bile acid conjugates. Additionally, bile acids were separated according to their mode

M. Nakagawa; K. D. R. Setchell

254

The sporting life: Athletic activities during early adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in sports participation that begins in early adolescence has been well documented, and there has been considerable controversy regarding the reasons for this attrition. The present study addressed the attrition process by focusing on the subjective experience of sports as a function of grade, gender, and sport context. Following the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method, 401 5th–9th-grade

Carol E. Kirshnit; Mark Ham; Maryse H. Richards

1989-01-01

255

The possible long-term effects of early-life circadian rhythm disturbance on social behavior.  

PubMed

Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in early life with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to early life sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years. PMID:24902476

Kohyama, Jun

2014-07-01

256

Ceramic material life prediction: A program to translate ANSYS results to CARES/LIFE reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and CARES. Knowledge of compiling and linking FORTRAN programs is also required. Maximum use is made of existing routines (from other CARES interface programs and ANSYS routines) to extract the finite element results and prepare the neutral file for input to the reliability analysis. FORTRAN and machine language routines as described are used to read the ANSYS results file. Sub-element stresses are computed and written to a neutral file using FORTRAN subroutines which are nearly identical to those used in the NASCARES (MSC/NASTRAN to CARES) interface.

Vonhermann, Pieter; Pintz, Adam

1994-01-01

257

Toxicogenomic and phenotypic analyses of bisphenol-A early-life exposure toxicity in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Bisphenol-A is an important environmental contaminant due to the increased early-life exposure that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. This study aimed to use zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to capture transcriptomic and phenotypic changes for inference of signaling pathways, biological processes, physiological systems and identify potential biomarker genes that are affected by early-life exposure to bisphenol-A. Phenotypic analysis using wild-type zebrafish larvae revealed BPA early-life exposure toxicity caused cardiac edema, cranio-facial abnormality, failure of swimbladder inflation and poor tactile response. Fluorescent imaging analysis using three transgenic lines revealed suppressed neuron branching from the spinal cord, abnormal development of neuromast cells, and suppressed vascularization in the abdominal region. Using knowledge-based data mining algorithms, transcriptome analysis suggests that several signaling pathways involving ephrin receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, synaptic long-term potentiation, axonal guidance, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and tight junction were deregulated. Physiological systems with related disorders associated with the nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular, blood and reproductive systems were implicated, hence corroborated with the phenotypic analysis. Further analysis identified a common set of BPA-targeted genes and revealed a plausible mechanism involving disruption of endocrine-regulated genes and processes in known susceptible tissue-organs. The expression of 28 genes were validated in a separate experiment using quantitative real-time PCR and 6 genes, ncl1, apoeb, mdm1, mycl1b, sp4, U1SNRNPBP homolog, were found to be sensitive and robust biomarkers for BPA early-life exposure toxicity. The susceptibility of sp4 to BPA perturbation suggests its role in altering brain development, function and subsequently behavior observed in laboratory animals exposed to BPA during early life, which is a health-risk concern of early life exposure in humans. The present study further established zebrafish as a model for toxicogenomic inference of early-life chemical exposure toxicity. PMID:22194820

Lam, Siew Hong; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chuan; Duan, Zhenghua; Zhu, Lin; Ung, Choong Yong; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ong, Choon Nam; Gong, Zhiyuan

2011-01-01

258

BEHAVIOR OF PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Whether through environmental criteria or site-specific risk assessments, many EPA programs rely on linking environmental exposures to levels of adverse effect (or no effect) in fish and wildlife. While empirical relationships of exposure to effect can be used for such assessmen...

259

Magic Windows and the Serious Life: Rituals and Community in Early American Local Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical study addresses the social impact of early local television by examining the ritual aspects of its now-extinct entertainment programming genres. The study assimilates several theories of ritual and collective memory to explain how this programming shaped the daily lives of television viewers in postwar America. It examines both the nature and form of this programming and how viewers

Phillip J. Hutchison

2012-01-01

260

Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: The role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.  

PubMed

Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

2014-07-01

261

Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

2009-12-01

262

Assessment Practices in Model Early Childhood Education Programs. Research Report #7. Early Childhood Assessment Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about current assessment practices was obtained from 54 surveys completed by Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) demonstration projects across the United States. Information about factors influencing the selection and continued use of tests also was provided. Results indicated that 19 tests were used by five or more…

Lehr, Camilla A.; And Others

263

Transition Program Practices: Improving Linkages between Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether the transition to primary school is smooth or abrupt for children depends on whether early childhood and elementary school programs work together to build bridges between their services. This report presents several examples of collaborative efforts to smooth the transition to school. Specifically, it describes how various elements of five…

Jang, Younghee; Mangione, Peter L.

264

Shifts in the life history of parasitic wasps correlate with pronounced alterations in early development  

PubMed Central

Developmental processes have been traditionally viewed to be invariant within higher taxa. However, examples are known whereby closely related species exhibit alterations in early embryogenesis yet appear very similar as adults. Such developmental changes are thought to occur in response to shifts in life history. In insects, the regulation of embryonic development has been intensively studied in model species like Drosophila melanogaster. Previous comparative studies suggest that the developmental processes documented in Drosophila well describe embryogenesis of advanced, holometabolous, insects generally. There have been few attempts, however, to take into account how life history has influenced early development of insects or to characterize early development of species with life histories fundamentally different from flies. Here we compared early development of two species from the same family of parasitic wasps that exhibit very different life histories. Bracon hebetor is an ectoparasite that lays large, yolky eggs on the integument of its host that develop much like the free-living honeybee and Drosophila. In contrast, Aphidius ervi is an endoparasite that lays small and apparently yolk-free eggs that develop in the hemocoel of the host. This wasp exhibits a radically different mode of early development at both the cellular and molecular level from B. hebetor. The developmental changes in A. ervi reflect functional adaptations for its derived life history and argue that departures from the fly paradigm may occur commonly among insects whose eggs develop under conditions different from typical terrestrial species.

Grbic, Miodrag; Strand, Michael R.

1998-01-01

265

Shifts in the life history of parasitic wasps correlate with pronounced alterations in early development.  

PubMed

Developmental processes have been traditionally viewed to be invariant within higher taxa. However, examples are known whereby closely related species exhibit alterations in early embryogenesis yet appear very similar as adults. Such developmental changes are thought to occur in response to shifts in life history. In insects, the regulation of embryonic development has been intensively studied in model species like Drosophila melanogaster. Previous comparative studies suggest that the developmental processes documented in Drosophila well describe embryogenesis of advanced, holometabolous, insects generally. There have been few attempts, however, to take into account how life history has influenced early development of insects or to characterize early development of species with life histories fundamentally different from flies. Here we compared early development of two species from the same family of parasitic wasps that exhibit very different life histories. Bracon hebetor is an ectoparasite that lays large, yolky eggs on the integument of its host that develop much like the free-living honeybee and Drosophila. In contrast, Aphidius ervi is an endoparasite that lays small and apparently yolk-free eggs that develop in the hemocoel of the host. This wasp exhibits a radically different mode of early development at both the cellular and molecular level from B. hebetor. The developmental changes in A. ervi reflect functional adaptations for its derived life history and argue that departures from the fly paradigm may occur commonly among insects whose eggs develop under conditions different from typical terrestrial species. PMID:9448291

Grbi?, M; Strand, M R

1998-02-01

266

Microbial mats and the early evolution of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

Des Marais, D. J.

1990-01-01

267

Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earthâ??s history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe.

Spiegel, David S.; Turner, Edwin L.

2012-01-01

268

Cognitive and behavioral development of at risk infants and toddlers exposed to stressful life events: The effects of trauma in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relations between traumatic life events and cognitive, behavioral, and relational competence in an at-risk sample of children between the ages of 11 and 41 months. As part of a larger, ongoing investigation, participants for the current study were 53 children enrolled in Early Head Start programs and their primary caregivers. The children participated in a

Zachary E. Warren

2005-01-01

269

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

2007-01-01

270

Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Application to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs. Part of the reason for this is that foundations an...

L. A. Karoly M. R. Kilburn J. H. Bigelow J. P. Caulkins J. S. Cannon

2001-01-01

271

Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

272

NASA's Space Biology Outreach Program - Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing and discussing NASA's space missions and research is the goal of the Space Biology Outreach Program Web of Life. Visitors unfamiliar with space biology should definitely check out Space Biology FAQ's on the left hand side menu of the homepage. Questions covered range from those about the effect of weightlessness on the health of the astronauts to the significance of finding life on Mars to the definition of gravity. The Flight Experiments link on the same menu relates almost a dozen experiments that have been performed on space flights. Visitors can read about arterial remodeling and functional adaptations in the space experiment that used rats to model the human arterial system. Additionally, they can learn about how the blood vessels of the rats were examined to detect changes in a gravity-free environment. Finally, teachers should be sure to explore the Learning Resources section, which includes activities, resources, and links for teaching students of all ages.

2012-03-30

273

Symptom and functional outcomes for a 5 year early intervention program for psychoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There continues to be controversy concerning the long term benefits of specialized early intervention programs (SEI) for psychotic disorders. Recent reports of five year outcomes for SEI programs indicate that benefits of early intervention programs at two year follow-up have disappeared at five years. The Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses (PEPP) in London, Ontario offers continuity of care

Ross M. G. Norman; Rahul Manchanda; Ashok K. Malla; Deborah Windell; Raj Harricharan; Sandra Northcott

2011-01-01

274

Building Strong Foundations for Early Learning. Department of Education's Guide to Hiqh Quality Early Childhood Education Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is an initial step designed to provide information to local, district, and state educators about the hallmarks of high-quality early childhood programs. It includes short syntheses of research about the characteristics of early education progra...

M. C. Dwyer R. Chait P. McKee

2000-01-01

275

Continuing Effects of Early Enrichment in Adult Life: The Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term studies of early intervention, spanning over decades, are scarce in the United States and nonexistent in the rest of the world. The Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP) is the only non-U.S. example to date. This paper reports a new follow-up assessment of the long-term outcomes of TEEP, an intervention carried out in 1983-1985 with…

Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Sunar, Diane; Bekman, Sevda; Baydar, Nazli; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2009-01-01

276

Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users  

PubMed Central

Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment.

Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2013-01-01

277

Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets  

PubMed Central

Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances.

Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stephanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

2014-01-01

278

Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

2008-01-01

279

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

280

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

281

Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

1989-01-01

282

Early-life stress has persistent effects on amygdala function and development in mice and humans  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about neurobiological changes attributable to early-life stressors (e.g., orphanage rearing), even though they have been associated with a heightened risk for later psychopathology. Human neuroimaging and animal studies provide complementary insights into the neural basis of problem behaviors following stress, but too often are limited by dissimilar experimental designs. The current mouse study manipulates the type and timing of a stressor to parallel the early-life stress experience of orphanage rearing, controlling for genetic and environmental confounds inherent in human studies. The results provide evidence of both early and persistent alterations in amygdala circuitry and function following early-life stress. These effects are not reversed when the stressor is removed nor diminished with the development of prefrontal regulation regions. These neural and behavioral findings are similar to our human findings in children adopted from orphanages abroad in that even following removal from the orphanage, the ability to suppress attention toward potentially threatening information in favor of goal-directed behavior was diminished relative to never-institutionalized children. Together, these findings highlight how early-life stress can lead to altered brain circuitry and emotion dysregulation that may increase the risk for psychopathology.

Malter Cohen, Matthew; Jing, Deqiang; Yang, Rui R.; Tottenham, Nim; Lee, Francis S.; Casey, B. J.

2013-01-01

283

Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life  

PubMed Central

During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted.

Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Soder, Olle

2014-01-01

284

Immediate and delayed life history effects caused by food deprivation early in life in a short-lived lizard.  

PubMed

Detailed studies of the mechanisms driving life history effects of food availability are of prime importance to understand the evolution of phenotypic plasticity and the capacity of organisms to produce better adapted phenotypes. Food availability may influence life history trajectories through three nonexclusive mechanisms: (i) immediate and long-lasting effects on individual quality, and indirect delayed effects on (ii) intracohort and (iii) intercohort interactions. Using the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara), we tested whether a food deprivation during the two-first months of life influence life history (growth, survival, reproduction) and performance traits (immunocompetence, locomotor performances) until adulthood. We investigated the underlying mechanisms and their possible interactions by manipulating jointly food availability in a birth cohort and in cohorts of older conspecifics. Food deprivation had direct immediate negative effects on growth but positive long-lasting effects on immunocompetence. Food deprivation had also indirect delayed effects on growth, body size, early survival and reproduction mediated by an interaction between its direct effects on individual quality and its delayed effects on the intensity of intercohort social interactions combined with density dependence on body size. These results demonstrate that interactions between direct and socially mediated effects of past environments influence life history evolution in size-structured and stage-structured populations. PMID:20629851

Mugabo, M; Marquis, O; Perret, S; LE Galliard, J F

2010-09-01

285

Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development. PMID:23824728

Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

2013-08-01

286

Nutrition as a determinant of functional autonomy and quality of life in aging: a research program.  

PubMed

With the aging of the Canadian population, functional autonomy and quality of life among seniors are now important public health issues. We hypothesized that nutrition is an important determinant of the quality of aging because of its potential to modulate the transitions from vulnerability to frailty and dependence. Over the past 15 years, our research program addressed the prevalence, the determinants, and the consequences of undernutrition among seniors, especially the free-living frail elderly. Very low energy and nutrient intakes were observed as well as a high prevalence of involuntary weight loss. These chronic conditions were associated with early institutionalization and increased mortality rates. Intervention strategies were then developed and evaluated, including the Nutrition Screening Program and the Nutrition Support Program. The effectiveness of these programs was shown with respect to improvement of nutritional status. However, this improvement was not sufficient to produce significant changes in functional autonomy or quality of life. Methodological issues related to the conduct of intervention studies in this specific population were addressed. A conceptual framework of nutritional intervention is currently being validated. A large longitudinal study that is being undertaken will further contribute to our understanding of the aging process as determined by a modifiable factor such as nutrition. PMID:16391715

Payette, Hélène

2005-11-01

287

Early Life Nutrition Modulates Muscle Stem Cell Number: Implications for Muscle Mass and Repair  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)—experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8%±0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2%±0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16%±3% of injured area vs. UN 11%±2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4%±0.6% vs. HFD 4.7%±0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16%±2.7% vs. HFD 9%±2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk.

Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J.; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose

2011-01-01

288

Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.  

PubMed

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

Chang, Ku-ming

2011-06-01

289

The role of program quality in producing early childhood program benefits.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted by the field of early childhood education and by the public that high-quality preschool programs for young children from low-income families can have long-term benefits, although studies of early childhood programs in typical communities have often failed to find similar long-term effects. Some argue that variations in the quality or developmental appropriateness of programs can account for differences in effectiveness. This article reviews studies designed to define and measure the effects of quality in early care and education, and it analyzes the programs provided in successful long-term studies to look for common elements that may be critical to the long-term effectiveness of preschool. The conclusions of the analysis are that effective programs were characterized by combinations of most of the following elements: (1) small class sizes with low ratios of children to teachers; (2) teachers who received support to reflect on and improve their teaching practices; (3) a concentrated or long-lasting intervention; (4) ongoing, child-focused communication between home and school; and (5) use of some curriculum content and classroom processes that are similar to what children encounter in traditional schooling. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are offered to promote the adoption of these effective practices in all types of early childhood programs. PMID:8835517

Frede, E C

1995-01-01

290

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...

2013-07-01

291

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. 674.58 Section 674.58...Cancellation § 674.58 Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1) An...

2010-07-01

292

Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 ?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 ?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. PMID:24713117

Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

2014-07-01

293

Is Epigenetics an Important Link between Early Life Events and Adult Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in complex chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity, remains largely uncharacterized. Extensive work in animal models is

Robert A. Waterland

2009-01-01

294

Sun exposure and prostate cancer risk: evidence for a protective effect of early-life exposure.  

PubMed

Mounting experimental and epidemiologic evidence supports the hypothesis that vitamin D reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Some evidence suggests that prostate cancer risk may be influenced by sun exposure early in life. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study to examine associations of prostate cancer risk with early-life and adult residential sun exposure and adult sun exposures that were assessed through self-report, physician report, and dermatologic examination. We used solar radiation in the state of birth as a measure of sun exposure in early life. Follow-up from 1971 to 1975 (baseline) to 1992 identified 161 prostate cancer cases (102 nonfatal and 59 fatal) among non-Hispanic white men for whom sun exposure data were available. Significant inverse associations were found for men born in a region of high solar radiation (relative risk, 0.49, 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.90 for high versus low solar radiation), with a slightly greater reduction for fatal than for nonfatal prostate cancer. Frequent recreational sun exposure in adulthood was associated with a significantly reduced risk of fatal prostate cancer only (relative risk, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.99). These findings suggest that, in addition to sun exposure in adulthood, sun exposure in early life protects against prostate cancer. PMID:17548698

John, Esther M; Koo, Jocelyn; Schwartz, Gary G

2007-06-01

295

Associations between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development among Girls in Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the…

Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

2011-01-01

296

Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. Methods: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type

Molly M. Lamb; Dana Dabelea; Xiang Yin; Lorraine G. Ogden; Georgeanna J. Klingensmith; Marian Rewers; Jill M. Norris

2010-01-01

297

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST WITH TIDEWATER SILVERSIDES (MENIDIA PENINSULAE) AND CHLORINE-PRODUCED OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early life-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...

298

Revisiting the Swaziland Supergroup: New Approaches to Examining Evidence for Early Life on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The re-examination by SEM of 3.4 Ga fossiliferous carbonaceous cherts reveals fungal contaminants in addition to indigenous microfossils. Weathered volcanic flows associated with fossiliferous chert layers offer a promising area for further study of early life on Earth.

Walsh, M. M.; Westall, F.

2000-01-01

299

Toxicity of Acenaphthene and Isophorone to Early Life Stages of Fathead Minnows (Journal Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone,...

M. A. Cairns A. V. Nebeker

1982-01-01

300

TOXICITY OF ACENAPHTHENE AND ISOPHORONE TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF FATHEAD MINNOWS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through 96-hr and early-life stage toxicity tests were conducted with acenaphthene and isophorone, using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as test animals. The 96-hr LC50's were 608 micro/L for acenaphthene and 145 and 255 micro/L for isophorone, depending on fish age. N...

301

The Origins of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Early Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from birth cohort and cross-sectional studies of young children with wheezing have uncovered strong associations be- tween both lung function and immune responses in early life and the subsequent development of persistent wheezing and chronic airway obstruction up to mid-adulthood. It is now apparent that the pattern of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, deficits in lung function, and structural airway remodeling that

Fernando D. Martinez

2009-01-01

302

EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST METHODS FOR GULF TOADFISH, 'OPSANUS BETA', AND RESULTS USING CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/l). However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos...

303

Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

2013-01-01

304

Dimensions of social capital and life adjustment in the transition to early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with parents, peers, and romantic partners that served as indicators of a latent construct of social capital depth,

Gregory S. Pettit; Stephen A. Erath; Jennifer E. Lansford; Kenneth A. Dodge; John E. Bates

2011-01-01

305

Dimensions of Social Capital and Life Adjustment in the Transition to Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with…

Pettit, Gregory S.; Erath, Stephen A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

2011-01-01

306

Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates  

PubMed Central

Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.

Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

2013-01-01

307

DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

2013-01-01

308

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

309

Impact of Low Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Endothelial Function in Early Adult Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Low birth weight is related to increased risk of coronary heart disease in adults and recently has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in children. We investigated whether the relation between birth weight and endothelial function was still present in early adult life and whether there was an interaction with emerging risk factors. Methods and Results—In 315 adults (165 women,

C. P. M. Leeson; M. Kattenhorn; R. Morley; A. Lucas; J. E. Deanfield

2010-01-01

310

Toxicity of Aldicarb and Fonofos to the Early-Life-Stage of the Fathead Minnow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with the pesticides aldicarb (Temik) and fonofos (Dyfonate) to determine their effect on the survival and growth of fathead minnows. Concentrations of 78 micrograms/L of aldicarb and 16 mic...

Q. H. Pickering, W. T. Gilliam

1982-01-01

311

TOXICITY OF ALDICARB AND FONOFOS TO THE EARLY-LIFE-STAGE OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with the pesticides aldicarb (Temik) and fonofos (Dyfonate) to determine their effect on the survival and growth of fathead minnows. Concentrations of 78 micrograms/L of aldicarb and 16 micrograms/L of fonofos did ...

312

Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2008-01-01

313

Effects of Fenvalerate on the Early Life Stages of Topsmelt ('Atherinops affinis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through acute and early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. The 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 micrograms/L. In ...

L. R. Goodman M. J. Hemmer D. P. Middaugh J. C. Moore

1992-01-01

314

Effects of hydrazine and other toxicants on early life stages of California brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of hydrazine to early life stages of several species of California brown algae was demonstrated to occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of hydrazine on benthic organisms had not been previously studied. A reliable bioassay technique was developed using digital image analysis to measure vegetative growth inhibition of brown algal gametophytes. Hydrazine toxicity threshold of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes was

1989-01-01

315

The global epidemic of noncommunicable disease: the role of early-life factors.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main risk factors, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in early life also have a major role in the development of NCDs. For instance, breastfeeding and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in both low-income and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes and resetting of endocrine systems that affect energy metabolism and appetite. These early life factors may interact with and exacerbate the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle and energy-dense diets later in life. As a consequence, the impact of early-life factors on long-term health may be particularly important in low- and middle-income countries, which face the fastest increases in urbanization and greatest changes to lifestyle. Strategies to optimize infant nutrition could therefore make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. PMID:24504213

Singhal, Atul

2014-01-01

316

Effects of Early Life Social Stress on Maternal Behavior and Neuroendocrinology  

PubMed Central

Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent studies have described an effective and ethologically relevant chronic social stress (CSS) based rodent model for postpartum depression and anxiety. Since CSS attenuates maternal behavior and impairs both dam and offspring growth, it was hypothesized that CSS is an ethologically relevant form of early life stress for the developing female offspring and may have effects on subsequent adult maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology Dams exposed to early life CSS as infants display substantial increases in pup retrieval and nursing behavior that are specifically associated with attenuated oxytocin, prolactin, and vasopressin gene expression in brain nuclei involved in the control of maternal behavior. Since the growth patterns of both groups were similar despite substantial increases in nursing duration, the early life CSS dams exhibited an attenuated nursing efficiency. It is concluded that early life CSS has long term effects on the neuroendocrinology of maternal care (oxytocin and prolactin) which results in decreased nursing efficiency in the adult dams. The data support the use of early life CSS as an effective model for stress-induced impairments in nursing, such as those associated with postpartum depression and anxiety.

Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

2012-01-01

317

The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design  

PubMed Central

Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Thomsen C, Wright J, Athersuch TJ, Avellana N, Basagaña X, Brochot C, Bucchini L, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, Casas M, Estivill X, Fairley L, van Gent D, Gonzalez JR, Granum B, Gražulevi?ien? R, Gutzkow KB, Julvez J, Keun HC, Kogevinas M, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Sabidó E, Schwarze PE, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Want EJ, Zeman F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2014. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design. Environ Health Perspect 122:535–544;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204

Slama, Remy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagana, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Grazulevic?iene?, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabido, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valerie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

2014-01-01

318

The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design.  

PubMed

Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure-health effect relationships. The "exposome" concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome.Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the "early-life exposome." Here we describe the general design of the project.Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother-child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother-child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure-response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures.Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome.Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Thomsen C, Wright J, Athersuch TJ, Avellana N, Basagaña X, Brochot C, Bucchini L, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, Casas M, Estivill X, Fairley L, van Gent D, Gonzalez JR, Granum B, Gražulevi?ien? R, Gutzkow KB, Julvez J, Keun HC, Kogevinas M, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Sabidó E, Schwarze PE, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Want EJ, Zeman F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2014. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design. Environ Health Perspect 122:535-544;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204. PMID:24610234

Vrijheid, Martine; Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R; Granum, Berit; Gražulevic?iene?, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2014-06-01

319

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990.

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

320

Developing a Life Skills Diploma Program in an Urban Setting--A Model for Replication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The External High School Diploma (EHSD) Program is a specially developed program to grant credits to urban adults for skills developed through life experiences. This District of Columbia program is designed to grant credit for life experiences and career-related skills by documenting the levels of knowledge and skills adults have attained by…

Rawlings, Lyngrid S.; Davison, Jean B.

321

77 FR 71687 - Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Court Orders Prior to July 22, 1998  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tuesday, December 4, 2012 / Rules and Regulations [[Page 71687...3206-AM67 Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Court Orders...Management. ACTION: Interim final rule...receive Federal Employee's Group Life Insurance (FEGLI)...

2012-12-04

322

California's Early Assessment Program: Its Effectiveness and the Obstacles to Successful Program Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Assessment Program (EAP) has emerged as a national model for states seeking to design policies that increase the number of students who leave high school ready for college and careers. In addition, the two national consortia designing new assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards have recognized the EAP as a model for the…

McLean, Hilary

2012-01-01

323

Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

2010-01-01

324

Breast Cancer Risk and Exposure in Early Life to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Total Suspended Particulates as a Proxy Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous in the environment. We hypothesized that early life exposure to PAHs may have particular importance in the etiology of breast cancer. We conducted a population-based, case- control study of ambient exposure to PAHs in early life in relation to the risk of breast cancer. Total suspended particulates (TSP), a measure of ambient air pollution,

Matthew R. Bonner; Daikwon Han; Jing Nie; Peter Rogerson; John E. Vena; Paola Muti; Maurizio Trevisan; Stephen B. Edge; Jo L. Freudenheim

325

34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS... § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

2009-07-01

326

34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS... § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

2010-07-01

327

When Snow Melts Early: The Unusual Alpine Plant Life Histories During the Summer of 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the plant communities where earlier plant growth has been observed during the late 20th and early 21st Centuries are in seasonally snow covered landscapes. In these communities, snow cover, temperatures, day length, soil moisture, and other environmental cues determine the timing and duration of the window within which plants green and fade annually. In short-statured plant communities where snow accumulates, such as in the alpine tundra, rapid plant growth only begins after the snow melts, but may not occur immediately following snowmelt, especially when snow melts early. Multiple climate cues protect plants from emerging too early in environments where early growth could lead to tissue loss or death. Similarly, perennial plants senesce (shift to dormancy) to prevent greater tissue loss or death when seasonal environments become unfavorable for growth and tissue maintenance. Our objective was to determine how early snowmelt and climate warming influence alpine plant life histories, and due to the unusual, early loss of snow cover in 2012, we had the opportunity to characterize alpine plant life histories in an extreme climate year. We monitored when species first expanded their leaves and when whole leaf color change first occurred. These life history events mark the onset of the growing season and the onset of senescence for individual species and the plant community, which determine the window for plant growth. Subtle topographic features at our site and an experimental acceleration of snowmelt (via radiation absorbing shadecloth) led to variation in the timing of snowmelt (April 8 to May 10) across the 10 plots (8 m x 12 m) within our experiment. Within each plot, we monitored 1m x 1m control and experimentally warmed areas (via open top chambers). We found that earlier snowmelt lengthened the window for plant growth in the alpine tundra, because many species expanded their leaves within a few days to a week following snowmelt. However, warming shortened the window for plant growth due to earlier leaf loss. The summer of 2012 was unusual, because snowmelt was exceptionally early, temperatures were high, and almost no precipitation fell (< 1 cm) in May and June. Thus, species began senescing in early to mid June, when in a typical year snowmelt and leaf expansion would be occurring. For some species, the window for plant growth was over before it would typically have begun and prior to when monsoon rains typically begin in early July. This unusual timing for alpine plant life histories may be more common when winter and summer climates change.

Steltzer, H.; Korb, J.; Daly, K.; Sienicki, E.; Fullmer, G.; Cornell, E.; Bangert, S.; Remke, M.

2012-12-01

328

Altered Short-Term Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex After Early Life Seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures during development are a relatively common occurrence and are often associated with poor cognitive outcomes. Recent studies show that early life seizures alter the function of various brain structures and have long-term consequences on seizure susceptibility and behavioral regulation. While many neocortical functions could be disrupted by epileptic seizures we have concentrated on studying the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as disturbance of PFC functions is involved in numerous co-morbid disorders associated with epilepsy. In the present work we report an alteration of short-term plasticity in the PFC in rats that have experienced early life seizures. The most robust alteration occurs in the layer II/III to layer V network of neurons. However short-term plasticity of layer V to layer V network was also affected, indicating that the PFC function is broadly influenced by early life seizures. These data strongly suggest that repetitive seizures early in development cause substantial alteration in PFC function, which may be an important component underlying cognitive deficits in individuals with a history of seizures during development.

Hernan, A.E.; Holmes, G. L.; Isaev, D.; Scott, R. C.; Isaeva, E.

2012-01-01

329

Early-life exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter causes pulmonary immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (CDPM) are a risk factor for the development of lung diseases such as asthma. Studies have shown that CDPM exacerbates asthma, inducing acute lung dysfunction and inflammation; however, the impact of CDPM exposure on early immunological responses to allergens remains unclear. To determine the effects of early-life CDPM exposure on allergic asthma development in infants, we exposed infant mice to CDPM and then induced a mouse model of asthma using house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Mice exposed to CDPM+HDM failed to develop a typical asthma phenotype including airway hyper-responsiveness, T-helper type 2 (Th2) inflammation, Muc5ac expression, eosinophilia, and HDM-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) compared with HDM-exposed mice. Although HDM-specific IgE was attenuated, total IgE was twofold higher in CDPM+HDM mice compared with HDM mice. We further demonstrate that CDPM exposure during early life induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung, concurrent with increases in tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, resulting in the suppression of Th2 responses. Despite having early immunosuppression, these mice develop severe allergic inflammation when challenged with allergen as adults. These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby CDPM exposure modulates adaptive immunity, inducing specific antigen tolerance while amplifying total IgE, and leading to a predisposition to develop asthma upon rechallenge later in life. PMID:24172848

Saravia, J; You, D; Thevenot, P; Lee, G I; Shrestha, B; Lomnicki, S; Cormier, S A

2014-05-01

330

Annual program analysis of the NASA Space Life Sciences Research and Education Support Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic objectives of this contract are to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad are recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system. To fulfill the contract objectives, a cadre of staff and visiting scientists, consultants, experts, and subcontractors has been assembled into a unique organization dedicated to the space life sciences. This organization, USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences, provides an academic atmosphere, provides an organizational focal point for science and educational activities, and serves as a forum for the participation of eminent scientists in the biomedical programs of NASA. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate adherence to the requirement of Contract NAS9-18440 for a written review and analysis of the productivity and success of the program. In addition, this report makes recommendations for future activities and conditions to further enhance the objectives of the program and provides a self-assessment of the cost performance of the contract.

1994-01-01

331

Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed.

Vidal, Jean-Sebastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

2012-01-01

332

Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high salt, low water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life.

Litchfield, Carol D.

1998-07-01

333

From Angela's Ashes to the Celtic Tiger: Early Life Conditions and Adult Health in Ireland  

PubMed Central

We use data from the Irish census and exploit regional and temporal variation in infant mortality rates over the 20th century to examine effects of early life conditions on later life health. The urban mortality penalty collapsed in Ireland in the years right after World War II. Our main identification is public health interventions centered on improved sanitation and food safety, which we believed played a leading role in eliminating the Irish urban infant mortality penalty. Our estimates suggest that a unit decrease in mortality rates at time of birth reduces the probability of being disabled as an adult by about 12% to 18%.

Delaney, Liam; McGovern, Mark; Smith, James P.

2010-01-01

334

Activation but not blockade of GABAB receptors during early-life alters anxiety in adulthood in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Although the underlying pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is unknown it is clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors in early life predispose to disease risk. Preclinical research increasingly suggests an important role for the GABAB receptor in modulating anxiety behaviour, with GABAB receptor deficient mice having increased anxiety behaviour. Previous studies have highlighted critical windows during development where adult anxiety behaviour is primed. However, little is known regarding the role played by the GABAB receptors in the developmental processes that underlie adult anxiety behaviour. To this end, we treated male BALB/c mouse pups with the either the selective GABAB receptor agonist, R-baclofen (2 mg/kg, s.c), the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432 (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) or vehicle from postnatal days (P) 14-28. The anxiety behaviour of these mice was then assessed in adulthood (P62 onwards) in a battery of behavioural tests comprising; the stress induced hyperthermia (SIH) test, defensive marble burying (DMB), elevated-plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST). Postnatal R-baclofen treatment resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM as shown by approach-avoidance and ethological measures. Other behavioural measures were not significantly altered. Interestingly, blockade of GABAB receptors with CGP52432 in early life caused no alterations in emotional behaviour. These data suggest that during early life GABAB receptor signalling can play a functional role in programing anxiety behaviour in adulthood. The underlying neurodevelopmental processes underlying these effects remain to be discovered. PMID:24050962

Sweeney, Fabian F; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F

2014-06-01

335

Early exercise promotes positive hippocampal plasticity and improves spatial memory in the adult life of rats.  

PubMed

There is a great deal of evidence showing the capacity of physical exercise to enhance cognitive function, reduce anxiety and depression, and protect the brain against neurodegenerative disorders. Although the effects of exercise are well documented in the mature brain, the influence of exercise in the developing brain has been poorly explored. Therefore, we investigated the morphological and functional hippocampal changes in adult rats submitted to daily treadmill exercise during the adolescent period. Male Wistar rats aged 21 postnatal days old (P21) were divided into two groups: exercise and control. Animals in the exercise group were submitted to daily exercise on the treadmill between P21 and P60. Running time and speed gradually increased over this period, reaching a maximum of 18 m/min for 60 min. After the aerobic exercise program (P60), histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. The results show that early-life exercise increased mossy fibers density and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B, improved spatial learning and memory, and enhanced capacity to evoke spatial memories in later stages (when measured at P96). It is important to point out that while physical exercise induces hippocampal plasticity, degenerative effects could appear in undue conditions of physical or psychological stress. In this regard, we also showed that the exercise protocol used here did not induce inflammatory response and degenerating neurons in the hippocampal formation of developing rats. Our findings demonstrate that physical exercise during postnatal development results in positive changes for the hippocampal formation, both in structure and function. PMID:21136521

Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Unsain, Nicolas; Mascó, Daniel Hugo; Toscano-Silva, Michelle; de Amorim, Henrique Alves; Silva Araújo, Bruno Henrique; Simões, Priscila Santos Rodrigues; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

2012-02-01

336

Early-life stress reduces DNA methylation of the pomc gene in male mice.  

PubMed

Early-life stress (ELS) increases the vulnerability thresholds for stress-related diseases such as major depression and anxiety by inducing alterations in the structure and function of neural circuits and endocrine pathways. We previously demonstrated the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the long-term programming of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity following ELS exposure in male mice. Here, ELS comprising daily separation of pups from their dams on postnatal days 1-10 was observed to up-regulate the expression of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene; POMC serves as a prohormone for ACTH, a key mediator of the adrenocortical response to stress. Detailed analysis revealed that the increase in Pomc mRNA levels results from a reduction in DNA methylation at a critical regulatory region of the Pomc gene; interestingly, this change occurs with some delay after ELS and persists for up to 1 year. Using a Pomc-expressing pituitary cell line (AtT20), we confirmed a role for DNA methylation in restraining Pomc expression under resting conditions: specifically, we show that CpG site-specific methylation of the Pomc promoter represses Pomc mRNA transcription. Further, we show high-affinity binding of methyl-CpG binding protein-2 to the distal promoter of Pomc, suggesting that methyl-CpG binding protein-2 acts in association with the chromatin modifiers histone deacetylase 2 and DNA methyltransferase 1 to repress Pomc gene expression. Collectively, these experiments contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms through which environmental cues are translated into stable changes ("cellular memory") in neuroendocrine cells. PMID:24506071

Wu, Yonghe; Patchev, Alexandre V; Daniel, Guillaume; Almeida, Osborne F X; Spengler, Dietmar

2014-05-01

337

Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

Sonnappa, Samatha

2013-01-01

338

Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that altered DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in prenatal programming and that developmental periods are sensitive to environmental stressors. We hypothesized that exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) during pregnancy could influence DNA methylation patterns of the placenta. Methods In the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, levels of 5’-methyl-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and deoxycytidine (dC) were quantified in placental DNA from 240 newborns. Multiple regression models were used to study placental global DNA methylation and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. Results PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy averaged (25th-75th percentile) 17.4 (15.4-19.3) ?g/m3. Placental global DNA methylation was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposures during whole pregnancy and relatively decreased by 2.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.65, -0.73%, p?=?0.004) for each 5 ?g/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5. In a multi-lag model in which all three trimester exposures were fitted as independent variables in the same regression model, only exposure to PM2.5 during trimester 1 was significantly associated with lower global DNA methylation (-2.13% per 5 ?g/m3 increase, 95% CI: -3.71, -0.54%, p?=?0.009). When we analyzed shorter time windows of exposure within trimester 1, we observed a lower placental DNA methylation at birth during all implantation stages but exposure during the implantation range (6-21d) was strongest associated (-1.08% per 5 ?g/m3 increase, 95% CI: -1.80, -0.36%, p?=?0.004). Conclusions We observed a lower degree of placental global DNA methylation in association with exposure to particulate air pollution in early pregnancy, including the critical stages of implantation. Future studies should elucidate genome-wide and gene-specific methylation patterns in placental tissue that could link particulate exposure during in utero life and early epigenetic modulations.

2013-01-01

339

Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A on Early Life Stages of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

The toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in aquatic organisms have attracted global attention. However, few studies have investigated its effects at the gene transcription level. In this study, we measured the transcriptional response of a set of genes associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis following BPA exposure during the early life stage of Japanese medaka. Transcription of vitellogenin genes was induced in both sexes, indicating estrogenic disruption. However, changes in transcription of the steroid hormone receptor gene and steroidogenesis-regulating genes suggest that BPA also acts as an androgen receptor antagonist. BPA exposure also decreased the hatchability of medaka embryos and increased the growth of female larvae. These pronounced gender-specific effects observed in this study demonstrate that it is important to identify the sex of fish in the early life stage. PMID:24849714

Sun, Liwei; Lin, Xia; Jin, Rong; Peng, Tao; Peng, Zuhua; Fu, Zhengwei

2014-08-01

340

Associations Between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development Among Girls in Foster Care  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N = 100), assessed at four time points over 2 years beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique, in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the start of the study. Analyses replicated the previously established association between sexual abuse and earlier onset of maturation and earlier age at menarche. Physical abuse was related to a more rapid tempo of pubertal development across the period assessed. These results strengthen previous investigations of childhood maltreatment and puberty, highlighting the complexity and specificity of early life experiences for later development.

Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

2011-01-01

341

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

342

School attainments in children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening and treated early in life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of school attainments in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by neonatal screening and treated early in life. Patients and methods: Text comprehension, mathematics, reading, writing and verbal and spatial memory, as indices of school learning, were evaluated in nineteen 5- to 10-year-old children with CH attending nursery or elementary school. L-Thyroxine substitution (starting dose 8-10 mg\\/kg body

Stefania Bargagna; Daniela Dinetti; Aldo Pinchera; Mara Marcheschi; Lucia Montanelli; Silvano Presciuttini; Luca Chiovato

1999-01-01

343

The Role of an Early-Life Variant of the Oedipus Complex in Motivating Religious Endeavors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A close reading of sources Freud used in writing Totem and Taboo supports the thesis that a predecessor archaic oedipus complex is instrumental in motivating religious worship. This early-life complex manifests a psychodynamic in which birth, growth, and self-realization, to varying degree in each individual, tend to be psychically correlated with diminution and harm vis-à-vis one's procreators. As a result,

Marvin P. Osman

2004-01-01

344

Comparative toxicity of Corexit® 7664 to the early life stages of four marine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the oil dispersing agent Corexit® 7664 was evaluated using the early life stages of four California marine species: the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), the topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a mysid (Holmesimysis costata), and the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Spiked-exposure, continuous-flow toxicity tests of 48–96 h were performed in triplicate in closed test chambers. Dispersant concentrations were measured by

M. M. Singer; S. George; S. Jacobson; I. Lee; R. S. Tjeerdema; M. L. Sowby

1994-01-01

345

Paracetamol use in early life and asthma: prospective birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if use of paracetamol in early life is an independent risk factor for childhood asthma.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study.Participants 620 children with a family history of allergic disease, with paracetamol use prospectively documented on 18 occasions from birth to 2 years of age, followed until age 7 years.Main outcome measures The primary outcome

Adrian J Lowe; John B Carlin; Catherine M Bennett; Clifford S Hosking; Katrina J Allen; Colin F Robertson; Christine Axelrad; Michael J Abramson; David J Hill; Shyamali C Dharmage

2010-01-01

346

Social and biological early life influences on severity of dental caries in children aged 6 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between social and biological conditions experienced in very early life and dental caries in children aged 6 years. Methods: The design was a dental caries cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study started in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993. The cross- sectional study was carried out in 1999. A random sample of 400 6-year-old children

Peres MA; Latorre MRDO; Sheiham A; Peres KGA; Barros FC; Hernandez PG; Marco Aurelio Peres; Dias de Oliveira Latorre

2005-01-01

347

Early-Life Stress and the Development of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Juvenile Bonnet Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is a risk factor for chronic illnesses such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension and has been postulated to cause the metabolic syndrome via perturbation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In our model of early-life stress (variable foraging demand (VFD)), food insecurity is imposed on monkey mothers for 16 weeks beginning when their nursing offspring are 3-5 months

Daniel Kaufman; Mary Ann Banerji; Igor Shorman; Eric L. P. Smith; Jeremy D. Coplan; Leonard A. Rosenblum; John G. Kral

2007-01-01

348

Geographic clustering of residence in early life and subsequent risk of breast cancer (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study focused on geographic clustering of breast cancer based on residence in early life and identified spatio-temporal clustering of cases and controls. Methods: Data were drawn from the WEB study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study), a population-based case–control study of incident, pathologically confirmed breast cancer (1996–2001) in Erie and Niagara counties. Controls were frequency-matched to cases

Daikwon Han; Peter A. Rogerson; Jing Nie; Matthew R. Bonner; John E. Vena; Paola Muti; Maurizio Trevisan; Stephen B. Edge; Jo L. Freudenheim

2004-01-01

349

Contribution of Early Life Stages to lnterannual Variability in Recruitment of Northern Anchovy (Engradis mordax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested HjoKs and Lasker's hypotheses that the abundance of recruits in fishes is determined at an early life stage. Using 13 yr of data on components of population dynamics of the well-studied northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), we reconstructed the abundance of anchovy in each year at three stages: eggs, 4.5d-old yolk-sac larvae, and 19d-old larvae. No abundance measure was

Randall M. Peterman; Nancy C. H. Lo; Richard D. Methot

350

Early-Life Environmental Risk Factors for Asthma: Findings from the Children's Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life experiences and environmental exposures have been associated with childhood asthma. To investigate further whether the timing of such experiences and exposures is associated with the occur- rence of asthma by 5 years of age, we conducted a prevalence case-control study nested within the Children's Health Study, a population-based study of > 4,000 school-aged children in 12 southern California communities.

Muhammad Towhid Salam; Yu-Fen Li; Bryan Langholz; Frank Davis Gilliland

2003-01-01

351

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD\\u000a may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine\\u000a aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects\\u000a of the biology of PTSD may reflect

Rachel Yehuda; Janine D. Flory; Laura C. Pratchett; Joseph Buxbaum; Marcus Ising; Florian Holsboer

2010-01-01

352

Analysis of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) Program: History, Current Issues and Future Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SGLI program is the military life insurance program overseen by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) but managed and administered by The Prudential Insurance Company of America. Recently, a series of news stories by Bloomberg News reported that the...

C. M. Schmid M. Voogd P. M. Callan

2011-01-01

353

Early Life Experience Shapes the Functional Organization of Stress-Responsive Visceral Circuits  

PubMed Central

Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits.

Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

354

Early life experience shapes the functional organization of stress-responsive visceral circuits.  

PubMed

Emotions are closely tied to changes in autonomic (i.e., visceral motor) function, and interoceptive sensory feedback from body to brain exerts powerful modulatory control over motivation, affect, and stress responsiveness. This manuscript reviews evidence that early life experience can shape the structure and function of central visceral circuits that underlie behavioral and physiological responses to emotive and stressful events. The review begins with a general discussion of descending autonomic and ascending visceral sensory pathways within the brain, and then summarizes what is known about the postnatal development of these central visceral circuits in rats. Evidence is then presented to support the view that early life experience, particularly maternal care, can modify the developmental assembly and structure of these circuits in a way that impacts later stress responsiveness and emotional behavior. The review concludes by presenting a working hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin signaling and subsequent recruitment of gastric vagal sensory inputs to the caudal brainstem may be an important mechanism by which maternal care influences visceral circuit development in rat pups. Early life experience may contribute to meaningful individual differences in emotionality and stress responsiveness by shaping the postnatal developmental trajectory of central visceral circuits. PMID:21497616

Rinaman, Linda; Banihashemi, Layla; Koehnle, Thomas J

2011-09-26

355

Early-life Stress, Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, and Serotonin Transporter Gene: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent studies have indicated a gene by environment interaction between serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. In addition, persistent elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations following early-life adversity has been posited to underlie the subsequent development of major depression. This pilot study tested the hypothesis that elevations of juvenile CSF CRF concentrations are, in part, determined by an interaction between polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR and early-life stress. Nine juvenile male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) had been raised under variable foraging demand (VFD) conditions, a nonhuman primate model of early-life stress, whereas nine subjects were normatively raised under LFD (low foraging demand) conditions. Genotyping revealed that four (44.4%) of the VFD-reared monkeys possessed at least one “s” allele whereas five VFD monkeys were of the l/l genotype. Of the nine LFD subjects, two (22%) had the s/l genotype and seven had the l/l genotype. A “juvenile” CSF sample was obtained at approximately three years of age. CSF CRF concentrations were elevated specifically in the VFD “s/s” and “s/l” allele group in comparison to each of the remaining three groups, indicating a gene by environment (GxE) interaction.

Coplan, Jeremy D.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Kaufman, Joan; Gelernter, Joel; Smith, Eric L.P.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Kaffman, Arie; Gorman, Jack M.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Owens, Michael S.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

2010-01-01

356

The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy  

PubMed Central

Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children’s life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children’s environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice.

Riley, Anne W.; Granger, Douglas A.; Riis, Jenna

2013-01-01

357

The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy.  

PubMed

Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children's life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children's environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W; Granger, Douglas A; Riis, Jenna

2013-02-01

358

Early-life stress produces muscle hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization in the adult rat  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain in adults has been associated with early-life stress. To examine the pronociceptive effect of early-life stress, we evaluated cutaneous and muscle nociception and activity in muscle nociceptors in an animal model of neonatal stress, limited bedding, in the rat. In this model, litters are exposed to limited bedding between postnatal days 2 – 9 (neonatal limited bedding, NLB) and controls to standard bedding. In adult NLB-treated rats, mechanical nociceptive threshold in skeletal muscle was ficantly lower (~22%) than in controls. Furthermore, administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in skin as well as produced markedly prolonged hyperalgesia, an effect prevented by spinal intrathecal injection of oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to protein kinase C? (PKC?), a second messenger in nociceptors that has been implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. In electrophysiological studies, mechanical threshold of muscle nociceptors was reduced by ~31% and conduction velocity significantly increased (~28%). These findings indicate that neonatal stress induces apersistent hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization manifest in the adult and that the second messenger PKC? may be a target against which therapies might be directed to treat a chronic pain syndrome that is associated with early-life traumatic stress.

Green, Paul G.; Chen, Xiaojie; Alvarez, Pedro; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

2011-01-01

359

The origins of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early life.  

PubMed

Results from birth cohort and cross-sectional studies of young children with wheezing have uncovered strong associations between both lung function and immune responses in early life and the subsequent development of persistent wheezing and chronic airway obstruction up to mid-adulthood. It is now apparent that the pattern of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, deficits in lung function, and structural airway remodeling that are characteristic of asthma may be already established during the preschool years in most patients. Interactions between acute viral infections, especially those due to rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, and exposure to perennial aeroallergens may induce persistent alterations in immune responses and airway function in susceptible subjects. Similarly, deficits in airway function present shortly after birth predict airflow limitation in early adult life, which in turn is a strong predisposing factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The fact that these alterations are more likely to occur during early life and even in utero than later during childhood suggests that there a developmental window of susceptibility during which exposures can disrupt normal growth trajectories. Novel strategies for primary prevention of chronic respiratory diseases will be based on the identification of the genetic and environmental factors that interactively cause these disruptions. PMID:19387029

Martinez, Fernando D

2009-05-01

360

Long-term antiepileptic drug administration during early life inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in the developing brain.  

PubMed

Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are commonly used to treat seizures in children also affect cognition, and these effects can persist into adulthood, long after drug withdrawal. Widespread enhancement of apoptosis may be one mechanism underlying these lasting cognitive changes. Whether AEDs affect other processes in brain development during early postnatal life has not, however, been systematically analyzed. Here we determined whether chronic administration of common AEDs during early life alters cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Postnatal day 7 (P7) rats received phenobarbital, clonazepam, carbamazepine, valproate, topiramate, or vehicle for 28 days. Bromodeoxyuridine was administered on P34 to label dividing cells. Cell proliferation was assessed 24 hr later, and cell survival and differentiation were assessed 28 days later. Phenobarbital and clonazepam significantly inhibited cell proliferation by 63% and 59%, respectively, and doublecortin immunoreactivity (indicator of neurogenesis) in the dorsal hippocampus was also significantly decreased by 26% and 24%, respectively. Survival of new cells steadily decreased in phenobarbital and clonazepam groups over 28 days. Reduced cell proliferation and survival resulted in fewer new neurons in the dentate gyrus, as confirmed by neuronal counting on P62. There were, however, no differences in cell distribution pattern or differentiation toward neuron and glial cells when phenobarbital and clonazepam groups were compared with controls. There were no changes in rats exposed to carbamazepine, valproate, or topiramate. Thus, inhibiting cell proliferation, survival, and neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus may be another potential mechanism underlying brain impairment associated with certain AED therapies in early life. PMID:19437554

Chen, Jin; Cai, Fangcheng; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Sixiu

2009-10-01

361

Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).  

PubMed

The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2014-03-01

362

Lunar base extension program and closed loop life support systems.  

PubMed

Much of papers describing the Lunar Base Construction have been already published. Lunar Base has been considered to be one of the very useful facilities to conduct the excellent scientific program in near future and also to develop the lunar resources such as 3He and oxygen in order to expand the human activities in space. The scale of lunar base and the construction methods to be adopted should be determined based upon the utilization program to be conducted after the initiation of outpost habitation. In order to construct lunar base, it needs to transport lunar base elements such as habitat modules, experiment modules and so on having 20-30 tons weight and to install, connect and activate on lunar surface. The development of transportation system such as OTV enabling to transport over 30 ton payload weight from earth to moon seems to be very difficult in near future, and it seems reasonable to transport three elements per year as described in many papers already published. Therefore, the initial habitat outpost would not have enough volume to produce foods and has to have ECLS system similar to that of space station already going to be developed. After 2-3 years from the initiation of habitation, the addition of food production facilities could be started to expand the habitability of lunar base and finally the complete closed loop life support system could be installed after spending 6-7 years. This paper describes ECLS technologies to be used in the initial habitat outpost and design philosophy of the closed loop technologies to be utilized in the final stage. PMID:11537132

Nitta, K; Ohya, H

1991-01-01

363

The influence of early and recent life stress on severity of depression.  

PubMed

The influence of life stressors arising in different life stages on the severity of depression was examined in a sample of 123 depressive women, ranging from 22 to 64 years of age. In an interview, information was obtained on the incidence of certain life stressors in early and recent periods. The severity of depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. The results indicate that experience of physical or sexual abuse before the age of 19 is strongly associated with severity of depression. Also, most women suffering from severe depression had previous and recent difficulties in their relationships with parents, partner or others and recent problems with self-esteem. A hypothetical model for predicting the severity of depression was evaluated. Difficulties experienced one year prior to assessment appeared to directly predict severity of depression. Difficulties with social relationships whose origin could be traced back to early periods and that had a continuing effect throughout life were found to be crucial factors for indirectly predicting the severity of depression. PMID:2343756

Garnefski, N; van Egmond, M; Straatman, A

1990-03-01

364

Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).  

PubMed

Reports of the chronic toxicity of dispersed crude oil to early life stages of fish perpetuate uncertainty about dispersant use. However, realistic exposures to dispersed oil in the water column are thought to be much briefer than exposures associated with chronic toxicity testing. To address this issue, the toxicity of dispersed weathered oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was tested for short exposure durations, ranging from 1 to 144 h. Toxicity was a function of concentration and duration of exposure, as well as of the life stage exposed. Medium South American crude oil dispersed with Corexit 9500 caused blue sac disease in embryos, but not in free-swimming embryos. The age of embryos was negatively correlated with their sensitivity to oil; those freshly fertilized were most sensitive. Sensitivity increased after hatch, with free-swimming embryos showing signs of narcosis. Gametes were also tested; dispersed oil dramatically impaired fertilization success. For exposures of less than 24 h, gametes and free-swimming embryos were the most sensitive life stages. For those of more than 24 h, young embryos (<1 d old) were most sensitive. The results are presented as statistical models that could assist decisions about dispersant use in the vicinity of fish spawning habitats. PMID:20821553

McIntosh, Stephen; King, Tom; Wu, Dongmei; Hodson, Peter V

2010-05-01

365

Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

2014-01-01

366

What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 ?m-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain crytic but abundant evidence of past life [3] in the form of fossilised microbial colonies on the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains, in fine volcanic dust deposits, and in the pores of scoriaceous pumice, etc (Fig. 2). Again, these traces can be identified only through petrographic thin section and SEM study. The bulk organic carbon contents of these rocks is very low, ~0.01-0.05% and their C-isotope signature (~ - 25 ‰), although indicative of life, could also be produced through abiological processes [5]. Only the combination of multiple analytical techniques, of which high resolution microscopy is one of the most fundamental, permitted a biogenic origin to be attributed to these structures. Biolaminated sediments, including domal stromatolites, in Early Archaean terrains are the result of anaerobic photosynthetic activity [6-9]. Photosynthesis is a relatively evolved metabolism. Evidence of photosynthetic activity is preserved in the rhythmic laminations found in sediments deposited at the edges of shallow basins due to the growth of photosynthetic microbial mats on the sediment surfaces. These laminations, ranging from a few tens of microns to packets up to a couple of millimetres in thickness, are macroscopically and microscopically visible (Fig. 3). Given sufficient tectonic stability of the shallow water, carbonate platform environments in which they form, photosynthetic microorganisms on the early Earth formed domical stromatolites. In the case of biolaminated sediments, bulk organic carbon contents are again low (0.01 %) but the individual biolaminae have a higher carbon content (0.07%). Certain highly carbonaceous biomaminated cherts have carbon contents ranging up to 0.5% [10]. Photosynthetic organisms, however, are not only restricted to stable substrates and may also be planktonic, living free in the upper layers of water bodies. Evidence of planktonic microorganisms on the early Earth has been suggested by [10]. Whether floating in the ocean or forming mats in the littoral environment, photosynthesisers need unlimited access to sunlight. The ve

Westall, F.

2008-09-01

367

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Visceral Pain in Later Life: Importance of Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA.

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2012-01-01

368

Early life adversity as a risk factor for visceral pain in later life: importance of sex differences.  

PubMed

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA. PMID:23407595

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2013-01-01

369

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.

Nelson, John C. (Editor)

1997-01-01

370

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.

Nelson, John C. (Editor)

1998-01-01

371

Lasting Effects on Body Weight and Mammary Gland Gene Expression in Female Mice upon Early Life Exposure to n-3 but Not n-6 High-Fat Diets  

PubMed Central

Exposure to an imbalance of nutrients prior to conception and during critical developmental periods can have lasting consequences on physiological processes resulting in chronic diseases later in life. Developmental programming has been shown to involve structural and functional changes in important tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early life diet has a programming effect on the mammary gland. Wild-type mice were exposed from 2 weeks prior to conception to 6 weeks of age to a regular low-fat diet, or to high-fat diets based on either corn oil or flaxseed oil. At 6 weeks of age, all mice were shifted to the regular low-fat diet until termination at 10 weeks of age. Early life exposure to a high-fat diet, either high in n-6 (corn oil) or in n-3 (flaxseed oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not affect birth weight, but resulted in an increased body weight at 10 weeks of age. Transcriptome analyses of the fourth abdominal mammary gland revealed differentially expressed genes between the different treatment groups. Exposure to high-fat diet based on flaxseed oil, but not on corn oil, resulted in regulation of pathways involved in energy metabolism, immune response and inflammation. Our findings suggest that diet during early life indeed has a lasting effect on the mammary gland and significantly influences postnatal body weight gain, metabolic status, and signaling networks in the mammary gland of female offspring.

Bastian, Caleb A.; Westerman, Anja; Pisano, M. Michele; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Verhoef, Aart; Green, Maia L.; Piersma, Aldert H.; de Vries, Annemieke; Knudsen, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

372

Sustaining Clinical Programs During Difficult Economic Times: A Case Series from the Hospital Elder Life Program  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore strategies used by clinical programs to justify operations to decision-makers using the example of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), an evidence-based, cost-effective program to improve care for hospitalized older adults. DESIGN Qualitative study design utilizing 62 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with HELP staff members and hospital administrators between September 2008 and August 2009. SETTING 19 HELP sites in hospitals across the U.S. and Canada that had been recruiting patients for at least 6 months. PARTICIPANTS and MEASUREMENTS HELP staff and hospital administrator experiences sustaining the program in the face of actual or perceived financial threats, with a focus on factors they believe are effective in justifying the program to decision-makers in the hospital or health system. RESULTS Using the constant comparative method, a standard qualitative analysis technique, three major themes were identified across interviews. Each focuses on a strategy for successfully justifying the program and securing funds for continued operations: 1) interact meaningfully with decision-makers, including formal presentations that showcase operational successes, and also informal means that highlight the benefits of HELP to the hospital or health system; 2) document day-to-day, operational successes in metrics that resonate with decision-maker priorities; and 3) garner support from influential hospital staff that feed into administrative decision-making, particularly nurses and physicians. CONCLUSION As clinical programs face financially challenging times, it is important to find effective ways to justify their operations to decision-makers. Strategies described here may help clinically-effective and cost-effective programs sustain themselves, and thus may help improve care in their institutions.

SteelFisher, Gillian K.; Martin, Lauren A.; Dowal, Sarah L.; Inouye, Sharon K.

2013-01-01

373

Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird.  

PubMed

Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a 'time bomb' that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

Herborn, Katherine A; Heidinger, Britt J; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

2014-05-01

374

Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life.

Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

2014-01-01

375

Epigenetics of gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring health: the time for action is in early stages of life  

PubMed Central

The epidemic increase of type 2 diabetes and obesity in developed countries cannot be explained by overnutrition, physical inactivity and/or genetic factors alone. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular a shortage or excess of nutrients is associated with increased risks for many complex diseases later in life. An impressive example for the ‘fetal origins of adult disease’ is gestational diabetes mellitus which usually presents in 1% to >10% of third trimester pregnancies. Intrauterine hyperglycemia is not only associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but also with increased lifelong risks of the exposed offspring for obesity, metabolic, cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal overnutrition (and similarly undernutrition) lead to persistent epigenetic changes in developmentally important genes, influencing neuroendocrine functions, energy homeostasis and metabolism. The concept of fetal programming has important implications for reproductive medicine. Because during early development the epigenome is much more vulnerable to environmental cues than later in life, avoiding adverse environmental factors in the periconceptional and intrauterine period may be much more important for the prevention of adult disease than any (i.e. dietetic) measures in infants and adults. A successful pregnancy should not primarily be defined by the outcome at birth but also by the health status in later life.

Lehnen, Harald; Zechner, Ulrich; Haaf, Thomas

2013-01-01

376

Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Gender-Based Vulnerability to Epileptogenesis in Rat Pups  

PubMed Central

During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1), and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS) at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to epileptogenesis in a gender-specific manner.

Desgent, Sebastien; Duss, Sandra; Sanon, Nathalie T.; Lema, Pablo; Levesque, Maxime; Hebert, David; Rebillard, Rose-Marie; Bibeau, Karine; Brochu, Michele; Carmant, Lionel

2012-01-01

377

Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity.

Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; de Souza, Flavio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

2012-01-01

378

Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention.  

PubMed

Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

Bumaschny, Viviana F; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

2012-11-01

379

The Census of Marine Life in the Caribbean: A Biodiversity Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Census of Marine Life (CoML) is an international science program to assess and explain the diversity, distribution and abundance of marine life, past, present and future. The program has three major components which are historical, exploratory and modeling, all of which are integrated into an open source database (OBiS: Ocean Biogeographic information System) for visualization and analysis. in the

P. Miloslavich

2008-01-01

380

Translation of Etiology into Evidence-Based Prevention: The Life Skills Program IPSY  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) is a universal life skills program aiming at the promotion of generic intra-and interpersonal life skills, substance specific skills (for example, resistance skills), school bonding, knowledge, and the prevention of substance misuse with a focus on alcohol and tobacco in youth. This program

Weichold, Karina

2014-01-01

381

Model Programs of Early Education for Hearing-Impaired Children and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes five programs of early intervention for children with hearing impairments and their families. Programs are described according to their mission, services, and unique contribution to the field of early intervention. First, essential components of all programs are identified. These are evaluation, audiological management, parent…

Gatty, Janice C.

382

Addressing the Needs of Latino Children: A National Survey of State Administrators of Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study consisted of a national survey of 117 state administrators of early childhood programs to examine specific challenges, strategies, and beliefs around serving Latino children and families. Four types of early childhood programs were represented: child care, Head Start, Part B-Section 619 preschool special education programs, and Part C…

Buysse, V.; Castro, D.C.; West, T.; Skinner, M.

2005-01-01

383

Learning To Teach in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings: Experiencing an Innovative Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an innovative teacher education program designed to prepare early childhood teachers to work in inclusive classroom settings. The program was begun 5 years ago as part of a dramatic reform effort in the College of Education at the University of Tennessee. Designers of the Inclusive Early Childhood Education (IECE) program

Collier, Lana; Hatch, Amos; Keyl, Julie; LoRe, Sondra; Phillips, Marian

384

Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

Haigh, Karen M.

2009-01-01

385

The connection between early life wheezing and subsequent asthma: The viral march.  

PubMed

Several new lines of evidence suggest that alterations in immune responses which predispose to bronchial obstruction during acute respiratory infection, especially with rhinoviruses, may explain to a considerable extent the link between early life wheezing and subsequent asthma; above all among those schoolchildren who are prone to having recurrent asthma exacerbations. The nature of these alterations is currently the subject of considerable scrutiny, but cross-sectional studies suggest that deficits in innate immune responses mediated by interferon type I and III are present in lung macrophages and epithelial cells of adult asthmatics. Similarly, long-term follow-up studies suggest that deficits in interferon gamma responses in the first year of life predispose to recurrent episodes of wheezing from the preschool years and into early adolescence. A better understanding of the "viral march" could yield new therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of acute severe airway obstruction during childhood. Several longitudinal studies have provided convincing evidence that, in most cases of asthma, the first symptoms of the disease occur during the preschool years.(1-3) Young children who will go on to develop asthma later in life usually have recurrent episodes of wheezing, cough, and difficulty to breathe ("persistent wheezers"),(4) and these episodes are associated with molecular evidence of viral respiratory infection in up to 90% of cases.(5) However, the majority of infants aged <1 year who wheeze remit by the age of 3 (the so-called transient wheezers(6)), and their episodes are also associated with viral infections. Until very recently, a predisposition to allergy was the main disease mechanisms believed to connect early life wheezing with subsequent asthma.(7) The purpose of this brief comment is to review the evidence which suggests that susceptibility to infection with rhinovirus may be a critical additional factor explaining this connection. PMID:19875225

Martinez, F D

2009-01-01

386

Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, 1979-1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Publications of research sponsored by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program from 1979 to 1989 are listed. The CELSS Program encompasses research and technology with the goal of developing an autonomous bioregenerative life support system that continually recycles the solid, liquid, and gaseous materials essential for human life. The bibliography is divided into four major subject areas: food production, nutritional requirements, waste management, and systems management and control.

Wallace, Janice S.; Powers, Janet V.

1990-01-01

387

Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

2010-01-01

388

Program-Level Influences on the Measurement of Early Communication for Infants and Toddlers in Early Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement in early childhood is an increasingly large-scale endeavor addressing purposes of accountability, program improvement, child outcomes, and intervention decision making for individual children. The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is a measure relevant to intervention decision making for infants and toddlers, including response to…

Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Jay; Walker, Dale; Howard, Waylon J.; Anderson, Rawni

2011-01-01

389

34 CFR 303.210 - Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs. 303.210 Section 303.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

2013-07-01

390

"Read My Story!" Using the Early Authors Program to Promote Early Literacy among Diverse, Urban Preschool Children in Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article evaluates the utility of the Early Authors Program, a 12-month early literacy intervention emphasizing highly meaningful language interactions that was implemented in childcare facilities in an ethnically and linguistically diverse, urban, low-income community. Children learn to be writers and readers by creating their own…

Bernhard, Judith K.; Winsler, Adam; Bleiker, Charles; Ginieniewicz, Jorge; Madigan, Amy L.

2008-01-01

391

Early Childhood Programs; Many Poor Children and Strained Resources Challenge Head Start.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Education reform and the reauthorization of Head Start - the centerpiece of federal early childhood programs--have focused attention on (1) improving the quality of early childhood progras and (2) increasing the number of children that they serve. The qua...

1994-01-01

392

Literacy Behaviors of Preschool Children Participating in an Early Intervention Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the teacher-reported early literacy behaviors of 2,759 preschool children who participated in a state-supported, early-intervention preschool program. Preschool teachers ( n = 240) completed the Literacy Competence Checklist for all c...

J. W. Lloyd K. A. Burgess K. L. Sayeski R. C. Planta

2001-01-01

393

Early Stage Oropharyngeal Carcinomas: Comparing Quality of Life for Different Treatment Modalities  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare long-term quality of life outcomes after treating early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma either with surgery, surgery combined with radiotherapy, or surgery combined with chemoradiotherapy. Methods. Questionnaire based method: 111 eligible patients agreed to fill out a quality of life questionnaire. Results. Of the 32 scales contained in the EORTC's combined QLQ-C30 and HN35, 11 scales show significantly better results for the surgery-only treatment group when compared to either surgery combined with radiotherapy or surgery combined with any type of adjuvant therapy. These eleven scales are role function (P = 0.019/0.008), social function (P = 0.01/0.034), nausea (P = 0.017/0.025), pain (P = 0.014/0.023), financial problems (P = 0.030/0.012), speech (P = 0.02/0.015), social eating (P = 0.003/<0.001), mouth opening (P = 0.033/0.016), sticky saliva (P = 0.001/<0.001), swallowing (P < 0.001/<0.001), and dry mouth (P < 0.001/0.001). Conclusion. Treatment of early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma with surgery alone has definite advantages over treatments including any form of adjuvant therapy when considering quality of life. Advantages manifest themselves especially in functional aspects of the head and neck realm; however general health aspects as well as psychosocial aspects show improvements as well. This study does not show any indication of QOL-related drawbacks of surgery-only treatment approaches.

Ryzek, Don-Felix; Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Kunzel, Julian; Grundtner, Philipp; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

2014-01-01

394

Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.  

PubMed

Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

2013-04-01

395

General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume?  

PubMed Central

Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life.

Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

2014-01-01

396

Life before and after residents: subjective reports on quality of life from urologists since inception of a new residency program  

PubMed Central

Background: It is difficult to determine the effect of a residency program on the life of staff urologists. The objective of this study was to obtain subjective reports from urologists who have practiced before and after the implementation of a training program on how it affects their careers in 5 spheres: education, job-stress, free time, financial life and subjective quality of life. Methods: We asked urologists from McMaster University to complete a questionnaire to quantify how their current experiences have changed compared to the pre-residency program era on a balanced 7-point scale (4 = neutral). Results: The response rate was 100% (9/9). Eight of the 9 urologists (89%) reported they would implement the program again if they could rewind the clock. Eight of 9 reported their overall career-related quality of life improved, with an average rating of 5.1 on the 7-point scale. The quality of continuing education was the most positive ranking at 5.4 followed by job stress at 5.2. The outcomes measured below 4 (neutral) were earning potential at 3.8 and ability to engage in pastimes at 3.4. Earning potential was clustered tightly around neutral, with 7 of the 9 respondents reporting no change. The largest standard deviation, corresponding to the most disagreement, was in their ability to engage in pastimes. Conclusion: Even with a mild decrease in earning potential and increased job stress, McMaster urologists feel their quality of life and continuing education have improved since the program’s implementation; these urologists are almost uniformly happy they started a residency teaching program at their centre.

Roberts, Gregory; Whelan, Paul; Kapoor, Anil

2011-01-01

397

Toward understanding how early-life social experiences alter oxytocin- and vasopressin-regulated social behaviors.  

PubMed

The early-life social environment has profound effects on brain development and subsequent expression of social behavior. Oxytocin and vasopressin are expressed and released in the brain and are important regulators of social behavior. Accordingly, the early social environment may alter social behaviors via changes in the oxytocin and/or vasopressin systems. To test this hypothesis, and to gain mechanistic insights, rodent models mimicking either a deprived (e.g. maternal separation) or enriched (e.g. neonatal handling) early social environment have been utilized. Findings indeed show that differences in the quality of the early social environment are associated with brain region-specific alterations in oxytocin and vasopressin expression and oxytocin receptor and vasopressin 1a receptor binding. Early social environment-induced changes in oxytocin and vasopressin systems were associated with changes in several forms of social behavior, including maternal care, aggression, play-fighting, and social recognition. First studies provide evidence for a causal link between altered vasopressin responsiveness and impairments in social recognition in rats exposed to maternal separation and a role for epigenetic mechanisms to explain persistent increases in vasopressin expression in mice exposed to maternal separation. Overall, initial findings suggest that oxytocin and vasopressin systems may mediate early social environment-induced alterations in social behavior. Additional comprehensive studies will be necessary to advance our understanding to what extent changes in oxytocin and vasopressin underlie early social environment-induced alterations in social behavior. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22197269

Veenema, Alexa H

2012-03-01

398

Early Life Adversity Alters the Developmental Profiles of Addiction-Related Prefrontal Cortex Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2–20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC?nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence.

Brenhouse, Heather C.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Andersen, Susan L.

2013-01-01

399

Neuropsychological profiles and subsequent diagnoses of children with early life insults: do caregiver reports suggest deficits?  

PubMed

Many types of early life events can cause cerebral dysfunction; however, not all children have medical records or neurologic imaging documenting brain injuries. Rather, many neuropsychologists base their findings on caregiver reports describing possible early brain insults. Neuropsychological studies suggest that brief perinatal cyanosis and/or childhood neglect may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Should the mere suggestion of these events from caregiver reports be enough to suggest deficits? This study examines four groups of children: those with (1) reported nuchal cord compression with brief cyanosis, (2) reported childhood neglect, (3) reported history of both, and (4) reported history of none. It was hypothesized that based on the literature of these populations, children who present at an evaluation with the report of these insults would also present cognitive deficits. Results revealed no significant difference in intellect, memory, or academic abilities. A significant difference was shown between groups during the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, as groups with a history of neglect had lower scores. A history of childhood neglect also suggested an increased risk for subsequent emotional/behavioral diagnoses. These findings suggest that although the profiles range between low-average and average, reports of early life insults can flag potential deficits in a child's neuropsychological profile. PMID:24236945

Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert

2014-01-01

400

Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development  

PubMed Central

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, we outline and illustrate an overall strategy for discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swimbladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, we explored the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge and, in the process, identify important knowledge gaps. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test.

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C.; Embry, Michelle R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Belanger, Scott E.; Leonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

401

Effects of Diet Quantity on Sheepshead Minnows 'Cyprinodon variegatus' during Early Life-Stage Exposures to Chlorpyrifos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of food quantity on the effects of chlorpyrifos was determined in six early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests with estuarine sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. Three ELS tests were conducted simultaneously, each with a different feedin...

G. M. Cripe D. J. Hansen S. F. Macauley J. Forester

1985-01-01

402

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

Harkness, J. D.

1979-01-01

403

Program to justify life extension of older nuclear piping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has a history of more than 40 years devoted to the operation of nuclear reactors designed for research and experiments. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one such operating reactor whose mission requires continued operation for an additional 25 years or more. Since the ATR is approaching its design life of twenty years, life

T. K. Burr; J. E. Jr. Dwight; D. K. Morton

1991-01-01

404

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

1992-01-01

405

Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars.  

PubMed

There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high-salt, low-water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life. PMID:11543079

Litchfield, C D

1998-07-01

406

Community living long before man: fossil and living microbial mats and early life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial mats are layered communities of bacteria that form cohesive structures, some of which are preserved in sedimentary rocks as stromatolites. Certain rocks, approximately three and a half thousand million years old and representing the oldest known fossils, are interpreted to derive from microbial mats and to contain fossils of microorganisms. Modern microbial mats (such as the one described here from Matanzas, Cuba) and their fossil counterparts are of great interest in the interpretation of early life on Earth. Since examination of microbial mats and stromatolites increases our understanding of long-term stability and change, within the global environment, such structures should be protected wherever possible as natural science preserves. Furthermore, since they have existed virtually from the time of life's origin, microbial mats have developed exemplary mechanisms of local community persistence and may even play roles in the larger global environment that we do not understand.

Margulis, L.; Lopez Baluja, L.; Awramik, S. M.; Sagan, D.

1986-01-01

407

Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier.

Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

2010-01-01

408

Early life stress and telomere length: Investigating the connection and possible mechanisms  

PubMed Central

How can adverse experiences in early life, such as maltreatment, exert such powerful negative effects on health decades later? The answer may lie in changes to DNA. New research suggests that exposure to stress can accelerate the erosion of DNA segments called telomeres. Shorter telomere length correlates with chronological age and also disease morbidity and mortality. Thus, telomere erosion is a potential mechanism linking childhood stress to health problems later in life. However, an array of mechanistic, methodological, and basic biological questions must be addressed in order to translate telomere discoveries into clinical applications for monitoring health and predicting disease risk. This paper covers the current state of the science and lays out new research directions.

Shalev, Idan

2013-01-01

409

The rate of senescence in maternal performance increases with early-life fecundity in red deer.  

PubMed

Tradeoffs between reproduction and somatic maintenance are a frequently cited explanation for reproductive senescence in long-lived vertebrates. Between-individual variation in quality makes such tradeoffs difficult to detect and evidence for their presence from wild populations remains scarce. Here, we examine the factors affecting rates of senescence in maternal breeding performance in a natural population of red deer (Cervus elaphus), using a mixed model framework to control for between-individual variance. Senescence began at 9 years of age in two maternal performance traits. In both traits, females that produced more offspring in early life had faster rates of senescence. This tradeoff is evident alongside significant effects of individual quality on late life breeding performance. These results present rare evidence in support of the disposable soma and antagonistic pleiotropy theories of senescence from a wild vertebrate population and highlight the utility of mixed models for testing theories of ageing. PMID:17118008

Nussey, Daniel H; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Donald, Alison; Fowlie, Martin; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2006-12-01

410

Fossil Lipids for Life-Detection: A Case Study from the Early Earth Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological preservation of lipids from the cell membranes of organisms bestows a precious record of ancient life, especially for the Precambrian eon (>542 million years ago) when Earth life was largely microbial. All organisms produce lipids that, if the lipids survive oxidative degradation, become molecular fossils entrained with information on biological diversity, environmental conditions, and post-depositional alteration history. As with most biosignatures, the molecular fossil record that is indigenous (of the same place) and syngenetic (of the same age) to host rocks can be compromised by the introduction from and reaction with foreign or younger materials (e.g., petroleum or endolithic life). Deciphering the resulting complex pool of organic signals requires tests for the provenance of molecular fossils and the overall quality of the geobiological record itself. This paper reviews the basis for the very existence of a molecular fossil record from lipid biochemistry to mechanisms of organic-matter preservation and geochemical alteration. A systematic approach to resolving the provenance of molecular fossils and historical qualities of the record is presented in a case study of an early Earth record. This example demonstrates the value of geological context and the integration of independent geobiological parameters, which are critical to the detection and understanding of the ecological processes responsible for records of life.

Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.

2008-03-01

411

Fossil Lipids for Life-Detection: A Case Study from the Early Earth Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological preservation of lipids from the cell membranes of organisms bestows a precious record of ancient life, especially for the Precambrian eon (>542 million years ago) when Earth life was largely microbial. All organisms produce lipids that, if the lipids survive oxidative degradation, become molecular fossils entrained with information on biological diversity, environmental conditions, and post-depositional alteration history. As with most biosignatures, the molecular fossil record that is indigenous (of the same place) and syngenetic (of the same age) to host rocks can be compromised by the introduction from and reaction with foreign or younger materials (e.g., petroleum or endolithic life). Deciphering the resulting complex pool of organic signals requires tests for the provenance of molecular fossils and the overall quality of the geobiological record itself. This paper reviews the basis for the very existence of a molecular fossil record from lipid biochemistry to mechanisms of organic-matter preservation and geochemical alteration. A systematic approach to resolving the provenance of molecular fossils and historical qualities of the record is presented in a case study of an early Earth record. This example demonstrates the value of geological context and the integration of independent geobiological parameters, which are critical to the detection and understanding of the ecological processes responsible for records of life.

Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.

412

Microbleeds in Late-Life Depression: Comparison of Early- and Late-Onset Depression  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression could be classified roughly as early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD). LOD was proved to be associated with cerebral lesions including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), differently from EOD. However, it is unclear whether similar association is present between LOD and microbleeds which are also silent lesions. In this study, 195 patients of late-life depression were evaluated and divided into EOD, presenile-onset depression (POD), and LOD groups; 85 healthy elderly controls were enrolled as controls. Subjects were scanned by MRI including susceptibility weighted images to evaluate white matter hyperintensities (WMH), silent brain infarctions (SBI), and microbleeds. The severity of depression was evaluated with 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychosocial factors were investigated with Scale of Life Events and Lubben Social Network Scale. Logistic regression and linear regression were performed to identify the independent risk factors for depression. Results showed that LOD patients had higher prevalence of microbleeds than EOD, POD, and control patients. The prevalence of lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere was the independent risk factor for the occurrence of LOD; a high number of microbleeds were associated with severe state of LOD, whereas life events and lack of social support were more important for EOD and POD. All these results indicated that Microbleeds especially lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere were associated with LOD but not with EOD.

Fang, Min; Xu, Yu; Hua, Ting; Liu, Xue-Yuan

2014-01-01

413

Microbleeds in late-life depression: comparison of early- and late-onset depression.  

PubMed

Late-life depression could be classified roughly as early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD). LOD was proved to be associated with cerebral lesions including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), differently from EOD. However, it is unclear whether similar association is present between LOD and microbleeds which are also silent lesions. In this study, 195 patients of late-life depression were evaluated and divided into EOD, presenile-onset depression (POD), and LOD groups; 85 healthy elderly controls were enrolled as controls. Subjects were scanned by MRI including susceptibility weighted images to evaluate white matter hyperintensities (WMH), silent brain infarctions (SBI), and microbleeds. The severity of depression was evaluated with 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychosocial factors were investigated with Scale of Life Events and Lubben Social Network Scale. Logistic regression and linear regression were performed to identify the independent risk factors for depression. Results showed that LOD patients had higher prevalence of microbleeds than EOD, POD, and control patients. The prevalence of lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere was the independent risk factor for the occurrence of LOD; a high number of microbleeds were associated with severe state of LOD, whereas life events and lack of social support were more important for EOD and POD. All these results indicated that Microbleeds especially lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere were associated with LOD but not with EOD. PMID:24719883

Feng, Chao; Fang, Min; Xu, Yu; Hua, Ting; Liu, Xue-Yuan

2014-01-01

414

Evaluation of Airway Reactivity and Immune Characteristics as Risk Factors for Wheezing Early in Life  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood asthma is most often characterized by recurrent wheezing, airway hyper-reactivity, and atopy; however, our understanding of these relationships from early in life remains unclear. Respiratory illnesses and atopic sensitization early in life may produce an interaction between innate and acquired immune responses leading to airway inflammation and heightened airway reactivity. Objective We hypothesized that pre-morbid airway reactivity and immunologic characteristics of infants without prior episodes of wheezing would be associated with subsequent wheezing during 1-year follow-up. Methods 116 infants with chronic dermatitis were enrolled prior to episodes of wheezing. Airway reactivity, allergen-specific IgE, cytokine production by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and percentages of dendritic cells were measured upon entry and airway reactivity was reassessed at 1-year follow-up. Linear regression models were used to evaluate predictor’s effect on continuous outcomes. Results milk and/or egg sensitization was associated with heightened airway reactivity prior to wheezing and after the onset of wheezing; however, these factors were not associated with an increased risk of wheezing. There was an interaction between initial airway reactivity and wheezing as a determinant of airway reactivity at follow-up. In addition, cytokine production by stimulated PBMCs was a risk factor for wheezing, while increased percentages of conventional dendritic cells were protective for wheezing. Conclusion Our data in a selected cohort of infants support a model with multiple risk factors for subsequent wheezing that are independent of initial airway reactivity; however, the etiologic factors that produce wheezing very early in life may contribute to heightened airway reactivity.

Yao, Weiguo; Barbe-Tuana, Florencia M.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Jones, Marcus H.; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Kisling, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Evelyn T.; Nguyen, James; Yu, Zhangsheng; Kaplan, Mark H.; Tepper, Robert S.

2010-01-01

415

Neuronal Plasticity in the Cingulate Cortex of Rats following Esophageal Acid Exposure in Early Life  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The cingulate cortex (CC) has been reported to be involved in processing pain of esophageal origin. However, little is known about molecular changes and cortical activation that arise from early-life, esophageal acid reflux. Excitatory neurotransmission via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and its interaction with post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) at the synapse appears to mediate neuronal development and plasticity. We investigated the effect of early-life esophageal acid exposure on NMDA receptor subunits and PSD-95 expression in the developing CC. Methods We assessed NMDA receptor subunits and PSD-95 protein expression in rostral CC (rCC) tissues of rats exposed to esophageal acid or saline (control), either during post-natal days 7–14 (P7–P14) and/or acutely, at adult stage (P60), using immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Results Compared with controls, acid exposure from P7 to P14 significantly increased expression of NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95, measured 6 weeks after exposure. However, acute exposure at P60 caused a transient increase in expression of NMDA receptor subunits. These molecular changes were more robust in animals exposed to acid neonatally and rechallenged, acutely, at P60. Esophageal acid exposure induced calcium calmodulin kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of the subunit NR2B at Ser1303. Conclusions Esophageal acid exposure during early stages of life has long-term effects, because of phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor and overexpression in the rCC. This molecular alteration in the rCC might mediate sensitization of patients with acid-induced esophageal disorders.

Banerjee, Banani; Medda, Bidyut K.; Schmidt, Jamie; Lang, Ivan M.; Sengupta, Jyoti N.; Shaker, Reza

2011-01-01

416

Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants.  

PubMed

This review explores the different aspects of constitutional factors in early life that modulate toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of low-dose mercury resulting from acute ethylmercury (etHg) exposure in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV). Major databases were searched for human and experimental studies that addressed issues related to early life exposure to TCV. It can be concluded that: a) mercury load in fetuses, neonates, and infants resulting from TCVs remains in blood of neonates and infants at sufficient concentration and for enough time to penetrate the brain and to exert a neurologic impact and a probable influence on neurodevelopment of susceptible infants; b) etHg metabolism related to neurodevelopmental delays has been demonstrated experimentally and observed in population studies; c) unlike chronic Hg exposure during pregnancy, neurodevelopmental effects caused by acute (repeated/cumulative) early life exposure to TCV-etHg remain unrecognized; and d) the uncertainty surrounding low-dose toxicity of etHg is challenging but recent evidence indicates that avoiding cumulative insults by alkyl-mercury forms (which include Thimerosal) is warranted. It is important to a) maintain trust in vaccines while reinforcing current public health policies to abate mercury exposure in infancy; b) generally support WHO policies that recommend vaccination to prevent and control existing and impending infectious diseases; and c) not confuse the 'need' to use a specific 'product' (TCV) by accepting as 'innocuous' (or without consequences) the presence of a proven 'toxic alkyl-mercury' (etHg) at levels that have not been proven to be toxicologically safe. PMID:23992327

Dórea, José G

2013-01-01

417

Animal Crackers, Milk, and a Good Book: Creating a Successful Early Childhood Literacy Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood literacy program called Begin with Books and provides ideas for starting up, finding, and administering similar programs in public libraries. Topics include corporate sponsors; staffing; partnering with community organizations; training; scheduling; and budget information. (LRW)

Oakes, Susan; Virbick, Diane E.

2001-01-01

418

Early Life Stress Triggers Persistent Colonic Barrier Dysfunction and Exacerbates Colitis in Adult IL-10-/- Mice  

PubMed Central

Background It has become increasingly evident that disease flares in the human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are influenced by life stress. It is known that life stress can trigger disturbances in intestinal barrier function and activate proinflammatory signaling pathways, which are important contributors to intestinal inflammation and clinical disease; however, the exact mechanisms of stress-induced IBD exacerbations remain to be elucidated. Here we present a model of early life stress-induced exacerbation of colitis in IL-10-/- mice. Methods C57Bl/6 wild type and IL-10-/- mice were exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) stress on postnatal days 1-18 and reared under normal conditions until 10-12 weeks of age. At this time, histopathology, colitis scores, intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory cytokine expression and mast cell activity were evaluated. Results NMS increased the severity of colitis IL-10-/- mice indicated by greater colitis scores and colonic proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. NMS and IL-10-/- increased colonic permeability; however, NMS alone did not induce colitis. Increased mast cell activation and colonic tryptase release were observed in IL-10-/- mice exposed to NMS, indicating mast cell activation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that colitis in IL-10-/- mice can be exacerbated by NMS stress. The precise mechanisms of enhanced colitis severity in NMS IL10-/- mice are unclear but persistent defects in intestinal barrier function likely play a contributing role. NMS serves as a novel model to investigate the mechanisms by which early life stress influences the development and course of IBD in adulthood.

Lennon, E.M.; Maharshak, N.; Elloumi, H.; Borst, L.; Plevy, S.E.; Moeser, A.J.

2014-01-01

419

Impact of salinity on early life history traits of three estuarine fish species in Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive mechanisms on the early life stages of fishes to hypersaline stress are still poorly understood and probably determine the resistance of a population to disruption, compared with other less plastic species. The Casamance River in Senegal is an ideal location to test the adaptation to salinity as a dam was built in 1998 to exclude saline water intrusion. This lowered the salinity from 70 to 5 upstream and 60 downstream. The salinity influence on the growth in the early life of three West African fish species ( Ethmalosa fimbriata, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Tilapia guineensis) was studied using the width of microstructures in the otoliths and the individual migratory behaviour analysed from strontium (Sr) to calcium (Ca) ratios in the otoliths. The Sr:Ca ratio was quantified along individual transects measured from the posterior edge of the otolith to the core. The fishes were sampled on both sides of the dam that separated water with low salinity upstream from metahaline and hyperhaline water downstream. The results showed that salinity has different influence on the growth of each species. Ethmalosa fimbriata has the highest growth during the first 180 days in the freshwaters, indicating growth inhibition in the hyperhaline areas. For the two other species no growth difference were found. The Sr/Ca ratio varied widely, in Tilapia and Sarotherodon from below the dam. Individual life histories were more heterogeneous than upstream and showed a crossing of the dam for some individuals which could reach half of the fishes analysed. On the contrary in E. fimbriata, despite the large range of salinity, identical Sr/Ca profiles were found both upstream and downstream. This indicated that Sr/Ca ratio was not appropriate to evaluate life history patterns linked to salinity for this specie.

Labonne, Maylis; Morize, Eric; Scolan, Pierre; Lae, Raymond; Dabas, Eric; Bohn, Marcel

2009-05-01

420

Postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk and body size in early life and middle age: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: Greater adiposity in early life has been linked to increased endometrial cancer risk in later life, but the extent to which this association is mediated through adiposity in later life is unclear. Methods: Among postmenopausal women who had never used menopausal hormone therapies and reported not having had a hysterectomy, adjusted relative risks (RRs) of endometrial cancer were estimated using Cox regression. Results: Among 249?791 postmenopausal women with 7.3 years of follow-up on average (1.8 million person-years), endometrial cancer risk (n=1410 cases) was strongly associated with current body mass index (BMI) at baseline (RR=1.87 per 5?kg?m?2 increase in BMI, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77–1.96). Compared with women thinner than average at age 10, the increased risk among women plumper at age 10 (RR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.49) disappeared after adjustment for current BMI (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.77–1.06). Similarly, compared with women with clothes size 12 or less at age 20, the increased risk among women with clothes size 16 or larger (RR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.61–2.18) was not significant after adjustment for current BMI (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.88–1.22). Conclusion: Among women who have never used hormone therapy for menopause, the association between body size in early life and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women can be largely explained by women's current BMI.

Yang, T Y O; Cairns, B J; Allen, N; Sweetland, S; Reeves, G K; Beral, V

2012-01-01

421

On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.  

PubMed

Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. PMID:24246856

Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

2014-04-01

422

Assessment of uptake and toxicity of fluorescent silica nanoparticles in zebrafish ( Danio rerio) early life stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we determined uptake and toxicity of fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (FSNP) in early life stages of zebrafish. For this purpose fluorescent Ru@SiO2 nanoparticles with average size of ?200nm encapsulating [Ru(bpy)3]2+Cl2 dye (excitation wavelength ?exci=488nm), and Cy5.5@SiO2 with average size of ?60nm (?exci=700nm) were synthesized. The FSNP were highly luminescent. Field emission SEM analysis showed monodispersed dual-shell Ru@SiO2

Karl Fent; Christin J. Weisbrod; Amina Wirth-Heller; Uwe Pieles

2010-01-01

423

78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-02-13

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78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-05-01

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78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources...Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early...

2013-02-13

426

A History of the Research on the Early Marine Life of Pacific Salmon Off Canada's Pacific Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies of the early ocean period of salmon life history conducted in the coastal areas off Canada's West Coast. The role of the ocean in the dynamics of salmon popula- tions has received considerably less study than their life cycle in fresh water, even though Pacific salmon in general spend more time in the ocean than in fresh

Richard J. Beamish; Isobell A. Pearsall; Mike C. Healey

2003-01-01

427

Moderator role of self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction and depression in early adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale,

Asim Çivitci

2010-01-01

428

Space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program for the design and operation of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basic optimization program, (2) off design performance, (3) radiator/evaporator expendable usage, (4) component weights, and (5) computer program operating procedures.

1972-01-01

429

A Team-Sports-Based Life-Skills Program in a Physical Education Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused…

Goudas, Marios; Giannoudis, Georgios

2008-01-01

430

Planning for Life. A Compendium of Nationally Recognized Career Planning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compendium, which is designed to provide readers with a variety of career planning (CP) program ideas, contains abstracts summarizing 10 elementary, middle, and high school CP programs identified as exemplary by a national review team. Explained in chapter 1 are the primary objectives of the Planning for Life program, which is jointly…

National Consortium of State Career Guidance Supervisors, Columbus, OH.

431

Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

2011-01-01

432

Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Niño, an Early Child Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Niño, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at least half the child's life.

Shannon Peairson; Ann M. Berghout Austin; Cyle Nielsen de Aquino; Elizabeth Urbieta de Burró

2008-01-01