Sample records for early life programming

  1. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374

  2. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  3. Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Murgatroyd; Alexandre V Patchev; Yonghe Wu; Vincenzo Micale; Yvonne Bockmühl; Dieter Fischer; Florian Holsboer; Carsten T Wotjak; Osborne F X Almeida; Dietmar Spengler

    2009-01-01

    Adverse early life events can induce long-lasting changes in physiology and behavior. We found that early-life stress (ELS) in mice caused enduring hypersecretion of corticosterone and alterations in passive stress coping and memory. This phenotype was accompanied by a persistent increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and was reversed by an AVP receptor

  4. Genetic and epigenetic catalysts in early-life programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Estampador, Angela C; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has emerged across the past few decades that the lifetime risk of developing morbidities like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease may be influenced by exposures that occur in utero and in childhood. Developmental abnormalities are known to occur at various stages in fetal growth. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies have sought to delineate developmental processes and plausible risk factors influencing pregnancy outcomes and later health. Whether these observations reflect causal processes or are confounded by genetic and social factors remains unclear, although animal (and some human) studies suggest that epigenetic programming events may be involved. Regardless of the causal basis to observations of early-life risk factors and later disease risk, the fact that such associations exist and that they are of a fairly large magnitude justifies further research around this topic. Furthermore, additional information is needed to substantiate public health guidelines on lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy to improve infant health outcomes. Indeed, lifestyle intervention clinical trials in pregnancy are now coming online, where materials and data are being collected that should facilitate understanding of the causal nature of intrauterine exposures related with gestational weight gain, such as elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations. In this review, we provide an overview of these concepts. PMID:25489250

  5. Developmental programming of the HPA and HPG axes by early-life stress in male and female song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kim L; Macdougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A; Soma, Kiran K; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-01-15

    Variation in early environmental conditions can have long-term effects on physiology and behavior, a process referred to as developmental programming. In particular, exposure to early-life stressors can have long-term effects on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Although these effects have been well documented in mammals, less is known about how early-life stress affects regulation of these endocrine systems in non-mammalian species. In the current study, we determined the long-term effects of early-life food restriction or corticosterone (CORT) treatment on the HPA axis of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), including the responses to restraint stress, dexamethasone challenge, and ACTH challenge. In addition, we assessed long-term effects on the HPG axis by measuring sex steroid levels (testosterone in males and 17?-estradiol in females) before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Subjects treated with CORT during development had larger increases in CORT in response to ACTH challenge than food-restricted or control subjects. Neither treatment affected the responses of CORT to restraint or dexamethasone. CORT-treated males also had higher initial testosterone levels, but neither treatment affected testosterone levels post-GnRH. Lastly, although GnRH challenge failed to increase circulating estradiol levels in females, females exposed to food restriction or CORT treatment had lower estradiol levels than control females. These results show that exposure to stress can developmentally program the endocrine system of songbirds and illustrate the importance of considering developmental conditions when determining the factors responsible for inter-individual variation in endocrine regulation. PMID:24291303

  6. Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

  7. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  8. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  9. Early-Life Exposure to Testosterone Programs the Hypothalamic Melanocortin System

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Kazunari; Zhang, Yan; Waraich, Rizwana S.; Laque, Amanda; Tiano, Joseph P.; Tong, Jenny; Münzberg, Heike

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, males consume more food, which is considered a masculinized behavior, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-specific feeding behavior is unknown. In mice, neonatal testosterone (NT) is critical to masculinize the developing brain, leading to sex differences in reproductive physiology. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are critical to suppress energy intake and POMC innervation of hypothalamic feeding circuits develops to a large extent neonatally. We hypothesized that NT programs the masculinization of energy intake by programming POMC neurons. We tested this hypothesis by comparing control females and control males (CMs) with female mice neonatally androgenized with testosterone (NTFs). We show that increased food intake in CMs is associated with reduced POMC expression and decreased intensity of neuronal projections from POMC neurons within the ARC compared with control females. We found that NTFs display a masculinized energy intake and ARC POMC expression and innervation as observed in CMs, which can be mimicked by neonatal exposure to the androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). NTFs also exhibit hyperleptinemia and a decreased ability of leptin to up-regulate POMC, suppress food intake, and prevent adipose tissue accumulation, independent of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. However, this leptin resistance is specific to NTFs, is not a consequence of masculinization, and is reproduced by neonatal exposure to estrogen but not DHT. Thus, NT programs a sexual differentiation of POMC neurons in female mice via DHT but also predisposes to leptin resistance and obesity in an estrogen-dependent manner. PMID:21303958

  10. Consensus statement understanding health and malnutrition through a systems approach: the ENOUGH program for early life.

    PubMed

    Kaput, Jim; van Ommen, Ben; Kremer, Bas; Priami, Corrado; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Morine, Melissa; Pepping, Fre; Diaz, Zoey; Fenech, Michael; He, Yiwu; Albers, Ruud; Drevon, Christian A; Evelo, Chris T; Hancock, Robert E W; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; Lumey, L H; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Muller, Michael; Murgia, Chiara; Radonjic, Marijana; Sobral, Bruno; West, Keith P

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum's one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of health and disease processes requiring measurements of physiological processes, as well as environmental and social factors, which may alter the expression of genetic information. Analysis of physiological processes with omics technologies to assess systems' responses has only become available over the past decade and remains costly. Studies of environmental and social conditions known to alter health are often not connected to biomedical research. While these facts are widely accepted, developing and conducting comprehensive research programs for health are often beyond financial and human resources of single research groups. We propose a new research program on essential nutrients for optimal underpinning of growth and health (ENOUGH) that will use systems approaches with more comprehensive measurements and biostatistical analysis of the many biological and environmental factors that influence undernutrition. Creating a knowledge base for nutrition and health is a necessary first step toward developing solutions targeted to different populations in diverse social and physical environments for the two billion undernourished people in developed and developing economies. PMID:24363221

  11. Early Childhood Education Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Currie

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses early childhood education programs: their goals; effectiveness; optimal timing, targeting, and content; and costs and benefits. Early intervention has significant short- and medium-term benefits: most notably it reduces grade repetition and special education costs, and provides quality child care. The effects are greatest for more disadvantaged children. Some model programs have produced exciting improvements in educational attainment

  12. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115

  13. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program—IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)—against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5–13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament, self-worth, social problems with peers). Method Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 1,484). A longitudinal quasi-experimental design (intervention/control) with schoolwise assignment to the respective groups was used. Data were gathered via self-report questionnaire. Two-part growth mixture modeling was applied. Results Two prototypical trajectory classes of early alcohol use were found: a problematic group with a sharp increase in prevalence and quantity of consumed alcohol (19.7%) and a normative group with a moderate increase in both outcomes (80.3%). The problematic trajectory class was associated with several risk factors. IPSY decreased the likelihood of membership in the problematic group. Furthermore, IPSY buffered the increase in prevalence and quantity for the normative group, whereas it had no effects on these indicators for the problematic group. Concerning quantity of alcohol use, the effect size in terms of a difference in estimated means between intervention and control group at the last measurement point in the normative group was d = 0.33 (95% CI [0.21, 0.44]). Conclusions Study findings indicate the usefulness of IPSY for reducing alcohol use especially in normative developing adolescents. However, the minority of adolescents consistently pursuing a problematic developmental pathway of alcohol use seem to be in need of earlier, more tailored treatments. PMID:20515209

  14. The Early History of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Nisbet; C. M. R. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly

  15. Early Career Development Program

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Early Career Development Program Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Council For more Association 9/14DS8669 Promo Code MBJ142ZZ The Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Council Acknowledging accomplishments of young investigators in arteriosclerosis, thrombosis and vascular biology

  16. Metabolic Induction and Early Responses of Mouse Blastocyst Developmental Programming following Maternal Low Protein Diet Affecting Life-Long Health

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Judith J.; Porter, Richard; Watkins, Adam J.; Burt, Elizabeth; Brooks, Suzanne; Leese, Henry J.; Humpherson, Peter G.; Cameron, Iain T.; Fleming, Tom P.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD), is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5), notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs) including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery. PMID:23300778

  17. Early Childhood Programs for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    Investments in children during the early years of life are regarded as one of the most effective ways to promote children's learning. This book synthesizes the research base and state of practice of early childhood learning and answers such questions as: What programs are most effective, and who benefits most from them? What are the key components…

  18. Early-life programming of susceptibility to dysregulation of glucose metabolism and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Holness, M J; Langdown, M L; Sugden, M C

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing epidemiological evidence in humans which associates low birthweight with later metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. There is evidence that nutritional and hormonal factors (e.g. maternal protein restriction, exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids) markedly influence intra-uterine growth and development. A picture is also emerging of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that may underlie these effects. This review focuses on recent research directed towards understanding the molecular basis of the relationship between indices of poor early growth and the subsequent development of glucose intolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus using animal models that attempt to recreate the process of programming via an adverse intra-uterine or neonatal environment. Emphasis is on the chain of events and potential mechanisms by which adverse adaptations affect pancreatic-beta-cell insulin secretion and the sensitivity to insulin of key metabolic processes, including hepatic glucose production, skeletal-muscle glucose disposal and adipose-tissue lipolysis. Unravelling the molecular details involved in metabolic programming may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of impaired glucoregulation and Type 2 diabetes. PMID:10903125

  19. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  20. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

  1. Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Benjamin G; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A; Corteen, Nicole L; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

    2013-12-11

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?(0/0)) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?(0/0) offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?(0/0) pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

  2. Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D

    2011-12-01

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

  3. Early-Life Experience Decreases Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Morphine CPP in Adulthood via Microglial-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

  4. Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

  5. The Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga ago, for the most part the planet was peaceful. Even the most active volcanoes are mostly quiet; meteorites large enough to extinguish all dinosaurs may have hit as often as every few thousand years, but this is not enough to be a nuisance to a bacterium (except when the impact boiled the ocean); while to the photosynthesizer long-term shifts in the solar spectrum may be less of a problem than cloudy hazy days. Though, admittedly, green is junk light to biology, the excretion from the photosynthetic antennae, nevertheless even a green sky would have had other wavelengths also in its spectrum.Most important of all, like all good houses, this planet had location: Earth was just in the right spot. Not too far from the faint young Sun (Sagan and Chyba, 1997), it was also far enough away still to be in the comfort zone ( Kasting et al., 1993) when the mature Sun brightened. As many have pointed out, when Goldilocks arrived, she found everything just right. But what is less obvious is that as she grew and changed, and the room changed too, she commenced to rearrange the furniture to make it ever righter for her. Thus far, the bears have not arrived, though they may have reclaimed Mars from Goldilocks's sister see ( Figure 1). (3K)Figure 1. The habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Too close to the Sun, a planet's surface is too hot to be habitable; too far, it is too cold. Early in the history of the solar system, the Sun was faint and the habitable zone was relatively close; 4.5 Ga later, with a brighter Sun, planets formerly habitable are now too hot, and the habitable zone has shifted out. Note that boundaries can shift. By changing its albedo and by altering the greenhouse gas content of the air, the planet can significantly widen the bounds of the habitable zone (Lovelock, 1979, 1988).

  6. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  7. Life After the Ban: An Assessment of US Syringe Exchange Programs’ Attitudes About and Early Experiences With Federal Funding

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erika G.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Mann, Marita R.; Beletsky, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to determine whether syringe exchange programs (SEPs) currently receive or anticipate pursuing federal funding and barriers to funding applications following the recent removal of the long-standing ban on using federal funds for SEPs. Methods. We conducted a telephone-administered cross-sectional survey of US SEPs. Descriptive statistics summarized responses; bivariate analyses examined differences in pursuing funding and experiencing barriers by program characteristics. Results. Of the 187 SEPs (92.1%) that responded, 90.9% were legally authorized. Three received federal funds and 116 intended to pursue federal funding. Perceived federal funding barriers were common and included availability and accessibility of funds, legal requirements such as written police support, resource capacity to apply and comply with funding regulations, local political and structural organization, and concern around altering program culture. Programs without legal authorization, health department affiliation, large distribution, or comprehensive planning reported more federal funding barriers. Conclusions. Policy implementation gaps appear to render federal support primarily symbolic. In practice, funding opportunities may not be available to all SEPs. Increased technical assistance and legal reform could improve access to federal funds, especially for SEPs with smaller capacity and tenuous local support. PMID:22420810

  8. The Family & Life Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Mellie R.

    The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

  9. Determinants of early life leptin levels and later life degenerative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alexe, Delia-Marina; Syridou, Garyfallia; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2006-12-01

    The early (intrauterine and neonatal) life environment plays an important role in programming the susceptibility in later life to chronic degenerative diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer and osteoporosis. Among other hormones, leptin plays a major role in the regulation of the overall metabolism and has multiple neuroendocrine (adeno- and neuro-hypophysis axes and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) and immune functions. The hormone exerts its actions beginning in the early life time period, regulating the intrauterine and early extrauterine life growth and development, as well as the adaptation to extrauterine life, neonatal thermogenesis and response to stress. Recent findings also support a role of leptin in the process of fetal bone remodeling and brain development. Therefore, it is of interest to explore the physiology of leptin in early life, as well as those factors that may perturb the balance of the hormone with pathological consequences in terms of confining an increased risk for disease in later life. This review aims to summarize reported findings concerning the role of leptin in early life, as well as the association of fetal, maternal and placental factors with leptin levels, while attempting to speculate mechanisms through which these factors may influence the risk for developing chronic diseases in later life. PMID:17210981

  10. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing the Fellow to be a better job applicant. NASA opportunities from the undergraduate to postdoctoral level are also discussed.

  11. GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM EARLY ADMISSIONS PROCESS

    E-print Network

    education program and be licensed in Early Childhood/Elementary Education. While the minor1 GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM EARLY ADMISSIONS PROCESS For Elementary Education Minor ORELA (Early Childhood, Elementary, and Middle Level applicants) Applicants successful in the Early

  12. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  13. A Temperament Questionnaire for Early Adult Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Thomas; Mary Mittelman; Stella Chess; Sam J. Korn; Jacob Cohen

    1982-01-01

    The construction of a temperament questionnaire for early adult life is described, utilizing the nine categories of the New York Longitudinal Study. A correlation matrix of the nine categories, as generated from the 140 item questionnaire, and a factor analysis are reported, and the significance of the factor is discussed. The questionnaire was administered to 70 young adult subjects of

  14. Immunity to Cytomegalovirus in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Huygens, Ariane; Dauby, Nicolas; Vermijlen, David; Marchant, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection and is the leading non-genetic cause of neurological defects. CMV infection in early life is also associated with intense and prolonged viral excretion, indicating limited control of viral replication. This review summarizes our current understanding of the innate and adaptive immune responses to CMV infection during fetal life and infancy. It illustrates the fact that studies of congenital CMV infection have provided a proof of principle that the human fetus can develop anti-viral innate and adaptive immune responses, indicating that such responses should be inducible by vaccination in early life. The review also emphasizes the fact that our understanding of the mechanisms involved in symptomatic congenital CMV infection remains limited. PMID:25400639

  15. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable conditions are meet. Perhaps it could start in a very short interval during the first tens of millions of years after crustal formation. Even with impact-driven extinction events, such a short start-up time would allow life to restart multiple times until it persevered. If panspermia is considered, life could be introduced as soon as liquid surface water was present and could instantly thrive and spread.

  16. Early evolution without a tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942

  17. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  18. Expert Panel Workshop on Early-Life Events and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) sponsored an Expert Panel Workshop on Early-Life Events and Cancer on May 25, 2011. There is emerging epidemiological and animal evidence that early-life events and exposures are important determinants of cancer development later in life. However, understanding how to study the impact of early-life exposures on human cancers later in life is a new challenge for cancer research.

  19. Symbiogenesis and the early evolution of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrapico, Francisco; Rodrigues, Telma

    2005-09-01

    The concept of symbiogenesis was introduced in 1909 by the Russian biologist Constantin Merezhkowsky as "the origin of organisms by the combination or by the association of two or several beings which enter into symbiosis". In this article we develop this idea, associated to the Freeman Dyson's hypothesis, applied to the early evolutive stages of life, considering that it could be a possible main rule in the appearance and development of life conditions on Earth and elsewhere. A cooperative, synergistic strategy should be considered as having been the determinant in the development of the survival of the fittest, especially under extremely adverse environmental conditions. This concept must be also applied to the first communities of cells as the base supporting evolution of the early "tree of life". Cells, like we have previously described, can be included in a new cellular concept entitled, "symbiocell", since survival of the community under such adverse conditions required a cooperative, synergistic strategy. Similar principles could also be used to understand chemical pre-biotic evolution. We believe that astrobiologists should consider it as a new approach to understand organic and biological evolution.

  20. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  1. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M; Openshaw, Peter J M; Culley, Fiona J

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines. PMID:25324843

  2. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Culley, Fiona J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines. PMID:25324843

  3. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  4. GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

  5. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

    2007-08-14

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  6. Space life support engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a moon station or a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance work stations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

  7. Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

  8. Altered GABA Signaling in Early Life Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of seizures is particularly high in the early ages of life. The immaturity of inhibitory systems, such as GABA, during normal brain development and its further dysregulation under pathological conditions that predispose to seizures have been speculated to play a major role in facilitating seizures. Seizures can further impair or disrupt GABAA signaling by reshuffling the subunit composition of its receptors or causing aberrant reappearance of depolarizing or hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor currents. Such effects may not result in epileptogenesis as frequently as they do in adults. Given the central role of GABAA signaling in brain function and development, perturbation of its physiological role may interfere with neuronal morphology, differentiation, and connectivity, manifesting as cognitive or neurodevelopmental deficits. The current GABAergic antiepileptic drugs, while often effective for adults, are not always capable of stopping seizures and preventing their sequelae in neonates. Recent studies have explored the therapeutic potential of chloride cotransporter inhibitors, such as bumetanide, as adjunctive therapies of neonatal seizures. However, more needs to be known so as to develop therapies capable of stopping seizures while preserving the age- and sex-appropriate development of the brain. PMID:21826277

  9. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew Aaron; van Haren, Simon Daniël; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at term delivery than in adults, and lower still at preterm delivery. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ontogeny of plasma factors can be viewed in the context of a lower effectiveness of immune responses to infection and immunization in early life, which may be influenced by the striking neonatal deficiency of complement system proteins or enhanced neonatal production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, among other ontogenic differences. Accordingly, we survey here a number of soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function, particularly direct innate interaction and skewing of adaptive lymphocyte activity in response to infectious microorganisms and adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:25309541

  10. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  11. Early Childhood Distance Partnership Program

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    the needs of Tribal Head Start/Early Childhood educators to complete a Bachelor Degree · Respond to national and Early Childhood Educators from six tribal communities to complete bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education Enables ECEDP students to live and teach in their home communities Connects Native early childhood

  12. THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC HAKE, MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS

    E-print Network

    THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC HAKE, MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS KEVIN M. BAILEY1 ABSTRACT The early life history of Pacific hake. Merluccius productus. is described from laboratory and field studies Current. First-feeding hake larvae require a daily ingestion of about 0.13 calories. In this study I

  13. Metabolic Programming in the Immediate Postnatal Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mulchand S. Patel; Malathi Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment

  14. Immunity to HIV in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Goulder, Philip Jeremy Renshaw

    2014-01-01

    The developing immune system is adapted to the exposure to a plethora of pathogenic and non-pathogenic antigens encountered in utero and after birth, requiring a fine balance between protective immunity and immune tolerance. In early stages of life, this tolerogenic state of the innate and adaptive immune system and the lack of immunological memory render the host more susceptible to infectious pathogens like HIV. HIV pathogenesis is different in children, compared to adults, with more rapid disease progression and a substantial lack of control of viremia compared to adults. Plasma viral load remains high during infancy and only declines gradually over several years in line with immune maturation, even in rare cases where children maintain normal CD4 T-lymphocyte counts for several years without antiretroviral therapy (ART). These pediatric slow progressors also typically show low levels of immune activation despite persistently high viremia, resembling the phenotype of natural hosts of SIV infection. The lack of immunological memory places the fetus and the newborn at higher risk of infections; however, it may also provide an opportunity for unique interventions. Frequencies of central memory CD4+ T-lymphocytes, one of the main cellular reservoirs of HIV, are very low in the newborn child, so immediate ART could prevent the establishment of persistent viral reservoirs and result in “functional cure.” However, as recently demonstrated in the case report of the “Mississippi child” who experienced viral rebound after more than 2?years off ART, additional immunomodulatory strategies might be required for sustained viral suppression after ART cessation. In this review, we discuss the interactions between HIV and the developing immune system in children and the potential implications for therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:25161656

  15. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  16. Researching early childhood student teachers: Life histories and course experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ann Farrell; Sue Walker; Anna Bower; Deborah Gahan

    2000-01-01

    Changing expectations of students in early childhood teacher education, diversity of their life histories, extramural commitments,\\u000a and the socio-cultural contest of the early childhood sector have raised a range of concerns about the course experience of\\u000a students enrolled in the Bachelor of Education (Early childhood) in the School of Early Childhood, at the Queensland University\\u000a of Technology. This paper reports

  17. Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

  18. Early Life Socioeconomic Circumstance and Late Life Brain Hyperintensities – A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alison D.; McNeil, Christopher J.; Salarirad, Sima; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Staff, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    Context There have been many reports confirming the association between lower childhood socioeconomic circumstance and cardiovascular disease but evidence for links with cerebrovascular disease is contradictory. Hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging are associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia and death. However, the relationship between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and these lesions is unclear. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood socioeconomic circumstance is associated with late life hyperintensity burden and that neither adult socioeconomic circumstance nor change in socioeconomic circumstance during life influence this effect. Design Cohort study Setting Community Participants 227 community dwelling members of the 1936 Aberdeen Birth Cohort aged 68 years, who were free from dementia. Main Outcome Measures Relationship between early life socioeconomic circumstance (paternal occupation) and abundance of late life brain hyperintensities. Results We find significant negative correlations between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and white matter hyperintensities (??=??0.18, P<0.01), and periventricular hyperintensities (??=??0.15, P<0.05), between educational attainment and white matter hyperintensities (??=??0.15, P<0.05) and periventricular hyperintensities (??=??0.17, P<0.05), and between childhood intelligence and periventricular hyperintensities (??=??0.14, P<0.05). The relationship is strongest for childhood socioeconomic circumstance and regional white matter hyperintensities, where there is a step change in increased burden from paternal occupation grades equivalent to a shift from “white collar” to “blue collar” paternal occupation. Significant correlations were also found between hypertension and hyperintensity burden in all brain regions (??=?0.15–0.24, P<0.05). In models that include hypertension, the magnitude of the effect of childhood socioeconomic circumstance is similar to and independent from that of hypertension. Conclusions Childhood socioeconomic circumstance predicts the burden of brain white matter hyperintensities aged 68 years. The mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, but may act through fetal and/or early life programming of cerebrovascular disease. Future work to understand this vulnerability will inform strategies to reduce dementia and stroke. PMID:24558456

  19. The early evolution of life: solution to Darwin's dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of Precambrian fossils indicate that life on Earth originated earlier than assumed, microscopic life was prevalent in the Precambrian Eon, the tempo and mode of evolution during the Precambrian period were different from other periods, and that only the Precambrian fossil record can be used as evidence of early life. Implications for future research include directing the search for the origin of life away from the geological record, modification of hypotheses about molecular change, use of Precambrian microfossils in dating younger geological units, and progress in defining the nature of major events in early evolution.

  20. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  1. Early Intervention Program Practices That Support Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Hale, Lynette; Rule, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    A study explored the perceptions of 397 parents and 26 service coordinators on early intervention program practices that affected collaboration. Factors included program philosophy and climate, service delivery (including options for service delivery), teaming approaches, administrative policies and practices (including quality of program…

  2. Early earth: Arsenic and primordial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas R.

    2014-11-01

    Some modern microorganisms derive energy from the oxidation and reduction of arsenic. The association of arsenic with organic cellular remains in 2.7-billion-year-old stromatolites hints at arsenic-based metabolisms at the dawn of life.

  3. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  4. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

  5. Barcode of Life Initiative: Early Success

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Discussion of molecular barcoding methods for determining species. While in early phases results have been mixed, this page provides a positive example in insects. Other menu choices provide some of the basic principles, and a general statement of the purpose.

  6. Early Life Trauma Among Women Shoplifters and Sex Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail A. Caputo

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the life history of 38 drug-addicted women, this article adds to extant literature on early life trauma in female offenders by distinguishing between women on the crimes they chose to pursue. It revealed how chronic physical and sexual abuses and the invisible suffering of emotional abuse, neglect, and abandonment occurring within the childhood home resonated as the trigger

  7. 3 Early Life on Earth and Analogies to Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Westall

    2005-01-01

    One of the prime necessities of life is liquid water [87]. The presence of liquid water on a planet therefore naturally leads to the question of whether that planet hosted or still hosts life. Although there is much dispute at the moment as to how much water Mars had in its early history and at what temperature, there is sufficient

  8. Conway's Game of Life: Early Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Robert

    When the October 1970 issue of Scientific American arrived, I had no idea the extent to which Martin Gardner's article in that issue would affect my life. As long as I can remember, my custom would be to seek out the Mathematical Games column in search for Gardner's latest topic with the usual reader challenges. My first reaction to that particular article introducing a new pastime titled "The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game 'life''' was only mildly interesting. A couple of days later, still curious about the outcome of random patterns, I located an old checkerboard and a small jarful of pennies to investigate this new game.

  9. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Reilly; Julie Armstrong; Ahmad R. Dorosty; Pauline M. Emmett; A. Ness; I. Rodgers; Colin Steer; Andrea Sherriff

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related

  10. Early-Life Outdoor Experiences and an Individual's Environmental Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN EWERT; JIM SIBTHORP

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of early-life experiences on an individual's environmental beliefs. Data from a survey of 533 university undergraduate students from 20 areas of academic study were analyzed using sequential regression to determine the degree to which current environmental beliefs could be explained by early childhood experiences. Results showed that four of the seven independent variables (appreciative outdoor

  11. HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

  12. Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

    2011-01-01

    Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

  13. Early Career Choice: An Unsuccessful Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinee, W. Dale; Patel, Vimla L.

    1983-01-01

    Results of McGill University's program to encourage early specialization in medicine, surgery, psychiatry, and family medicine showed that: students chose the medicine specialty with increasing frequency; poor performance on licensing examinations may have resulted; the process did not lead to an early career choice; and students did not use…

  14. Driskill Graduate Program Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Tourtellotte, Warren G.

    in the Life Sciences Seminar Series (page 5) 4. Laboratory Rotations (page 6) 5. Cluster activities (page 6) 6 and Beyond 1. Doctoral Candidacy (page 12) 2. Progress Requirements (pages 12-13) 3. Student Seminar Administration Name Office Phone E-Mail Nick Cianciotto, PhD Director Professor, Microbiology-Immunology Searle 6

  15. Reduced cortical thickness in veterans exposed to early life trauma.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2014-08-30

    Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. PMID:24862391

  16. Space Life Support Engineering Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the second year of research relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. Emphasis was directed toward concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis in an effort to begin optimizing the system needed for water purification. Four appendices are attached. The first covers the ASPEN modeling of the closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) and its thermodynamic analysis. The second is a report on the dynamic model development for water regulation in humans. The third regards the development of an interactive computer-based model for determining exercise limitations. The fourth attachment is an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an ECLSS.

  17. Alaska's Rural Early Intervention Preservice Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan

    1999-01-01

    To address the shortage of qualified early interventionists for young rural children with disabilities, the University of Alaska Fairbanks developed a Master's program that used distance education at remote practicum sites during fall and spring and on-campus instruction during the summer. The program has fostered university-rural community…

  18. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond (University of Chicago) [University of Chicago

    2006-02-08

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  19. The Peroxy Challenge to Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Freund, F. T.; Gosling, P.

    2002-12-01

    The development of aerobic metabolism was one of the most important breakthroughs in evolution. But the early Earth was anaerobic, with most researchers today attributing the build-up of free O2 to oxygenic photosynthesizers. This reasoning is problematic because photosynthesis invariably produces oxygen radicals as by-products or intermediates. Known collectively as reactive oxygen species, ROS, these radicals damage DNA, damage membranes, and inactivate essential enzymes. In addition, molecular data on the evolution of cytochrome oxidase suggest that early organisms must have "learned" to detoxify ROS prior to the evolution of aerobic metabolism and oxygenic photosynthesis. A possible way out of this dilemma comes from a study of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, which indicates that a small but significant fraction of the oxygen anions in their minerals exists in the 1- state, forming peroxy links of the type O3Si-OO-SiO3 (J. Geodynamics 33, 543-570, 2002). Water hydrolyzes these peroxy links to hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. As a result, microorganisms that attach themselves to mineral grains will be exposed to a constant trickle of ROS from the production of H2O2. We propose the following scenario: Though the overall conditions on the early Earth were anaerobic, conditions at microsites were not. The hydrolysis of peroxy links in minerals to hydrogen peroxide at the rock-water interface was biochemically challenging for any microbes living in intimate contact with rock surfaces. The generation of ROS placed the microbes under evolutionary stress to develop biochemical defenses against the potentially lethal effects of ROS radicals. Only after these enzymatic defenses were in place, oxygenic photosynthesizers were able to develop and increase the O2 partial pressure in the Earth's atmosphere to a high level.

  20. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  1. Early Life Development in a Multiethnic Sample and the Relation to Late Life Cognition.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J; Mackay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; T Farias, Sarah; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline.Method.This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. PMID:24389122

  2. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-Life and Mid-Life Predictors of Human Longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid A. Gavrilov; Natalia S. Gavrilova

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state

  3. The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Southam, G.

    Although the locations where the earliest traces of life can be studied are few and far between (Isua, 3.8 Ga; Pilbara and Barberton, 3.5-3.3 Ga), the life that existed in the Early Archaean life has left a wealth of testimony. Structural and chemical fossils found in Early Arcahean `habitats' demonstrate that the biosphere was already in an advanced evolutionary state, i.e., much of the strata preserved from this period appears to have been colonised by morphologically and biochemically diverse bacteria. The Early-Mid Archaean microorganisms were morphologically similar to modern organisms and behaved in the same way, building colonies, biofilms and mats and interacting directly with their immediate substrate and with each other (in consortia). Their metabolic processes included chemolithotrophy, possibly methanogenesis and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Early life was diverse and included thermophilic, acid-tolerant, halo-tolerant to halophilic, and radiation resistant species. With one exception, the traces of early life are subtle, on the scale of tens to hundreds of µm although, where environmental conditions were stable and quiet enough for their development, microbial mats on sediment surfaces could contribute to the formation of stromatolites of about 10 cm in height. The diversity, relative level of evolution and widespread distribution of life by 3.5 Ga implies that it must have evolved much earlier, possibly even before or during the period of late heavy bombardment). However, no record of its appearance and early evolution remains on Earth. Given the conditions on early Mars were generally similar to those on early Earth, i.e., habitable, the Southern Highlands of Mars could potentially host this missing record. Life on early Mars would probably have been similarly subtle in its expression, although there is a possibility of "stumbling" across small macroscopic stromatolites. If life still exists on the planet today, it's in the subsurface and its expression will still be subtle. Westall, F. & Southam, G. 2006. Early life on Earth. AGU Geophys. Monogr., "Archean Geodynamics and Environment"s 164. pp 283-304. Westall, F. et al. 2006. The 3.466 Ga Kitty's Gap Chert, an Early Archaean microbial ecosystem. In Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec Pub., Processes on the Early Earth 405, 105-131. 1 Allwood, A. et al., 2006. Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Australia. Nature, 441, 714-718. 2

  4. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  5. Enrollment in Early Intervention Programs Among Infants Born Late Preterm, Early Term, and Term

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Kotelchuck, Milton; Barfield, Wanda; Davin, Carol A.; Diop, Hafsatou; Silver, Michael; Manning, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of and characteristics associated with early intervention (EI) program enrollment among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks’ gestation), early term (37–38 weeks’ gestation), and term (39–41 weeks’ gestation). METHODS A Massachusetts cohort of 554 974 singleton infants born during 1998 through 2005 and survived the neonatal period was followed until the third birthday of each infant. Data came from the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data System that linked birth certificates, birth hospital discharge reports, death certificates, and EI program enrollment records. We calculated prevalence and adjusted risk ratios to compare differences and understand associations. RESULTS The prevalence of EI program enrollment increased with each decreasing week of gestation before 41 weeks (late preterm [23.5%], early term [14.9%], and term [11.9%]. In adjusted analyses, the strongest predictors of EI enrollment (adjusted risk ratio ?1.20) for all gestational age groups were male gender, having a congenital anomaly, and having mothers who were ?40 years old, nonhigh school graduates, and recipients of public insurance. CONCLUSIONS Infants born late preterm and early term have higher prevalence of EI program services enrollment than infants born at term, and may benefit from more frequent monitoring for developmental delays or disabilities. PMID:23796745

  6. Paleolakes and life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. A.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct directions have begun to elucidate key parameters in the search for extinct life on Mars. Carbonate sediments, deposited about 10,000 years ago in association with biological activity, have been sampled from the paleolake beds of Lake Vanda and Meirs in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. These samples are being analyzed for simple biological signatures that remain in cold and dry paleolake sediments, namely microfossils, percent carbonate, and total organic carbon. Our second initiative is the study of Colour Lake, in the Canadian Arctic, that periodically maintains a perennial ice cover. Physical measurements started this year will be used to determine one end point for ice covered lake environments and will be compared to continuous measurements from Antarctic lakes started in November 1985. Interestingly, Colour Lake also supports benthic mat communities, but the low pH precludes carbonate deposition. This research will broaden our knowledge base for what conditions are necessary for ice covered lake formation and what biological signatures will remain in paleolake deposits.

  7. Early-life course socioeconomic factors and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Patrick D; Shoham, David A; Charlton, Jennifer R; Carmody, J Bryan; Reidy, Kimberly J; Harshman, Lyndsay; Segar, Jeffrey; Askenazi, David

    2015-01-01

    Kidney failure or ESRD affects approximately 650,000 Americans, whereas the number with earlier stages of CKD is much higher. Although CKD and ESRD are usually associated with adulthood, it is likely that the initial stages of CKD begin early in life. Many of these pathways are associated with low birth weight and disadvantaged socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood, translating childhood risk into later-life CKD and kidney failure. Social factors are thought to be fundamental causes of disease. Although the relationship between adult SES and CKD has been well established, the role of early childhood SES for CKD risk remains obscure. This review provides a rationale for examining the association between early-life SES and CKD. By collecting data on early-life SES and CKD, the interaction with other periods in the life course could also be studied, allowing for examination of whether SES trajectories (eg, poverty followed by affluence) or cumulative burden (eg, poverty at multiple time points) are more relevant to lifetime CKD risk. PMID:25573508

  8. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  9. The consequences of early-life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Krugers, H J; Morley-Fletcher, S; Szyf, M; Brunton, P J

    2014-10-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early-life experiences, such as stress exposure or suboptimal maternal care, can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as 'early-life programming' and is associated with an increased risk of disease. Typically, rodents exposed to prenatal stress or postnatal maternal deprivation display enhanced neuroendocrine responses to stress, increased levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours, and cognitive impairments. Some of the phenotypes observed in these models of early-life adversity are likely to share common neurobiological mechanisms. For example, there is evidence for impaired glucocorticoid negative-feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, altered glutamate neurotransmission and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in both prenatally stressed rats and rats that experienced deficient maternal care. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy may be transmitted to the offspring are reviewed, with special consideration given to altered maternal behaviour postpartum. We also discuss what is known about the neurobiological and epigenetic mechanisms that underpin early-life programming of the neonatal brain in the first generation and subsequent generations, with a view to abrogating programming effects and potentially identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders and cognitive impairment. PMID:25039443

  10. Methylxanthines during pregnancy and early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict caffeine intake after the first trimester. PMID:20859804

  11. UMBC Department of Education Early Childhood Education Personnel Preparation Program

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    UMBC Department of Education Early Childhood Education Personnel Preparation Program Procedures, Early Childhood Education Department of Education UMBC 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 #12;UMBC DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY CHILDHOOD PERSONNEL PREPARATION PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE APPLICATION Present Date

  12. Sex-specific consequences of early life seizures.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2014-12-01

    Seizures are very common in the early periods of life and are often associated with poor neurologic outcome in humans. Animal studies have provided evidence that early life seizures may disrupt neuronal differentiation and connectivity, signaling pathways, and the function of various neuronal networks. There is growing experimental evidence that many signaling pathways, like GABAA receptor signaling, the cellular physiology and differentiation, or the functional maturation of certain brain regions, including those involved in seizure control, mature differently in males and females. However, most experimental studies of early life seizures have not directly investigated the importance of sex on the consequences of early life seizures. The sexual dimorphism of the developing brain raises the question that early seizures could have distinct effects in immature females and males that are subjected to seizures. We will first discuss the evidence for sex-specific features of the developing brain that could be involved in modifying the susceptibility and consequences of early life seizures. We will then review how sex-related biological factors could modify the age-specific consequences of induced seizures in the immature animals. These include signaling pathways (e.g., GABAA receptors), steroid hormones, growth factors. Overall, there are very few studies that have specifically addressed seizure outcomes in developing animals as a function of sex. The available literature indicates that a variety of outcomes (histopathological, behavioral, molecular, epileptogenesis) may be affected in a sex-, age-, region-specific manner after seizures during development. Obtaining a better understanding for the gender-related mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure comorbidities will be necessary to develop better gender and age appropriate therapies. PMID:24874547

  13. Vilas Life Cycle Professorship Program Jennifer Sheridan

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Program Four rounds, 17 Applicants, 7 Awards ADVANCE funding supplemented by Graduate School Fall 2004, Bridge Funding One round, 5 Applicants, 3 Awards Graduate School and Provost Office funding Spring 2005 +, Vilas Life Cycle Professorships Three rounds/year, 27 Applicants, 18 Awards (Year 1) Vilas Trust funding

  14. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  15. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance. PMID:18521718

  16. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  17. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  18. Evaluation of the Meaning of Life Program in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; White, Gwyne W.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 academic year, 10 schools participated in the Meaning of Life educational program, an adaption of the popular U.S. Laws of Life program. The program sought to encourage each participant to develop a personal approach to finding meaning in life. To evaluate the success of the program, we conducted a study to compare measures of…

  19. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  20. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  1. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life’s early emergence on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, David S.; Turner, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth’s history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766

  2. NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  3. NASA's space life sciences training program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-08-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  4. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:25327140

  5. Early life circumstances and their impact on menarche and menopause

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gita D; Cooper, Rachel; Tom, Sarah E; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Ages at menarche and menopause have been shown to be associated with adverse health outcomes in later life. For example, earlier menarche and later menopause have been independently linked to higher risk of breast cancer. Earlier menarche may also be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, menstrual problems and adult obesity. Given the associations of ages at menarche and menopause with future health outcomes, it is important to establish what factors across life, and generations, may influence these. This article examines the associations of early life factors, namely birthweight, bodyweight and growth during childhood, childhood socioeconomic circumstances and psychosocial factors with ages at menarche and menopause. It examines possible explanations of the associations found, including life history theory, and discusses areas for future research. PMID:19245355

  6. Life History Plasticity of a Tropical Seabird in Response to El Niño Anomalies during Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Sergio; Drummond, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability) in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life. PMID:24023760

  7. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Warner; Mark D. Hayward

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966–1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life socioeconomic conditions, particularly parental occupation and family structure,

  8. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  9. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function. PMID:21697884

  10. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  11. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  12. Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

  13. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  14. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-09-22

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, and similar number of food caches available at one year of age as late breeders. Nevertheless, we found evidence of survival costs of early primiparity. Early breeders had a lower survival between one and two years of age than late breeders and a lower lifespan. Our study points out that two reproductive tactics co-occurred in this population: a tactic based on early maturity at the cost of a lower survival versus a tactic based on delayed maturity and long lifespan. High quality individuals express the most profitable tactic by breeding early whereas low quality individuals do the best of a bad job by delaying their first reproduction. PMID:16928640

  15. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, and similar number of food caches available at one year of age as late breeders. Nevertheless, we found evidence of survival costs of early primiparity. Early breeders had a lower survival between one and two years of age than late breeders and a lower lifespan. Our study points out that two reproductive tactics co-occurred in this population: a tactic based on early maturity at the cost of a lower survival versus a tactic based on delayed maturity and long lifespan. High quality individuals express the most profitable tactic by breeding early whereas low quality individuals do the best of a bad job by delaying their first reproduction. PMID:16928640

  16. THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC HAKE MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Bailey

    ABSTRACT The early life history of Pacific hake. Merluccius productus. is described from laboratory and field studies. At ambient,temperatures,(11 0_13°C) egg hatching,takes about 100-120 hours; complete absorption of the yolk takes about 150-200 hours. Respiration rates for first feeding larvae at 12°C are 4.8-6.8 I'l\\/mg per hour. Growth rates for at least the first 20 days are slow compared,with other

  17. Moral Neuroeducation from Early Life Through the Lifespan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darcia Narvaez

    Personality and social development begins before birth in the communication among mother, child and environment, during sensitive\\u000a periods when the child’s brain and body are plastic and epigenetically co-constructed. Triune ethics theory postulates three\\u000a evolved, neurobiologically-based ethics fostered by early life experience. The security ethic is self-protective. The engagement\\u000a ethic is relationally attuned. The imagination ethic can abstract from the

  18. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cada

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb

  19. Early career choice: an unsuccessful program.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, W D; Patel, V L

    1983-09-01

    During the 1960s, early educational specialization and increasingly elective curricula were promoted as instructional advances. More recently, early educational specialization has been suggested as a solution to high educational costs and knowledge overload. In 1973 the McGill University Faculty of Medicine introduced a program of early specialization ("streaming") in the senior clerkship. The streams were: medicine, surgery, psychiatry, and family medicine. The streams emphasized their own clinical areas but not to the exclusion of other subjects. After three years, streaming was disbanded as students chose the medicine stream with increasing frequency. Streaming may have contributed to poorer class performance on licensing examinations. Responses of the students to questionnaires revealed that streaming did not lead to an early career choice and that the students did not use electives to fill in perceived gaps. The students often chose streams independent of career plans. Thus, it was concluded that early specialization did not hold promise as a solution to the issues of educational costs or knowledge overload. PMID:6887213

  20. Early life soy exposure and age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Adgent, Margaret; Daniels, Julie; Rogan, Walter; Adair, Linda; Edwards, Lloyd; Westreich, Daniel; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early life feeding regimes, categorized as primarily breast, early formula, early soy, and late soy were defined using infant feeding questionnaires administered during infancy. For this analysis, age at menarche was assessed through questionnaires administered approximately annually between ages 8 and 14.5. Eligible subjects were limited to term, singleton, white females. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at menarche and risk of menarche over the study period. The present analysis included 2,920 girls. Approximately 2% of mothers reported that soy products were introduced into the infant diet at or before 4 months of age (early soy). The median age at menarche [interquartile range (IQR)] in the study sample was 153 months [144–163], approximately 12.8 years. The median age at menarche among early soy fed girls was 149 months (12.4 years) [IQR, 140–159]. Compared to girls fed non-soy based infant formula or milk (early formula), early soy fed girls were at 25% higher risk of menarche throughout the course of follow up (Hazard Ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval, 0.92, 1.71]). Our results also suggest that girls fed soy products in early infancy may have an increased risk of menarche specifically in early adolescence. These findings may be the observable manifestation of mild endocrine disrupting effects of soy isoflavone exposure. However, our study is limited by few soy-exposed subjects and is not designed to assess biological mechanisms. Because soy formula use is common in some populations, this subtle association with menarche warrants more indepth evaluation in future studies. PMID:22324503

  1. Life Stress Impairs Self-Control in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Kim, Betty; Tsukayama, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The importance of self-control to a wide range of developmental outcomes prompted the current investigation of negative life events and self-control in early adolescence. In three prospective, longitudinal studies, negative life events reported by the mother (in Study 1) or child (in Studies 2 and 3) predicted rank-order decreases in self-control over time. In all studies, self-control was measured at two different time points using questionnaires completed by three separate raters, including a classroom teacher who knew the child well and two other raters (parents, caregivers, and/or the child himself/herself). Psychological distress measured in Studies 2 and 3 mediated the deleterious effects of negative life events on self-control. These findings extend prior experimental laboratory research documenting the acute effects of stress on self-control. PMID:23443890

  2. PROGRAM GUIDE BA IN EDUCATION SPECIALIZATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Rusu, Adrian

    PROGRAM GUIDE BA IN EDUCATION ­ SPECIALIZATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION I. Benchmark Point 1 Communities II: Early Childhood (TLCII), and Educational Technology. G. Ratings of "Meets Expectations: Early Childhood, Educational Technology, Growth and Learning: Birth ­ 5 years, Language Development

  3. Cognitive deficits in adolescents who developed diabetes early in life.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C; Vega, A; Drash, A

    1985-05-01

    A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 125 adolescents with a history of insulin-dependent diabetes, and to 83 demographically similar nondiabetic control subjects. To test the hypothesis that developing this disease early in life greatly increases the risk of manifesting significant cognitive impairments, diabetic subjects were assigned to an "early-onset" (diagnosis before age 5 years) or a "later-onset" subgroup. Results showed that subjects with early onset of diabetes performed more poorly than either subjects with later onset of diabetes or nondiabetic control subjects on virtually all tests, including measures of intelligence, school achievement, visuospatial ability, memory, motor speed, and eye-hand coordination. Moreover, multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the age at onset and the duration of diabetes seem to affect neuropsychological functioning in very different ways. The duration of the disease best predicted performance on those tests requiring highly overlearned, primarily verbal, skills whereas the age at onset best predicted scores on tests requiring the ability to process relatively unfamiliar, typically nonverbal, information in novel ways. Although the etiology of these deficits remains unclear, there is a possibility that they are secondary to mild brain damage that develops as a consequence of multiple episodes of serious hypoglycemia early in life. PMID:3991281

  4. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  5. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  6. Early Life Trauma Exposure and Stress Sensitivity in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Damion J.; Ford, Julian D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective?The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. Methods?The sample included 213 2–4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress.?Results?In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results.?Conclusions?These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. PMID:23008502

  7. Molecular responses to 17?-estradiol in early life stage salmonids.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sun, Jinying; Curran, Cat A; Bailey, Howard C; Kennedy, Chris K; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    Environmental estrogens (EE) are ubiquitous in many aquatic environments and biological responses to EEs in early developmental stages of salmonids are poorly understood compared to juvenile and adult stages. Using 17?-estradiol (E2) as a model estrogen, waterborne exposures were conducted on early life stage rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; egg, alevin, swim-up fry) and both molecular and physiological endpoints were measured to quantify the effects of E2. To investigate developmental stage-specific effects, laboratory exposures of 1 ?g/L E2 were initiated pre-hatching as eyed embryos or post-hatching upon entering the alevin stage. High mortality (?90%) was observed when E2 exposures were initiated at the eyed embryo stage compared to the alevin stage (?35% mortality), demonstrating stage-specific sensitivity. Gene expression analyses revealed that vitellogenin was detectable in the liver of swim-up fry, and was highly inducible by 1 ?g/L E2 (>200-fold higher levels compared to control animals). Experiments also confirmed the induction of vitellogenin protein levels in protein extracts isolated from head and tail regions of swim-up fry after E2 exposure. These findings suggest that induction of vitellogenin, a well-characterized biomarker for estrogenic exposure, can be informative measured at this early life stage. Several other genes of the reproductive endocrine axis (e.g. estrogen receptors and androgen receptors) exhibited decreased expression levels compared to control animals. In addition, chronic exposure to E2 during the eyed embryo and alevin stages resulted in suppressive effects on growth related genes (growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factor 1) as well as premature hatching, suggesting that the somatotropic axis is a key target for E2-mediated developmental and growth disruptions. Combining molecular biomarkers with morphological and physiological changes in early life stage salmonids holds considerable promise for further defining estrogen action during development, and for assessing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in vivo in teleosts. PMID:24698784

  8. The Enzymatic and Metabolic Capabilities of Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Aaron David; Baross, John A.; Samudrala, Ram

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of metaconsensus and employ it to make high confidence predictions of early enzyme functions and the metabolic properties that they may have produced. Several independent studies have used comparative bioinformatics methods to identify taxonomically broad features of genomic sequence data, protein structure data, and metabolic pathway data in order to predict physiological features that were present in early, ancestral life forms. But all such methods carry with them some level of technical bias. Here, we cross-reference the results of these previous studies to determine enzyme functions predicted to be ancient by multiple methods. We survey modern metabolic pathways to identify those that maintain the highest frequency of metaconsensus enzymes. Using the full set of modern reactions catalyzed by these metaconsensus enzyme functions, we reconstruct a representative metabolic network that may reflect the core metabolism of early life forms. Our results show that ten enzyme functions, four hydrolases, three transferases, one oxidoreductase, one lyase, and one ligase, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks within central metabolic processes related to sugar and starch metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis, have high frequencies of these enzyme functions. We demonstrate that a large metabolic network can be generated from this small number of enzyme functions. PMID:22970111

  9. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  10. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Kober, Olivia I; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C; Marchesi, Julian R; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3-5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  11. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Kober, Olivia I.; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  12. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  13. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  14. Development of healthy gut microbiota early in life.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, Erika

    2012-06-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota profile in early life is related to health later in life. An aberrant composition is associated with risks of systemic problems, such as obesity, diabetes and allergic diseases, including asthma and enteric inflammatory conditions, sometimes manifesting at 7 years of age. A healthy and balanced gut microbiota profile in infancy, especially with regard to bifidobacteria, is directly related to mode of delivery (natural birth) and quality of breast milk, which in turn is affected by the mother's own systemic health and nutritional status. Pregnant women of normal body weight and healthy microbiota profiles, both gut microbiota and breast milk microbiota, have greater opportunities to pass on compounds, antigens modified by the mother's gut and other agents that promote the development of a healthy immune system in the breastfed infant. PMID:22681492

  15. Japanese Studies on the Early Ocean Life of Juvenile Salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Mayama; Yukimasa Ishida

    Almost all the salmon resources in Japan have been supported by artificial enhance- ment, and because of the success of this program the population size of chum salmon (Oncorhyn- chus keta) has increased dramatically since the early 1970s. About 90% of Japan's salmon catch is chum; 5-10% is pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and 0.5% masu (O. masou). Therefore, biological research

  16. Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  17. Early life circumstances as contributors to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. Using qualitative data, we illustrated how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting, sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. Five representative cases from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16-24) who participated in a study about the disease-related adaptive challenges they faced are discussed. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with the disease. The findings revealed that these young women's unmet need for love, protection, and feeling valued left them vulnerable to exploitive relationships with men who were often significantly older and resulted in their HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  18. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-04-15

    LSHSS Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness Carla W. Jackson Florida State University, Tallahassee Jane R. Wegner Ann P. Turnbull University of Kansas, Kansas City T he importance of a family’s well-being in the livesand..., and the family’s ability to adapt and problem solve. Based on this model, the health of the family system is a balancing act between stressors and the family’s capacity to handle stress. The potential impact of deafness on the family system can be understood...

  19. Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory. PMID:25489493

  20. Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory. PMID:25489493

  1. Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Hugh A.; Cogliano, V. James; Flowers, Lynn; Valcovic, Larry; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2005-01-01

    Cancer risk assessment methods currently assume that children and adults are equally susceptible to exposure to chemicals. We reviewed available scientific literature to determine whether this was scientifically supported. We identified more than 50 chemicals causing cancer after perinatal exposure. Human data are extremely limited, with radiation exposures showing increased early susceptibility at some tumor sites. Twenty-seven rodent studies for 18 chemicals had sufficient data after postnatal and adult exposures to quantitatively estimate potential increased susceptibility from early-life exposure, calculated as the ratio of juvenile to adult cancer potencies for three study types: acute dosing, repeated dosing, and lifetime dosing. Twelve of the chemicals act through a mutagenic mode of action. For these, the geometric mean ratio was 11 for lifetime exposures and 8.7 for repeat exposures, with a ratio of 10 for these studies combined. The geometric mean ratio for acute studies is 1.5, which was influenced by tissue-specific results [geometric mean ratios for kidney, leukemia, liver, lymph, mammary, nerve, reticular tissue, thymic lymphoma, and uterus/vagina > 1 (range, 1.6–8.1); forestomach, harderian gland, ovaries, and thyroid < 1 (range, 0.033–0.45)]. Chemicals causing cancer through other modes of action indicate some increased susceptibility from postnatal exposure (geometric mean ratio is 3.4 for lifetime exposure, 2.2 for repeat exposure). Early exposures to compounds with endocrine activity sometimes produce different tumors after exposures at different ages. These analyses suggest increased susceptibility to cancer from early-life exposure, particularly for chemicals acting through a mutagenic mode of action. PMID:16140616

  2. Early-life soy exposure and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Rogan, Walter J; Adair, Linda; Edwards, Lloyd J; Westreich, Daniel; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant-feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early-life feeding regimes, categorised as primarily breast, early formula, early soy and late soy, were defined using infant-feeding questionnaires administered during infancy. For this analysis, age at menarche was assessed using questionnaires administered approximately annually between ages 8 and 14.5. Eligible subjects were limited to term, singleton, White females. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at menarche and risk of menarche over the study period. The present analysis included 2920 girls. Approximately 2% of mothers reported that soy products were introduced into the infant diet at or before 4 months of age (early soy). The median age at menarche [interquartile range (IQR)] in the study sample was 153 months [144-163], approximately 12.8 years. The median age at menarche among early soy-fed girls was 149 months (12.4 years) [IQR, 140-159]. Compared with girls fed non-soy-based infant formula or milk (early formula), early soy-fed girls were at 25% higher risk of menarche throughout the course of follow-up (hazard ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.71]). Our results also suggest that girls fed soy products in early infancy may have an increased risk of menarche specifically in early adolescence. These findings may be the observable manifestation of mild endocrine-disrupting effects of soy isoflavone exposure. However, our study is limited by few soy-exposed subjects and is not designed to assess biological mechanisms. Because soy formula use is common in some populations, this subtle association with menarche warrants more in-depth evaluation in future studies. PMID:22324503

  3. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Seico; Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2015-01-01

    Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED), and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior. PMID:25873851

  4. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Evaluation of the Early Alert Program, Spring 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan; Hagen, Peter F.

    This report evaluates the Early Alert program at Cuesta College (California). The report is divided into four main sections: services accessed, accessibility, actions taken as a result of receiving an Early Alert letter, and timing and utility of the Early Alert program. These are followed by the demography of the respondents, a brief background…

  6. Deep Phylogeny--How a Tree Can Help Characterize Early Life on Earth

    E-print Network

    Gaucher, Eric

    The following article addresses a period in life most removed from life's origins compared with other articles. The hope is that by understanding how early life evolved, we can better understand how life originated's origin. The Darwinian concept of evolution suggests that all modern life shares a single common an

  7. Fetal growth, early life circumstances, and risk of suicide in late adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phoebe Day Danziger; Richard Silverwood; Ilona Koupil

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in Sweden and Scotland have found early life conditions to be associated with increased risk of attempted and\\u000a completed suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. It is not known, however, whether early life conditions affect suicide\\u000a risk throughout the life course, from adulthood into old age. We examined the effects of early life conditions, including\\u000a markers of fetal

  8. Early life environmental predictors of asthma age-of-onset

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Olivia R; Duffy, David L; Ferreira, Manuel A R

    2014-01-01

    Prevention strategies that delay the onset of asthma may improve clinical outcomes. To identify early life environmental exposures associated with asthma age-of-onset and potential genetic modifiers of these exposures, we studied 1085 subjects with physician-diagnosed asthma and disease onset at or after age two. Subjects reported retrospectively on their exposure to 17 environmental factors before the age of two. The presence of individual or combinations of these early life exposures was then tested for association with variation in asthma age-of-onset. For exposures significantly associated with age-of-onset, we tested if 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with an established association with allergic disease significantly modified the effect of the exposure. Five environmental exposures were significantly associated with variation in asthma age-of-onset after correction for multiple testing: carpet at home (P?=?6?×?10?5), a serious chest illness (P?=?10?4), father a cigarette smoker (P?=?6?×?10?4) and direct exposure to father's smoking (P?=?3?×?10?4). Individuals with early childhood asthma onset, between the ages of two and six, were 1.4-fold (CI 1.1–1.9) more likely to report having lived in a house with carpet and 2.1-fold (CI 1.3–3.5) more likely to report suffering a serious chest illness before the age of two, than asthmatics with later disease onset. We further found these individual risks to increase to 3.2-fold (CI 1.7–6.0) if carpet exposure and suffering a serious chest illness co-occurred before age two. Paternal smoking exposures were less likely to be reported by asthmatics with early when compared to later disease onset (OR 0.5, CI 0.3–0.7). There were no significant SNP interactions with these environmental exposures after correction for multiple testing. Our results suggest that disease onset in individuals at a high-risk of developing asthma can potentially be delayed by avoiding exposure to carpet at home and preventing serious chest illnesses during the first 2 years of life. PMID:25505548

  9. Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea de Silva-Sanigorski; Lauren Prosser; Lauren Carpenter; Suzy Honisett; Lisa Gibbs; Marj Moodie; Lauren Sheppard; Boyd Swinburn; Elizabeth Waters

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across

  10. Early Life Trauma and Attachment: Immediate and Enduring Effects on Neurobehavioral and Stress Axis Development

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother–infant interactions. This stimulation provides “hidden regulators” of pups’ behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

  11. Early life precursors, epigenetics, and the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-09-01

    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA. PMID:22777545

  12. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  13. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…

  14. Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

  15. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  16. Early-Life Stress and Neurometabolites of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) – an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity – using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N = 10) or control rearing conditions (N = 9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

  17. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  18. Early Life Stress Enhancement of Limbic Epileptogenesis in Adult Rats: Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Jones, Nigel C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Rees, Sandra; O'Brien, Terence J.; Salzberg, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life ‘programming’ of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT) in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT) release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2–14 to either maternal separation stress (MS) or control brief early handling (EH), underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU). Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts) and dentate gyrus (DG) (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting). As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05), with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p?=?0.002). Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life stress may promote vulnerability to limbic epileptogenesis in rats as well as to human MTLE and its associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:21957442

  19. Neuroanatomical changes in a mouse model of early life neglect

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Alvaro; Coman, Daniel; Carlyle, Becky C.; Bordner, Kelly A.; George, Elizabeth D.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2013-01-01

    Using a novel mouse model of early life neglect and abuse (ENA) based on maternal separation with early weaning, George et al. (BMC Neurosci 11:123, 2010) demonstrated behavioral abnormalities in adult mice, and Bordner et al. (Front Psychiatry 2(18):1–18, 2011) described concomitant changes in mRNA and protein expression. Using the same model, here we report neuroanatomical changes that include smaller brain size and abnormal inter-hemispheric asymmetry, decreases in cortical thickness, abnormalities in subcortical structures, and white matter disorganization and atrophy most severely affecting the left hemisphere. Because of the similarities between the neuroanatomical changes observed in our mouse model and those described in human survivors of ENA, this novel animal model is potentially useful for studies of human ENA too costly or cumbersome to be carried out in primates. Moreover, our current knowledge of the mouse genome makes this model particularly suited for targeted anatomical, molecular, and pharmacological experimentation not yet possible in other species. PMID:21984312

  20. The Human Microbiome. Early Life Determinant of Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of new technologies to isolate and identify microbial genomes has markedly increased our understanding of the role of microbiomes in health and disease. The idea, first proposed as part of the hygiene hypothesis, that environmental microbes influence the developmental trajectories of the immune system in early life, has now been considerably extended and refined. The abundant microbiota present in mucosal surfaces, especially the gut, is actively selected by the host through complex receptor systems that respond differentially depending on the molecular patterns presented to mucosal cells. Germ-free mice are more likely to develop allergic airway inflammation and show alterations in normal motor control and anxiety. These effects can be reversed by neonatal microbial recolonization but remain unchanged if recolonization occurs in adults. What emerges from these recent studies is the discovery of a complex, major early environmental determinant of lifetime human phenotypes. To change the natural course of asthma, obesity, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, active manipulation of the extensive bacterial, phage, and fungal metagenomes present in mucosal surfaces may be required, specifically during the developing years. Domesticating the human microbiome and adapting it to our health needs may be a challenge akin to, but far more complex than, the one faced by humanity when a few dozen species of plants and animals were domesticated during the transition between hunter-gatherer and sedentary societies after the end of the Pleistocene era. PMID:24437411

  1. Evidence-Based Practices and Programs for Early Childhood Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groark, Christina J., Ed.; Mehaffie, Kelly E., Ed.; McCall, Robert, Ed.; Greenberg, Mark T., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    School and district administrators, as well as policymakers, are increasingly recognizing that early education and intervention services for young children have a direct and positive impact on later school performance and quality of life. But which programs and services should be operated and funded? To answer that question, this book highlights…

  2. Hydrogen, nitrogen, and life on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, Robin; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    In Earth's Hadean and Archean eras, the Sun was 20-40 % fainter than it is today, but there is no evidence for widespread long-term glaciation. An enhanced greenhouse effect via increased CO2 levels is perhaps the simplest solution to the problem, but observational and theoretical studies both suggest only moderately elevated atmospheric CO2 at this time. Other phenomena such as CO2 / H2O line broadening via increased atmospheric N2 and a lower planetary albedo have been proposed, but are probably insufficient to explain the necessary warming alone. Recently, we have suggested that increased hydrogen and nitrogen levels on the early Earth may have played a role in warming through H2-N2 collision-induced absorption (CIA). This process is well-known on Titan, where it dominates infra-red absorption across large regions of the spectrum. Broadening of the absorption bands at higher temperatures means that H2-N2 CIA can block the critical 800-1200 cm-1 water vapour 'window', allowing mean surface temperatures up to 280 K with only ~20-80 × PAL CO2 under a solar flux 75 % of that today. Here we present our modeling results and discuss their potential relevance to climate in the Archean and Hadean. We consider the evidence for and against high H2 levels on the early Earth and the main challenges in constraining outgassing and rates of hydrogen escape to space. We discuss the effects an H2-rich atmosphere might have had on the early development of life, including its possible demise at the hands of the methanogens. Finally, we speculate on the possible importance of the H2-N2 warming mechanism for Earth-like rocky planets around other stars.

  3. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework, approach, and methods for identifying and evaluating environmental burdens associated with the life cycles of materials and services, from cradle-to-grave. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Sustainab...

  4. Space life sciences: Programs and projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

  5. A comparative study of the life satisfaction of early retirement military officers

    E-print Network

    Graves, Russ Thomas

    2005-11-01

    This study compared the life satisfaction of early retirement military officers with several comparison groups on the basis of Retirement Descriptive Index (RDI) scale scores. The RDI is a self-report instrument that assesses life satisfaction...

  6. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    -life conditions, no study on humans has demonstrated the predicted fitness benefit under low later-life nutrition of metabolic diseases. developmental plasticity | silver spoon | human life-history | DoHAD Nutrition duringInfluence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine

  7. Trends in the use of preconditioning to hypoxia for early prevention of future life diseases.

    PubMed

    Basovich, Simon N

    2013-02-01

    Environmental factors during fetal life program the health outcomes regarding many diseases in future life. This idea has been supported by worldwide epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Three questions should be answered. (i) Does a common underlying cause of ordinary pathological fetal development exist? (ii) If such a cause exists, which mechanism might develop disease in later life? (iii) Is it possible to prevent this underlying cause and therefore the associated obstetric complications to primarily prevent future life diseases? The objective of this review is to attempt to answer these three questions by using PubMed (extending to October 2012) and other sources. Three data-based answers corresponding to these questions were found: (i) hypoxia, (ii) excessive stimulation of neurogenesis, and (iii) preconditioning/adaptation to hypoxia. The method for such preconditioning/adaptation is intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), in which air with low oxygen concentration is breathed through a mask to protect against subsequent strong adverse influences. Data are cited for IHT applications for the prevention/treatment of diseases in different fields, particularly in obstetrics. Data suggested that all common fetal origins of adult diseases are likely predetermined by changes in the fetal brain; therefore, early detection of these changes must be very important. The use of IHT may be a real means to primarily prevent obstetric complications and therefore, prevent future life diseases. PMID:23524890

  8. Tangible Programming 1 Running head:TANGIBLE PROGRAMMING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

    E-print Network

    Bers, Marina Umaschi

    to help solve human problems. Early childhood education hasn't ignored this; it is common to see young in notions of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), a perspective within early childhood educationTangible Programming 1 Running head:TANGIBLE PROGRAMMING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Tangible Programming

  9. ART IMITATES LIFE 1 Art Imitates Life: Programming by Example as an

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Henry

    ART IMITATES LIFE 1 Art Imitates Life: Programming by Example as an Imitation Game HENRY LIEBERMAN behavior in animals to an instinct to copy others or to some form of learning. It is clear, however, that observation and imitation are central capabilities for many forms of learning. #12;ART IMITATES LIFE 2

  10. Choosing Life Skills: A Guide for Selecting Life Skills Programs for Adult and Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Osa D.; Knoll, John F.

    Suggestions for teaching selected life skills to adult and juvenile offenders are presented in this document. The general purpose of life skills programming is to help persons live more successfully and to function better in their multiple roles as members of a family, community, and workforce. Life skills training is treated as an educational…

  11. The Early Intervention Program at Rio Hondo College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Katherine

    In the fall of 1997, the Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) program at Rio Hondo College (California) created the Early Intervention Program (EIP) to help recognize and support high-risk students. EOPS is a state-funded program that assists low-income, high risk students in achieving their educational goals. To identify these…

  12. Early Childhood Health--Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lawrence S.

    The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…

  13. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

  14. Early Life Stress as an Influence on Limbic Epilepsy: An Hypothesis Whose Time has Come?

    PubMed Central

    Koe, Amelia S.; Jones, Nigel C.; Salzberg, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research. PMID:19838325

  15. Early Head Start Relationships: Association with Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…

  16. Montana State University Early Career Faculty Mentoring Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University Early Career Faculty Mentoring Program 20132014 Description The purpose of the program is to provide a mentor for early career MSU tenure track and nontenure track faculty members who have been hired within the past three years and who are interested in having a mentor

  17. Who Drops Out of Early Head Start Home Visiting Programs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Roggman; Gina A. Cook; Carla A. Peterson; Helen H. Raikes

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Early Head Start home-based programs provide services through weekly home visits to families with children up to age 3, but families vary in how long they remain enrolled. In this study of 564 families in home-based Early Head Start programs, “dropping out” was predicted by specific variations in home visits and certain family characteristics. It also was negatively

  18. First Principles for Early Grades Reading Programs in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathy; Strickland, Dorothy; Haase, Janeen; Malik, Sakil

    2009-01-01

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) program is an oral assessment designed to measure the most basic foundation skills for literacy acquisition in the early grades. EGRA's purpose is to document student performance on early grade reading skills in order to inform ministries…

  19. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  20. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

  1. Inflammation and Early-Life Abuse in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse in childhood and adolescence may affect risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Although mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear, chronic stress may lead to dysregulation of immune function and chronic inflammation. Purpose To evaluate associations between early-life physical and sexual abuse and blood levels of inflammatory markers in adulthood among 702 members of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Methods Abuse in childhood (before age 11 years) and adolescence (ages 11–17 years) was self-reported in 2001. Plasma samples collected in 1996–1999 were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP); interleukin (IL)-6; and the soluble fraction of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 in 2001, 2009 and 2010. Results Mean age at blood collection was 43.9 years. Moderate or severe physical abuse was reported by 35.3% of participants; 22.7% reported unwanted sexual touching and 9.8% reported forced sex. Plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 were higher in women reporting sexual abuse in adolescence compared to those reporting no abuse (p=0.04 and 0.03, respectively) in analyses adjusted for confounders including age and childhood adiposity. Inflammatory marker levels were similarly elevated in women reporting sexual abuse during childhood, but results were not significant. Relationships largely persisted after further adjustment for potential mediators such as adult BMI and smoking. Physical abuse during childhood and/or adolescence was not consistently associated with inflammatory marker levels. Conclusions Chronic inflammation may be one mechanism through which sexual abuse may affect future risk of physical and psychological disorders. PMID:23159256

  2. Association between Early Adverse Life Events and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Kara; Shih, Wendy; Videlock, Elizabeth; Presson, Angela P.; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Chang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Although childhood and adult abuse are more prevalent among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) than healthy individuals (controls), other types of early adverse life events (EALs) have not been well characterized. We investigated whether different types of EALs, before an age of 18 years, are more prevalent among patients with IBS, and the effects of gender and non-gastrointestinal symptoms on the relationship between EALs and IBS. Methods EALs were evaluated in 294 IBS patients (79% women) and 435 controls (77% women) using the early trauma inventory self report form, which delineates sub-categories of general trauma and physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Validated questionnaires assessed gastrointestinal, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Results Compared to controls, IBS patients reported a higher prevalence of general trauma (78.5% vs 62.3%), physical punishment (60.6% vs 49.2%), emotional abuse (54.9% vs 27.0%), and sexual events (31.2% vs 17.9%) (all P’s <.001). These significant differences were mainly observed in women. Of the EAL domains, emotional abuse was the strongest predictor of IBS (P<.001). Eight of the 27 EAL items were significant (P<.001) and increased the odds of having IBS by 108%–305%. Although EAL and psychological variables were related, EALs had an independent association with IBS (P=.04). Conclusion Various types of EALs are associated with development of IBS—particularly among women. Psychological distress and somatic symptoms might contribute to this relationship. When appropriate, EALs and non-gastrointestinal symptoms should be assessed in IBS patients. PMID:22178460

  3. The Role of Early-Life Socioeconomic Status in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Unraveling Life Course Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examine (1) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES), and (2) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. Methods We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Results Higher levels of mothers’ education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers’ education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers’ education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. Discussion This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival. PMID:21956096

  4. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11?-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be addressed. PMID:24860550

  5. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L., Jr.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  6. Experimental modeling of hypoxia in pregnancy and early postnatal life

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Mojmír; Dubovický, Michal; Navarová, Jana; Brucknerová, Ingrid; Ujházy, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    The important role of equilibrium of environmental factors during the embryo-fetal period is undisputable. Women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to various environmental risk factors such as hypoxia, prenatal viral infections, use of drugs, smoking, complications of birth or stressful life events. These early hazards represent an important risk for structural and/or functional maldevelopment of the fetus and neonates. Impairment of oxygen/energy supply during the pre- and perinatal period may affect neuronal functions and induce cell death. Thus when death of the newborn is not occurring following intrauterine hypoxia, various neurological deficits, including hyperactivity, learning disabilities, mental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, dystonia etc., may develop both in humans and in experimental animals. In our animal studies we used several approaches for modeling hypoxia in rats during pregnancy and shortly after delivery, i.e. chronic intrauterine hypoxia induced by the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, neonatal anoxia by decreased oxygen saturation in 2-day-old pups. Using these models we were able to test potential protective properties of natural (vitamin E, melatonin) and synthetic (stobadine) compounds. Based on our results, stobadine was also able to reduce hypoxia-induced hyperactivity and the antioxidant capacity of stobadine exceeded that of vitamin E and melatonin, and contrary to vitamin E, stobadine had no adverse effects on developing fetus and offspring. PMID:21217842

  7. Life satisfaction and maladaptive behaviors in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PMID:24884447

  8. How Does a Neuron “know” to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2013-01-01

    Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

  9. Off-Campus Life Program Assistant Off-Campus Life

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    advertising, and assistance with special projects. Program Assistant Duties and Responsibilities: Room volunteers for events Request speakers for events Oversee and update office statistics Construct display cases Assist with RentalSearch web advertising Post to community and personal calendars Assist

  10. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  11. TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

  12. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  13. Asthma onset prior to multiple sclerosis and the contribution of sibling exposure in early life

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    Asthma onset prior to multiple sclerosis and the contribution of sibling exposure in early life A of higher infection load. The effect on Th1 disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is less clear. Here we with a protective role for early life infections. Keywords: asthma, herpes virus, hygeine hypothesis, multiple

  14. THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SKIPJACK TUNA, Katsuwonus pelamis, IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN

    E-print Network

    THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SKIPJACK TUNA, Katsuwonus pelamis, IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN HOWARD O. YOSHIDA' ABSTRAcr This study investigates the early life history of skipjack tuna, including the distribution, abundance, age, and growth. The study is based on 1,742 juvenile skipjack tuna that were found

  15. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Mangrio; Martin Lindström; Maria Rosvall

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the

  16. The Toxicity of Diquat, Endothall, and Fluridone to the Early Life Stages of Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Paul; Howard A. Simonin; John Symula; Robert W. Bauer

    1994-01-01

    While most aquatic herbicides have undergone some toxicity testing for effects on non-target aquatic organisms, little of this testing has been conducted on early life stages of gamefish found in lakes undergoing treatment. Commercial formulations of diquat, endothall, and fluridone were selected for acute toxicity testing using very early life stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and

  17. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DeGraff, Deborah S.; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth. PMID:25170434

  18. Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

  19. Early Outcomes of the GEAR UP Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…

  20. The Minnesota Experience with Family-Centered Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lois

    1988-01-01

    The author describes Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program for all children from birth to kindergarten and their parents. Topics include the types of activities each local program undertakes, administration and planning, and financing. A list of important program attributes is included. (CH)

  1. Directory of Selected Early Childhood Programs, 1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Marcia J., Ed.

    This directory of selected early childhood programs sponsored by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) includes project grants in the following program categories administered by the Office of Special Education Programs: the Division of Innovation and Development (DID), the Division of Personnel Preparation (DPP), and…

  2. WorkLife Programs 2010 Satisfaction Survey

    E-print Network

    assistance counseling or referral 35% chose health and wellness programs, such as Weight Watchers at Work or the walking program 34% answered health and wellness presentations (topics include stress, nutrition, family development and wellness program opportunities. Strongly agree, 10% Agree, 56% Disagree, 24% Strongly disagree

  3. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  4. Early life predictors of adult depression in a community cohort of urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Fothergill, Kate E; Robertson, Judith A; Zebrak, Katarzyna A; Banda, Deliya R; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2013-02-01

    Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk factors for adult depression separately by gender. Results indicate that lifetime depression rates do not differ significantly by gender (16.2 % of men, 18.8 % of women) in contrast to findings of a higher prevalence for women in national studies. Furthermore, rates of depression in this urban African American population are higher than those found in national samples of African Americans and more comparable to the higher rates found nationally among Whites. Regarding early predictors, for both men and women, family conflict in adolescence is a risk factor for adult depression in multivariate regression models. For women, vulnerability to depression has roots in early life, specifically, low maternal aspirations for school attainment. Females displaying more aggressive and delinquent behavior and those growing up in a female-headed household and a household with low maternal education have elevated rates of depression. Males growing up in persistent poverty, those engaging in greater delinquent behavior, and those with low parental supervision in adolescence also have elevated rates of depression. Effective prevention programming for urban African Americans must consider both individual characteristics and the family dynamic. PMID:22689296

  5. Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of LIfe Studies Funding Program (BIQSFP)

    Cancer.gov

    Funded Cooperative Groups (CGs) and funded Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support essential biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies which are associated with clinical trial concepts.

  6. Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections

    PubMed Central

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This review attempts to situate the emergence of life on the early Earth within the scientific issues of the operational and mechanistic description of life, the conditions and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, together with bottom-up molecular fabrication and biomolecular nanofabrication and top-down miniaturization approaches to the origin of terrestrial life. PMID:17008225

  7. 75 FR 24450 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...access to health insurance will affect small...significant positive economic effect on a substantial...Medicaid, or slow any growth in numbers of individuals...dropping health insurance for early retirees...minimal effect on economic growth.) 5. All...

  8. Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators

    PubMed Central

    Lajud, Naima; Torner, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early life experience decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and results in increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite that the effects of postnatal stress on neurogenesis have been widely studied in adult individuals, few efforts have been done to evaluate its immediate effects on the developing hippocampus. Moreover, it is not clear whether postnatal stress causes a differential impact in hippocampus development in male and female neonates that could be related to emotional deficits in adulthood. It has been proposed that the long term effects of early stress exposure rise from a persistent HPA axis activation during sensitive time windows; nevertheless the exact mechanisms and mediators remain unknown. Here, we summarize the immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups, compare its later consequences in emotionality, and highlight some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming. PMID:25741234

  9. Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators.

    PubMed

    Lajud, Naima; Torner, Luz

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early life experience decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and results in increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite that the effects of postnatal stress on neurogenesis have been widely studied in adult individuals, few efforts have been done to evaluate its immediate effects on the developing hippocampus. Moreover, it is not clear whether postnatal stress causes a differential impact in hippocampus development in male and female neonates that could be related to emotional deficits in adulthood. It has been proposed that the long term effects of early stress exposure rise from a persistent HPA axis activation during sensitive time windows; nevertheless the exact mechanisms and mediators remain unknown. Here, we summarize the immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups, compare its later consequences in emotionality, and highlight some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming. PMID:25741234

  10. Increased Early Life Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Comorbid Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Scheller-Gilkey; Shannon M. Thomas; Bobbi J. Woolwine; Andrew H. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Early adverse events have been associated with increased rates of substance abuse and depression. To investigate the association between early adverse events and comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia patients, early life stress, depressive symptoms, positive and negative symptoms, anxiety, and cognitive function were measured in an age-, sex-, and race-matched sample of 40 schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid substance

  11. Constraint Programming to Solve Maximal Density Still Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Geoffrey; Petrie, Karen Elizabeth; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    The Maximum Density Still Life problem fills a finite Game of Life board with a stable pattern of cells that has as many live cells as possible. Although simple to state, this problem is computationally challenging for any but the smallest sizes of board. Especially difficult is to prove that the maximum number of live cells has been found. Various approaches have been employed. The most successful are approaches based on Constraint Programming (CP). We describe the Maximum Density Still Life problem, introduce the concept of constraint programming, give an overview on how the problem can be modelled and solved with CP, and report on best-known results for the problem.

  12. Parallel Goals of the Early Childhood Music Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Veronica Wolf

    Early childhood music programs should be based on two interacting goals: (1) to teach those skills most appropriate to a particular level and (2) to nurture musical creativity and self-expression. Early childhood is seen as the optimum time for acquiring certain musical skills, of which the ability to sing in tune is considered primary. The vocal…

  13. Directory of Selected Early Childhood Programs, 1988-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Marcia J., Ed.

    This directory lists selected early childhood projects sponsored by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS). An introduction provides an overview of OSERS' early childhood programs, their purposes and activities, and a brief discussion of the implications of Public Law 99-457. The "Directory of Projects" provides a…

  14. Collaboration and Subsidized Early Care and Education Programs in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Zanoni, Wladimir; Barisik, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As a result of policy changes following welfare reform in 1996 and the costs associated with providing high-quality early care and education for children of low-income working families, agency collaboration in the state of Illinois has become an increasingly salient feature of subsidized early care and education programs (SECE). The authors…

  15. Early Head Start Participants, Program, Families and Staff in 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  16. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was created almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services.…

  17. CARES/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. CARES/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element analysis programs to evaluate component reliability due to inherent surface and/or volume type flaws. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker law. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled by using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. The probabilistic time-dependent theories used in CARES/LIFE, along with the input and output for CARES/LIFE, are described. Example problems to demonstrate various features of the program are also included.

  18. CARES/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2003-02-01

    This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. CARES/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element analysis programs to evaluate component reliability due to inherent surface and/or volume type flaws. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker law. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled by using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. The probabilistic time-dependent theories used in CARES/LIFE, along with the input and output for CARES/LIFE, are described. Example problems to demonstrate various features of the program are also included.

  19. Effects of early-life adversity on cognitive decline in older African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Hayward, Mark D.; Evans, Denis A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Early-life adversity is related to adult health in old age but little is known about its relation with cognitive decline. Methods: Participants included more than 6,100 older residents (mean age = 74.9 [7.1] years; 61.8% African American) enrolled in the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a geographically defined, population-based study of risk factors for Alzheimer disease. Participants were interviewed at approximately 3-year intervals for up to 16 years. The interview included a baseline evaluation of early-life adversity, and administration of 4 brief cognitive function tests to assess change in cognitive function. We estimated the relation of early-life adversity to rate of cognitive decline in a series of mixed-effects models. Results: In models stratified by race, and adjusted for age and sex, early-life adversity was differentially related to decline in African Americans and whites. Whereas no measure of early-life adversity related to cognitive decline in whites, both food deprivation and being thinner than average in early life were associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline in African Americans. The relations were not mediated by years of education and persisted after adjustment for cardiovascular factors. Conclusions: Markers of early-life adversity had an unexpected protective effect on cognitive decline in African Americans. PMID:23233682

  20. The importance of early life in childhood obesity and related diseases: a report from the 2014 Gravida Strategic Summit.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, E C; Donovan, E L; Leask, M P; Bloomfield, F H; Vickers, M H; Dearden, P K; Baker, P N

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and its related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer, impose huge burdens on society, particularly the healthcare system. Until recently, public health and policy were primarily focused on secondary prevention and treatment of NCDs. However, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that early-life exposures influence the risk of childhood obesity and related diseases later in life, and has now focused attention on the health of both mother and child. During pregnancy and the early neonatal period, individuals respond to their environment by establishing anatomical, physiological and biochemical trajectories that shape their future health. This period of developmental plasticity provides an early window of opportunity to mitigate the environmental insults that may increase an individual's sensitivity to, or risk of, developing obesity or related diseases later in life. Although much investigation has already occurred in the area of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease research, the science itself is still in its infancy. It remains for researchers to tackle the important outstanding questions and translate their knowledge into workable solutions for the public good. The challenge, however, is to decide which areas to focus on. With these opportunities and challenges in mind, the 2014 Gravida Summit convened to examine how its early-life research program can determine which areas of research into mechanisms, biomarkers and interventions could contribute to the international research strategy to fight childhood obesity and its related diseases. PMID:25308169

  1. Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

  2. The Adolescent Family Life Program and Adoption Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Adolescent Family Life Program, which develops and tests approaches that encourage adoption as an alternative to abortion for pregnant teens. Notes that both abortion and adoption rates have dropped since the program was instituted in 1981; maintains that additional research is needed into factors associated with adoption. Discusses…

  3. The Early Childhood Program: A Place To Learn and Grow. An Early Childhood Video Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

    Noting that early childhood education is recognized as critical to a child's educational career, this 7-part videotape series focuses on developmentally appropriate practices in the components of quality early childhood programs, providing an opportunity for acquiring working knowledge, observing classroom models, and reflecting on one's own…

  4. Parental Responsiveness Moderates the Association Between Early-life Stress and Reduced Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Roth, T. L.; Rosen, J. B.; Dozier, M.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress, such as maltreatment, institutionalization, and exposure to violence, is associated with accelerated telomere shortening. Telomere shortening may thus represent a biomarker of early adversity. Previous studies have suggested that responsive parenting may protect children from the negative biological and behavioral consequences of early adversity. This study examined the role of parental responsiveness in buffering children from telomere shortening following experiences of early-life stress. We found that high-risk children had significantly shorter telomeres than low-risk children, controlling for household income, birth weight, gender, and minority status. Further, parental responsiveness moderated the association between risk and telomere length, with more responsive parenting associated with longer telomeres only among high-risk children. These findings suggest that responsive parenting may have protective benefits on telomere shortening for young children exposed to early-life stress. Accordingly, this study has important implications for early parenting interventions. PMID:23527512

  5. Modulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Early-Life Environmental Challenges Triggering Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Egeland, Martin; Pariante, Carmine M.; Zunszain, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the communication between the human body and the environment, in early development as well as in adulthood. Per se, research has shown that factors such as maternal stress and nutrition as well as maternal infections can activate the immune system in the infant. A rising number of research studies have shown that activation of the immune system in early life can augment the risk of some psychiatric disorders in adulthood, such as schizophrenia and depression. The mechanisms of such a developmental programming effect are unknown; however some preliminary evidence is emerging in the literature, which suggests that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be involved. A growing number of studies have shown that pre- and postnatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus can modulate the number of proliferating and differentiating neural progenitors in the adult hippocampus, and this can have an effect on behaviours of relevance to psychiatric disorders. This review provides a summary of these studies and highlights the evidence supporting a neurogenic hypothesis of immune developmental programming. PMID:24891958

  6. Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) gas cell life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, E. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Harvey, G. A.; Park, J. H.; Richardson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) will use gas filter correlation radiometry to measure the atmospheric concentration profiles of HCl, HF, NO, and CH4 from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The need to contain the gases for the gas filter measurements has resulted in the development of gas cells and the need for a life test program to demonstrate that the gas cells will perform their functions for extended periods (several years) of time. This report describes the tests in the life test program, the test apparatus used, and the analysis techniques developed. The report also presents data obtained during the first 14 months of the test program.

  7. Standards for Implementing Quality Early Learning Programs: Manual of Best Practices To Implement Quality Early Learning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    As public schools collaborate with the Head Start and child care communities to improve the quality of early childhood education and care, practitioners working with young children need guidance and support in implementing best practices in early learning. This manual provides guidance to teachers engaged in improving their programs in concert…

  8. Early Childhood Mentoring Programs: A Survey of Community Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan

    Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…

  9. The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

    This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

  10. Early Formation of Training Programs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Hoffer, P. L.

    Developed for application in Air Force weapons systems training programs, a research project investigated the methods, procedures, and data available for conducting cost and training effectiveness analyses (CTEA). The primary objective of the project was to develop a user-oriented procedure for early formulation of training programs that can be…

  11. An Evaluation of the Early Truancy Intervention (ETI) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Lawther, Wendell; Jennison, Victoria; Hightower, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a program evaluation of an Early Truancy Intervention (ETI) program in elementary schools in a southern school district. The ETI represents a cooperative effort between a southern district State Attorney's Office, and public elementary schools in the largest county in that district. The results indicate a…

  12. Endocrine Disruptors and the Breast: Early Life Effects and Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Macon, Madisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5–27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future. PMID:23417729

  13. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    PubMed

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future. PMID:23417729

  14. The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90.

    E-print Network

    The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90. Projects eligible for Life Safety Funding should generally meet all of the following be a continuation of an existing operation or line of research. 4. Any Life Safety project must be the best life

  15. Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

  16. Early Identification & Readiness Program. Monograph 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portsmouth School Dept., RI.

    The fourth of eight related documents, this monograph describes the prekindergarten identification and readiness phase of the Reading Instruction and Pupil Personnel Services (RIPPS) program. The document describes the four major components of this phase: (1) a comprehensive registration, (2) parent information presentation, (3) health screening,…

  17. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  18. Stanford study identifies early-life risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Cancer.gov

    Factors influencing early life non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence include family characteristics, high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and male gender, according to a study published May 22 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  19. INTRALABORATORY COMPARISON OF THE EARLY LIFE-STAGE TOXICITY TEST USING THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interlaboratory precision of the ASTM early life-stage toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus) as investigated at five contract and two EPA laboratories using endosulfan nd pentachlorobenzene. ach laboratory conducted two tests with each hemical. ests ...

  20. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

  1. A randomised controlled trial of two early intervention programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with parent program and home-based

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Roberts; Katrina Williams; Mark Carter; David Evans; Trevor Parmenter; Natalie Silove; Trevor Clark; Anthony Warren

    2011-01-01

    This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill development in children, quality of life and stress for parents. Eligible

  2. Leading the Way: Characteristics and Early Experiences of Selected Early Head Start Programs. Volume II: Program Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Rosenberg, Linda; Coolahan, Kathleen; Berlin, Lisa J.

    Early Head Start (EHS) is a comprehensive, two-generation program providing intensive services from before birth to age 3 to promote improved outcomes in children's development, family development, staff development, and community development. The second of a 3-volume series designed to share the experiences of the 17 EHS programs participating in…

  3. Inter-college program between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical Sciences

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Inter-college program between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical Sciences Offered by Natural-college program between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical Sciences Offered

  4. Post-weaning diet determines metabolic risk in mice exposed to overnutrition in early life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal overnutrition during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the offspring; a phenomenon attributed to ‘developmental programming’. The post-weaning development of obesity may associate with exacerbation of the programmed metabolic phenotype. In mice, we have previously shown that exposure to maternal overnutrition causes increased weight gain in offspring before weaning, but exerts no persistent effects on weight or glucose tolerance in adulthood. In order to determine whether post-weaning exposure to a cafeteria diet might lead to an exacerbation of programmed effects, offspring born and raised by mothers on control (CON) or cafeteria (DIO) diets were transferred onto either CON or DIO diets at weaning. Findings Post-weaning DIO caused the development of obesity, with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in males; and obesity with hyperinsulinaemia in females and with increased cholesterol levels in both sexes. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation caused only subtle additional effects on offspring phenotype. Conclusions These results suggest that post-weaning exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet has a more profound effect on offspring weight gain and glucose tolerance than exposure to maternal overnutrition. These data emphasise the importance of optimising early life nutrition in offspring of both obese and lean mothers. PMID:25082159

  5. The role of the early-life environment in the development of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-02-01

    A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. PMID:25459574

  6. Investigating the Association Between Early Life Parental Care and Stress Responsivity in Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika Engert; Claudia Buss; Najmeh Khalili-Mahani; Mehereen Wadiwalla; Katarina Dedovic; Jens C. Pruessner

    2010-01-01

    We explored the associations between early life experience, endocrine regulation, psychological health, and hippocampal integrity in 37 elderly volunteers. Specifically, a neurodevelopmental and psychological mediation model was tested: Retrospective early life parental care was hypothesized to influence hippocampal integrity and the development of self-esteem. In turn, hippocampal volume (via modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis negative feedback) and self-esteem (via modulation of

  7. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

  8. Early Life History of the Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens (Mitchell), in the Red Lakes, Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Pycha; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

    1955-01-01

    The early life history of the yellow perch, an important commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, has been studied with special reference to length at scale formation, growth rate during first season of life, and food habits as they relate to growth and survival. Scales are fully imbricated in the area of 12th to 14th lateral line scales at

  9. Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    1994-01-01

    Presents a lesson based on the village life of the Plains Indians during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and suggested student assignments. Provides two maps, two student readings, and five illustrations of American Indian village life. (CFR)

  10. Teaching with Historic Places: Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    1992-01-01

    Presents a history lesson plan on village life among two groups of Plains Indians in the early nineteenth century. Includes student handouts of contemporary writings by Euro-Americans, maps of the area, and early American paintings of the villages. Describes and structures teaching activities, vocabulary, and additional reading. (DK)

  11. Early life and later determinants of adult disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DW Lamont; L Parker; MA Cohen; M White; SMA Bennett; NC Unwin; AW Craft; KGMM Alberti

    1998-01-01

    The relative contribution of socioeconomic, behavioural and biological factors operating in fetal and infant life, childhood and adulthood to risk for cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and non-insulin-dependent diabetes in middle age has become an important research issue. All 1142 babies born in Newcastle upon Tyne in May and June 1947 were recruited into a prospective cohort study of child health

  12. Life Satisfaction and Maladaptive Behaviors in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael D.; Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 ("n" = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2…

  13. Rasagiline improves quality of life in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Biglan; Steven Schwid; Shirley Eberly; Karen Blindauer; Stanley Fahn; Tamar Goren; Karl Kieburtz; David Oakes; Sandra Plumb; Andrew Siderowf; Matthew Stern; Ira Shoulson

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rasagiline as monotherapy on quality of life (QOL) in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD). Rasagiline, a potent, second-generation, irreversible, selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor improves PD symptoms in patients with early PD. Patients with early untreated PD were randomly assigned to once-daily rasagiline 1 mg\\/day, rasagiline 2 mg\\/

  14. Polycomb Binding Precedes Early-Life Stress Responsive DNA Methylation at the Avp Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development. PMID:24599304

  15. Life and the solar uv environment on the early Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bérces; G. Kovács; G. Rontó; H. Lammer; G. Kargl; N. Kömle; S. Bauer

    2003-01-01

    The solar UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within their atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is the driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. Studies of the solar UV environment of the early Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest

  16. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution. PMID:24196527

  17. The possible long-term effects of early-life circadian rhythm disturbance on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in early life with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to early life sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years. PMID:24902476

  18. Early growth and abdominal fatness in adult life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C M Law; D J Barker; C Osmond; C H Fall; S J Simmonds

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether abdominal fatness in adult men is associated with retarded growth in fetal life and infancy. DESIGN--This was a follow up study of (1) men born during 1920-30 whose birthweights and weights at one year were recorded at the time by health visitors; and (2) men born during 1935-43 whose size at birth was

  19. Toxicogenomic and Phenotypic Analyses of Bisphenol-A Early-Life Exposure Toxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Siew Hong; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chuan; Duan, Zhenghua; Zhu, Lin; Ung, Choong Yong; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ong, Choon Nam; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol-A is an important environmental contaminant due to the increased early-life exposure that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. This study aimed to use zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to capture transcriptomic and phenotypic changes for inference of signaling pathways, biological processes, physiological systems and identify potential biomarker genes that are affected by early-life exposure to bisphenol-A. Phenotypic analysis using wild-type zebrafish larvae revealed BPA early-life exposure toxicity caused cardiac edema, cranio-facial abnormality, failure of swimbladder inflation and poor tactile response. Fluorescent imaging analysis using three transgenic lines revealed suppressed neuron branching from the spinal cord, abnormal development of neuromast cells, and suppressed vascularization in the abdominal region. Using knowledge-based data mining algorithms, transcriptome analysis suggests that several signaling pathways involving ephrin receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, synaptic long-term potentiation, axonal guidance, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and tight junction were deregulated. Physiological systems with related disorders associated with the nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular, blood and reproductive systems were implicated, hence corroborated with the phenotypic analysis. Further analysis identified a common set of BPA-targeted genes and revealed a plausible mechanism involving disruption of endocrine-regulated genes and processes in known susceptible tissue-organs. The expression of 28 genes were validated in a separate experiment using quantitative real-time PCR and 6 genes, ncl1, apoeb, mdm1, mycl1b, sp4, U1SNRNPBP homolog, were found to be sensitive and robust biomarkers for BPA early-life exposure toxicity. The susceptibility of sp4 to BPA perturbation suggests its role in altering brain development, function and subsequently behavior observed in laboratory animals exposed to BPA during early life, which is a health-risk concern of early life exposure in humans. The present study further established zebrafish as a model for toxicogenomic inference of early-life chemical exposure toxicity. PMID:22194820

  20. Learning Effects of an Experimental EFL Program in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated…

  1. Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program

    Cancer.gov

    Funded National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies with or without Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) proposals which are associated with NCI clinical trial concepts.

  2. Virtual Reality for Life Skills Education: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Jennifer; Bowers, Clint; Meehan, Cricket; Hoeft, Raegan; Bradley, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    A program evaluation was completed for a Virtual Reality (VR) pilot project intended to aid deaf children in learning various life skills which they may be at risk of not adequately learning. Such skills include crossing the street safely, exiting a building during a fire drill, and avoiding situations in which strangers may harm them. The VR was…

  3. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality.

  4. Early life stress sensitizes rats to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular inflammation in adult life

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Analia S.; Pollock, David M.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal separation during early life is an established chronic behavioral model of early life stress in rats. It is known that perinatal adverse environments increase activity of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically angiotensin II (ang II), in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of early life stress augments the sensitivity of the ang II pathway. Using Wistar Kyoto rats, the maternal separation (MS) protocol was performed separating approximately half of the male pups from their mother 3 hs/day from day 2–14 of life. Pups remaining with the mother at all times were utilized as controls. Maternal separation did not influence the plasma basal parameters such blood glucose, insulin, ang II, ang 1–7 and PRA. Furthermore, body weight, blood pressure and heart rate were similar in MS and control rats. The acute pressor response to ang II was not different in anesthetized MS and control rats. However, the chronic infusion of ang II (65 ng/day, s.c.) elicited an exaggerated hypertensive response in MS compared to control rats (p<0.05). Surprisingly, HR was dramatically increased during the second week of ang II infusion in MS compared with control rats (p<0.05). This enhanced ang II sensitivity was accompanied by a greater vascular inflammatory response in MS vs. control rats. Chronic ang II-infusion increased vascular wall structure in both groups similarly. These data indicate that early life stress sensitizes rats to an increased hemodynamic and inflammatory response during ang II-induced hypertension. PMID:20026758

  5. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  6. Life and career pathways of deans in nursing programs.

    PubMed

    Redmond, G M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe deans' perspectives on the life and career relationships and experiences that were significant to them and that influenced them in the assumption of the dean's position. A developmental model guided this inquiry and was used to explain the development of these women's personal and professional identities. The study design was naturalistic. Data was collected by survey, life history interviews, and through document search of curriculum vitae. Field notes were recorded throughout the data collection period. Data were analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic analysis techniques consisting of domains, taxonomies, components, and themes. The study yielded the following themes: (1) a pattern of strong valuing by the participants of education and achievement; (2) a pattern of female relationships that provided the deans with role modeling of important leadership behaviors, support, encouragement, and information for making educational and career choices; (3) a pattern of early leadership behavior that included an enjoyment of, or a desire to be in charge. The conclusions of the study were: (1) the Erikson, Levinson Morgan, and Farber models were useful frameworks in studying these deans' life and career pathways; (2) people and relationships played an important role in the lives and the careers of the women studied; (3) the deans' early socialization experiences and relationships contributed to the development of leadership behaviors and positive ego development; (4) Through early family and educational experiences and relationships, the participants in this study developed strong values related to the importance of achievement and education. PMID:1894843

  7. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  8. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  9. Investing in Early Childhood: Increasing Funding for Smart Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for America's Children, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Voices for America's Children member Kansas Action for Children, partnered with state and local organizations to increase funding for Smart Start Kansas, a successful early care and education program. Kansas Children's Campaign, an initiative of Kansas Action for Children, collaborated with a key state organization, legislators,…

  10. Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

  11. Early School Admissions Program: Staff Handbook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mabel; And Others

    The descriptions and procedures in this handbook were developed and compiled at the request of staff members of the Early School Admissions Program. It was felt that specific information relating to the suggested use of classroom materials and equipment would assist in upgrading teaching techniques, planning cognitively based learning experiences,…

  12. BEHAVIOR OF PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whether through environmental criteria or site-specific risk assessments, many EPA programs rely on linking environmental exposures to levels of adverse effect (or no effect) in fish and wildlife. While empirical relationships of exposure to effect can be used for such assessmen...

  13. Early-Life Conditions And Mechanisms Of Population Health Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Furumoto-Dawson, Alice; Gehlert, Sarah; Sohmer, Dana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Sacks, Tina

    2008-01-01

    The social status of groups is key to determining health vulnerability at the population level. The impact of material and psychological stresses imposed by social inequities and marginalization is felt most intensely during perinatal/early childhood and puberty/adolescent periods, when developmental genes are expressed and interact with social-physical environments. The influence of chronic psychosocial stresses on gene expression via neuroendocrine regulatory dysfunction is crucial to understanding the biological bases of adult health vulnerability. Studying childhood biology vulnerabilities to neighborhood environments will aid the crafting of multifaceted, multilevel public policy interventions providing immediate benefits and compounded long-term population health yields. PMID:17848432

  14. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, David S.; Turner, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earthâ??s history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe.

  15. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David S; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-01-10

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766

  16. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC) centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children). Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight) and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76) for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17) for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions. PMID:21159203

  17. Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    2002-01-01

    Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

  18. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

  19. Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

  20. Molecules Clarify a Cnidarian Life Cycle – The “Hydrozoan” Microhydrula limopsicola Is an Early Life Stage of the Staurozoan Haliclystus antarcticus

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Lucília S.; Collins, Allen G.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Life cycles of medusozoan cnidarians vary widely, and have been difficult to document, especially in the most recently proposed class Staurozoa. However, molecular data can be a useful tool to elucidate medusozoan life cycles by tying together different life history stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic data from fast-evolving molecular markers (mitochondrial 16S, nuclear ITS1, and nuclear ITS2) show that animals that were presumed to be a hydrozoan, Microhydrula limopsicola (Limnomedusae, Microhydrulidae), are actually an early stage of the life cycle of the staurozoan Haliclystus antarcticus (Stauromedusae, Lucernariidae). Conclusions/Significance Similarity between the haplotypes of three markers of Microhydrula limopsicola and Haliclystus antarcticus settles the identity of these taxa, expanding our understanding of the staurozoan life cycle, which was thought to be more straightforward and simple. A synthetic discussion of prior observations makes sense of the morphological, histological and behavioral similarities/congruence between Microhydrula and Haliclystus. The consequences are likely to be replicated in other medusozoan groups. For instance we hypothesize that other species of Microhydrulidae are likely to represent life stages of other species of Staurozoa. PMID:20418959

  1. Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Witek-Janusek; Kevin Albuquerque; Karen Rambo Chroniak; Christopher Chroniak; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Herbert L. Mathews

    2008-01-01

    This investigation used a non-randomized controlled design to evaluate the effect and feasibility of a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program on immune function, quality of life (QOL), and coping in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Early stage breast cancer patients, who did not receive chemotherapy, self-selected into an 8-week MBSR program or into an assessment only, control group.

  2. Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

  3. Early-Life Environmental Variation Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Development in New-Born Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112

  4. 34 CFR 303.210 - Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...U.S.C. 9801, et seq., as amended), early education and child care programs, and services under this...Head Start Act, on the State Advisory Council on Early Childhood Education and Care established under the Head Start...

  5. 34 CFR 303.210 - Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...U.S.C. 9801, et seq., as amended), early education and child care programs, and services under this...Head Start Act, on the State Advisory Council on Early Childhood Education and Care established under the Head Start...

  6. Growth Failure in Early Life: An Important Manifestation of Turner Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marsha L. Davenport; Natavut Punyasavatsut; Paul W. Stewart; Daniel F. Gunther; Lars Sävendahl; Virginia P. Sybert

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that girls with Turner syndrome (TS) experience growth failure early in life and to establish model-based normative growth charts for 0- to 8-year-old American girls with TS. Full-term girls with TS who had 5 or more measurements of height obtained during their first 10 years of life prior to initiation

  7. First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

    1997-01-01

    Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

  8. UC Davis study links breast cancer risk to early-life diet and metabolic syndrome

    Cancer.gov

    Striking new evidence suggesting that diet and related factors early in life can boost the risk for breast cancer — totally independent of the body’s production of the hormone estrogen — has been uncovered by a team of researchers at the University of California, Davis. The findings provide new insights into the processes that regulate normal breast development, which can impact the risk of developing breast cancer later in life. The study will be published Sept. 17 in the early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The University of California, Davis is home to the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center.

  9. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages. PMID:25804346

  10. The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program - Preparing the way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biro, Ronald; Munsey, Bill; Long, Irene

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to the goals and methods adopted in the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) for preparing scientists and engineers for space-related life-sciences research and operations. The SLSTP is based on six weeks of projects and lectures which give an overview of payload processing and experiment flow in the space environment. The topics addressed in the course of the program include descriptions of space vehicles, support hardware, equipment, and research directions. Specific lecture topics include the gravity responses of plants, mission integration of a flight experiment, and the cardiovascular deconditioning. The SLSTP is shown to be an important part of the process of recruiting and training qualified scientists and engineers to support space activities.

  11. The life-saving effect of hyperbaric oxygenation during early-phase severe blunt chest injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. ROGATSKY; A. MAYEVSKY

    Rogatsky GG, Mayevsky A. The life-saving effect of hyperbaric oxygenation during early-phase severe blunt chest injuries. Undersea Hyperb Med 2007; 34(2):75-81. The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO2) on survival during the early phase of severe blunt chest injury (BChI) has not been elucidated. Our aim was to investigate this effect on human victims of BChI. We monitored cardiac index (CI),

  12. 77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

  13. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  14. Biology of early life stages in cephalopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    von Boletzky, S

    2003-01-01

    Recent literature on embryonic and post-embryonic development, biology and behavioural ecology of juvenile cephalopods is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on biological processes. Life-history patterns and phylogenetic systematics, which are important for a proper understanding of the evolutionary history of the cephalopods, are only briefly touched upon. Egg sizes in cephalopods range from less than 1 mm to about 30 mm in diameter, so the hatchlings emerging from the largest eggs are bigger than the adults of pygmy squid, the smallest known cephalopods. Developmental durations from spawning to hatching range from a few days (for very small eggs developing at high temperatures) to one or possibly several years (for very large eggs developing at low temperatures). Such important differences notwithstanding, the morphogenetic processes are very similar in all cephalopod embryos, the major variant being the size of the so-called outer yolk sac, which may be rudimentary in extremely small embryos. Several questions concerning the timing of hatching in relation to the developmental stage attained, especially in terms of yok absorption, need clarification. These questions concern the elimination of the transient closure of the mouth, the final differentiation of digestive gland cells, and the removal of the tranquilliser effect of the perivitelline fluid necessary for the onset of the hatching behaviour. Cephalopod hatchlings are active predators. They refine their behavioural repertoires by learning from individual experience in dealing with prey and would-be predators. There is no truly larval phase, and the ecologically defined term paralarva should be used with caution. Given the considerable resource potential of cephalopods, investigations into dispersal and recruitment are of particular interest to fishery biology, but they are also important for ecological biogeography. The related studies of feeding and growth involve field sampling and tentative age determination of caught specimens, in combination with laboratory studies to test food quality, measure feeding rates, and validation of periodicities in accretional growth structures (e.g. "daily rings" in statoliths). PMID:12846042

  15. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation and elevated temperatures. Other materials of construction, however, are also discussed.

  16. Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development. PMID:23824728

  17. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  18. Transition to Adolescence Program: A Program To Empower Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saitzyk, Arlene R.; Poorman, Michele

    As girls approach early adolescence they begin to experience losses in self-competence and in authenticity in relationships. These girls hide their strengths for the sake of relationships. This study attempts to change this phenomenon through a 13-week small group intervention program, The Transition to Adolescence Program (TAP). TAP encourages…

  19. Early Life Nutrition Modulates Muscle Stem Cell Number: Implications for Muscle Mass and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J.; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)—experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8%±0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2%±0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16%±3% of injured area vs. UN 11%±2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4%±0.6% vs. HFD 4.7%±0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16%±2.7% vs. HFD 9%±2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk. PMID:21247245

  20. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life

    PubMed Central

    Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted. PMID:24369133

  1. Ceramic material life prediction: A program to translate ANSYS results to CARES/LIFE reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonhermann, Pieter; Pintz, Adam

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and CARES. Knowledge of compiling and linking FORTRAN programs is also required. Maximum use is made of existing routines (from other CARES interface programs and ANSYS routines) to extract the finite element results and prepare the neutral file for input to the reliability analysis. FORTRAN and machine language routines as described are used to read the ANSYS results file. Sub-element stresses are computed and written to a neutral file using FORTRAN subroutines which are nearly identical to those used in the NASCARES (MSC/NASTRAN to CARES) interface.

  2. Inborn stress reactivity shapes adult behavioral consequences of early-life maternal separation stress.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Jackson, Nateka; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2015-01-01

    Early-life experience strongly impacts neurodevelopment and stress susceptibility in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), an established model of early-life adversity, has been shown to negatively impact behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. However, the impact of MS in rats with heightened inborn stress susceptibility has not been fully explored. To address this issue we conducted MS in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of comorbid depression and anxiety, and Wistar rats, which share a similar genetic background with WKYs. WKY and Wistar pups experienced either 180-min daily MS or 15-min separation (neonatal handling) during the first two postnatal weeks, and were tested for depressive- and anxiety- like behaviors in adulthood. Exposure to early-life MS in WKY rats decreased anxiety- and depressive- like behaviors, leading to increased exploration on the open field test (OFT), enhanced social interaction, and diminished immobility on the forced swim test. MS had an opposite effect in Wistar offspring, leading to enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, such as reduced OFT exploration and decreased social interaction. These findings are consistent with the match/mismatch theory of disease and the predictive adaptive response, which suggests that early life stress exposure can confer adaptive value in later life within certain individuals. Our data supports this theory, showing that early-life MS has positive and perhaps adaptive effects within stress-vulnerable WKY offspring. Future studies will be required to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of contrasting behavioral effects of MS on WKY vs. Wistar offspring. PMID:25451726

  3. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

  4. Alternative early life vaccination programs for companion animals.

    PubMed

    Poulet, H

    2007-07-01

    An experimental challenge study of multicomponent vaccination of kittens is reported. Seven-to-nine week old, specific pathogen-free kittens received two injections (4 weeks apart) of non-adjuvanted, multicomponent vaccine formulated at the minimum protective dose. Kittens were challenged at 4 weeks or 1 year post-vaccination with individual infectious agents. Vaccination induced complete protection against challenge from feline parvovirus on both occasions, but at 1 year, the protection against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and Chlamydophila felis was not as strong as 4 weeks after vaccination. This demonstration of a decline in protective immunity at the normal time of administration of the first booster vaccine suggests that earlier administration of this booster (at 4-6 months of age) may provide better protection. The effect of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on kitten vaccination was determined by conducting an identical experiment but with kittens born to queens vaccinated during pregnancy. Serum antibody titres to specific vaccine components were measured in these kittens on day 0 (time of first vaccination), day 28 (time of second vaccination) and day 42. There was heterogeneity in transfer of MDA to kittens within a litter, and between litters. MDA may neutralize the serological response of kittens on the first, and occasionally the second, occasion of vaccination when vaccination is performed at 8 and 12 weeks of age. This finding underpins recent recommendations that the final vaccination in the primary series be administered at 16 weeks of age. PMID:17560595

  5. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS), an element of Human Systems Research and Technology s (HSRT) Life Support and Habitation Program (LSH), has been NASA s primary sponsor of life support research and technology development for the agency. Over its history, ALS sponsored tasks across a diverse set of institutions, including field centers, colleges and universities, industry, and governmental laboratories, resulting in numerous publications and scientific articles, patents and new technologies, as well as education and training for primary, secondary and graduate students, including minority serving institutions. Prior to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced on January 14th, 2004 by the President, ALS had been focused on research and technology development for long duration exploration missions, emphasizing closed-loop regenerative systems, including both biological and physicochemical. Taking a robust and flexible approach, ALS focused on capabilities to enable visits to multiple potential destinations beyond low Earth orbit. ALS developed requirements, reference missions, and assumptions upon which to structure and focus its development program. The VSE gave NASA a plan for steady human and robotic space exploration based on specific, achievable goals. Recently, the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) was chartered by NASA s Administrator to determine the best exploration architecture and strategy to implement the Vision. The study identified key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance the reference exploration missions and to prioritize near-term and far-term technology investments. This technology assessment resulted in a revised Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) technology investment plan. A set of new technology development projects were initiated as part of the plan s implementation, replacing tasks previously initiated under HSRT and its sister program, Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT). The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program, has recently been initiated to perform directed life support technology development in support of Constellation and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). ELS) has replaced ALS, with several major differences. Thermal Control Systems have been separated into a new stand alone project (Thermal Systems for Exploration Missions). Tasks in Advanced Food Technology have been relocated to the Human Research Program. Tasks in a new discipline area, Habitation Engineering, have been added. Research and technology development for capabilities required for longer duration stays on the Moon and Mars, including bioregenerative system, have been deferred.

  6. WorkLife Programs -Family Friendly Services Child Care Services Flexible Work Arrangements (FWA)

    E-print Network

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    offerings for caregivers · Substance abuse assessments · Annual Family Caregiver Fair · Emergency · Purdue Working Parents Club · WorkLife Programs offerings on financial topics · WorkLife Programs offerings on parent/child topics · Resources on campus · WorkLife Programs Employee Assistance

  7. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17?-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  8. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  9. Knocking on Academia's Doors: An Inquiry into the Early Careers of Doctors in Life Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Robin; E. Cahuzac

    2003-01-01

    The early careers of French doctors in life sciences are characterized by the importance of temporary jobs. While most young Ph.D. researchers wish to obtain a job in the French academic sector (which grants them, among other things, lifetime employment), few of them manage to achieve this objective immediately after completing their Ph.D. A majority of young doctors have to

  10. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  11. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  12. EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE-STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug/L. n the 30-d ELS test was laboratory-sp...

  13. EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug?l. n the 30-d ELS test with laboratory-s...

  14. GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TESTS WITH JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual represents a procedural guide for conducting embryo-larval early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). hese procedures are based upon evaluation of published papers and recent methods development work conducted at our laboratory in Du...

  15. Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we

  16. EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SAND LANCE (AMMODYTES), WITH EVIDENCE FOR SPAWNING OF A. DUBIUS IN

    E-print Network

    EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SAND LANCE (AMMODYTES), WITH EVIDENCE FOR SPAWNING OF A. DUBIUS IN FORTUNE. Newfoundland. indicate that sand lance (Ammodytes sp.) larvae occur annually in Fortune Bay from February, when for the consistent polymodality in length.frequency distribution of sand lance larvae from the Newfoundland area

  17. Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Adult C-Reactive Protein in the

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Adult C-Reactive Protein of inflammatory processes, may play an important role in these relations. C-reactive protein has been reliably socioeco- nomic status (SES) and risky family (RF) environment marked by harsh parenting to the development

  18. Research Conducted by the United States on the Early Ocean Life History of Pacific Salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Brodeur; Katherine W. Myers; John H. Helle

    Research on juvenile Pacific salmon in coastal U.S. waters began almost 50 years ago in Southeast Alaska, and has continued somewhat sporadically since then. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), through its various laboratories in Alaska and along the West Coast of the United States, has done much of the research on the early life history of many Pacific salmon

  19. Early-Life Adversity and Choice of the Social Work Profession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole J. Olson; David Royse

    2006-01-01

    Social work students have reported comparatively high incidences of adverse early-life experiences, yet little is known about the extent of these experiences among professional social workers or how they may affect the choice of social work. This study addresses many of the shortcomings of previous studies, with respondents drawn from a national random sample of social workers and a comparison

  20. Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design

    E-print Network

    Yang, Maria

    Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design. This work is conducted in the context of an amorphous photovoltaic (PV) panel, using data gathered from the National Solar Radiation Database, as well as realistic data collected from an experimental hardware setup

  1. Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing…

  2. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE FOWLER'S TOAD (Anaxyrus fowleri) TO THE TADPOLE EDEMA VIRUS

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE FOWLER'S TOAD (Anaxyrus fowleri) TO THE TADPOLE EDEMA) - Gosner Stage 36 (Rear limb development) - Gosner Stage 42 (Metamorphosis) . Tadpole edema virus (TEV-metamorphic bufonid toads to the tadpole edema virus. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

  3. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  4. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  5. Associations between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development among Girls in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the…

  6. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  7. EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

  8. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

  9. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  10. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  11. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie E. Holland

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

  12. Reproduction and early life history of northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis , in Idaho's St. Joe River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. Beamesderfer

    1992-01-01

    Synopsis Reproduction and early life history of northern squawfish,Ptychocheilus oregonensis, was investigated in Idaho's St. Joe River from 1980–1981. Spawning occurs in large aggregations which mill near the substrate to broadcast eggs and milt. Males greatly outnumber females in the aggregations. Males mature at smaller sizes and younger ages, and exhibit slower growth and greater mortality than females, although females

  13. Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

    2010-01-01

    Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

  14. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  15. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

    2010-01-01

    Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

  16. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  17. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2?years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  18. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  19. Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)

    E-print Network

    Lailvaux, Simon

    Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

  20. Recorded infections and antibiotics in early life: associations with allergy in UK children and their parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica M Harris; Pamela Mills; Carol White; Susan Moffat; Anthony J Newman Taylor; Paul Cullinan

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is suggested that the inverse relationship between allergic disease and family size reflects reduced exposure to early life infections, and that antibiotic treatment in childhood diminishes any protective effect of such infection.Methods: A birth cohort study was undertaken in 642 children recruited before birth and seen annually until the age of 8 years. Reported infections and prescribed antibiotics

  1. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  2. The global epidemic of noncommunicable disease: the role of early-life factors.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main risk factors, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in early life also have a major role in the development of NCDs. For instance, breastfeeding and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in both low-income and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes and resetting of endocrine systems that affect energy metabolism and appetite. These early life factors may interact with and exacerbate the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle and energy-dense diets later in life. As a consequence, the impact of early-life factors on long-term health may be particularly important in low- and middle-income countries, which face the fastest increases in urbanization and greatest changes to lifestyle. Strategies to optimize infant nutrition could therefore make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. PMID:24504213

  3. The first thousand days - intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wopereis, Harm; Oozeer, Raish; Knipping, Karen; Belzer, Clara; Knol, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life is a dynamic process significantly influenced by early-life nutrition. Pioneer bacteria colonizing the infant intestinal tract and the gradual diversification to a stable climax ecosystem plays a crucial role in establishing host-microbe interactions essential for optimal symbiosis. This colonization process and establishment of symbiosis may profoundly influence health throughout life. Recent developments in microbiologic cultivation-independent methods allow a detailed view of the key players and factors involved in this process and may further elucidate their roles in a healthy gut and immune maturation. Aberrant patterns may lead to identifying key microbial signatures involved in developing immunologic diseases into adulthood, such as asthma and atopic diseases. The central role of early-life nutrition in the developmental human microbiota, immunity, and metabolism offers promising strategies for prevention and treatment of such diseases. This review provides an overview of the development of the intestinal microbiota, its bidirectional relationship with the immune system, and its role in impacting health and disease, with emphasis on allergy, in early life. PMID:24899389

  4. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  5. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...

  6. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...

  7. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...

  8. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...

  9. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  10. Effects of prometryne on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of prometryne to early life stages of common carp was assessed. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was estimated as 1100?µg/l; and no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 850?µg/l. Fulton's condition factor was significantly lower than in controls in fish exposed to 4000?µg/l after 7, 14, and 21 days. By day 14, fish exposed to 4000?µg/l prometryne showed significantly lower mass and total length compared to controls. Fish exposed the 1200 and 4000?µg/l showed delay in development, severe hyperaemia in gill, liver, and caudal and cranial kidney. Subchronic prometryne exposure of early-life stages of common carp at concentrations of 1200 and 4000?µg/l affected their survival, growth rate, early ontogeny, and histology. PMID:25752431

  11. The interaction between early-life body size and physical activity on risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hannah; Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather

    2014-10-21

    While early-life body leanness is associated with increased breast cancer risk, early-life physical activity may protect against breast cancer. We examined whether the excess risk among lean girls is modified by their levels of prior, concurrent, or future physical activity. We conducted an analysis among 74,723 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (follow-up 1997-2011). Participants recalled their body size at ages 5, 10 and 20 years in 1989 using a 9-level pictogram (Level 1 most lean). In 1997, they reported adolescent levels of physical activity (ages 12-13 and 14-17 years). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the overall association of body size with breast cancer risk and assessed interactions of adolescent physical activity with body size at three different age periods (5-10, 10-20 and 20 years), adjusting for early-life and adult risk factors for breast cancer. Regardless of levels of adolescent physical activity, early-life body leanness (level 1-2 vs. 4.5+) was significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk. The association was slightly attenuated among those who were active (60+ MET-hr/wk) during adolescence compared to those who were inactive (<30 MET-hr/wk) (body size at ages 5-10 years: hazard ratio?=?1.37, 95% confidence interval?=?1.04-1.81 vs. 1.66, 1.29-2.12), but the interaction was not significant (p?=?0.72). The results were similar for body size at three different age periods. Being lean during early life is a risk factor for breast cancer among both inactive and active girls. Adolescent physical activity did not significantly modify the association, although some interaction cannot be excluded. PMID:25335465

  12. Resistance to Early-Life Stress in Mice: Effects of Genetic Background and Stress Duration

    PubMed Central

    Savignac, Hélène M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Early-life stress can induce marked behavioral and physiological impairments in adulthood including cognitive deficits, depression, anxiety, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Although robust rat models of early-life stress exist there are few established effective paradigms in the mouse. Genetic background and protocol parameters used are two critical variables in such model development. Thus we investigated the impact of two different early-life stress protocols in two commonly used inbred mouse strains. C57BL/6 and innately anxious BALB/c male mice were maternally deprived 3?h daily, either from postnatal day 1 to 14 (protocol 1) or 6 to 10 (protocol 2). Animals were assessed in adulthood for cognitive performance (spontaneous alternation behavior test), anxiety [open-field, light/dark box (L/DB), and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests], and depression-related behaviors (forced swim test) in addition to stress-sensitive physiological changes. Overall, the results showed that early-life stressed mice from both strains displayed good cognitive ability and no elevations in anxiety. However, paradoxical changes occurred in C57BL/6 mice as the longer protocol (protocol 1) decreased anxiety in the L/DB and increased exploration in the EPM. In BALB/c mice there were also limited effects of maternal separation with both separation protocols inducing reductions in stress-induced defecation and protocol 1 reducing the colon length. These data suggest that, independent of stress duration, mice from both strains were on the whole resilient to the maladaptive effects of early-life stress. Thus maternal separation models of brain–gut axis dysfunction should rely on either different stressor protocols or other strains of mice. PMID:21519375

  13. Early Childhood Programs and National Service: A Resource Guide for Community-Based Early Childhood Planning. Preliminary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ray; And Others

    This preliminary guide is designed to help AmeriCorps and other national service programs plan and deliver effective early childhood services. The guide can also be used in community-based planning to incorporate national service organizations in early childhood program initiatives. Following an overview of the roles that AmeriCorps and other…

  14. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevic?iene?, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Thomsen C, Wright J, Athersuch TJ, Avellana N, Basagaña X, Brochot C, Bucchini L, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, Casas M, Estivill X, Fairley L, van Gent D, Gonzalez JR, Granum B, Gražulevi?ien? R, Gutzkow KB, Julvez J, Keun HC, Kogevinas M, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Sabidó E, Schwarze PE, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Want EJ, Zeman F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2014. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design. Environ Health Perspect 122:535–544;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204 PMID:24610234

  15. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

  16. Improving Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health at an Early Psychosis Intervention Program in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fredrikson, Diane H.; Boyda, Heidi N.; Tse, Lurdes; Whitney, Zachary; Pattison, Mark A.; Ott, Fred J.; Hansen, Laura; Barr, Alasdair M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health early psychosis intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication, and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients’ physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program, where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment, where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study that evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25249985

  17. Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

  18. Early Life Adversity and Inflammation in African Americans and Whites in the Midlife in the United States Survey

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    , gender, and medications. We extended race-stratified models to test three potential mechanisms cardiovascular diseases; E-selectin endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1; ELA early life adversity; GCRC (5­7) have begun to investigate physiologic mechanisms linking early life experiences to health later

  19. Early life experiences as determinants of leadership role occupancy: The importance of parental influence and rule breaking behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Avolio; Maria Rotundo; Fred O. Walumbwa

    2009-01-01

    The limited behavioral genetics research reported in the leadership literature has not investigated the degree to which early life experiences predict future emergence into leadership roles. This is the first study to focus on parenting style and early life experiences of rule breaking, and their relationships to leadership roles assumed in adulthood, while controlling for genetic and personality contributions. Using

  20. Long-Run Longevity Effects of a Nutritional Shock Early in Life: The Dutch Potato Famine of 1846–1847

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard J. van den Berg; Maarten Lindeboom

    2007-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in utero and infancy may causally affect health and mortality at old ages. Until now, very few studies have demonstrated long-run effects on survival of early life nutrition, mainly because of data limitations and confounding issues. Methods: This paper investigates whether exposure to nutritional shocks in early life negatively affects longevity at older ages, using unique individual data

  1. Larval durations and recruitment patterns of two Caribbean gobies (Gobiidae): contrasting early life histories in demersal spawners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sponaugle; R. K. Cowen

    1994-01-01

    Two demersally-spawning fishes were selected to examine the relationship between adult spawning strategies and the early life histories of larvae and juveniles. Although the Caribbean gobies, Coryphopterus glaucofraenum Gill and Gnatholepis thompsoni Jordan are common, co-occurring constituents of nearshore coral reefs, relatively little is known about the early life history and recruitment of their pelagic larvae to the reef environment.

  2. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T.; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81–3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100–300?°C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  3. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  4. Differential carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke in mice exposed either transplacentally, early in life or in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nikolov, Manasi; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) plays a dominant role in the epidemiology of human cancer. However, it is difficult to reproduce its carcinogenicity in laboratory animals. Recently, we showed that CS becomes a potent carcinogen in mice when exposure starts soon after birth. In our study, we comparatively evaluated the carcinogenic response to mainstream CS in mice at different ages. Neonatal mice were exposed daily for 4 months to CS, starting within 12 hr after birth, and sacrificed at 8 months. Adult mice were exposed for the same time period (3-7 months) and sacrificed at 11 months. Other mice were exposed transplacentally or both transplacentally and early in life. A total of 351 neonatal mice and 80 adult Swiss H mice were used. With varying intensity depending on age, CS induced pulmonary emphysema, bronchial and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, blood vessel proliferation and hemangiomas and microadenomas in lung as well as parenchymal degeneration of liver. Histopathological alterations of kidney were only observed in mice exposed to CS early in life. Lung adenomas and malignant tumors of various histopathological nature were detected in neonatally exposed mice but not in adults. Transplacental CS induced the formation of lung adenomas in the offspring 8 months after birth. Previous exposure during pregnancy attenuated CS-related alveolar epithelial hyperplasia induced after birth. In conclusion, the carcinogenic response to CS varies depending on the developmental stage. The early postnatal life and the prenatal life are particularly at risk for the later development of CS-related tumors. PMID:21484788

  5. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  6. Early-life exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter causes pulmonary immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Jordy; You, Dahui; Thevenot, Paul; Lee, Greg I.; Shrestha, Bishwas; Lomnicki, Slawo; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (CDPM) are a risk factor for the development of lung diseases such as asthma. Studies have shown that CDPM exacerbates asthma, inducing acute lung dysfunction and inflammation; however, the impact of CDPM exposure on early immunological responses to allergens remains unclear. To determine the effects of early-life CDPM exposure on allergic asthma development in infants, we exposed infant mice to CDPM and then induced a mouse model of asthma using house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Mice exposed to CDPM+HDM failed to develop a typical asthma phenotype including airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2-inflammation, Muc5ac expression, eosinophilia, and HDM-specific Ig compared to HDM-exposed mice. Although HDM-specific IgE was attenuated, total IgE was two-fold higher in CDPM+HDM mice compared to HDM-mice. We further demonstrate that CDPM exposure during early life induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung, concurrent with increases in tolerogenic dendritic cells and Tregs, resulting in suppression of Th2 responses. Despite having early immunosuppression, these mice develop severe allergic inflammation when challenged with allergen as adults. These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby CDPM exposure modulates adaptive immunity, inducing specific-antigen tolerance while amplifying total IgE, and leading to a predisposition to develop asthma upon rechallenge later in life. PMID:24172848

  7. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities....

  8. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities....

  9. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities....

  10. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities....

  11. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303...EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities....

  12. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. PMID:25542633

  13. Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

  14. Employee Assistance through WorkLife Programs WorkLife Programs Employee Assistance is a management tool for supervisors and managers, as well as a resource to

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    tool for supervisors and managers, as well as a resource to assist you in helping your employeesEmployee Assistance through WorkLife Programs WorkLife Programs Employee Assistance is a management be healthy and productive. Employee Assistance offers access to professional counseling and referral services

  15. An Integrated Components Preventive Intervention for Aggressive Elementary School Children: The Early Risers Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald J. August; George M. Realmuto; Joel M. Hektner; Michael L. Bloomquist

    2001-01-01

    The Early Risers prevention program aims to alter the developmental trajectory of children with early onset aggressive behavior. The program features 4 CORE components: (a) an annual 6-week summer school program, (b) a teacher consultation and student mentoring program, (c) child social skills groups, and (d) parent education and skills-training groups, all delivered in tandem with a FLEX family support

  16. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD. PMID:23439689

  17. Placental DNA hypomethylation in association with particulate air pollution in early life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that altered DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in prenatal programming and that developmental periods are sensitive to environmental stressors. We hypothesized that exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) during pregnancy could influence DNA methylation patterns of the placenta. Methods In the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, levels of 5’-methyl-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and deoxycytidine (dC) were quantified in placental DNA from 240 newborns. Multiple regression models were used to study placental global DNA methylation and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. Results PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy averaged (25th-75th percentile) 17.4 (15.4-19.3) ?g/m3. Placental global DNA methylation was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposures during whole pregnancy and relatively decreased by 2.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.65, -0.73%, p?=?0.004) for each 5 ?g/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5. In a multi-lag model in which all three trimester exposures were fitted as independent variables in the same regression model, only exposure to PM2.5 during trimester 1 was significantly associated with lower global DNA methylation (-2.13% per 5 ?g/m3 increase, 95% CI: -3.71, -0.54%, p?=?0.009). When we analyzed shorter time windows of exposure within trimester 1, we observed a lower placental DNA methylation at birth during all implantation stages but exposure during the implantation range (6-21d) was strongest associated (-1.08% per 5 ?g/m3 increase, 95% CI: -1.80, -0.36%, p?=?0.004). Conclusions We observed a lower degree of placental global DNA methylation in association with exposure to particulate air pollution in early pregnancy, including the critical stages of implantation. Future studies should elucidate genome-wide and gene-specific methylation patterns in placental tissue that could link particulate exposure during in utero life and early epigenetic modulations. PMID:23742113

  18. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  19. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  20. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  1. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  2. 34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF EARLY CAREER PRINCIPALS' EXPERIENCE WITH INDUCTION PROGRAMS AND JOB SATISFACTION.

    E-print Network

    Correll, Craig Alan

    2010-05-17

    In recent years there has been a greater emphasis on support, guidance and orientation programs for early career teachers, referred to as induction programs. Though on a smaller scale, similar induction programs have been ...

  4. Epigenetic marking of the BDNF gene by early-life adverse experiences

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Tania L.; Sweatt, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Studies over the past half-century have made it clear that environmental influences in development, particularly stress and traumatic experiences, can remain pervasive across the lifespan. Though it has been hypothesized for some time that the long-term consequences of early-life adversity represent epigenetic influences, it has not been until recently that studies have begun to provide empirical support of experience-driven epigenetic modifications to the genome. Here we focus on this theme, and review current knowledge pertaining to the epigenetics of behavioral development. At the center of our discussion is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, as abnormal BDNF gene activity is a leading etiological hypothesis by which early-life adverse experiences persistently modify brain and behavioral plasticity. PMID:20483357

  5. Associations Between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development Among Girls in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N = 100), assessed at four time points over 2 years beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique, in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the start of the study. Analyses replicated the previously established association between sexual abuse and earlier onset of maturation and earlier age at menarche. Physical abuse was related to a more rapid tempo of pubertal development across the period assessed. These results strengthen previous investigations of childhood maltreatment and puberty, highlighting the complexity and specificity of early life experiences for later development. PMID:22337616

  6. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  7. Early life events and conditions and breast cancer risk: from epidemiology to etiology.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ekbom, Anders; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Lagiou, Pagona

    2008-02-01

    Risk factors for breast cancer--documented by intensive epidemiological investigations and viewed in the context of general principles of carcinogenesis--can be integrated to an etiologic model comprising 3 principal components: the likelihood of breast cancer occurrence depends on the number of mammary tissue-specific stem cells, which is determined in early life; all growth-enhancing mammotropic hormones affect the rate of expansion of initiated clones; and while a pregnancy stimulates the replication of already initiated cells, it conveys long-term protection through differentiation of mammary tissue-specific stem cells. This perspective accommodates much of what is known about the epidemiology and natural history of breast cancer and highlights the role of early life in the origin of this cancer. PMID:18022897

  8. Traumatic brain injury and early life experiences among men and women in a prison population.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Angela; Kim, Hwan; Allen, Stefan; Asbridge, Mark; Petgrave, Josian; Brochu, Serge

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the proportion of men and women reporting previous traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an Ontario (Canada) prison sample by demographic characteristics; adverse life experiences; and criminal, drug, and alcohol use history. Using data from The Cost of Substance Abuse in Canada study based on a random sample from four Ontario prisons, this study found 50.4% of males and 38% of females reporting previous TBI. More TBIs occurred before the first crime for women than for men. Women with TBI experienced more early physical and sexual abuse than those without TBI. Additionally, this study shows high prevalence of early life experiences among persons, particularly women, with a history of TBI. Prisoners and prison staff should be educated on TBI and best practice for rehabilitation of TBI. PMID:25033995

  9. Bilingual Early Childhood Program, San Antonio, Texas; Childhood Education. Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    This booklet, 1 of 34 in a series on childhood education prepared by the American Institutes for Research for the 1970 White House Conference on Children, describes the Bilingual Early Childhood Program being carried out in the Edgewood Independent School District in San Antonio, Texas, where more than half of the population of 670,000 is of…

  10. Crossing cultural borders into science teaching: Early life experiences, racial and ethnic identities, and beliefs about diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers influenced both their beliefs about diversity in science classrooms and science teaching pedagogy. Case studies of three preservice teachers from diverse racial and ethnic background are presented: Asian American, African American, and Rural Appalachian. Using Bank's ethnicity typology, findings suggest that racial and ethnic identity, developed in early life experiences of preservice teachers, provided clarity on the rigidity of their beliefs about diversity and how they view science teaching. By learning about the border crossing experiences of preservice teachers in relation to their beliefs about diversity as related to racial and ethnic identities, the researchers hoped to provide insight on preparing preservice teachers for the challenges of working in diverse classrooms.

  11. Selective IgA deficiency in early life: Association to infections and allergic diseases during childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Janzi; Inger Kull; Ronald Sjöberg; Jinghong Wan; Erik Melén; Narges Bayat; Eva Östblom; Qiang Pan-Hammarström; Peter Nilsson; Lennart Hammarström

    2009-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency in early life is quite common in Caucasian populations, but it is unclear whether it increases the risk of infections and allergic diseases during childhood. Serum IgA levels were measured in 2423 children at 4 years of age in a Swedish population based birth cohort (BAMSE). Parental questionnaires were repeatedly sent out during the child's first 8 years of

  12. Challenges and Novel Approaches in the Epidemiological Study of Early Life Influences on Later Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Davey Smith; Sam Leary; Andy Ness; Debbie A. Lawlor

    The influence of factors acting during early life on health outcomes of offspring is of considerable research and public health\\u000a interest. There are, however, methodological challenges in establishing robust causal links, since exposures often act many\\u000a decades before outcomes of interest, and may also be strongly related to other factors, generating considerable degrees of\\u000a potential confounding. With respect to pre-natal

  13. Pulmonary immunity during respiratory infections in early life and the development of severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Hansbro, Philip M; Starkey, Malcolm R; Mattes, Joerg; Horvat, Jay C

    2014-12-01

    Asthma affects 10% of the population in Westernized countries, being most common in children. It is a heterogeneous condition characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to normally innocuous antigens. Combination therapies with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators effectively manage mild to moderate asthma, but there are no cures, and patients with severe asthma do not respond to these treatments. The inception of asthma is linked to respiratory viral (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus) and bacterial (Chlamydia, Mycoplasma) infections. The examination of mouse models of early-life infections and allergic airway disease (AAD) provides valuable insights into the mechanisms of disease inception that may lead to the development of more effective therapeutics. For example, early-life, but not adult, Chlamydia respiratory infections in mice permanently modify immunity and lung physiology. This increases the severity of AAD by promoting IL-13 expression, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. We have identified novel roles for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and IL-13 in promoting infection-induced pathology in early life and subsequent chronic lung disease. Genetic deletion of TRAIL or IL-13 variously protected against neonatal infection-induced inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, altered lung structure, AHR, and impaired lung function. Therapeutic neutralization of these factors prevented infection-induced severe AAD. Other novel mechanisms and avenues for intervention are also being explored. Such studies indicate the immunological mechanisms that may underpin the association between early-life respiratory infections and the development of more severe asthma and may facilitate the development of tailored preventions and treatments. PMID:25525736

  14. Fish early life stage tests as a tool to assess embryotoxic potentials in small streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Till Luckenbach; Maja Kilian; Rita Triebskorn; Axel Oberemm

    2001-01-01

    Early life stage (ELS) studies with brown trout(Salmo trutta f. fario L.) andstone loach (Barbatula barbatula L.)were performed between 1995 and 2000 toevaluate embryotoxic potentials in twodifferently polluted streams in southwestGermany. With both species, semistatic exposureexperiments with water samples and sedimenteluates were conducted in the laboratory.Additionally, brown trout ELS tests wereperformed in flow-through systems in thesemi-field and in the field.

  15. Effects of silver nanocolloids on early life stages of the scleractinian coral Acropora japonica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryota Suwa; Chisato Kataoka; Shosaku Kashiwada

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the effects of silver nanocolloids (SNCs) on the early life stages of the reef-building coral Acropora japonica were investigated. The tolerance of this species to \\\\{SNC\\\\} contamination was estimated by exposing gametes, larvae, and primary polyps to a range of \\\\{SNC\\\\} concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ?g l?1). Pure \\\\{SNCs\\\\} were immediately ionized to Ag+ in

  16. Early Life Environmental Control Effect on Symptoms, Sensitization, and Lung Function at Age 3 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Woodcock; Lesley A. Lowe; Clare S. Murray; Bridget M. Simpson; Spyros D. Pipis; Patricia Kissen; Angela Simpson; Adnan Custovic

    We investigated whether environmental control during pregnancy and early life affects sensitization and lung function at the age of 3 years. High-risk children (n 251) were prenatally randomized to stringent environmental control (active) or no intervention (con- trol). Questionnaires, skin testing, IgE, and specific airway resistance (sRaw) measurement were completed at the age of 3 years. Children in the active

  17. Spawning and Early Life History of the Freshwater Drum in Lewis and Clark Lake, Missouri River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald V. Swedberg; Charles H. Walburg

    1970-01-01

    The early life history of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, was studied in 1965–67 to determine factors influencing year-class strength in a main stem Missouri River reservoir. Fish spawning occurred over a period of 6–7 weeks in June and July when water temperatures reached 18 C. Fecundity of fish 307 to 386 mm long and 6–9 years old ranged from 34,000

  18. Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Pechtel; Diego A. Pizzagalli

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing\\u000a field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention\\u000a has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with\\u000a ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies

  19. Breastfeeding in Early Life and Bone Mass in Prepubertal Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jones; M. Riley; T. Dwyer

    2000-01-01

    :   The aim of this study was to determine whether breastfeeding in early life is associated with bone mass in prepubertal children.\\u000a We studied 330 8-year-old male and female children from Southern Tasmania representing 47% of those who originally took part\\u000a in a birth cohort study of risk factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in 1988. Breastfeeding intention and habit

  20. Early-life trauma is associated with rapid eye movement sleep fragmentation among military veterans

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Kolko, David J.; Germain, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. PMID:22266135

  1. Fetal growth, early life circumstances, and risk of suicide in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Phoebe Day; Silverwood, Richard; Koupil, Ilona

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies in Sweden and Scotland have found early life conditions to be associated with increased risk of attempted and completed suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. It is not known, however, whether early life conditions affect suicide risk throughout the life course, from adulthood into old age. We examined the effects of early life conditions, including markers of fetal growth, and social and economic characteristics in adulthood, on risk of suicide by violent and non-violent methods in women and men aged 31-87 years using Cox regression. 11,650 women and men born at the Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden between 1915 and 1929 were followed from 1960 until 2002 using linked records from obstetric archives, Census, population and mortality registries. During 435,039 person-years of follow-up 161 completed suicides (104 in males, 57 in females) were observed. An inverse association was found between lower birthweight-for-gestational age and risk of violent suicide in females, although the association did not reach the conventional level of statistical significance (minimally adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI (0.88-4.63); Table 4). Being male, unmarried, and in the "other or unknown" social class category in adulthood were independently associated with increased rates of suicide. There was a weak association between higher maternal parity and suicide rates. Our findings suggest differences in effects of fetal growth patterns and perinatal circumstances on suicide risk later in life, and suggest that suicide in adults and in the elderly may be influenced by a different combination of factors than those that influence suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:21681547

  2. Ph.D. Life Sciences Program Doctor of Philosophy in Science

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Ph.D. Life Sciences Program Doctor of Philosophy in Science Department(s) School of Life Science. The School of Life Sciences will maintain its high quality and standards of graduate education at or above.D.) degree from UNLV's School of Life Sciences will acquire: 1a. factual and methodological knowledge

  3. Broad shifts in gene expression during early postnatal life are associated with shifts in histone methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Lui, Julian C; Chen, Weiping; Cheung, Crystal S F; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    During early postnatal life, extensive changes in gene expression occur concomitantly in multiple major organs, indicating the existence of a common core developmental genetic program. This program includes hundreds of growth-promoting genes that are downregulated with age in liver, kidney, lung, and heart, and there is evidence that this component of the program drives the widespread decline in cell proliferation that occurs in juvenile life, as organs approach adult sizes. To investigate epigenetic changes that might orchestrate this program, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-promoter tiling array to assess temporal changes in histone H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation (me3) at promoter regions throughout the genome in kidney and lung, comparing 1- to 4-wk-old mice. We found extensive genome-wide shifts in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 occurring with age in both kidney and lung. The number of genes with concordant changes in the two organs was far greater than expected by chance. Temporal changes in H3K4me3 showed a strong, positive association with changes in gene expression, assessed by microarray, whereas changes in H3K27me3 showed a negative association. Gene ontology analysis indicated that shifts in specific histone methylation marks were associated with specific developmental functions. Of particular interest, genes with decreases in H3K4me3 with age in both organs were strongly implicated in cell cycle and cell proliferation functions. Taken together, the findings suggest that the common core developmental program of gene expression which occurs in multiple organs during juvenile life is associated with a common core developmental program of histone methylation. In particular, declining H3K4me3 is strongly associated with gene downregulation and occurs in the promoter regions of many growth-regulating genes, suggesting that this change in histone methylation may contribute to the component of the genetic program that drives juvenile body growth deceleration. PMID:24489814

  4. Early Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome: The Role of Environmental Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects more than 47 million people in the U.S. Even more alarming, MetS, once regarded as an “adult problem”, has become increasingly common in children. To date, most related research and intervention efforts have occurred in the adult medicine arena, with limited understanding of the root causes and lengthy latency of MetS. This review highlights new science on the early life origins of MetS, with a particular focus on exposure to two groups of environmental toxicants: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and metals during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, and their specific effects and important differences in the development of MetS. It also summarizes available data on epigenetic effects, including the role of EDCs in the androgen/estrogen pathways. Emerging evidence supports the link between exposures to environmental toxicants during early life and the development of MetS later in life. Additional research is needed to address important research gaps in this area, including prospective birth cohort studies to delineate temporal and dose-response relationships, important differences in the effects of various environmental toxicants and their joint effects on MetS, as well as epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of specific toxicants such as EDCs and metals. PMID:24883264

  5. The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W; Granger, Douglas A; Riis, Jenna

    2013-02-01

    Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children's life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children's environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

  6. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Loi, Manila; Koricka, Sylwia; Lucassen, Paul J; Joëls, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats show a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age- and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development. PMID:24600436

  7. The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Anne W.; Granger, Douglas A.; Riis, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children’s life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children’s environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

  8. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  9. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Early Life Stress on Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Manila; Koricka, Sylwia; Lucassen, Paul J.; Joëls, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats show a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age- and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development. PMID:24600436

  10. Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Despina E; Allen, Nicholas B; Simmons, Julian G; Schwartz, Orli; Kim, Jee Hyun; Sheeber, Lisa; Whittle, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The pituitary gland is integral in mediating the stress-response via its role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Pituitary gland volume (PGV) is altered in stress-related psychopathology, and one study to date has shown stress to be associated with age-related PGV change during adolescence. The current study investigated the effects of a number of different types of early life (i.e., childhood and adolescent) stress (including childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and maternal affective behavior) on PGV development from mid- to late adolescence using a longitudinal design. The influence of PGV development on depressive and anxiety symptoms was also investigated. Ninety one (49 male) adolescents took part in mother-child dyadic interaction tasks when they were approximately 12 years old, reported on childhood maltreatment and stressful life events when they were approximately 15 years old, and underwent two waves of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, when they were approximately 16 and 19 years old. Results revealed that childhood maltreatment predicted accelerated PGV development in females, and maternal dysphoric behavior predicted accelerated PGV development in the whole sample. PGV development was not associated with depressive or anxiety symptoms. These results suggest an effect of early life stress on altered HPA axis function across mid- to late adolescence. Further research is required to assess functional implications and whether these changes might be associated with risk for subsequent psychopathology. PMID:25622011

  11. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  12. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

  13. Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992–2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80–84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation PMID:22368726

  14. Modifications of Glucocorticoid Receptors mRNA Expression in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Response to Early-life Stress in Female Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, C; Spencer, K A

    2014-01-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can programme individual brain and physiology. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary targets of this programming, which is generally associated with a hyperactive HPA axis, indicative of a reduced negative-feedback. This reduced feedback efficiency usually results from a reduced level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) within the HPA axis. However, a few studies have shown that early-life stress exposure results in an attenuated physiological stress response, suggesting an enhance feedback efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether early-life stress had long-term consequences on GR and MR levels in quail and whether the effects on the physiological response to acute stress observed in prenatally stressed individuals were underpinned by changes in GR and/or MR levels in one or more HPA axis components. We determined GR and MR mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland in quail exposed to elevated corticosterone during prenatal development, postnatal development, or both, and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. We showed that prenatal stress increased the GR:MR ratio in the hippocampus, GR and MR expression in the hypothalamus and GR expression in the pituitary gland. Postnatal stress resulted in a reduced MR expression in the hippocampus. Both early-life treatments permanently affected the expression of both receptor types in HPA axis regions. The effects of prenatal stress are in accordance with a more efficient negative-feedback within the HPA axis and thus can explain the attenuated stress response observed in these birds. Therefore, these changes in receptor density or number as a consequence of early-life stress exposure might be the mechanism that allows an adaptive response to later-life stressful conditions. PMID:25303060

  15. Modifications of glucocorticoid receptors mRNA expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to early-life stress in female Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, C; Spencer, K A

    2014-12-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can programme individual brain and physiology. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary targets of this programming, which is generally associated with a hyperactive HPA axis, indicative of a reduced negative-feedback. This reduced feedback efficiency usually results from a reduced level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) within the HPA axis. However, a few studies have shown that early-life stress exposure results in an attenuated physiological stress response, suggesting an enhance feedback efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether early-life stress had long-term consequences on GR and MR levels in quail and whether the effects on the physiological response to acute stress observed in prenatally stressed individuals were underpinned by changes in GR and/or MR levels in one or more HPA axis components. We determined GR and MR mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland in quail exposed to elevated corticosterone during prenatal development, postnatal development, or both, and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. We showed that prenatal stress increased the GR:MR ratio in the hippocampus, GR and MR expression in the hypothalamus and GR expression in the pituitary gland. Postnatal stress resulted in a reduced MR expression in the hippocampus. Both early-life treatments permanently affected the expression of both receptor types in HPA axis regions. The effects of prenatal stress are in accordance with a more efficient negative-feedback within the HPA axis and thus can explain the attenuated stress response observed in these birds. Therefore, these changes in receptor density or number as a consequence of early-life stress exposure might be the mechanism that allows an adaptive response to later-life stressful conditions. PMID:25303060

  16. Early-Life Bisphenol A Exposure and Child Body Mass Index: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, Bruce P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Deria, Sirad; Khoury, Jane; Howe, Chanelle J.; Venners, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase childhood obesity risk, but few prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this relationship. Objective: We sought to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) at 2–5 years of age in 297 mother–child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (HOME Study). Methods: Urinary BPA concentrations were measured in samples collected from pregnant women during the second and third trimesters and their children at 1 and 2 years of age. BMI z-scores were calculated from weight/height measures conducted annually from 2 through 5 years of age. We used linear mixed models to estimate BMI differences or trajectories with increasing creatinine-normalized BPA concentrations. Results: After confounder adjustment, each 10-fold increase in prenatal (? = –0.1; 95% CI: –0.5, 0.3) or early-childhood (? = –0.2; 95% CI: –0.6, 0.1) BPA concentrations was associated with a modest and nonsignificant reduction in child BMI. These inverse associations were suggestively stronger in girls than in boys [prenatal effect measure modification (EMM) p-value = 0.30, early-childhood EMM p-value = 0.05], but sex-specific associations were imprecise. Children in the highest early-childhood BPA tercile had lower BMI at 2 years (difference = –0.3; 95% CI: –0.6, 0.0) and larger increases in their BMI slope from 2 through 5 years (BMI increase per year = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) than children in the lowest tercile (BMI increase per year = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13). All associations were attenuated without creatinine normalization. Conclusions: Prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures were not associated with increased BMI at 2–5 years of age, but higher early-childhood BPA exposures were associated with accelerated growth during this period. Citation: Braun JM, Lanphear BP, Calafat AM, Deria S, Khoury J, Howe CJ, Venners SA. 2014. Early-life bisphenol A exposure and child body mass index: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 122:1239–1245;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408258 PMID:25073184

  17. Genesis and evolution of behavioral disorders: from infancy to early adult life.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Chess, S

    1984-01-01

    The New York Longitudinal Study has followed the behavioral development of 133 subjects from early infancy to early adult life. Special attention has been given to the systematic clinical evaluation and follow-up of all subjects presenting any evidence of behavior disorder. The authors present incidence and outcome data, define the concept of temperament, and briefly discuss conceptual issues and empirical findings. They found the "goodness of fit" (consonance between the individual and the environment) concept useful in tracing developmental sequences. The authors summarize quantitative analyses identifying significant group correlations between antecedent variables and early adult outcome and suggest a tentative classification of the idiosyncratic factors also evident in the clinical course of individual subjects, with case illustrations. PMID:6691419

  18. Computational Life Science: New MSc program at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany The Mission

    E-print Network

    Bernacchia, Alberto

    Computational Life Science: New MSc program at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany The Mission During. With the Computational Life Science Graduate Program, Jacobs University addresses the novel demands of biomed- ical challenging and research- oriented program, · get prepared for the novel computational challenges

  19. Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Gender-Based Vulnerability to Epileptogenesis in Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Sanon, Nathalie T.; Lema, Pablo; Lévesque, Maxime; Hébert, David; Rébillard, Rose-Marie; Bibeau, Karine; Brochu, Michèle; Carmant, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1), and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS) at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to epileptogenesis in a gender-specific manner. PMID:22880055

  20. Effects of early elementary Reading Recovery programs on middle-school students: A longitudinal evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tera Shamey

    2008-01-01

    Do early intervention literacy programs promote long-lasting gains for students in middle school and beyond? By middle school, student performance and achievement in all content areas hinges on demonstrated reading and writing skills. In light of this, early intervention to promote the development of literacy skills is critical. As an early intervention literacy program, Reading Recovery (RR) has provided intensive

  1. Early Intervention Programs for Young Handicapped Children in Australia, 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Fred and Eleanor Schonell Educational Research Centre.

    Findings from a national study of early intervention programs and toy libraries for handicapped children in Australia are summarized. After an introduction to theoretical concerns, chapter 2 reviews the rationale for early intervention and describes research on components of exemplary programs and on evaluation of the effectiveness of early…

  2. Parental satisfaction with an early family intervention program.

    PubMed

    Pelchat, Diane; Lefebvre, Hélène; Proulx, Michèle; Reidy, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate parental satisfaction with a family intervention program. The program provides help and support for parents with newborns who have specific health problems (e.g., cleft palate and/or lip; Down syndrome). Four family subscales, personal (emotional and cognitive), marital, parental, and extended family and others, were examined. The majority of parents were satisfied with the intervention. Most felt that the intervention had helped them to adapt to the unexpected situation. They received guidance in discerning and discussing their own emotions and those of their partner or spouse, and the help they received gave them confidence about the care their child would receive. Results revealed significant differences in satisfaction levels (depending on the sex of the parent), the child's diagnosis, and annual income. Mothers of newborns with Down syndrome were more satisfied than fathers with the personal-emotional support they received. Low-income families were more satisfied than those with higher incomes for all subscales. On the parental subscale, those whose child had a cleft lip/palate were more satisfied than those whose child had Down syndrome. The results raised several important questions about this type of early intervention program, which will require further in-depth investigation. PMID:15214251

  3. Does early-life income inequality predict self-reported health in later life? Evidence from the United States.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Dean R; Burkhauser, Richard V; Hahn, Markus H; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the association between adult health and the income inequality they experienced as children up to 80 years earlier. Our inequality data track shares of national income held by top percentiles from 1913 to 2009. We average those data over the same early-life years and merge them to individual data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data for 1984-2009. Controlling for demographic and economic factors, we find both men and women are statistically more likely to report poorer health if income was more unequally distributed during the first years of their lives. The association is robust to alternative specifications of income inequality and time trends and remains significant even when we control for differences in overall childhood health. Our results constitute prima facie evidence that adults' health may be adversely affected by the income inequality they experienced as children. PMID:25577308

  4. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Recommendations for communication activities and public participation in the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-27

    On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.

  5. Malnutrition in Early Life and Adult Mental Health: Evidence From a Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R.; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4,972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of famine exposure in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959–1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR= 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: ?1.59, ?0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. PMID:23313495

  6. Early-life nutritional environment and spatial navigation in the water shrew, Sorex palustris (Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F

    2004-10-01

    Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris. PMID:15907068

  7. Early-life status epilepticus induces ectopic granule cells in adult mice dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Koyama, Ryuta

    2008-06-01

    A large number of aberrant hilar granule cells (GCs) are found in the patients and animal models of adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and these "ectopic" GCs have synchronous epileptiform bursting with other hippocampal neurons. In this study, we investigated whether early-life status epilepticus (SE) induces hilar ectopic GCs that remain in the adulthood because TLE patients frequently experience seizures in the early childhood when a large number of postnatally born GCs migrate in the hilus. To label newborn GCs, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected daily for three consecutive days to C57BL/6J mice at different postnatal days starting at postnatal-0-day-old (P0) (Group1), P7 (Group2), or P35 (Group3). Mice in each group underwent pilocarpine-induced SE at P14. Six months later, to determine whether SE induces ectopic GCs, we plotted the distribution of postnatally born GCs which were immunohistochemically defined as BrdU- and the GC marker Prox1-colabeled cells. We also examined whether SE causes the granule cell layer (GCL) dispersion and/or the mossy fiber (MF) sprouting, other representative pathologies of TLE hippocampus. Only SE-experiencing mice in Group1 had significantly more neonatally born ectopic GCs compared with control mice. Neither control nor SE mice had dispersed GCL. All mice that underwent SE had sprouted MFs in CA3. We conclude that early-life SE disrupts a normal incorporation of GCs born pre-SE but not post-SE, inducing ectopic GCs in the adult hilus. Interestingly, the results also indicate that developmentally earlier born GCs are more responsive to early-life SE in terms of the emergence of ectopic GCs. PMID:18420198

  8. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  9. 34 CFR 303.210 - Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...Coordination with Head Start and Early Head Start, early education, and child care programs. 303.210 Section 303.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  10. Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

  11. A mechanistic look at the effects of adversity early in life on cardiovascular disease risk during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Loria, A. S.; Ho, D. H.; Pollock, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Early origins of adult disease may be defined as adversity or challenges during early life that alter physiological responses and prime the organism to chronic disease in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences or early life stress (ELS) may be considered a silent independent risk factor capable of predicting future cardiovascular disease risk. Maternal separation (Mat-Sep) provides a suitable model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the links between behavioural stress early in life and chronic cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We will discuss the following: (i) adult cardiovascular outcomes in humans subjected to ELS, (ii) Mat-Sep as an animal model of ELS as well as the limitations and advantages of this model in rodents and (iii) possible ELS-induced mechanisms that predispose individuals to greater cardiovascular risk. Overall, exposure to a behavioural stressor early in life sensitizes the response to a second stressor later in life, thus unmasking an exaggerated cardiovascular dysfunction that may influence quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood. PMID:24330084

  12. ACHIEVEMENTS UNLV Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP)

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    ACHIEVEMENTS UNLV Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) 79% of GEAR UP college-ready students enrolled in a postsecondary program UNLV GEAR UP school principal, Dr. The Center was awarded three Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP

  13. ACHIEVEMENTS UNLV Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP)

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    ACHIEVEMENTS UNLV Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) 79% of GEAR UP college-ready students enrolled in a postsecondary program GEAR UP works with parents $117 million. The three Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP

  14. National Program on Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Education Program and Research Support Literature--A State of the Art Review. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James O.

    A review of early childhood programs of the sixties is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: Converging Forces and Orthodoxies; Educational Programming; Review Criteria and Procedures; Program Review Structural Outline; Instructional Systems; Delivery Systems; Evaluation Systems; and Support Systems. The problems of…

  15. Processes on the Young Earth and the Habitats of Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2012-05-01

    Conditions at the surface of the young (Hadean and early Archean) Earth were suitable for the emergence and evolution of life. After an initial hot period, surface temperatures in the late Hadean may have been clement beneath an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases over an ocean-dominated planetary surface. The first crust was mafic and it internally melted repeatedly to produce the felsic rocks that crystallized the Jack Hills zircons. This crust was destabilized during late heavy bombardment. Plate tectonics probably started soon after and had produced voluminous continental crust by the mid Archean, but ocean volumes were sufficient to submerge much of this crust. In the Hadean and early Archean, hydrothermal systems around abundant komatiitic volcanism may have provided suitable sites to host the earliest living communities and for the evolution of key enzymes. Evidence from the Isua Belt, Greenland, suggests life was present by 3.8 Gya, and by the mid-Archean, the geological record both in the Pilbara in Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa shows that microbial life was abundant, probably using anoxygenic photosynthesis. By the late Archean, oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved, transforming the atmosphere and permitting the evolution of eukaryotes.

  16. Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254

  17. Early life genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors shaping emotionality in rodents.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew; le Guisquet, Anne Marie; Vogel, Elise; Millstein, Rachel A; Leman, Samuel; Belzung, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Childhood trauma is known to increase risk for emotional disorders and addiction. However, little is currently understood about the neurodevelopmental basis of these effects, or how genetic and epigenetic factors interact with the environment to shape the systems subserving emotionality. In this review, we discuss the use of rodent models of early life emotional experience to study these issues in the laboratory and present some of our pertinent findings. In rats, postnatal maternal separation can produce lasting increases in emotional behavior and stressor-reactivity, together with alterations in various brain neurotransmitter systems implicated in emotionality, including corticotropin-releasing factor, serotonin, norepinephrine, and glutamate. Genetic differences between inbred mouse strains have been exploited to further study how maternal behavior affects emotional development using techniques such as cross-fostering and generation of inter-strain hybrids. Together with our own recent data, the findings of these studies demonstrate the pervasive influence of maternal and social environments during sensitive developmental periods and reveal how genetic factors determine how these early life experiences can shape brain and behavior throughout life. PMID:16095695

  18. Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Pembrey, Marcus; Saffery, Richard; Bygren, Lars Olov

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in early life and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts. PMID:25062846

  19. Annual program analysis of the NASA Space Life Sciences Research and Education Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The basic objectives of this contract are to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad are recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system. To fulfill the contract objectives, a cadre of staff and visiting scientists, consultants, experts, and subcontractors has been assembled into a unique organization dedicated to the space life sciences. This organization, USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences, provides an academic atmosphere, provides an organizational focal point for science and educational activities, and serves as a forum for the participation of eminent scientists in the biomedical programs of NASA. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate adherence to the requirement of Contract NAS9-18440 for a written review and analysis of the productivity and success of the program. In addition, this report makes recommendations for future activities and conditions to further enhance the objectives of the program and provides a self-assessment of the cost performance of the contract.

  20. Learning from the closure of clinical programs: a case series from the Hospital Elder Life Program.

    PubMed

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Martin, Lauren A; Dowal, Sarah L; Inouye, Sharon K

    2013-06-01

    Clinical programs in geriatrics face a challenging fiscal environment. Although recent research offers lessons from successful programs to help others like them sustain operations, it is not clear whether these lessons apply to programs that are beginning to fail. This study takes an approach that is frequently recommended, but rarely applied: examining failed programs to develop guidance for those at risk. It uses the example of an evidence-based, cost-effective geriatrics program that has been successfully implemented at more than 200 sites: the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP). Data come from 14 in-depth interviews conducted between January and May 2011 with staff and hospital administrators affiliated with the six fully operational sites that closed between 2006 and 2011. Using the constant comparative method, researchers identified major themes suggesting that former HELP sites closed because of two interrelated problems centered on a major financial crisis or restructuring at the hospital or health system level. First, the crisis created challenges, such as the removal of program champions and a new focus on revenue-generating programs. Second, there were on-going vulnerabilities that the crisis revealed but that had not previously posed a threat to program viability. These included problems such as insufficient support from physicians and nursing leaders and limited documentation of program outcomes. Results suggest that, to protect against closure, clinical programs need to prepare for major crises at the hospital or health system level by ensuring support from multiple senior champions, with a special emphasis on nursing and physician leaders. PMID:23730748

  1. Early Life Adversity Alters the Developmental Profiles of Addiction-Related Prefrontal Cortex Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Brenhouse, Heather C.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2–20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC?nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence. PMID:24961311

  2. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  3. Early Life Conditions of Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Inner-City African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Polce, Rebecca J.; Ensminger, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how early life conditions influence midlife overall and cause-specific mortality in a community cohort of disadvantaged African Americans. Methods. Using a prospective design, we assessed first-grade children and their teachers and families when children were 6 years old, with follow-up at ages 16, 32, and 42 years. We obtained information on death from family members, neighbors, and the National Death Index (NDI). We conducted a survival analysis and competing risk analysis to examine early life predictors of mortality. Results. Of 1242 participants, 87 (7%) had died by 2004. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, males who lived in foster care and females with lower math grades in first grade were more likely to die by age 42 years. In multivariate competing risks analysis, hospitalization by the time of first grade was related to mortality from acute and chronic illness. Male gender, being in foster care, and aggressive behavior in first grade were related to mortality from drug use, violence, or suicide. Conclusions. Early classroom, environmental, and family-level interventions are potentially beneficial in reducing later overall and cause-specific mortality. PMID:23597365

  4. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  5. EFFECTS OF DIET QUANTITY ON SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS 'CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS' DURING EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES TO CHLORPYRIFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of food quantity on the effects of chlorpyrifos was determined in six early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests with estuarine sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. Three ELS tests were conducted simultaneously, each with a different feeding density: approximately ...

  6. The known knowns, the known unknowns, and beyond: early life history perspective for the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life history research has been crucial for understanding and managing fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes and beyond. Much is known about spawning sites, temperatures at spawning, incubation periods, spawning substrates, and other factors surrounding reproduction for ma...

  7. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than those fed a low-nutrition diet, and they provide clear evidence that nutritional modulation of Holstein bull calves during early life has profound effects on reproductive development. PMID:25497791

  8. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schokker, Dirkjan; Zhang, Jing; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and immune development have been described recently. Here we studied whether the early life administration of antibiotics has long-lasting effects on the pig’s intestinal microbial community and on gut functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the long-lasting effect of early-life treatment, piglets were divided into three different groups receiving the following treatments: 1) no antibiotics and no stress, 2) antibiotics and no stress, and 3) antibiotics and stress. All treatments were applied at day four after birth. Sampling of jejunal content for community scale microbiota analysis, and jejunal and ileal tissue for genome-wide transcription profiling, was performed at day 55 (~8 weeks) and day 176 (~25 weeks) after birth. Antibiotic treatment in combination with or without exposure to stress was found to have long-lasting effects on host intestinal gene expression involved in a multitude of processes, including immune related processes. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained in this study indicate that early life (day 4 after birth) perturbations have long-lasting effects on the gut system, both in gene expression (day 55) as well as on microbiota composition (day 176). At day 55 high variance was observed in the microbiota data, but no significant differences between treatment groups, which is most probably due to the newly acquired microbiota during and right after weaning (day 28). Based on the observed difference in gene expression at day 55, it is hypothesized that due to the difference in immune programming during early life, the systems respond differently to the post-weaning newly acquired microbiota. As a consequence, the gut systems of the treatment groups develop into different homeostasis. PMID:25658611

  9. GEOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LIFE AND DEATH OF DINOSAURS FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS CEDAR MOUNTAIN FORMATION, UTAH

    E-print Network

    Suarez, Celina Angelica

    2010-04-22

    GEOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LIFE AND DEATH OF DINOSAURS FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS CEDAR MOUNTAIN FORMATION, UTAH By © 2010 Celina Angelica Suarez B.S., Trinity University, 2003 M.S., Temple University, 2005 Submitted...:_______________ ii The dissertation committee for Celina Angelica Suarez certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: GEOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LIFE AND DEATH OF DINOSAURS FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS CEDAR MOUNTAIN...

  10. Early life stress in fathers improves behavioural flexibility in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Gapp, Katharina; Soldado-Magraner, Saray; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; Bohacek, Johannes; Vernaz, Gregoire; Shu, Huan; Franklin, Tamara B; Wolfer, David; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic experiences in childhood can alter behavioural responses and increase the risk for psychopathologies across life, not only in the exposed individuals but also in their progeny. In some conditions, such experiences can however be beneficial and facilitate the appraisal of adverse environments later in life. Here we expose newborn mice to unpredictable maternal separation combined with unpredictable maternal stress (MSUS) for 2 weeks and assess the impact on behaviour in the offspring when adult. We show that MSUS in male mice favours goal-directed behaviours and behavioural flexibility in the adult offspring. This effect is accompanied by epigenetic changes involving histone post-translational modifications at the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene and decreased MR expression in the hippocampus. Mimicking these changes pharmacologically in vivo reproduces the behavioural phenotype. These findings highlight the beneficial impact that early adverse experiences can have in adulthood, and the implication of epigenetic modes of gene regulation. PMID:25405779

  11. Community living long before man: fossil and living microbial mats and early life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Lopez Baluja, L.; Awramik, S. M.; Sagan, D.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial mats are layered communities of bacteria that form cohesive structures, some of which are preserved in sedimentary rocks as stromatolites. Certain rocks, approximately three and a half thousand million years old and representing the oldest known fossils, are interpreted to derive from microbial mats and to contain fossils of microorganisms. Modern microbial mats (such as the one described here from Matanzas, Cuba) and their fossil counterparts are of great interest in the interpretation of early life on Earth. Since examination of microbial mats and stromatolites increases our understanding of long-term stability and change, within the global environment, such structures should be protected wherever possible as natural science preserves. Furthermore, since they have existed virtually from the time of life's origin, microbial mats have developed exemplary mechanisms of local community persistence and may even play roles in the larger global environment that we do not understand.

  12. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (P<0.05). Chronic pain during early life impaired short-term memory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (P<0.05). Sucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids. PMID:25846434

  13. Targeting regulatory T cells to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life

    PubMed Central

    Ndure, Jorjoh; Flanagan, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses too many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs). It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limiting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine-induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future. PMID:25309517

  14. High Novelty-Seeking Rats Are Resilient to Negative Physiological Effects of the Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1–14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs’ already high physiological response to stress – stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs’ (but not bHRs’) neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals’ response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals. PMID:24090131

  15. Tooth loss early in life accelerates age-related bone deterioration in mice.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Chen, Huayue; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Both osteoporosis and tooth loss are health concerns that affect many older people. Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease of the elderly, characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue. Chronic mild stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many studies showed that tooth loss induced neurological alterations through activation of a stress hormone, corticosterone, in mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tooth loss early in life may accelerate age-related bone deterioration using a mouse model. Male senescence-accelerated mouse strain P8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly divided into control and toothless groups. Removal of the upper molar teeth was performed at one month of age. Bone response was evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 months of age. Tooth loss early in life caused a significant increase in circulating corticosterone level with age. Osteoblast bone formation was suppressed and osteoclast bone resorption was activated in the toothless mice. Trabecular bone volume fraction of the vertebra and femur was decreased in the toothless mice with age. The bone quality was reduced in the toothless mice at 5 and 9 months of age, compared with the age-matched control mice. These findings indicate that tooth loss early in life impairs the dynamic homeostasis of the bone formation and bone resorption, leading to reduced bone strength with age. Long-term tooth loss may have a cumulative detrimental effect on bone health. It is important to take appropriate measures to treat tooth loss in older people for preventing and/or treating senile osteoporosis. PMID:25744201

  16. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. PMID:24246856

  17. Predictors of intelligence quotient and intelligence quotient change in persons treated for phenylketonuria early in life.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, S E; Mahon, B E; Schnell, R R; Levy, H L

    1987-03-01

    Ninety-one individuals with phenylketonuria who were treated early in life were followed for as many as 22 years. Regression analyses were used to determine the best predictors of IQ and IQ change. Among treatment-related variables, good dietary control of the blood phenylalanine level stood out as the best predictor of IQ. Diet discontinuation and the natural (off diet) blood phenylalanine level best predicted IQ loss, suggesting that diet continuation may be important for children with natural blood phenylalanine levels greater than 18 mg/dL. PMID:3822635

  18. Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Balmes, John R.; Bradman, Asa; Lipsett, Michael; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pesticide use is widespread, the possible effect of early-life exposure to organophosphate (OP) on pediatric respiratory health is not well described. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between early-life exposure to OPs and respiratory outcomes. Methods: Participants included 359 mothers and children from the CHAMACOS birth cohort. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, specifically diethyl (DE) and dimethyl (DM) phosphate metabolites, were measured in urine from mothers twice during pregnancy (mean = 13 and 26 weeks gestation) and from children five times during childhood (0.5–5 years). Childhood DAP concentrations were estimated by the area under curve (AUC). Mothers reported their child’s respiratory symptoms at 5 and 7 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine associations of prenatal and childhood DAP concentrations with repeated measures of respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing at 5 and 7 years of age, adjusting for child’s sex and age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand tobacco smoke, season of birth, PM2.5, breastfeeding, mold and cockroaches in home, and distance from highway. Results: Higher prenatal DAP concentrations, particularly DE, were nonsignificantly associated with respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10-fold increase = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.12]. This association was strongest with total DAP and DE from the second half of pregnancy (aOR per 10-fold increase = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.95; and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.39, respectively). Childhood DAP, DE, and DM concentrations were associated with respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age (total DAPs: aOR per 10-fold increase = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.86; and aOR = 5.40; 95% CI: 2.10, 13.91, respectively). Conclusions: Early-life exposure to OP pesticides was associated with respiratory symptoms consistent with possible asthma in childhood. Citation: Raanan R, Harley KG, Balmes JR, Bradman A, Lipsett M, Eskenazi B. 2015. Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides and pediatric respiratory symptoms in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:179–185;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408235 PMID:25369257

  19. For better or worse: reduced adult lifespan following early-life stress is transmitted to breeding partners

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stress–early stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320

  20. Role of early life-history constraints and resource polymorphism in the segregation of sympatric populations of an estuarine fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Lecomte; Julian J. Dodson

    2004-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, evolutionary studies of reduced gene flow among fish populations in the absence of strong physical barriers have tended to focus on mechanisms to increase survival of the critical early life-history stages. In contrast, ecological resource partitioning among later life-history stages has received considerable attention in studies of freshwater ecosystems. Few studies have considered both mechanisms simultaneously and

  1. Potential Habitats For Life On Mars: Lessons From The Early Archean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Brack, A.

    The Hadean/Early Archaean Earth was characterised by generally submerged protocontinents on a water-covered planet. The supracrustal rocks deposited on top of the protocontinents from the Early Archaean terrains of Barberton (S. Africa) and the Pilbara (Australia) contain evidence of widespread distributions of fossil bacterial biofilms in almost all the habitats available. These include shallow -water, intertidal (saline), and possibly subaerial environments. There is extensive evidence of hydrothermal activity with associated mats in all habitats. We can thus infer that by 3.4-3.5 b.y. ago, terrestrial organisms probably represented chemolithotrophs, heterotrophs and anaerobic photosynthesisers exhibiting thermophilic, acidophilic (possibly alkalophilic?), or halophyilic attributes. The presence of a unifying body of water on Earth could have been an important aid to microbial dispersal between habitats. The geological evolution of Mars, on the other hand, precludes the formation of oceans and (proto)continents, even though there is evidence for significant liquid water at the surface of the planet during the Noachian and early Hesperion, with intermittent appearances during the later Hesperion and Amazonian. How does this important difference in the geological evolution of the two planets affect the possibility of life on Mars? In fact, since the ingredients for life (water, organics and an energy source) were all present on early Mars, and since microorganisms are purely surface-specific, the major geological differences present no inhibition to the appearance of life. Potential habitats include: hot spring, shallow -water, intertidal (saline/alkaline?), subaerial and subsurface environments; potential types of organisms would be chemolithotrophs, heterotrophs and (anaerobic?) photosynthesisers with thermophilic, mesophilic (later on psychrophilic?), acidophilic (alkalophilic?), or halophilic attributes. However, subsequent evolution during the Noachian would have been restricted to isolated habitats since there was no unifying body of water to aid dispersal. With the loss of surficial volatiles, it is possible that the environmental extremes afflicting potential early Martian microbes could have spurred more rapid and diverse evolution compared to evolution on Earth ­ or it could have produced the opposite effect, even killing it off altogether.

  2. Early Life Dietary Spray Dried Plasma Influences Immunological and Intestinal Injury Responses to Later Life Salmonella Typhimurium Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, P.E.; D’Costa, S.; Edwards, L.L.; Milloway, M.; Susick, E.; Borst, L.B.; Thakur, S.; Campbell, J.M.; Crenshaw, J.D.; Polo, J.; Moeser, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that early life environmental influences, including nutrition and stress, impact long-term health outcomes and disease susceptibility. The objective of the current study was to determine whether dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) fed during the first 2 weeks post-weaning (PW) influences subsequent immunological and intestinal injury responses to S. Typhimurium challenge. Thirty two piglets (16–17 d of age) were weaned onto nursery diets containing 0% SDP, 2.5% SDP (fed for 7 d PW), or 5% SDP (for 14 d PW) and were then fed control diets (without SDP), for the remainder of the experiment. At 34 d PW (50 d of age), pigs were challenged with 3×109 cfu S. Typhimurium. A control group (non-challenged) that was fed 0% SDP in the nursery was included. At 2 d post-challenge, distal ileum was harvested for measurement of inflammatory, histological, and intestinal physiological parameters. S. Typhimurium challenge induced elevated ileal histological scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-8, and TNF, and increased intestinal permeability (indicated by reduced transepithelial voltage (PD) and elevated FD4 flux rates). Compared with S. Typhimurium-challenged controls (0% SDP), pigs fed 5% SDP-14 d exhibited reduced ileal histological scores, MPO, IL-8, and FD4 flux rates. Pigs fed 5% SDP-14 d in the nursery exhibited increased levels of plasma and ileal TNF? in response to challenge, compared with other treatments. These results indicate that inclusion of SDP into PW diets can have influence subsequent immunological responses and intestinal injury induced by later life S. Typhimurium challenge. PMID:25671331

  3. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    02008, doi:10.1029/2006JE002784. 1. Introduction [2] Our understanding of the origin of life, as well to the origin of life [e.g., Miller and Urey, 1959]. However, on living tissue, the same radiation has is uncertain, but it is usually placed between 3.8 and 2.7 Ga. The evidence for an early origin of life, around

  4. ‘A fit of absence of mind’? Empire and urban life in early non-fiction films (1895–1914)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Cinquegrani

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the cinematic representation of urban spaces in early films of East Asia and South Africa. It aims at demonstrating that early actuality films are an invaluable recordof the economic, social, and cultural life of distant cities in the late Victorian and Edwardian eras, but also that the spatial organization of the cities, and of the films’ representations

  5. Sickle blade life-history and the transition to agriculture: an early Neolithic case study from Southwest Asia

    E-print Network

    Kohler, Tim A.

    Sickle blade life-history and the transition to agriculture: an early Neolithic case study from Use-wear Curation Sickle blades Scanning electron microscope analysis Southwest Asia a b s t r a c t In Southwest Asia, sickle blades first appear early in the sequence of the transition to agriculture

  6. Neuropeptides as mediators of the early-life impact on the brain; implications for alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The brain is constantly exposed to external and internal input and to function in an ever-changing environment we are dependent on processes that enable the brain to adapt to new stimuli. Exposure to postnatal environmental stimuli can interfere with vital adaption processes and cause long-term changes in physiological function and behavior. Early-life alterations in brain function may result in impaired ability to adapt to new situations, in altered sensitivity to challenges later in life and thereby mediate risk or protection for psychopathology such as alcohol use disorders (AUD). In clinical research the studies of mechanisms, mediators, and causal relation between early environmental factors and vulnerability to AUD are restricted and attempts are made to find valid animal models for studies of the early-life influence on the brain. This review focuses on rodent models and the effects of adverse and naturalistic conditions on peptide networks within the brain and pituitary gland. Importantly, the consequences of alcohol addiction are not discussed but rather neurobiological alterations that can cause risk consumption and vulnerability to addiction. The article reviews earlier results and includes new data and multivariate data analysis with emphasis on endogenous opioid peptides but also oxytocin and vasopressin. These peptides are vital for developmental processes and it is hypothesized that early-life changes in peptide networks may interfere with neuronal processes and thereby contribute the individual vulnerability for AUD. The summarized results indicate a link between early-life rearing conditions, opioids, and ethanol consumption and that the ethanol-induced effects and the treatment with opioid antagonists later in life are dependent on early-life experiences. Endogenous opioids are therefore of interest to further study in the early-life impact on individual differences in vulnerability to AUD and treatment outcome. PMID:22783165

  7. Origins of Life NAI and SMBE Satellite Workshop and PCTS Program

    E-print Network

    Origins of Life NAI and SMBE Satellite Workshop and PCTS Program 21-24 January 2013 The last few scientists from within and outside the Princeton community to pursue studies of life's origins. The workshop of life's origins in the astronomical, chemical, genetic, evolutionary, and information-theoretic contexts

  8. The Junior Fellows Program in the Life Sciences At the University of Massachusetts Amherst

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    The Junior Fellows Program in the Life Sciences At the University of Massachusetts Amherst the research of outstanding Seniors majoring in the life sciences. Each Junior Fellow will receive a $1. Junior Fellows play a central role in organizing the UMass Undergraduate Life Science Research Symposium

  9. Epigenomic profiling of men exposed to early-life stress reveals DNA methylation differences in association with current mental state

    PubMed Central

    Khulan, B; Manning, J R; Dunbar, D R; Seckl, J R; Raikkonen, K; Eriksson, J G; Drake, A J

    2014-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is known to be associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic disease in later life. One of the potential mechanisms underpinning this is through effects on the epigenome, particularly changes in DNA methylation. Using a well-phenotyped cohort of 83 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who experienced ELS in the form of separation from their parents during childhood, and a group of 83 matched controls, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in peripheral blood. We found no differences in DNA methylation between men who were separated from their families and non-separated men; however, we did identify differences in DNA methylation in association with the development of at least mild depressive symptoms over the subsequent 5–10 years. Notably, hypomethylation was identified at a number of genes with roles in brain development and/or function in association with depressive symptoms. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of DNA methylation changes in pathways associated with development and morphogenesis, DNA and transcription factor binding and programmed cell death. Our results support the concept that DNA methylation differences may be important in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. PMID:25247593

  10. Translation of Etiology into Evidence-Based Prevention: The Life Skills Program IPSY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina

    2014-01-01

    IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) is a universal life skills program aiming at the promotion of generic intra-and interpersonal life skills, substance specific skills (for example, resistance skills), school bonding, knowledge, and the prevention of substance misuse with a focus on alcohol and tobacco in youth. This program…

  11. Evaluation of the Life Skills Training Program, Los Angeles County, California: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mark E.; Zinn, Andrew; Zielewski, Erica H.; Bess, Roseana J.; Malm, Karin E.; Stagner, Matthew; Pergamit, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a rigorous evaluation of the Life Skills Training Program (LST) in Los Angeles County. LST provides 30 hours of life skills training over five weeks to foster youths ages 16 and older. The classes are held on community college campuses throughout Los Angeles County. The program is staffed by workers tasked with…

  12. Development of individual differences in stress responsiveness: an overview of factors mediating the outcome of early life experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanne E. F. Claessens; Nikolaos P. Daskalakis; Rixt van der Veen; Melly S. Oitzl; E. Ronald de Kloet; Danielle L. Champagne

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  Human epidemiology and animal studies have convincingly shown the long-lasting impact of early life experiences on the development\\u000a of individual differences in stress responsiveness in later life. The interplay between genes and environment underlies this phenomenon.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We provide an overview of studies investigating the impact of early life experiences on the development of individual differences\\u000a in neuroendocrine stress responsiveness in

  13. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.

  14. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.

  15. Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, 1979-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S.; Powers, Janet V.

    1990-01-01

    Publications of research sponsored by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program from 1979 to 1989 are listed. The CELSS Program encompasses research and technology with the goal of developing an autonomous bioregenerative life support system that continually recycles the solid, liquid, and gaseous materials essential for human life. The bibliography is divided into four major subject areas: food production, nutritional requirements, waste management, and systems management and control.

  16. Modifiable early-life risk factors for childhood adiposity and overweight: an analysis of their combined impact and potential for prevention1234

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Barton, Benjamin D; Law, Catherine M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early life may be a “critical period” when appetite and regulation of energy balance are programmed, with lifelong consequences for obesity risk. Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between the number of early-life risk factors and obesity outcomes among children in a prospective birth cohort (Southampton Women's Survey). Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Obesity outcomes examined when the children were aged 4 and 6 y were BMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–assessed fat mass, overweight, or obesity (International Obesity Task Force). Data were available for 991 mother-child pairs, with children born between 1998 and 2003. Results: Of the children, 148 (15%) had no early-life risk factors, 330 (33%) had 1, 296 (30%) had 2, 160 (16%) had 3, and 57 (6%) had 4 or 5. At both 4 and 6 y, there were positive graded associations between number of early-life risk factors and each obesity outcome (all P < 0.001). After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001). Conclusions: Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood. These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:25646335

  17. Toxicity Assessment of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Tian, Shengyan; Cai, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ?10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:23029464

  18. Risk Exposures in Early Life and Mortality at Older Ages: Evidence from Union Army Veterans.

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun

    2009-06-12

    This study examines the relation between risk exposures in early life and hazard of mortality among 11,978 Union Army veterans aged 50 and over in 1900. Veterans' risk exposures prior to enlistment-as approximated by birth season, country of origin, residential region, city size, and height at enlistment-significantly influence their chance of survival after 1900. These effects are robust irrespective of whether or not socioeconomic well-being circa 1900 has been taken into account; however, they are sensitive to the particular age periods that have been selected for survival analysis. Whereas some of the effects such as being born in Ireland and coming from big cities became fully unfolded in the first decade after 1900 and then dissipated over time, the effects of birth season, being born in Germany, residential region in the U.S., and height at enlistment were more salient in the post-1910 periods. Height at enlistment shows a positive association with risk of mortality in the post-1910 periods. Compared to corresponding findings from more recent cohorts, the exceptional rigidity of the effects of risk exposures prior to enlistment on old-age mortality among the veterans highlights the harshness of living conditions early in their life. PMID:20209063

  19. Toxicity assessment of iron oxide nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Tian, Shengyan; Cai, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ?10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. PMID:23029464

  20. Early life-stage toxicity test methods for gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and results using chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Goodman, L.R.; Cripe, G.M.; Macauley, S.F.

    1986-02-01

    Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) were continuously exposed as embryos, sac fry, and juveniles to technical chlorpyrifos in two 49-day early life-stage toxicity tests. Survival was significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced only in 150 micrograms/liter. However, toadfish exposed to chlorpyrifos concentrations from 3.7 to 150 micrograms/liter weighted significantly less than control fish: 9% lower in 3.7 micrograms/liter to 62% lower in 150 micrograms/liter. The 96-hr LC50 for juvenile fish was 520 micrograms/liter. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos in toadfish and bioconcentration factors increased with increasing exposure concentration, a condition not generally observed with other marine fishes and other test chemicals. These results demonstrated the procedures for, and the practicality of, early life-stage tests with this marine species. We recommend the use of the gulf toadfish for comparative toxicity testing and for evaluating the toxicity of substances in conjunction with ontogenetical, physiological, and histological investigations of this considerably studied genus. We do not recommend it for routine effects testing.

  1. Glutamine Randomized Studies in Early Life: The Unsolved Riddle of Experimental and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Briassouli, Efrossini; Briassoulis, George

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups), premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of “glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response” in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness. PMID:23019424

  2. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

  3. Genetic variability in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and body size in early life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early life body size and circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 have been linked to increased risks of breast and other cancers, but it is unclear whether these exposures act through a common mechanism. Previous studies have examined the role of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 genetic variation in relation to adult height and body size, but few studies have examined associations with birthweight and childhood size. Methods We examined whether htSNPs in IGF-1 and the IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 gene region are associated with the self-reported outcomes of birthweight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10, and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 among healthy women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. We used ordinal logistic regression to model odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of a one category increase for birthweight and somatotypes at ages 5 and 10. We used linear regression to model associations with BMI at age 18. Results Among 4567 healthy women in NHS and NHSII, we observed no association between common IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 SNPs and birthweight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10, or BMI at age 18. Conclusions Common IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 SNPs are not associated with body size in early life. PMID:22894543

  4. Early-life exposure to methylmercury in wildtype and pdr-1/parkin knockout C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Slaughter, James C.; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of early-life exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) pdr-1 mutants, addressing gene-environment interactions. We tested the hypothesis that early-life exposure to MeHg and knockout (KO) of pdr-1 (mammalian: parkin/PARK2) exacerbates MeHg toxicity and damage to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. pdr-1KO worms showed increased lethality and decreased lifespan following MeHg exposure. Mercury (Hg) content, measured with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was increased in pdr-1KO worms compared to wildtype (N2) controls. 2?7? dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) assay revealed a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both strains following MeHg exposure; however, while N2 worms showed an increase in skn-1 transcript levels following MeHg exposure, there was no difference in skn-1 induction in pdr-1KO worms. Dopamine-dependent behavioral analysis revealed an effect of MeHg on N2 wildtype worms, but no effect on pdr-1KO worms. Taken together, these results suggest that pdr-1KO worms are more sensitive to MeHg than wildtype worms, but MeHg does not exacerbate behavioral changes related to the absence of pdr-1. PMID:23609499

  5. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    PubMed

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24?h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

  6. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24?h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  7. Phenotypic and fitness consequences of maternal nest-site choice across multiple early life stages.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Timothy S; Warner, Daniel A; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-02-01

    Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. picta hibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the effects of the incubation nest with that of the hibernation nest. Incubation nest explained little variation in phenotypes at spring emergence, but winter nest site was important. We found no evidence that mothers select nest sites specific to reaction norms of their own offspring, suggesting that females may select nest sites with microhabitats that broadly meet similar requirements across the population. After hibernation, we released hatchlings to assess performance and phenotypic selection during dispersal. Hibernation nest site influenced physiological performance during dispersal, and we detected nonlinear selection on hatchling carapace length. Our experiment demonstrates that nest-site choice has substantial effects on phenotypic variation and fitness across multiple early life stages. PMID:23691653

  8. Sustaining Clinical Programs During Difficult Economic Times: A Case Series from the Hospital Elder Life Program

    PubMed Central

    SteelFisher, Gillian K.; Martin, Lauren A.; Dowal, Sarah L.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore strategies used by clinical programs to justify operations to decision-makers using the example of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP), an evidence-based, cost-effective program to improve care for hospitalized older adults. DESIGN Qualitative study design utilizing 62 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with HELP staff members and hospital administrators between September 2008 and August 2009. SETTING 19 HELP sites in hospitals across the U.S. and Canada that had been recruiting patients for at least 6 months. PARTICIPANTS and MEASUREMENTS HELP staff and hospital administrator experiences sustaining the program in the face of actual or perceived financial threats, with a focus on factors they believe are effective in justifying the program to decision-makers in the hospital or health system. RESULTS Using the constant comparative method, a standard qualitative analysis technique, three major themes were identified across interviews. Each focuses on a strategy for successfully justifying the program and securing funds for continued operations: 1) interact meaningfully with decision-makers, including formal presentations that showcase operational successes, and also informal means that highlight the benefits of HELP to the hospital or health system; 2) document day-to-day, operational successes in metrics that resonate with decision-maker priorities; and 3) garner support from influential hospital staff that feed into administrative decision-making, particularly nurses and physicians. CONCLUSION As clinical programs face financially challenging times, it is important to find effective ways to justify their operations to decision-makers. Strategies described here may help clinically-effective and cost-effective programs sustain themselves, and thus may help improve care in their institutions. PMID:22091501

  9. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2015-05-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 expression have previously been associated with changes in social behavior linked to psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we show that early-life stress, induced by limited nesting and bedding material, leads to impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice, accompanied by increased expression levels of hippocampal neuroligin-2. Viral overexpression of hippocampal neuroligin-2 in adulthood mimics early-life stress-induced alterations in social behavior and social cognition. Moreover, viral knockdown of neuroligin-2 in the adult hippocampus attenuates the early-life stress-induced behavioral changes. Our results highlight the importance of neuroligin-2 in mediating early-life stress effects on social behavior and social cognition and its promising role as a novel therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25765754

  10. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival compared to wives of centenarians' brothers. This finding demonstrates an important role of shared familial environment and lifestyle in human longevity. The results of this study suggest that familial background, early-life conditions and midlife characteristics play an important role in longevity. PMID:25664346

  11. Records of our Early Biosphere Illuminate our Origins and Guide our Search for Life Beyond Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    A scientific "mission of exploration to early Earth" will help us chart the distribution of life elsewhere. We must discriminate between attributes of biospheres that are universal versus those attributes that represent principally the outcomes of long-term survival specifically on Earth. In addition to the basic physics and chemistry of matter, the geologic evolution of rocky habitable planets and their climates might be similar elsewhere in the Universe. Certain key agents that drive long-term environmental change (e.g., stellar evolution, impacts, geothermal heat flow, tectonics, etc.) can help us to reconstruct ancient climates and to compare their evolution among populations of Earth- like planets. Early Earth was tectonically more active than today and therefore it exhaled reduced chemical species into the more oxidized surface environment at greater rates. This tectonic activity thus sustained oxidation-reduction reactions that provided the basis for the development of biochemical pathways that harvest chemical energy ("bioenergetics"). Most examples of bioenergetics today that extract energy by reacting oxidized and reduced chemicals in the environment were likely more pervasive among our microbial ancestors than are the presently known examples of photosynthesis. The geologic rock record indicates that, as early as 3.5 billion years ago (3.5 Ga), microbial biofilms were widespread within the coastal environments of small continents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing (non-oxygenic) photosynthesis preceded oxygenic photosynthesis, but all types of photosynthesis contributed substantially to the long-term increase in global primary biological productivity. Evidence of photosynthesis is tentative by 3.5 Ga and compelling by 2.7 Ga. Evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis is strong by 2.7 Ga and compelling by 2.3 Ga. These successive innovations transformed life from local communities that survived principally by catalyzing chemical equilibration to a globally dominant agent that created and sustained widespread chemical disequilibria in the environment and shallow crust. Major biogeochemical perturbations ca. 2.3 to 2.0 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and also 0.8 to 0.6 Ga, contributed to the irreversible oxidation of the global environment and perhaps also triggered evolutionary innovations (e.g., the development of multi-cellular biota) that became the foundations of our modern biosphere. Understanding the nature and timing of this ascent of life is crucial for discerning our o m beginnings. This understanding also empowers OUT search for the origins, evolution and distribution of life elsewhere in our solar system and beyond.

  12. Silicon Isotopic Composition of Isua BIF and Other Early Archean Supracrustal Rocks: a Tracer for Early Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, L.; Cardinal, D.; Alleman, L. Y.; Moorbath, S.

    2004-12-01

    High temperature vapor condensations and stardust forming stellar outflows strongly differentiate Si-isotopes (-650\\permil<\\delta29Si<+200\\permil). In contrast, on Earth, the major cause of slight Si isotope fractionation (-1.8\\permil <\\delta29Si <+1.5\\permil) is related to preferential biological uptake of 28Si by diatoms, radiolarian, sponges and plants in building their opaline frustules, spicules and phytoliths. As a consequence, modern waters, clays, soils and sediments are also fractionated: -0.9\\permil<\\delta29Si<+1.7\\permil, while Phanerozoic magmatic and metamorphic processes leave terrestrial crystalline rocks almost unfractionated: -0.4\\permil <\\delta29Si <+0.2\\permil. Spectacular claims for discovery of oldest evidence for terrestrial life in early Archean (ca 3.7-3.8 Ga) metamorphosed rocks from southern West Greenland have been challenged in a series of studies, and there is need for some independent tracer to gain new insights into the quest for primitive life. In order to unravel potentialities of silicon isotopes, we determined the Si-isotope composition of four groups of rocks from the Isua Greenstone Belt: magnetite-quartz "Banded Iron Formations" (BIF); mica-feldspar-quartz-(garnet) schists of potential pelitic origin; a series of tonalitic gneisses, metabasalt pillows, volcanogenic sediments and hydrothermal quartz veins and vesicles. Specimens were powdered using diamond-coated microdrills. Si was purified by TEA molybdate co-precipitation and measured on a Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS using Mg external doping in dry plasma mode following Cardinal et al's (2003) methodology. Measured 29Si/28Si are expressed with the \\delta29Si notation relative to the NBS28 quartz standard. Overall reproducibility assessed on 5 BIF duplicates is better than 0.08\\permil. Merck Quartz aliquots processed in the same way as the Isua specimens are unfractionated, showing that our chemical procedure does not produce any isotopic artefacts. Metasediments yield an undifferentiated signature: -0.15\\permil <\\delta29Si <+0.00\\permil. Since they may reflect the average composition of pre-3.8Ga Archean crust, this points to a lack of significant "stellar dust" or "impact-related thermal volatilisation" imprints from pre-3.8Ga meteoritic infall on detrital Si-isotope compositions. The undifferentiated signature (-0.06\\permil<\\delta29Si <+0.21\\permil) of magmatic and hydrothermal derived rocks confirms that Archean crystalline rock-forming processes compare with their Phanerozoic counterparts in terms of their inefficacy to fractionate silicon isotopes. BIF's differ by their significant relative 29Si depletion, which is stronger for the well-preserved, finely-banded BIF (-1.28\\permil<\\delta29Si<-1.11\\permil) than for those with irregular or folded banding (-0.71\\permil<\\delta29Si<-0.28\\permil). Moreover, the finely banded BIF presents very homogeneous interlayer \\delta29Si. Considering the seawater-derived origin of Isua BIF (e.g.Bolhar et al, 2004), the 29Si depletion might either directly reflect the ambient early Archean ocean or seawater-derived hydrothermal fluid, or indicate that BIF precipitation was associated with some unknown organic or inorganic fractionation process. Because the observed isotopic differentiation fits in the range of modern biogically-mediated Si-isotope fractionations, the hypothesis of some potential links between BIF precipitation and early biological activity cannot be overlooked.

  13. Childhood Atopic Diseases and Early Life Circumstances: An Ecological Study in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    van der Werff, Suzanne D.; Polman, Katja; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background Children are especially vulnerable during periods of resource shortage such as economic embargoes. They are likely to suffer most from poor nutrition, infectious diseases, and other ensuing short-term threats. Moreover, early life circumstances can have important consequences for long-term health. We examined the relationship between early childhood exposure to the Cuban economic situation in the nineties and the occurrence of atopic diseases later in childhood. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study of 1321 primary schoolchildren aged 4–14 was conducted in two Cuban municipalities. Asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Children were divided into three groups of exposure to the economic situation in the nineties according to birth date: (1) unexposed; (2) exposed during infancy; (3) exposed during infancy and early childhood. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Exposure during infancy had a significant inverse association with the occurrence of asthma (OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.33–0.94) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.25–0.85). The associations were stronger after longer exposure, i.e. during infancy and early childhood, for asthma (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17–0.95) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.11–0.77). No significant associations were found for atopic dermatitis. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to the economic situation in the nineties during infancy and early childhood was inversely associated with asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis occurrence later in childhood. We hypothesize that factors related to this period, such as infectious diseases and undernutrition, may have an attenuating effect on atopic disease development. The exact cause and underlying mechanisms need to be further elucidated. PMID:22768156

  14. Early Life Precursors, Epigenetics, and the Development of Food Allergy1

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of non-genetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birthweight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early-life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the inter-relationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA, and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention and management of FA. PMID:22777545

  15. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood. Methods/design The study is based on the fact that in 1961 fortifying margarine with vitamin D became mandatory in Denmark and in 1972 low fat milk fortification was allowed. Apart from determining the influences of exposure prior to conception and during prenatal life, we will examine the importance of vitamin D exposure during specific seasons and trimesters, by comparing disease incidence among individuals born before and after fortification. The Danish National databases assure that there are a sufficient number of individuals to verify any vitamin D effects during different gestation phases. Additionally, a validated method will be used to determine neonatal vitamin D status using stored dried blood spots (DBS) from individuals who developed the aforementioned disease entities as adults and their time and gender-matched controls. Discussion The results of the study will contribute to our current understanding of the significance of supplementation with vitamin D. More specifically, they will enable new research in related fields, including interventional research designed to assess supplementation needs for different subgroups of pregnant women. Also, other health outcomes can subsequently be studied to generate multiple health research opportunities involving vitamin D. Finally, the results of the study will justify the debate of Danish health authorities whether to resume vitamin D supplementation policies. PMID:23714352

  16. Malaria modifies neonatal and early-life toll-like receptor cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Gbédandé, Komi; Varani, Stefania; Ibitokou, Samad; Houngbegnon, Parfait; Borgella, Sophie; Nouatin, Odilon; Ezinmegnon, Sem; Adeothy, Adicatou-Laï; Cottrell, Gilles; Massougbodji, Achille; Moutairou, Kabirou; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Deloron, Philippe; Fievet, Nadine; Luty, Adrian J F

    2013-08-01

    Protection from infections in early life relies extensively on innate immunity, but it is unknown whether and how maternal infections modulate infants' innate immune responses, thereby altering susceptibility to infections. Plasmodium falciparum causes pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM), and epidemiological studies have shown that PAM enhances infants' susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum. We investigated how PAM-mediated exposures in utero affect innate immune responses and their relationship with infection in infancy. In a prospective study of mothers and their babies in Benin, we investigated changes in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated cytokine responses related to P. falciparum infections. Whole-blood samples from 134 infants at birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age were stimulated with agonists specific for TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9. TLR-mediated interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10 production was robust at birth and then stabilized, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses were weak at birth and then increased. In multivariate analyses, maternal P. falciparum infections at delivery were associated with significantly higher TLR3-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the first 3 months of life (P < 0.05) and with significantly higher TLR3-, TLR7/8-, and TLR9-mediated TNF-? responses between 6 and 12 months of age (P < 0.05). Prospective analyses showed that higher TLR3- and TLR7/8-mediated IL-10 responses at birth were associated with a significantly higher risk of P. falciparum infection in infancy (P < 0.05). Neonatal and infant intracellular TLR-mediated cytokine responses are conditioned by in utero exposure through PAM late in pregnancy. Enhanced TLR-mediated IL-10 responses at birth are associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum infection, suggesting a compromised ability to combat infection in early life. PMID:23690399

  17. Attention deficit associated with early life interictal spikes in a rat model is improved with ACTH.

    PubMed

    Hernan, Amanda E; Alexander, Abigail; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C; Holmes, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABA(A) antagonist (bicuculline methiodine) delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p) 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse cognitive outcomes. PMID:24587054

  18. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  19. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Nielsen, Torkel G; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Sparholt, Henrik; Als, Thomas D; Aarestrup, Kim; Andersen, Nikolaj G; Bachler, Mirjam

    2010-12-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions and steering their drift. The majority of the more westerly distributed American eel larvae are likely to follow a westerly/northerly drift route entrained in the Antilles/Florida Currents. European eel larvae are generally believed to initially follow the same route, but their more easterly distribution close to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical-biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels. PMID:20573625

  20. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael M.; Maes, Gregory E.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Sparholt, Henrik; Als, Thomas D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Bachler, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions and steering their drift. The majority of the more westerly distributed American eel larvae are likely to follow a westerly/northerly drift route entrained in the Antilles/Florida Currents. European eel larvae are generally believed to initially follow the same route, but their more easterly distribution close to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical–biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels. PMID:20573625