The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the earlylife period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the earlylife environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374
Earlylife nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. The associated parallel rise in metabolic diseases including obesity, childhood type 2-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease highlights the interplay between modern dietary patterns and increasing abnormalities of both immune and metabolic health. The low-grade inflammation that characterize these non-communicable diseases (NCDs) suggests a central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programing is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect the fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients such as folic acid levels, which have clear epigenetic effects on programming. Here we examine the current knowledge of the nutritional-programming of immune health and how research into nutritional-epigenetics in the context of allergic disease as one of the earliest onset NCDs can expand our knowledge to discover the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures in earlylife to prevent later disease risk. PMID:24053699
Amarasekera, Manori; Prescott, Susan L; Palmer, Debra J
This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and earlylifeprogramming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477
Lewis, Andrew James; Galbally, Megan; Gannon, Tara; Symeonides, Christos
Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of earlylife nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life. PMID:24847686
This study of 119 preschool programs in 5 states was designed to describe the classroom experiences of economically or educationally disadvantaged 4-year-old children and to examine linkages between characteristics of early childhood programs and the activities of the children and teachers in the classroom. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the context
This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY
Karina Weichold; Anett Brambosch; Rainer K. Silbereisen
Variation in early environmental conditions can have long-term effects on physiology and behavior, a process referred to as developmental programming. In particular, exposure to early-life stressors can have long-term effects on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Although these effects have been well documented in mammals, less is known about how early-life stress affects regulation of these endocrine systems in non-mammalian species. In the current study, we determined the long-term effects of early-life food restriction or corticosterone (CORT) treatment on the HPA axis of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), including the responses to restraint stress, dexamethasone challenge, and ACTH challenge. In addition, we assessed long-term effects on the HPG axis by measuring sex steroid levels (testosterone in males and 17?-estradiol in females) before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Subjects treated with CORT during development had larger increases in CORT in response to ACTH challenge than food-restricted or control subjects. Neither treatment affected the responses of CORT to restraint or dexamethasone. CORT-treated males also had higher initial testosterone levels, but neither treatment affected testosterone levels post-GnRH. Lastly, although GnRH challenge failed to increase circulating estradiol levels in females, females exposed to food restriction or CORT treatment had lower estradiol levels than control females. These results show that exposure to stress can developmentally program the endocrine system of songbirds and illustrate the importance of considering developmental conditions when determining the factors responsible for inter-individual variation in endocrine regulation. PMID:24291303
Schmidt, Kim L; Macdougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A; Soma, Kiran K; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A
Breast milk is practically the only food eaten during the first months of life in fully breastfed infants and it is assumed\\u000a to match the nutritional needs during these first months of postnatal life. Breastfeeding compared with infant formula feeding\\u000a confers protection against several metabolic and physiological changes later on in life and, particularly, against obesity\\u000a and related medical complications.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The
Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.
We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283
Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.
\\u000a Although the idea that earlylife conditions shape mortality is not new, there has been a resurgence of studies on the topic\\u000a in the last two decades. In our review of this work, we weigh the evidence for the major causal mechanisms, i.e., biological\\u000a imprint and pathway processes, thought to underlie the associations between childhood conditions and adult mortality. We
Objective This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills programIPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.513 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament, self-worth, social problems with peers). Method Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 1,484). A longitudinal quasi-experimental design (intervention/control) with schoolwise assignment to the respective groups was used. Data were gathered via self-report questionnaire. Two-part growth mixture modeling was applied. Results Two prototypical trajectory classes of early alcohol use were found: a problematic group with a sharp increase in prevalence and quantity of consumed alcohol (19.7%) and a normative group with a moderate increase in both outcomes (80.3%). The problematic trajectory class was associated with several risk factors. IPSY decreased the likelihood of membership in the problematic group. Furthermore, IPSY buffered the increase in prevalence and quantity for the normative group, whereas it had no effects on these indicators for the problematic group. Concerning quantity of alcohol use, the effect size in terms of a difference in estimated means between intervention and control group at the last measurement point in the normative group was d = 0.33 (95% CI [0.21, 0.44]). Conclusions Study findings indicate the usefulness of IPSY for reducing alcohol use especially in normative developing adolescents. However, the minority of adolescents consistently pursuing a problematic developmental pathway of alcohol use seem to be in need of earlier, more tailored treatments. PMID:20515209
Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit
Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,
Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit
The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly
The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of earlylife nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in earlylife. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with earlylife starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between earlylife starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115
Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...
Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719
Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.
The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, 4.5 Ga ago, for the most part the planet was peaceful. Even the most active volcanoes are mostly quiet; meteorites large enough to extinguish all dinosaurs may have hit as often as every few thousand years, but this is not enough to be a nuisance to a bacterium (except when the impact boiled the ocean); while to the photosynthesizer long-term shifts in the solar spectrum may be less of a problem than cloudy hazy days. Though, admittedly, green is junk light to biology, the excretion from the photosynthetic antennae, nevertheless even a green sky would have had other wavelengths also in its spectrum.Most important of all, like all good houses, this planet had location: Earth was just in the right spot. Not too far from the faint young Sun (Sagan and Chyba, 1997), it was also far enough away still to be in the comfort zone ( Kasting et al., 1993) when the mature Sun brightened. As many have pointed out, when Goldilocks arrived, she found everything just right. But what is less obvious is that as she grew and changed, and the room changed too, she commenced to rearrange the furniture to make it ever righter for her. Thus far, the bears have not arrived, though they may have reclaimed Mars from Goldilocks's sister see ( Figure 1). (3K)Figure 1. The habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Too close to the Sun, a planet's surface is too hot to be habitable; too far, it is too cold. Early in the history of the solar system, the Sun was faint and the habitable zone was relatively close; 4.5 Ga later, with a brighter Sun, planets formerly habitable are now too hot, and the habitable zone has shifted out. Note that boundaries can shift. By changing its albedo and by altering the greenhouse gas content of the air, the planet can significantly widen the bounds of the habitable zone (Lovelock, 1979, 1988).
Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...
The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff
Unlike kindergartens for 5-year-old children, which are taken for granted, preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-old children are accepted tentatively in the United States, making them ideal candidates for evaluative research. Evaluative research compares the performance of program participants either with ideal performance, the performance of other children in general, or the performance of children who did not attend early childhood programs. Evaluative research assesses and compares child and family outcomes, after equalizing child and family background characteristics by design or statistical analysis and taking program characteristics into account. Evaluative research is either ideal-program research, typical program research, or specific-program evaluation. Ideal-program research has provided evidence of the value of ideal preschool programs. Typical-program research, however, has shown how far from ideal actual programs are, and thus sets the context for specific-program evaluations. Done well, such evaluations can improve school, Head Start, and child care early childhood programs by focusing the attention of teachers, parents, and other stakeholders on program processes and children's development. PMID:10202597
Eight papers are presented that describe the daily experience of White American children in grades 5 through 9. Each paper examines a segment of daily activity (e.g., schoolwork, talking, sports) and the associated affective states for 401 participants to provide a picture of the life space of early adolescence. (SLD)
This report to Congress has been acknowledged by Department of Health, Education and Welfare officials as an accurate and comprehensive view of child development issues in the United States, circa 1979. Chapter 1 lists multi- purposes of the review, recapitulates Congressional interest in early childhood and family development programs, defines
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection and is the leading non-genetic cause of neurological defects. CMV infection in earlylife is also associated with intense and prolonged viral excretion, indicating limited control of viral replication. This review summarizes our current understanding of the innate and adaptive immune responses to CMV infection during fetal life and infancy. It illustrates the fact that studies of congenital CMV infection have provided a proof of principle that the human fetus can develop anti-viral innate and adaptive immune responses, indicating that such responses should be inducible by vaccination in earlylife. The review also emphasizes the fact that our understanding of the mechanisms involved in symptomatic congenital CMV infection remains limited.
Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust . The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of earlylife. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable conditions are meet. Perhaps it could start in a very short interval during the first tens of millions of years after crustal formation. Even with impact-driven extinction events, such a short start-up time would allow life to restart multiple times until it persevered. If panspermia is considered, life could be introduced as soon as liquid surface water was present and could instantly thrive and spread.
Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.
The laboratory of Richard Miller and numerous heroic collaborators are in the process of testing a variety of life span predictors on more than 1000 mice. In their most recent publication, Harper et al. show that early-adulthood measures of T cell subsets, body weight, and thyroxine can be effectively combined to provide a highly significant predictor of life expectancy. Each measure appears to be an index of largely separate parameters that affect the course of aging. This article summarizes the results, discusses implications, mentions caveats, and suggests future studies. PMID:15152103
A PARENT** Do you currently have a Sibling (s) attending LEAP Academy University Charter School and child (ren) to the LEAP Academy University Charter School. All information on this form will be treatedRutgers Early Childhood Program Recvd______________ Enrollment Application for 2014 - 2015 School
Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942
NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) sponsored an Expert Panel Workshop on Early-Life Events and Cancer on May 25, 2011. There is emerging epidemiological and animal evidence that early-life events and exposures are important determinants of cancer development later in life. However, understanding how to study the impact of early-life exposures on human cancers later in life is a new challenge for cancer research.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines. PMID:25324843
Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Culley, Fiona J.
To consider the evidence that human and animal behaviours are epigenetically programmed by lifetime experiences. Extensive PubMed searches were carried out to gain a broad view of the topic, in particular from the perspective of human psychopathologies such as mood and anxiety disorders. The selected literature cited is complemented by previously unpublished data from the authors' laboratories. Evidence that physiological and behavioural functions are particularly sensitive to the programming effects of environmental factors such as stress and nutrition during earlylife, and perhaps at later stages of life, is reviewed and extended. Definition of stimulus- and function-specific critical periods of programmability together with deeper understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation will deliver greater appreciation of the full potential of the brain's plasticity while providing evidence-based social, psychological and pharmacological interventions to promote lifetime well-being. PMID:23790203
Patchev, A V; Rodrigues, A J; Sousa, N; Spengler, D; Almeida, O F X
A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in earlylife seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues. PMID:22008232
A growing literature demonstrates life course influences on health in early old age. The present paper is the first to examine whether similar processes also influence quality of life in early old age. The question is theorised in terms of structured dependency and third age, and the life course pathways by which people arrive at these destinations in later life.
This matrix provides information on eight early childhood programs offered in Illinois. Presented in grid form, the information can be compared across programs. The programs described are: (1) Head Start and Early Head Start; (2) Illinois Department of Children and Family Services child care; (3) Illinois Department of Human Services child care;
Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.
In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between earlylife factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988
Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.
In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between earlylife factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988
Molecular biological markers, or biomarkers, are natural products that can be assigned to a particular biosynthetic origin. For environmental and geological studies, the most useful molecular biomarkers are organic compounds with high taxonomic specificity and potential for preservation. In other words, the most effective biomarkers have a limited number of well-defined sources; they are recalcitrant against geochemical changes and easily analyzable in environmental samples. Accordingly, biomarkers can be proxies in modern environments as well as chemical fossils that afford a geological record of an organism's activities. One of the first significant outcomes of biomarker research was Treibs' (1936) recognition of unquestionable biological signatures in sedimentary organic matter. Subsequent research ( Eglinton and Calvin, 1967; Eglinton et al., 1964) pursued the concept that biomarkers can provide information about the nature of earlylife in the absence of recognizable fossils and that petroleum is composed of biological remains ( Whitehead, 1973). As of early 2000s, thirty years of accumulated facts about sedimentary organic matter are clearly commensurate with the aforesaid and falsify the hypotheses (e.g., Gold, 2001) about the primordial origins of petroleum and natural gas.Largely as a result of efforts to understand the detail of the transformation of biogenic organic matter into petroleum (Hunt, 1996; Tissot and Welte, 1984) and individual chemical fossils, geochemists began to appreciate the value of biomarkers as tools for environmental research (e.g., Brassell et al., 1986) and their potential for elucidating biogeochemical processes (e.g., Hinrichs et al., 1999; Kuypers et al., 2003). The structural and isotopic information in biomarkers allows them to be distinguished from abiogenic organic compounds that are widely distributed throughout the cosmos (e.g., Cronin and Chang, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1997). Consequently, biomarkers will be an important tool in the search for extraterrestrial life. A thorough review of recent biomarker research is not possible within the limitations of this chapter. Instead, this chapter introduces some of the general principles, provides examples of their use for discerning the identities and physiologies of microbes in contemporary environments and summarizes biomarker research aimed at elucidating aspects of biological and environmental evolution in the Precambrian.
Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at term delivery than in adults, and lower still at preterm delivery. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ontogeny of plasma factors can be viewed in the context of a lower effectiveness of immune responses to infection and immunization in earlylife, which may be influenced by the striking neonatal deficiency of complement system proteins or enhanced neonatal production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, among other ontogenic differences. Accordingly, we survey here a number of soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function, particularly direct innate interaction and skewing of adaptive lymphocyte activity in response to infectious microorganisms and adjuvanted vaccines.
Pettengill, Matthew Aaron; van Haren, Simon Daniel; Levy, Ofer
Four different educational programs impacting Space Life Sciences are described: the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) Program, the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) Program, and the NASA Graduate Research Fellow Program. Each program makes somewhat different demands on the students engaged in them. Each program, at the University of Colorado, involves Space Life Sciences training. While the Graduate Student Research Fellow and NSCORT Programs are discipline oriented, the Advanced Design and CCDS Programs are focused on design, technologies and applications. Clearly, the ``training paradigms'' differ for these educational endeavors. But, these paradigms can be made to mutually facilitate enthusiasm and motivation. Discipline-oriented academic programs, ideally, must be flexible enough to accommodate the emergent cross-disciplinary needs of Space Life Sciences students. Models for such flexibility and resultant student performance levels are discussed based upon actual academic and professional records.
Despite many employers' opinions that incentive programs for early retirement are humane and desirable, such programs have several undesirable aspects for the retirees and the U.S. economy. The programs are actually termination programs because they function as a way employers can reduce their work force. (In fact, it was the 1973-75 and 1981-82
Reference material obtained from responses to questionnaires is presented on 25 early childhood programs for severely handicapped children. Each program report consists of components which include a program abstract; program summary; identification and screening procedures; diagnostic procedures; prescriptive procedures; child progress evaluation;
Coordinating Office for Regional Resource Centers, Lexington, KY.
This study investigates how program evaluation has contributed to the definition of quality in early childhood programs and what social and cultural conditions have influenced these definitions. First, a review of evaluation reports from the last 3 decades identified three types of quality used to evaluate early childhood programs: (a)
Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four earlylife stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two earlylife stage tests were star...
"Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the
Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.
A simple program to convert Hijri (Islamic) calendar to Julian\\/Gregorian Calendar has been made. This can used to analyze early history of Islam, to verify the date, the day, or the season any event during the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Some important events can be concluded as follows. The date of descending of the Quran either on 17 Ramadhan
In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in earlylife. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies. PMID:24902044
Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M
The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment
Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.
The Special Education Early Childhood Program of The George Washington University is a one year, full time, noncategorical, 36-hour masters program. The program strives to synthesize multidisciplinary theory and integrate this knowledge into conceptual patterns that guide educators. It seeks to tie theory to practice in the service of the
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.
Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela
For life to exist on a planet there must be water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. Life is probably present beneath the surface of Mars today in regions associated with water.
E. K. Gibson; D. S. McKay; K. L. Thomas-Keprta; S. J. Clemett; S. J. Wentworth
The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.
Recent studies of Precambrian fossils indicate that life on Earth originated earlier than assumed, microscopic life was prevalent in the Precambrian Eon, the tempo and mode of evolution during the Precambrian period were different from other periods, and that only the Precambrian fossil record can be used as evidence of earlylife. Implications for future research include directing the search for the origin of life away from the geological record, modification of hypotheses about molecular change, use of Precambrian microfossils in dating younger geological units, and progress in defining the nature of major events in early evolution.
Blackfeet Chapter of the Montana Association for the education of Young Children #12;Accomplishments & Media that support children, families and communities Â· NAPA: Nutrition & Physical Activity Program Â· Health Curriculum for Crow children Two "Go Green" curricula for EC program, parents & community School
Some modern microorganisms derive energy from the oxidation and reduction of arsenic. The association of arsenic with organic cellular remains in 2.7-billion-year-old stromatolites hints at arsenic-based metabolisms at the dawn of life.
Discussion of molecular barcoding methods for determining species. While in early phases results have been mixed, this page provides a positive example in insects. Other menu choices provide some of the basic principles, and a general statement of the purpose.
Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's
Mammary Gland Development: EarlyLife Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...
This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page
Variability in earlylife stages of species that are permanent residents of the estuarine nekton is poorly understood, especially\\u000a in systems with extensive areas of emergent vegetation (e.g., salt marshes and mangroves). Sampling small mobile nekton in\\u000a these shallow intertidal habitats presents a difficult methodological challenge. Simulated aquatic microhabitats (SAMs) were\\u000a used to collect the earlylife stages of resident
Background Heavy drinking in early adulthood among Blacks, but not Whites, has been found to be associated with more deleterious health outcomes, lower labor market success and lower educational attainment at mid-life. This study analysed psychosocial pathways underlying racial differences in the impact of early heavy alcohol use on occupational and educational attainment at mid-life. Methods Outcomes in labor market participation, occupational prestige and educational attainment were measured in early and mid-adulthood. A mixture model was used to identify psychosocial classes that explain how race-specific differences in the relationship between drinking in early adulthood and occupational outcomes in mid-life operate. Data came from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a longitudinal epidemiologic study. Results Especially for Blacks, heavy drinking in early adulthood was associated with a lower probability of being employed in mid-life. Among employed persons, there was a link between heavy drinking for both Whites and Blacks and decreased occupational attainment at mid-life. We grouped individuals into three distinct distress classes based on external stressors and indicators of internally generated stress. Blacks were more likely to belong to the higher distressed classes as were heavy drinkers in early adulthood. Stratifying the data by distress class, relationships between heavy drinking, race and heavy drinkingrace interactions were overall weaker than in the pooled analysis. Conclusions Disproportionate intensification of life stresses in Blacks renders them more vulnerable to long-term effects of heavy drinking. PMID:20713371
Sloan, F A; Costanzo, P R; Belsky, D; Holmberg, E; Malone, P S; Wang, Y; Kertesz, S
Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show
Kimberly A Capone; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N Stamatas; Janeta Nikolovski
Background: Early development of the percentage of fat and muscle is rarely considered, but is important because excessive fat is related to the development of diabetes and other morbidities later in life. In pediatric medicine, there are few to no data comparing sex differences in body composition in the first months of life despite the fact that males are typically
David A. Fields; Sowmya Krishnan; Amy B. Wisniewski
response to negative emotional faces in children with and without a history of depression. Method and other stress-related disorders. However, this pattern varied based on emotion type and history of psychopathology. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2014;53(7):800ï¿½813. Key Words: earlylife stress, early
Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Pillow lava rims from the Mesoarchean Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa contain micrometer-scale mineralized tubes that provide evidence of submarine microbial activity during the early history of Earth. The tubes formed during microbial etching of glass along fractures, as seen in pillow lavas from recent oceanic crust. The margins of the tubes contain organic carbon, and many of the
Harald Furnes; Neil R. Banerjee; Karlis Muehlenbachs; Hubert Staudigel; Maarten de Wit
and geological studies, the most useful molecular biomarkers are organic compounds with high taxonomic of recognizable fossils and that petroleum is composed of biological remains (Whitehead, 1973). As of early 2000s with the aforesaid and falsify the hypotheses (e.g., Gold, 2001) about the primordial origins of petroleum
Extensive research efforts in the subdisciplinary field of geobi - ology have focused on the interactions between Earth and life through time. As a consequence, gaps in our knowledge of Earth's history are closing, and the search for life beyond Earth is expanding. A few examples of geobiology studies designed to advance our understanding of life on early Earth and
Exobiology is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the origin and early evolution of life. For the birth of life to occur, the setting of its cosmic cradle has to be right. The first step is to make early seas and to buildup a benign greenhouse effect that prevents their freezing and/or boiling. Next, an efficient prebiotic chemistry has to operate in this water to synthesize the key macromolecules that could start dividing, thus giving the first sketch of life. This synthesis requires: energy; liquid water; salts like phosphate; organic molecules such as amino acids; mineral surfaces behaving like catalysts of their reaction; etc.
There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.
Pierrehumbert, Raymond (University of Chicago) [University of Chicago
The author examines some of the causes of today's socio-medical problems, suggesting family life education as one method of preventing these problems. The development of such a program in Victoria, B.C., is reported and details of physician participation, course content, and community, parent, and student responses are discussed in the light of experience in that city. Evaluation of such programs is difficult, but one of the more obvious gains was bridging the communication gap between generations, enabling students to discuss with ease hitherto taboo subjects with doctors parents or teachers. The Victoria family life education program was started seven years ago. PMID:20468819
Objectives This study examines the association between early-life socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 and physical activity (PA) at age 65, elucidates mechanisms explaining this association, and explores gender differences in mediating pathways. Methods Multi-group structural equation modeling is applied to the 19572004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Results Early-life SES is positively associated with exercise in later life. This association is mediated by socioeconomic resources, health problems, obesity, and depressive symptoms (women only) in 1993 and sports participation in 1957. All mediators explain over 95% of the effect of early-life SES. Discussion This study emphasizes the importance of complex multiple pathways linking early family SES to later-life PA. We identify chains of risks that need to be broken to improve PA among older adults. Our findings also suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining optimal physical functioning in old age should begin at least at midlife. PMID:23248349
The development of aerobic metabolism was one of the most important breakthroughs in evolution. But the early Earth was anaerobic, with most researchers today attributing the build-up of free O2 to oxygenic photosynthesizers. This reasoning is problematic because photosynthesis invariably produces oxygen radicals as by-products or intermediates. Known collectively as reactive oxygen species, ROS, these radicals damage DNA, damage membranes, and inactivate essential enzymes. In addition, molecular data on the evolution of cytochrome oxidase suggest that early organisms must have "learned" to detoxify ROS prior to the evolution of aerobic metabolism and oxygenic photosynthesis. A possible way out of this dilemma comes from a study of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, which indicates that a small but significant fraction of the oxygen anions in their minerals exists in the 1- state, forming peroxy links of the type O3Si-OO-SiO3 (J. Geodynamics 33, 543-570, 2002). Water hydrolyzes these peroxy links to hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. As a result, microorganisms that attach themselves to mineral grains will be exposed to a constant trickle of ROS from the production of H2O2. We propose the following scenario: Though the overall conditions on the early Earth were anaerobic, conditions at microsites were not. The hydrolysis of peroxy links in minerals to hydrogen peroxide at the rock-water interface was biochemically challenging for any microbes living in intimate contact with rock surfaces. The generation of ROS placed the microbes under evolutionary stress to develop biochemical defenses against the potentially lethal effects of ROS radicals. Only after these enzymatic defenses were in place, oxygenic photosynthesizers were able to develop and increase the O2 partial pressure in the Earth's atmosphere to a high level.
Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3?years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age.
Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett
Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.
Second Life is a large, on-line virtual world where avatars dance, fly, buy virtual clothing, play games, have meetings...and program. About 256k residents of Second Life write code that runs 24\\/7 in over 2M simulated objects in a continuous 3D landscape twice the size of Montréal. This giant, collaborative development environment is run on a large grid of over 12k
This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state
Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.
The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of earlylife conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why earlylife might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different internal and external cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from earlylife conditions. PMID:24807254
...under the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP), is exercising its authority under the ERRP regulations at 45 CFR 149.45...as of May 6, 2011. II. Provisions of This Notice CMS is exercising our authority under 45 CFR 149.45(a) to deny...
This evaluation report of Oregon's early intervention programs describes the Oregon Preschool Assessment System, presents demographic information, and summarizes results of analysis of data on children's progress. It concludes that the infants and children enrolled (2,740 in 1991) are making substantial gains in all areas assessed. These gains
It is supposed that longevity might be programmed by earlylife exposures. We had carried out demographic and experimental researches for the examination of the possibility of longevity programming. In demographic study, the recorded deaths in Kiev (Ukraine) between 1990 and 2000 (51,503 men and 50,131 women) were used. Age at death was strongly associated with month of birth. Subjects born in the middle of year (April-July) had the lowest longevity. Increasing longevity was observed with each successive birth-month in the second half of the year, with a peak longevity for births in December. To research of the mechanisms responsible for longevity programming, study of adult D. melanogaster DNA repair capacity after irradiation at the egg stage was carried out, using marker such as DNA strand breaks. Insects irradiated in low doses (0.50 and 0.75 Gy) had extended life span and increased stability to S1 nuclease treatment. The probable explanation of observed postponed effects might be the long-term modulation of certain (possibly repair) genes activity. We hypothesize that life-extending effects of different anti-aging treatments might be a consequence of their unspecific (hormetic) action, rather then specific (geroprotector) action on the some aging-related processes, and induction an "transcriptional reprogramming" may be a key mechanism of the longevity programming and artificial life extension. PMID:12941179
During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early-life experiences, such as stress exposure or suboptimal maternal care, can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as 'early-lifeprogramming' and is associated with an increased risk of disease. Typically, rodents exposed to prenatal stress or postnatal maternal deprivation display enhanced neuroendocrine responses to stress, increased levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours, and cognitive impairments. Some of the phenotypes observed in these models of early-life adversity are likely to share common neurobiological mechanisms. For example, there is evidence for impaired glucocorticoid negative-feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, altered glutamate neurotransmission and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in both prenatally stressed rats and rats that experienced deficient maternal care. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy may be transmitted to the offspring are reviewed, with special consideration given to altered maternal behaviour postpartum. We also discuss what is known about the neurobiological and epigenetic mechanisms that underpin early-lifeprogramming of the neonatal brain in the first generation and subsequent generations, with a view to abrogating programming effects and potentially identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders and cognitive impairment. PMID:25039443
Maccari, S; Krugers, H J; Morley-Fletcher, S; Szyf, M; Brunton, P J
More than one million transitions between early intervention services and early childhood programs are facilitated annually for youngsters with special needs. To be successful, these transitions require planning and ongoing communication between all parties. This article substantiates the need for a timeline/checklist and provides a model of
Brandes, Joyce A.; Ormsbee, Christine K.; Haring, Kathryn A.
The important role of equilibrium of environmental factors during the embryo-fetal period is undisputable. Women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to various environmental risk factors such as hypoxia, prenatal viral infections, use of drugs, smok- ing, complications of birth or stressful life events. These early hazards represent an important risk for structural and\\/or functional maldevelopment of the fetus and
Mojmír Mach; Michal Dubovický; Jana Navarová; Ingrid Brucknerová; Eduard Ujházy
The rapid increase in incidence of obesity over the past two decades cannot be explained solely by genetic and adult lifestyle factors. There is now considerable evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments also strongly influence the risk of developing obesity in later life. Initially, human studies showed that low birth weight was associated with an increased risk of
dynamics of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) in the Gulf of Alaska Deborah M. Blood Ann CSpawning,egg development, and earlylife history dynamics of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) in the Gulf of Alaska Deborah M.Blood Ann C.Matarese Morgan S.Busby NOAA Professional Paper NMFS
The impact of earlylife events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from earlylife that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genomeall these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses. PMID:22110940
Association between Life Satisfaction Ratings at about age 70 and cognitive, personality, interpersonal, and family characteristics in early adulthood are examined using data from the Guidance Study at the University of California, Berkeley. When the parents of participants in that study were in their early 30s, the mothers were rated on 15 cognitive and personality characteristics and both parents were rated on personal, interpersonal, and family variables. Approximately 40 years later, the surviving parents were interviewed intensively and assigned Life Satisfaction Ratings, For both sexes, certain traits of their own at 30 are correlated with life satisfaction at 70. The predictive characteristics for women reflect a buoyant, responsive attitude toward life; those for men represent emotional and physical health. For a woman, the material relationship and some of her circumstances at 30 were also predictive, but her husband's traits were for the most part unrelated to her satisfaction with life at 70. For men, in contrast, characteristics of their wives indicative of emotional stability were even more highly predictive of their life satisfaction at 70 than were their own traits at 30. PMID:7069155
One of the most interesting unsolved questions in science today is the question of life on other planets. At the present time it is safe to say that we do not have much of an idea as to whether life is common or exceedingly rare in the universe, and this will probably not be solved for certain unless definitive evidence of extraterrestrial life is found in the future. Our presence on Earth is just as consistent with the hypothesis that life is extremely rare as it is with the hypothesis that it is common, since if there was only one planet with intelligent life, we would find ourselves on it. However, we have more information than this, such as the the surprisingly short length of time it took for life to arise on Earth. Previous authors have analysed this information, concluding that it is evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is moderate ($>$ 13% with 95% probability) and cannot be extremely small. In this paper I use simple probabilistic model to show that this conclusion was based more on an unintentional assumption than on the data. While the early formation of life on Earth provides some evidence in the direction of life being common, it is far from conclusive, and in particular does not rule out the possibility that abiogenesis has only occurred once in the history of the universe.
Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust . The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of earlylife. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)
Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.
The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.
A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.
Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during earlylife play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in earlylife can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:25327140
Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.
We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our planet and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites. This is followed by a discussion on the environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean Earth, as well as on the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. We then consider the processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells, and how these processes may have affected the early steps of biological evolution. Finally, the significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the Universe is discussed. PMID:11538678
Using a life course framework, we examine the earlylife origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (19661990), we evaluate major social pathways by which earlylife conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that earlylife socioeconomic conditions, particularly parental occupation and family structure,
Using a life course framework, we examine the earlylife origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which earlylife conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that earlylife
The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of earlylife. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.
Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.
Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and EarlyLife Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.
In this study, life satisfaction and its correlates were explored through analysis of the experiences and psychological traits of highly gifted students who were accelerated into an early college-entrance program. Happiness, fulfillment in life, assuredness, and good dispositions are constructs that point toward positive character development and
Biomedical science has little considered the relevance of life history theory and evolutionary and ecological developmental biology to clinical medicine. However, the observa- tions that earlylife influences can alter later disease riskthe ''developmental origins of health and disease'' (DOHaD) paradigmhave led to a recognition that these perspectives can inform our understanding of human biology. We propose that the DOHaD
Career and life planning is viewed as a process that starts early in the elementary school through adult life and it should be at the heart of any guidance program. This journal discusses the value and process ideas at each of the school and grade levels. The authors also discuss how parents, employers, and teachers enhance the career planning process
Personality and social development begins before birth in the communication among mother, child and environment, during sensitive\\u000a periods when the childs brain and body are plastic and epigenetically co-constructed. Triune ethics theory postulates three\\u000a evolved, neurobiologically-based ethics fostered by earlylife experience. The security ethic is self-protective. The engagement\\u000a ethic is relationally attuned. The imagination ethic can abstract from the
Plastic stem-elongation responses to the ratio of red:far-red (R:FR) wavelengths enable plants to match their phenotype to local competitive conditions. However, elongation responses early in the life history may occur at the cost of reduced plasticity later in the life history, because elongation influences both allocation patterns and structural integrity. A common-garden experiment was performed to test whether seedling responses to R:FR affect biomass allocation. biomass accumulation, and subsequent plasticity to the cue. Seedlings of Abutilon theophrasti were stimulated to elongate by low R:FR treatments, and subsequent growth and plasticity was compared with nonelongated individuals. Elongated seedlings were less responsive than nonelongated ones to a second bout of low R:FR. Thus, seedling plasticity to R:FR reduces subsequent responsiveness to this cue. This negative association across life-history stages suggests an important constraint on the evolution of plastic stem responses, because selection in A. theophrasti has previously been shown to favor increases in early elongation in combination with increased later elongation. The reduced responsiveness of elongated seedlings to R:FR appeared to result from a structural feedback mechanism, indicating that the opportunity cost of early responses may be lower in environments providing structural support. PMID:11430653
How early-life events "set the stage" for adult disease has emerged as a research focus. Historically, the epidemiology of disease risk factors has centered on adult life, with little scrutiny of early-life events. Here we review the concept that events in earlylife may contribute to late-life neurodegenerative disease development, with a focus on Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Suspect events in earlylife include infections, stress, poor nutrition, and environmental factors such as chemical and pesticide exposure. Adiposity appears to contribute to both PD and AD; and because early-life events contribute to the development of obesity, linkages may exist between early determinants of obesity and the subsequent development of these neurologic diseases. Many now suggest a life-course approach for determining the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in any chronic disease. This requires determining when during the life course that a given exposure has its greatest effect and how exposures may accumulate over the life span. The data for PD and AD suggest that a number of insults occurring early in life may lead or contribute to these diseases. More definitive knowledge of the key risk factors involved will be needed to implement intervention and preventative strategies early in life to dampen or prevent any adverse late-life outcomes. PMID:18803966
The importance of self-control to a wide range of developmental outcomes prompted the current investigation of negative life events and self-control in early adolescence. In three prospective, longitudinal studies, negative life events reported by the mother (in Study 1) or child (in Studies 2 and 3) predicted rank-order decreases in self-control over time. In all studies, self-control was measured at two different time points using questionnaires completed by three separate raters, including a classroom teacher who knew the child well and two other raters (parents, caregivers, and/or the child himself/herself). Psychological distress measured in Studies 2 and 3 mediated the deleterious effects of negative life events on self-control. These findings extend prior experimental laboratory research documenting the acute effects of stress on self-control. PMID:23443890
A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of the nutritional or other environmental stimuli during critical periods of development in the long-term programming of organ systems and homeostatic pathways of the organism. The adverse influences early in development and particularly during intrauterine life have been shown to programme the risks for adverse health outcomes in adult life. The mechanisms underlying developmental programming remain still unclear. However, increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs in the developmental programming of late-onset pathologies, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2 diabetes. The maternal substance abuse during pregnancy, including smoking, drinking and psychoactive drug intake, is one of the important factors determining the process of developmental programming in modern human beings. The impact of prenatal drug/substance exposure on infant and early childhood development is currently in the main focus. The long-term programming effects of such exposures on aging and associated pathologies, however, have been reported only rarely. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that maternal substance abuse during pregnancy and/or neonatal period can programme not only a child's health status, but also can cause long-term or even life-long health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory. PMID:24992999
Hospital Elder LifeProgram Important Support for Senior Patients and Family Members. #12;Hospital Elder LifeProgram (HELP) The Hospital Elder LifeProgram at Highland Hospital provides specialized care hospital staff and HELP volunteers will be happy to provide additional information and assistance. #12
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of earlylife adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects.
Elizabeth D George; Kelly A Bordner; Hani M Elwafi; Arthur A Simen
Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether earlylife exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 ?g/m(3) from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 ?l FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 ?l PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 ?l/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 ?l/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (-9,203 ± 235 ?l/s FA, -7,045 ± 189 ?l/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (?, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to ?-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of earlylife exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular diseases and the potential for PM2.5 to induce persistent cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. PMID:25172901
Gorr, Matthew W; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D; Youtz, Dane J; Sun, Qinghua; Wold, Loren E
The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of
Irrefutable evidence on how life originated does not exist. Hypotheses regarding its origin, however, are plentiful. Those that have prevailed for most of this century require an atmosphere dominated by ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4), organic synthesis driven by energy sources that are external to the hydrosphere/lithosphere, and a first organism that makes its living by consuming the resulting supply of organic compounds. Diverse lines of evidence have been amassed over the last several decades that refute these particular origin of life hypotheses. For example, geologic evidence, atmospheric photochemistry, and current constraints on the formation of terrestrial planets indicate that a plausible early atmosphere was not dominated by NH3 and CH4, but rather by nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, the location, duration, and quantity of external energy sources are not particularly predictable or reliable, and are not generally effective in driving the reduction reactions required to make organic compounds from N2 and CO2. Finally, revolutions in molecular biology have led to the observation that organisms that synthesize biomass from inorganic starting materials like CO2 populate the deepest and shortest branches on the universal phylogenetic tree of life on Earth. These fundamental developments have permitted new and more geologically consistent ideas about the emergence of life. We argue that plausible hypotheses of the emergence of life on Earth call for a network of energetically favorable gradual synthesis processes in response to normal geologic forces. Inescapable chemical disequilibrium states, established and at least partially maintained in the hydrosphere at or near the dynamic surface of early Earth, can provide the energy for organic and biomolecule synthesis from inorganic source materials. Geologic conditions conducive to the formation of aqueous organic compounds, including precursors to complex biopolymers such as nucleic acids and proteins that are present in all organisms, are probably similar to those at which autotrophic organisms emerged. Hydrothermal systems are perhaps the best example of a normal geologic environment that maintains these minimum necessary conditions for life. These systems are an inevitable consequence of volcanic or impact activity in the presence of liquid water, and were likely more abundant and dynamic on early Earth than today. In further support, modern molecular phylogenies place chemosynthetic thermophilic autotrophs, organisms isolated from and probably ubiquitous in hydrothermal systems, nearest the last common ancestor in the tree of life.
Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in earlylife, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in earlylife, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in earlylife. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in earlylife for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949
Perez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida
in children's exposure to a negative shock at different periods early in life. I Capital Formation among Children Guest Lecture by Maria Rosales Rueda Harris investigate the persistent effect of negative shocks early in life on children
We introduce the concept of metaconsensus and employ it to make high confidence predictions of early enzyme functions and the metabolic properties that they may have produced. Several independent studies have used comparative bioinformatics methods to identify taxonomically broad features of genomic sequence data, protein structure data, and metabolic pathway data in order to predict physiological features that were present in early, ancestral life forms. But all such methods carry with them some level of technical bias. Here, we cross-reference the results of these previous studies to determine enzyme functions predicted to be ancient by multiple methods. We survey modern metabolic pathways to identify those that maintain the highest frequency of metaconsensus enzymes. Using the full set of modern reactions catalyzed by these metaconsensus enzyme functions, we reconstruct a representative metabolic network that may reflect the core metabolism of earlylife forms. Our results show that ten enzyme functions, four hydrolases, three transferases, one oxidoreductase, one lyase, and one ligase, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks within central metabolic processes related to sugar and starch metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis, have high frequencies of these enzyme functions. We demonstrate that a large metabolic network can be generated from this small number of enzyme functions. PMID:22970111
Goldman, Aaron David; Baross, John A.; Samudrala, Ram
Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.
Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 × 10^9 yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.
Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.
In response to the need to develop evidence-based best practices interventions and services for individuals in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the authors conducted an interdisciplinary literature review of exemplar programs, defined as those including multimodal or unimodal interventions; shown to be appropriate for individuals in the early stages of AD; demonstrating promise to support, maintain, and improve independent functioning; and shown to have positive effects for a variety of outcomes, including quality of life. This article examines evidence from five kinds of programs: (a) multimodal interventions, (b) programs developed by the Southwest Florida Interdisciplinary Center for Positive Aging, (c) sleep enhancement interventions, (d) managed care programs, and (e) technology-based interventions. Evidence from the review suggests that a number of programs can support functioning and improve quality of life for adults living with the early stages of memory loss. The article concludes with recommendations to advance a national research agenda in this area. PMID:20078003
The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.
Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Earlylife stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken. PMID:20668311
The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.
The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in earlylife where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system, and certain exposures may have detrimental effects in the earliest life, but no or even beneficial effects later. The human microbiome and infections are candidates as intermediary in the interaction between the host and the environment. The evidence seems inconsistent as infections as well as particular colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in earlylife may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we are currently able to discriminate, and in particular, the indiscriminate lumping together of different diseases into one atopic disease category. Also, the microbiome needs a differentiated understanding, considering balance between microbial groups, diversity and microbial genetic capability. Furthermore, the effects of the microbial exposure may only affect individuals with certain susceptibility genes. Few of the observations have been replicated, and publication bias is likely. Therefore, we are still far from understanding, or having proved, causal effects of the human microbiome. Still, the microbiome-gene interaction is a fascinating paradigm that fosters exiting research and promises a breakthrough in the understanding of the mechanisms driving asthma, allergy and eczema, and potentially also other immune-mediated non-communicable diseases. PMID:24533884
Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of earlylife on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.
Cancer risk assessment methods currently assume that children and adults are equally susceptible to exposure to chemicals. We reviewed available scientific literature to determine whether this was scientifically supported. We identified more than 50 chemicals causing cancer after perinatal exposure. Human data are extremely limited, with radiation exposures showing increased early susceptibility at some tumor sites. Twenty-seven rodent studies for 18 chemicals had sufficient data after postnatal and adult exposures to quantitatively estimate potential increased susceptibility from early-life exposure, calculated as the ratio of juvenile to adult cancer potencies for three study types: acute dosing, repeated dosing, and lifetime dosing. Twelve of the chemicals act through a mutagenic mode of action. For these, the geometric mean ratio was 11 for lifetime exposures and 8.7 for repeat exposures, with a ratio of 10 for these studies combined. The geometric mean ratio for acute studies is 1.5, which was influenced by tissue-specific results [geometric mean ratios for kidney, leukemia, liver, lymph, mammary, nerve, reticular tissue, thymic lymphoma, and uterus/vagina > 1 (range, 1.68.1); forestomach, harderian gland, ovaries, and thyroid < 1 (range, 0.0330.45)]. Chemicals causing cancer through other modes of action indicate some increased susceptibility from postnatal exposure (geometric mean ratio is 3.4 for lifetime exposure, 2.2 for repeat exposure). Early exposures to compounds with endocrine activity sometimes produce different tumors after exposures at different ages. These analyses suggest increased susceptibility to cancer from early-life exposure, particularly for chemicals acting through a mutagenic mode of action. PMID:16140616
Barton, Hugh A.; Cogliano, V. James; Flowers, Lynn; Valcovic, Larry; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Woodruff, Tracey J.
This report evaluates the Early Alert program at Cuesta College (California). The report is divided into four main sections: services accessed, accessibility, actions taken as a result of receiving an Early Alert letter, and timing and utility of the Early Alert program. These are followed by the demography of the respondents, a brief background
This guide presents information elementary school administrators need to develop and maintain good early childhood education programs for 4- and 5-year-olds. It also presents the curriculum principles that are relevant to both early childhood programs and the elementary grades. The guide will help principals and administrators recognize good early
Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs. Part of the reason for this is that foundations an...
L. A. Karoly, M. R. Kilburn, J. H. Bigelow, J. P. Caulkins, J. S. Cannon
Earlylife experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with earlylife experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin ?, ?, and ? gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to earlylife experience. PMID:23045659
Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C T; Hallett, Michael T; Meaney, Michael J; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe
Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders\\u000a later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the\\u000a main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to
Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of earlylife stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish earlylife stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.
Much research shows earlylife manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between earlylife experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent. PMID:22819985
Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.
The long-term sequelae of adverse early-life experiences have long been a focus in psychiatry, with a historic neurobiological emphasis on physiological systems that are demonstrably stress-responsive, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroimmune function. However, there has been increasing recognition in the general medical literature that such sequelae might encompass more pervasive alterations in health status and physiology. Recent findings in telomere biology have suggested a new avenue for exploring the adverse health effects of childhood maltreatment. Telomere length in proliferative tissues declines with cell replication, and the effect can be accelerated by such factors as inflammation, oxidative stress, radiation, and toxins. Reduced telomere length, as a proxy for cellular aging, has been associated with numerous chronic somatic diseases that are generally considered to be diseases of aging, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. More recently, shorter telomeres have been demonstrated in several psychiatric conditions, particularly depression. Sustained psychosocial stress of a variety of types in adulthood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres. Now, emerging work suggests a robust, and perhaps dose-dependent, relationship with early-life stress. These findings present new opportunities to re-conceptualize the complex relationships between experience, physical and psychiatric disease, and aging. PMID:22831981
Price, Lawrence H.; Kao, Hung-Teh; Burgers, Darcy E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.
United States interest in the potential early childhood programs have for improving outcomes for children is shared by policymakers and researchers in many other nations. Throughout the world, enrollments in preschool and child care programs are rising. This article reviews international research documenting how participation in early childhood programs influenced children's later development and success in school. Studies conducted in
...Head Start, early education, and child care programs. 303.210 Section 303...Head Start, early education, and child care programs. (a) Each application...as amended), early education and child care programs, and services under this...
BACKGROUND: In contrast to cellular receptors, soluble receptors do not enhance the cellular activation because they do not have transmembranic and cytoplasmic parts, acting thereby as endogenous regulatory mechanisms against systemic functions of cytokines. AIM: To measure serum concentrations of the soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R), soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL4R), soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL6R), and soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor I and soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II, during the perinatal and early neonatal period, in order to evaluate their role in activation of immune response in labor and the first days postpartum. METHODS: Soluble receptor serum concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in 45 healthy, full-termed neonates during the first and fifth days after birth, in 25 of their mothers (MS), in 25 samples of umbilical cords (UC) and in 25 healthy adult donors age-matched with the mothers (controls). RESULTS: Soluble receptor serum concentrations showed considerable changes during labor and early neonatal life, being significantly higher both in MS (except sIL6R) and in neonatal sample UC, first and fifth days after birth, compared with controls (p<0.0001). Neonatal serum sIL2R and sIL6R increased significantly from birth to the fifth day, while the remaining receptors showed a rapid increase in the first day (p<0.0001), declining significantly thereafter (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the elevated concentrations of all studied soluble cytokine receptors reflect the activation of immune response, and represent also regulatory protective mechanisms for mother and fetus-neonate against the systemic function of cytokines during labor and early neonatal life. PMID:12857603
Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis
Fire and Life Safety Program Environmental Health and Safety Services Fire Safety Division 806 Walter James Â CFPS, CFI September 24, 2008 1.2 Updated written program #12;FIRE & LIFE SAFETY PROGRAM........................................................................................... 2 2 2 2 2 Emergency Planning and Preparedness.................. Responding to a Fire Emergency
A survey of all Early Head Start programs funded from 1995-1998 was conducted during the winter of 1999-2000 to determine involvement of fathers in the programs and program outreach to involve fathers. Program representatives from 261 programs completed the survey on the World Wide Web or by mail, for a 62.5 percent response rate. Findings
Recent studies in Sweden and Scotland have found earlylife conditions to be associated with increased risk of attempted and\\u000a completed suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. It is not known, however, whether earlylife conditions affect suicide\\u000a risk throughout the life course, from adulthood into old age. We examined the effects of earlylife conditions, including\\u000a markers of fetal
Phoebe Day Danziger; Richard Silverwood; Ilona Koupil
Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that earlylife experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in motherinfant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological earlylife experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in earlylife that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804
Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that stout body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891
A professional outlet in most childrens hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective\\u000a in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child lifeprograms in the United States.\\u000a Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child lifeprograms on the website of the Child Life Council. A response
The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of earlylife. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors
The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how earlylife experiences and racial and ethnic identities
Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework, approach, and methods for identifying and evaluating environmental burdens associated with the life cycles of materials and services, from cradle-to-grave. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Sustainab...
In Earth's Hadean and Archean eras, the Sun was 20-40 % fainter than it is today, but there is no evidence for widespread long-term glaciation. An enhanced greenhouse effect via increased CO2 levels is perhaps the simplest solution to the problem, but observational and theoretical studies both suggest only moderately elevated atmospheric CO2 at this time. Other phenomena such as CO2 / H2O line broadening via increased atmospheric N2 and a lower planetary albedo have been proposed, but are probably insufficient to explain the necessary warming alone. Recently, we have suggested that increased hydrogen and nitrogen levels on the early Earth may have played a role in warming through H2-N2 collision-induced absorption (CIA). This process is well-known on Titan, where it dominates infra-red absorption across large regions of the spectrum. Broadening of the absorption bands at higher temperatures means that H2-N2 CIA can block the critical 800-1200 cm-1 water vapour 'window', allowing mean surface temperatures up to 280 K with only ~20-80 × PAL CO2 under a solar flux 75 % of that today. Here we present our modeling results and discuss their potential relevance to climate in the Archean and Hadean. We consider the evidence for and against high H2 levels on the early Earth and the main challenges in constraining outgassing and rates of hydrogen escape to space. We discuss the effects an H2-rich atmosphere might have had on the early development of life, including its possible demise at the hands of the methanogens. Finally, we speculate on the possible importance of the H2-N2 warming mechanism for Earth-like rocky planets around other stars.
Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention. PMID:9561351
Research examining factors associated with program attrition or failure to lose weight during active treatment has yielded mixed findings. The goal of the current investigation was to confirm and extend prior research on the predictors and correlates of attrition and failure to lose weight during treatment. This investigation examined whether baseline characteristics, early weight loss, attendance, weight-related quality of life,
Robert A Carels; Holly M Cacciapaglia; Olivia M Douglass; Sofia Rydin; William H O'Brien
Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,
Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.
The issue of the preparation of effective teachers becomes more critical for teachers of early childhood programs. It has been hypothesized that better program quality depends on better-educated teachers. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the importance of a high level of education for all early childhood education teachers. This
Discusses how early childhood programs can blend developmentally appropriate practices with early childhood special education recommended practices. The elements of an inclusive program and the guidelines to developmentally appropriate practice are explained, and strategies for implementing both practices within the same setting are described. (CR)
UMBC Department of Education Early Childhood Education Personnel Preparation Program Procedures into the program, all applicants must be interviewed by an Early Childhood faculty member (or designee) who if you bring an unofficial copy of your transcript(s) and any other pertinent materials. 3) PRAXIS I TEST
Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on
Background\\/Aims: Neonatal stress induces permanent physiological changes that may influence the immune system. Early-life stress increases asthma disease severity in children. We investigated the effects of early-life stress on allergic airway inflammation using a murine model of asthma coupled to maternal separation as an early-life stress stimulus. Methods: Maternally separated (MS) and unseparated control (CON) mice were sensitized with ovalbumin
Rattanjeet Vig; John R. Gordon; Bernard Thébaud; A. Dean Befus; Harissios Vliagoftis
This study compared the life satisfaction of early retirement military officers with several comparison groups on the basis of Retirement Descriptive Index (RDI) scale scores. The RDI is a self-report instrument that assesses life satisfaction...
Differences in nutritional experiences during sensitive periods in earlylife, both before and after birth, can program a person's future development, metabolism, and health. A better scientific understanding of early nutrition programming holds enormous potential for implementing preventive strategies to enhance individuals' long-term health, well-being, and performance. This understanding could reduce costs of health care and social services and may enhance the wealth of societies. The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) brought together a multidisciplinary team of international scientists and leaders in key areas of the early nutrition programming field from 40 major research centers across 16 European countries. The project had a total budget of 16.5 million Euros and was funded by the European Communities under the Sixth Framework Program for Research and Technical Development and coordinated by the Children's Hospital at Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The integrated program of work combined experimental studies in humans, prospective observational studies, and mechanistic animal work, including physiologic studies, cell culture models, and molecular biology techniques. The project lasted from April 2005 to October 2010. After the end of the project, the Early Nutrition Academy (http://www.early-nutrition.org) continues to serve as a platform for the exchange of information, scientific collaboration, and training activities in the area of programming. This article highlights some of the scientific results, achievements, and efforts of EARNEST. PMID:21974891
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans
As part of a multi-faceted effort, the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation project examined the nature and extent of implementation in key program areas and the quality of crucial child development services in 17 research programs funded early in the initiative. Implementation data were collected through three rounds of site visits,
Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Paulsell, Diane; Love, John M.; Raikes, Helen
Identifying the growing interest in early childhood programs and services, this paper offers practical guidelines for collecting accurate and useful information about early childhood services in a particular country or region, focusing on data collection and system monitoring. The paper discusses how programs develop out of policy decisions and
The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.
-life conditions, no study on humans has demonstrated the predicted fitness benefit under low later-life nutrition of metabolic diseases. developmental plasticity | silver spoon | human life-history | DoHAD Nutrition duringInfluence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine
The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in earlylife, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of earlylife factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Earlylife stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning earlylife stress and limbic epilepsy: earlylife stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of earlylife stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative or complementary perspective is that of shared causation. Earlylife stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking earlylife stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining earlylife stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research. PMID:19838325
Koe, Amelia S.; Jones, Nigel C.; Salzberg, Michael R.
Suggestions for teaching selected life skills to adult and juvenile offenders are presented in this document. The general purpose of life skills programming is to help persons live more successfully and to function better in their multiple roles as members of a family, community, and workforce. Life skills training is treated as an educational
A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518
Background Abuse in childhood and adolescence may affect risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Although mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear, chronic stress may lead to dysregulation of immune function and chronic inflammation. Purpose To evaluate associations between early-life physical and sexual abuse and blood levels of inflammatory markers in adulthood among 702 members of the Nurses Health Study II. Methods Abuse in childhood (before age 11 years) and adolescence (ages 1117 years) was self-reported in 2001. Plasma samples collected in 19961999 were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP); interleukin (IL)-6; and the soluble fraction of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 in 2001, 2009 and 2010. Results Mean age at blood collection was 43.9 years. Moderate or severe physical abuse was reported by 35.3% of participants; 22.7% reported unwanted sexual touching and 9.8% reported forced sex. Plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 were higher in women reporting sexual abuse in adolescence compared to those reporting no abuse (p=0.04 and 0.03, respectively) in analyses adjusted for confounders including age and childhood adiposity. Inflammatory marker levels were similarly elevated in women reporting sexual abuse during childhood, but results were not significant. Relationships largely persisted after further adjustment for potential mediators such as adult BMI and smoking. Physical abuse during childhood and/or adolescence was not consistently associated with inflammatory marker levels. Conclusions Chronic inflammation may be one mechanism through which sexual abuse may affect future risk of physical and psychological disorders. PMID:23159256
Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 6575 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. PMID:21904606
Perala, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviska, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.
Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2 0 Gyr to 3 8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B 280 nm - 315 nm and the UV-C 200 nm - 280 nm ranges Since short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B and UV-C range penetrated through the atmosphere to the unprotected early Earth s surface associated biological consequences may be expected We discuss experimental data obtained as follows Radiation sources applied were low pressure Mercury lamp and Xenon 2 kW lamp the wavelength were adjusted by interference filters 200BP10 210BP10 220BP10 230BP10 240BP10 250BP10 260BP10 270BP10 280BP10 290BP10 300BP10 310BP10 320BP10 and the irradiances were measured by OL754 spectroradiometer The photo-reverse effect depends highly on the wavelength of the exposed radiation Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerization while the longer wavelengths prefer the dimerisation In case of polychromatic light like in space or on a planetary surface which is unprotected by an ozone layer the two processes run parallel We could demonstrate experimentally for the case of a uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both dimerization and the reverse process monomerization These results are important for the study of solar UV effects on organisms in the early terrestrial environment as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological
Discusses how to initiate a preventive maintenance (PM) program: (1) make inventory of equipment that needs a PM program; (2) gather data about each piece of equipment; and (3) set maintenance goals. (Author/PG)
The solar UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within their atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is the driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. Studies of the solar UV environment of the early Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B and the UV-C ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B ind UV-C range penetrated through the unprotected atmosphere to the surface on early Earth, associated biological consequences may be expected. For DNA-based terrestrial solar UV dosimetry, bacteriophage T7, isolated phage-DNA ind polycrystalline Uracil samples have been used. The effect of solar UV radiation can be measured by detecting the biological-structural consequences of the damage induced by UV photons. We show model calculations for the Biological Effective Dose (BED) rate of Uracil and bacteriophage T7, for various ozone concentrations representing early atmospheric conditions on Earth up to a UV protecting ozone layer comparable to present times. Further, we discuss experimental data which show the photo-reverse effect of Uracil molecules caused by short UV wavelengths. These photoreversion effect highly depend on the wavelength of the radiation. Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerisation, while the longer wavelengths prefer the production of dimerisation. We could demonstrate experimentally, for the case of an Uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both, dimerization and the reverse process: monomerization. These results are important for the study of solar UV exposure on organisms in the terrestrial environment more than 2 Gyr ago where Earth had no UV protecting ozone layer as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological harmful effects can also be reduced by shorter wavelength UV radiation, which is of importance in reducing DNA damages provoked by wavelengths longer than about 240 nm.
Objectives We examine (1) how breast cancer onset and survival are affected by various dimensions of early-life socioeconomic status (SES), and (2) the extent to which women's characteristics in adulthood mediate the associations between early-life conditions and breast cancer. Methods We apply Cox regression models and a decomposition analysis to the data from the 4,275 women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Results Higher levels of mothers education and early-life family income were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer incidence. The effect of mothers education was mediated by women's adult SES and reproductive behaviors. Fathers education was related negatively to breast cancer mortality, yet this effect was fully mediated by women's own education. Discussion This study identifies mechanisms linking early-life social environment to breast cancer onset and mortality. The findings emphasize the role of social factors in breast cancer incidence and survival. PMID:21956096
Few studies have investigated the relation between earlylife factors and risk of Parkinsons disease (PD), although a potential role of exposures during pregnancy and childhood has been hypothesized. The study population comprised participants in two prospective cohorts: the Nurses Health Study (121,701 female nurses followed from 19762002) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (51,529 male health professionals followed from 19862002). PD risk was examined in relation to season of birth, birthweight, parental age at birth, preterm birth, multiple birth, ever having been breast-fed, and handedness. We identified 659 incident PD cases. No significant relation with PD was observed for birthweight, paternal age, preterm birth, multiple birth, and having been breast-fed. A modest non-significant association was suggested for season of birth (30 percent higher risk of PD associated with spring vs. winter birth), and for older maternal age at birth (75 percent increased risk among those with mothers age 30 and over vs. less than 20). Left-handedness was associated with a 62 percent increased risk of PD in women, but not in men. Further investigation of the relation between prenatal, perinatal, or neonatal factors and PD in other study populations is suggested. PMID:20740569
Gardener, Hannah; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto
Although there is wide variation, humans possess on average 900,000 nephrons per kidney. So far as is known, nephrons cannot regenerate; therefore, an individual's nephron endowment has profound implications in determining his or her long-term risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Most of the variability in human nephron number is determined early in life. Nephrogenesis is a complex and carefully orchestrated process that occurs during a narrow time window until 36 weeks gestation in humans, and disruption of any part of this sequence may lead to reduced nephron number. In utero, genetic abnormalities, toxic insults, and nutritional deficiencies can each alter final nephron number. Infants born prematurely must continue nephrogenesis in an ex utero environment where there may be multiple threats to successful nephrogenesis. Once the nephron endowment is determined, postnatal factors (such as acute kidney injury or chronic illnesses) can only decrease nephron number. Current techniques for estimating nephron number require an invasive procedure or complete destruction of the tissue, making noninvasive means for counting nephron surgently needed. A better understanding of nephron number and its determinants, particularly during growth and maturation, could allow the development of therapies to support, prolong, or resume nephrogenesis. PMID:24488483
Charlton, Jennifer R; Springsteen, Caleb H; Carmody, J Bryan
Provides guidelines for selecting furniture for early childhood settings. Discusses the role of taste, curriculum and space, quality and safety, and budget in making purchasing decisions. Delineates appropriate seat height and table height for children of different ages. (KB)
Background Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in the pathophysiology of alcohol and drug dependence and have been related to earlylife stress driving developmental programming of neuroendocrine systems. Methods We conducted a follow-up study that aimed to assess the plasma levels of glial cell linederived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5) in crack users during 3 weeks of early abstinence in comparison with healthy controls. We performed a comprehensive clinical assessment in female inpatients with crack cocaine dependence (separated into 2 groups: participants with (CSA+) and without (CSA?) a history of childhood sexual abuse) and a group of nonuser control participants. Results Our sample included 104 women with crack cocaine dependence and 22 controls; of the women who used crack cocaine, 22 had a history of childhood sexual abuse and 82 did not. The GDNF plasma levels in the CSA+ group increased dramatically during 3 weeks of detoxification. In contrast, those in the CSA? group showed lower and stable levels of GDNF under the same conditions. Compared with the control group, BDNF plasma levels remained elevated and NGF levels were reduced during early abstinence. We found no differences in NT3 and NT4/5 between the patients and controls. However, within-group analyses showed that the CSA+ group exhibited higher levels of NT4/5 than the CSA? group at the end of detoxification. Limitations Some of the participants were using neuroleptics, mood stabilizers or antidepressants; our sample included only women; memory bias could not be controlled; and we did not investigate the possible confounding effects of other forms of stress during childhood. Conclusion This study supports the association between earlylife stress and peripheral neurotrophic factor levels in crack cocaine users. During early abstinence, plasmastic GDNF and NT4/5 were the only factors to show changes associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24331739
Viola, Thiago Wendt; Tractenberg, Saulo Gantes; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Pezzi, Julio Carlos; Bauer, Moises Evandro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individuals predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101
Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.
Written for administrators of early childhood program centers, this book offers tips on how to increase enrollment. The book offers suggestions rather than a theoretical overview or a comprehensive marketing strategy. Suggestions offered include: (1) Offer a quality program; (2) be aware of your target market; (3) make your program unique; (4)
Background: Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are hormonally responsive tumors, but little is known about risk factors. Early-life exposures may influence uterine development and subsequent response to hormones in adulthood. An earlier analysis of non-Hispanic white women who participated in the Sister Study found associations between several early-life factors and early-onset fibroids. Objectives: We evaluated associations of early-life and childhood exposures with early-onset fibroids among black women and compared the results with those found among white women. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 3,534 black women, 3559 years of age, in the Sister Study (a nationwide cohort of women who had a sister diagnosed with breast cancer) who self-reported information on early-life and childhood exposures. Early-onset fibroids were assessed based on self-report of a physician diagnosis of fibroids by the age of 30 years (n = 561). We estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression models. Results: Factors most strongly associated with early-onset fibroids were in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES; RR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.18), maternal prepregnancy diabetes or gestational diabetes (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.95, 2.49), and monozygotic multiple birth (RR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.99). We also found positive associations with having been taller or thinner than peers at the age of 10 years and with early-life factors that included being the firstborn child of a teenage mother, maternal hypertensive disorder, preterm birth, and having been fed soy formula. Conclusions: With the exception of monozygotic multiple birth and maternal hypertensive disorder, early-life risk factors for early-onset fibroids for black women were similar to those found for white women. However, in contrast to whites, childhood height and weight, but not low socioeconomic status indicators, were associated with early-onset fibroids in blacks. The general consistency of early-life findings for black and white women supports a possible role of early-life factors in fibroid development. PMID:22049383
The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.
, University of Connecticut, United States of America Received May 2, 2013; Accepted August 19, 2013; PublishedFactors Regulating EarlyLife History Dispersal of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Coastal PVR, Gregory RS (2013) Factors Regulating EarlyLife History Dispersal of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua
Acute and earlylife stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Earlylife stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...
Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.
at d21. Adipose tissue TG synthesis rates and proliferation rate of total adipose cells, as assessedRESEARCH Open Access A low a-linolenic intake during earlylife increases adiposity in the adult acids (FA) during earlylife may impact adult adipose tissue (AT) development. We investigated
Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently "re-programed" via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-lifeprograming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting "re-wiring" of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959
Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently re-programed via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-lifeprograming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting re-wiring of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959
Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently\\u000a over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes.\\u000a We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to determine whether different\\u000a trajectories of aggressive and disruptive behavior problems
Catherine P. Bradshaw; Cindy M. Schaeffer; Hanno Petras; Nicholas Ialongo
Objective Describe the epidemiologic literature related to early-life feeding practices and early childhood caries (ECC) with regard to publication attributes and trends in these attributes over time. Methods Systematic literature review including electronic and manual searches (in BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and WHOLIS), covering the years 19902013. Attributes of publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria were abstracted and organized by global region and trends over time. Attributes included country of origin and study design of included publications and age and caries prevalence of the populations studied. Results 244 publications drawn from 196 independent study populations were included. The number of publications and the countries represented increased over time, although some world regions remained underrepresented. Most publications were cross sectional (75%); while this percentage remained fairly constant over time, the percentage of studies to account for confounding factors increased. Publications varied with respect to the caries experience and age range of children included in each study. Conclusions Publication productivity regarding feeding practices and ECC research has grown, but this growth has not been evenly distributed globally. Individual publication attributes (i.e. methods and context) can differ significantly and should be considered when interpreting and synthesizing the literature. PMID:25328911
Using a static-renewal procedure, effects of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on hatching, survival, and morphology were assessed in earlylife stages of European minnows Phoxinus phoxinus. Embryonic-larval exposure at 16 and 21 degrees C, and larval exposure at 16 degrees C were compared. In the embryonic-larval exposure at 16 degrees C, hatching was delayed and hatching success decreased at 15.9 micrograms/L. Mortality increased at > or = 3.9 micrograms/L TPT, and complete mortality occurred after 7 and 9 days at 15.9 and 5.1 micrograms/L, respectively. Mortality was higher at 21 degrees C that at 16 degrees C. Triphenyltin was more toxic to fish in larval stages. The induced effects were dose related, mortality increased at 1.8 microgram/L after 3 days, and was total after 5 days at 10.6 micrograms/L. In all high TPT exposures, larvae developed skeletal malformations (bent tails), showed impaired swimming behavior or paralysis, and eyes became opaque. Marked histopathological alterations were found. Degenerative hydropic vacuolation of the cytoplasm were evident in skeletal muscles, skin, kidneys, corneal epithelium, lens, pigment layer of the retina and choroid, retina, and CNS including spinal cord. In severe cases, nuclear changes including pycnosis and karyorrhexis occurred. The observed toxicity of TPT was similar to that of tributyltin, but TPT acted more selectively on the lens and CNS, whereas other tissues were less affected. The study indicates that Phoxinus phoxinus larvae are negatively affected at peak TPT concentrations found in polluted environments. PMID:8060166
Examined association between Life Satisfaction Ratings at age 70 and cognitive, personality, interpersonal, and family characteristics at age 30. Predictive characteristics of life satisfaction at 70 were, for women, a buoyant, responsive attitude toward life; for men, emotional and physical health. (Author/RC)
Demonstrates how established marketing concepts and techniques can help early childhood organizations better specify their objectives, determine the most appropriate product-market strategies to fit available resources, develop a viable plan of action for each product offering, and establish a control/reappraisal plan. (Author/RDN)
Describes how teachers and caregivers can create music environments in early childhood settings that connect to other areas of development. Discusses how music environments can accommodate free-choice participation, describes the caregiver's role, and suggests music activities. Includes definitions of musical concepts for young children, also tips
The following paper presents the main evaluation instruments used in early intervention, and reflects upon their use, taking into account that they were created with and for the normal population. Likewise, developmental characteristics of some child groups are described, more notably the x fragile syndrome, Williams syndrome and Prader Willi
The realities of a multi?racial, multi?ethnic, and multi?ability student population demand a unique and nontraditional approach characterized by an individualization sensitive to group identity. The primary goal of this alternative Early Childhood Studies\\/Education Program with a degree of Bachelor of Science is to provide a comprehensive contemporary program of teacher preparation and education for inclusive early childhood settings. The goal
In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support
This packet is designed to provide strategies and suggestions for raising awareness and taking action on issues related to quality, compensation, and affordability in early childhood programs. Specific materials are designed for early childhood personnel, parents, civic and volunteer organizations, media, and policymakers. However, many of the
National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.
Home-based preschool programs constitute a relatively new approach to meeting the educational needs of young children. In\\u000a contrast to centre-based preschool programs, they capitalize on the benefits of direct parental involvement in the education\\u000a of young children, and the home as a convenient, non-threatening setting within which parents and children may learn and grow.\\u000a Questionnaire data collected on fourteen home-based
This review attempts to situate the emergence of life on the early Earth within the scientific issues of the operational and mechanistic description of life, the conditions and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, together with bottom-up molecular fabrication and biomolecular nanofabrication and top-down miniaturization approaches to the origin of terrestrial life. PMID:17008225
The Federal Building Life-Cycle Cost Program provides computational tools and energy price data for performing life-cycle cost (LCC) analyses of Federal buildings and related subsystems. The methods and procedures used in these LCC analyses are based on r...
Early adverse events have been associated with increased rates of substance abuse and depression. To investigate the association between early adverse events and comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia patients, earlylife stress, depressive symptoms, positive and negative symptoms, anxiety, and cognitive function were measured in an age-, sex-, and race-matched sample of 40 schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid substance
Geraldine Scheller-Gilkey; Shannon M. Thomas; Bobbi J. Woolwine; Andrew H. Miller
Background Earlylife trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of earlylife stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by earlylife stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to earlylife stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by earlylife stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by earlylife stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood. PMID:23071534
to different aspects of campus life, student affairs, and higher education. The OCL has two graduate interns. The OCL is committed to offering a meaningful experience in the field of student affairs that complements duties as assigned #12;QUALIFICATION STANDARDS Master's degree candidate in Higher Education
industries) to realize the potential of researchers in Strategic Field 1. K computer-use support Advanced for research theme proposals) We offer a K computer-compatible supercomputer system, "SCLS supercomputer system" to encourage researchers in life sciences to make active use of the K computer and the HPCI environment. Human
Conway's game of Life -- The program in this chapter plays Life on a terminal screen. -- -- -- configuration constants -- VAL INT array.width IS ... : -- number of cells across the board VAL INT array.height IS ... : -- number of cells down the board VAL INT radius IS 1 : -- of the sphere of influence VAL INT diameter
This report describes the ways in which the Center for Minority Achievement works to reform public education for early adolescents in six New York City schools. It consists of edited conversations among the three central staff members of the program and vignettes and quotes from a school student and from staff affected by the program. These
This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes
In 1995, to meet the needs of mothers and new- borns discharged early, a home care follow-up pro- gram using an advanced practice nurse was initiated at a Midwest academic medical center. Information about the program and elements of patient satisfac- tion, as measured from program inception, are pre- sented in this article. The major correlates of satisfac- tion were
At Columbia College, a 2-year college in California, an Early Alert program was implemented in the middle 1980s to alert students at risk of academic failure to potential problems. With the exception of a few years in the 1990s, the program has been conducted each semester. In the fourth week of the semester, instructors are asked to identify
Described in the guidebook are ways to initiate or improve early recognition and intervention (ERI) programs in public schools. Suggested for starting a program to find at risk or handicapped children before they and their teachers experience failure are three phases, which involve finding an idea, enlisting support, and beginning with a pilot
Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10
Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.
PRESENT PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE OF 3 KINDS--(1) AN INVENTORY TYPE WHICH ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY DEFICITS WHICH WILL AFFECT SCHOOL LEARNING AND TO OVERCOME THESE THROUGH EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, (2) A PLAN BASED ON A RECAPITULATION THEORY WHICH ATTEMPTS TO DESCRIBE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND TO COMPENSATE FOR THOSE WHICH A
(7 credits) Library 428 (3), Children's Literature, K-5 3 Linguistics 233 (4), Language & Mind and Performing Arts (8 credits) Art 312 (4), Art in the Elementary School 4 Music 381 (4), Music Fundamentals 4 Health (4 credits) Public Health Ed. 365 (4), Health Programs for Children and Youth 4 Total: 54 credits
Considerable evidence now exists to suggest that early exposure to nutritional deprivation can have long term consequences to health, with low birth weight now considered a risk factor for later health outcomes such as coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Of importance, such effects are most exaggerated when faced with over-nutrition in later life, forming
With the very limited policy intervention, work-life balance (WLB) enhancing programs available at workplaces in the US are not as prevalent as those observed in most continental European countries. Nevertheless, starting in the late 80s, firms began to introduce WLB enhancing programs, mostly in terms of flexible schedules, as ways to help workers and improve firm performance. The availability of
A science and lifeprogram developed for mainstreamed secondary students is based on commercially available modules on such topics as pregnancy and fetal development, automobile safety, and heart disease. The program features cooperative group activities, peer tutoring, and ongoing evaluation. (CL)
From 1998 through 1999, Abt Associates conducted an evaluation of the first three years of the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program, including surveys of CAREER awardees, NSF-funded comparable faculty, and department chairpersons in departments housing CAREER awardees. The CAREER Program The CAREER program funds beginning faculty members to develop academic careers that combine research and education. 8 CAREER awardees reported on their CAREER award, while the NSF Comparison ...
Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability) in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life. PMID:24023760
This guide was developed to help people meet the challenge of developing early childhood programs that are inclusive of all children, regardless of disability. The manual was written in the spirit of a quilting book, in its recognition of the importance of the quiltmaker's (and the program developer's) own adaptations, creativity, and inspiration.
The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) will use gas filter correlation radiometry to measure the atmospheric concentration profiles of HCl, HF, NO, and CH4 from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The need to contain the gases for the gas filter measurements has resulted in the development of gas cells and the need for a life test program to demonstrate that the gas cells will perform their functions for extended periods (several years) of time. This report describes the tests in the life test program, the test apparatus used, and the analysis techniques developed. The report also presents data obtained during the first 14 months of the test program.
Sullivan, E. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Harvey, G. A.; Park, J. H.; Richardson, D. J.
Obesity and its related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer, impose huge burdens on society, particularly the healthcare system. Until recently, public health and policy were primarily focused on secondary prevention and treatment of NCDs. However, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that early-life exposures influence the risk of childhood obesity and related diseases later in life, and has now focused attention on the health of both mother and child. During pregnancy and the early neonatal period, individuals respond to their environment by establishing anatomical, physiological and biochemical trajectories that shape their future health. This period of developmental plasticity provides an early window of opportunity to mitigate the environmental insults that may increase an individual's sensitivity to, or risk of, developing obesity or related diseases later in life. Although much investigation has already occurred in the area of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease research, the science itself is still in its infancy. It remains for researchers to tackle the important outstanding questions and translate their knowledge into workable solutions for the public good. The challenge, however, is to decide which areas to focus on. With these opportunities and challenges in mind, the 2014 Gravida Summit convened to examine how its early-life research program can determine which areas of research into mechanisms, biomarkers and interventions could contribute to the international research strategy to fight childhood obesity and its related diseases. PMID:25308169
Macaulay, E C; Donovan, E L; Leask, M P; Bloomfield, F H; Vickers, M H; Dearden, P K; Baker, P N
Preface Although the contribution of lifestyle and environment (non-genetic factors) to prostate carcinogenesis is indicated by international variation in prostate cancer occurrence and migration studies, no conclusive modifiable risk factors have been identified to date. One possible reason for this may be the dearth of epidemiological research on exposures experienced early-in-life when the immature prostate may be more susceptible to carcinogenic exposures. Herein, we motivate the study of early-life exposures, describe the small body of early-life research and its associated challenges, and point towards solutions for future research. PMID:23363989
Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (527 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during earlylife. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future. PMID:23417729
Through a case study of a key Canadian early childhood education program, The Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1998a), we explore the relationship between curricular paradigms and early childhood education (ECE) models, and the opportunities that each creates for enacting ethical teaching and learning
This paper describes the Portage County, Ohio community hospice program, emphasizing the linkages between family life specialists, health professionals, volunteers, and students. Hospice service is defined as a specialized, home-based program for the management of pain and other symptoms of terminal illness, with the family as the unit of care.
We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.
DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)
at earlylife-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect. Etges, University of Arkansas, United States of America Received July 17, 2013; Accepted November 23
The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90. Projects eligible for Life Safety Funding should generally meet all of the following be a continuation of an existing operation or line of research. 4. Any Life Safety project must be the best life
We explored the associations between earlylife experience, endocrine regulation, psychological health, and hippocampal integrity in 37 elderly volunteers. Specifically, a neurodevelopmental and psychological mediation model was tested: Retrospective earlylife parental care was hypothesized to influence hippocampal integrity and the development of self-esteem. In turn, hippocampal volume (via modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis negative feedback) and self-esteem (via modulation of
Veronika Engert; Claudia Buss; Najmeh Khalili-Mahani; Mehereen Wadiwalla; Katarina Dedovic; Jens C. Pruessner
BACKGROUND: Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-life infection with a species-specific model of RSV and subsequent allergen exposure predisposed to the development of features of asthma. METHODS: We employed a unique combination of animal models in which
Jessica S Siegle; Nicole Hansbro; Cristan Herbert; Helene F Rosenberg; Joseph B Domachowske; Kelly L Asquith; Paul S Foster; Rakesh K Kumar
Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and\\/or behavioural disorders.\\u000a It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder\\u000a (ADHD), modifies the long-term effects of earlylife trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for\\u000a susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic
Toni-Lee Sterley; Fleur M Howells; Vivienne A Russell
Earlylife adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of earlylife adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with earlylife experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between earlylife adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177
Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A
During postnatal development, adverse earlylife experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of earlylife stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of earlylife stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated earlylife stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to earlylife stress. Next, we introduce how earlylife stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328
Purpose: Researchers knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on
Miriam Williams Boeri; Claire E. Sterk; Kirk W. Elifson
The earlylife history of the yellow perch, an important commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, has been studied with special reference to length at scale formation, growth rate during first season of life, and food habits as they relate to growth and survival. Scales are fully imbricated in the area of 12th to 14th lateral line scales at
The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to earlylife stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was
The Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study, a cohort of 2321 early stage breast cancer survivors, was established in 2000 to examine how modifiable behavioral risk factors affect quality of life and long-term survival. Women were recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (KPNCAL) and the Utah cancer registry (UCR), United States. Baseline data were collected, on
Bette Caan; Barbara Sternfeld; Erica Gunderson; Ashley Coates; Charles Quesenberry; Martha L. Slattery
Short-term quality of life following abortion is poorly characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate 97 U.S. women who selected either medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol or surgical abortion up to 9 weeks gestation in a private-practice setting. Women choosing medical abortion and those choosing surgical abortion with local anesthesia were similar on most baseline characteristics. Eighty-five participants completed a standardized quality of life assessments three times over 1 month. The 30-item questionnaire yielded scores for global health, emotional, social, cognitive and physical functioning and for specific symptom scales. At baseline, participants reported many symptoms and functional limitations during the previous week. Subjects in both treatment groups experienced clinically and statistically significant improvements on all scales at follow-up. Surgical abortion patients had worse scores on three of five function scales and several symptom scales at baseline compared to medical abortion patients. Differences in baseline scores between the medical and surgical abortion patients disappeared during follow-up. A surprising finding was that partner knowledge of the pregnancy at the time the abortion appointment was made was associated with significantly worse scores on most of the function and symptom scales. These results provide substantial reassurance that women undergoing abortion experience a marked improvement in their quality of life after the abortion. Women choosing medical or surgical abortion report very similar quality of life improvements. PMID:12521657
rigorous hand-tracing of the amygdala and hippocampus in three samples of children who experienced also conducted with children and their parents or guardians to collect data about cumulative life stress. The same data were also collected in a fourth sample of comparison children who had
For many years, the beginning of life on earth during the Archaean period (3800- 2500 m.y. ago) had remained an 'enigma clothed in mystery' and had provided considerable grist for specul ation and debate. In the earlier half of twentieth century, the term Archaean was a syn o- nym for 'Azoic', meaning lifeless, but over the last fifty years, this
Exposure to drugs early in life can have long-lasting implications for brain structure and function. Effects on the developing nervous system, before homeostatic regulatory mechanisms are properly calibrated, differ from those on mature systems. Recent studies show that permanent alterations in brain pharmacology and cell signaling are induced by early drug exposure, producing hypo- or hyperresponsiveness to environmental or pharmacological
Many types of earlylife events can cause cerebral dysfunction; however, not all children have medical records or neurologic imaging documenting brain injuries. Rather, many neuropsychologists base their findings on caregiver reports describing possible early brain insults. Neuropsychological studies suggest that brief perinatal cyanosis and\\/or childhood neglect may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Should the mere suggestion of these events from
The relation between earlylife adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum women Andrea Gonzalez a,d,*, Jennifer M. Jenkins b , Meir Steiner c Psychoneuroendocrinology (2009) 34, 76--86 KEYWORDS Diurnal cortisol; Awakening response; Early adversity; Postpartum
Noting that the preschool years provide an optimal time for developing fundamental skills with lifelong implications, this paper examines the role of art in early childhood education, arguing that art improves the quality of life for young children. The paper maintains that art is the basis of early learning and that allowing children to
Presents a history lesson plan on village life among two groups of Plains Indians in the early nineteenth century. Includes student handouts of contemporary writings by Euro-Americans, maps of the area, and early American paintings of the villages. Describes and structures teaching activities, vocabulary, and additional reading. (DK)
, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Poolesville, Maryland 20837, 3Departments of Child of Health Animal Center, Poolesville, Maryland 20837 Peer-reared (PR) rhesus monkeys with early maternal separation later exhibit aggressiveness, impaired impulse control, alcohol abuse, andlowCSF5
The winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa, WML) is a Federal endangered species historically inhabiting at least 34 river systems in 12 Midwestern states. Only four populations are currently known to exist, including one confirmed reproducing population in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway (NSR) bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. Recovery efforts are limited by a lack of life history information, particularly which species of fish serve as host to the mussel's parasitic larvae (glochidia). Since 1997, biologists at the University of Minnesota have tried to identify host fish for the WML. Department of the Interior colleagues working in western Wisconsin at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's La Crosse Fishery Resources Office and Genoa National Fish Hatchery, the National Park Service's St. Croix NSR, and the U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) in La Crosse joined the team in 2001 to expand and accelerate the laboratory host fish identification program by making use of the well-equipped aquatic research facilities at UMESC. We report on several WML earlylife history investigations conducted at UMESC since autumn 2003 to identify suitable host fish species and evaluate thermal requisites for the development of glochidia into free-living juvenile mussels.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of aging related dementia and has been extensively studied by several groups around the world. A general consensus, based on neuropathology, genetics and cellular and animal models, is that the 4 kDa amyloid ? protein (A?) triggers a toxic cascade that induces microtubule-associated protein ? (MAPT) hyperphosphorylation and deposition. Together, these lesions lead to neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, modeled in animals, that ultimately causes dementia. Genetic studies show that a simple duplication of the A? precursor (APP) gene, as occurs in Down syndrome (trisomy 21), with a 1.5-fold increase in expression, can cause dementia with the complete AD associated neuropathology. The most fully characterized form of AD is early onset familial AD (FAD). Unfortunately, by far the most common form of AD is late onset AD (LOAD). FAD has well-identified autosomally dominant genetic causes, absent in LOAD. It is reasonable to hypothesize that environmental influences play a much stronger role in etiology of LOAD than of FAD. Since AD pathology in LOAD closely resembles FAD with accumulation of both A? and MAPT, it is likely that the environmental factors foster accumulation of these proteins in a manner similar to FAD mutations. Therefore, it is important to identify environmentally driven changes that "phenocopy" FAD in order to find ways to prevent LOAD. Epigenetic changes in expression are complex but stable determinants of many complex traits. Some aspects are regulated by prenatal and early post-natal development, others punctuate specific periods of maturation, and still others occur throughout life, mediating predictable changes that take place during various developmental stages. Environmental agents such as mercury, lead, and pesticides can disrupt the natural epigenetic program and lead to developmental deficits, mental retardation, feminization, and other complex syndromes. In this review we discuss latent early- life associated regulation (LEARn), where apparently temporary changes, induced by environmental agents, become latent and present themselves again at maturity or senescence to increase production of A? that may cause AD. The model provides us with a novel direction for identifying potentially harmful agents that may induce neurodegeneration and dementia later in life and provides hope that we may be able to prevent age-related neurodegenerative disease by "detoxifying" our environment. PMID:22300406
Maloney, Bryan; Sambamurti, Kumar; Zawia, Nasser; Lahiri, Debomoy K
In this study we investigated the effect of earlylife conditioning (hypoxia ± hypercapnia) on adult acute ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Mice were exposed to either hypoxia (5% O(2)) or hypoxia/hypercapnia (5% O(2)/8% CO(2)) in a normobaric chamber for 2 h at postnatal day 2 (P2), and then returned to normoxia. At 3 months of age, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured using a plethysmograph system. Results showed that HVR was significantly decreased in the P2-hypoxia mice but not in the P2 hypoxia/hypercapnia mice as compared to the P2-normoxic mice, respectively. However, HCVR was significantly decreased in the P2 hypoxia-hypercapnia group but not in the P2-hypoxia group. These data suggest early postnatal hypoxic stress vs. hypoxic/hypercapnic stress plays different roles in fetal programming of the respiratory control system as shown by altered adult acute ventilatory sensitivity. PMID:22879055
Xu, Kui; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Huang, Pengjing; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Radford, Thomas; Babcock, Gerald; Boron, Walter F; Lamanna, Joseph C
The realities of a multi-racial, multi-ethnic, and multi-ability student population demand a unique and nontraditional approach characterized by an individualization sensitive to group identity. The primary goal of this alternative Early Childhood Studies/Education Program with a degree of Bachelor of Science is to provide a comprehensive
Objective: To determine the most effective intervention program for prevention of early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: All studies published after 1966 were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Dissertation and Serfile databases) and manual searching. Studies were included if they analyzed the effect of an intervention to prevent caries in 0- to 5-year-old children, recorded
Provides a sampling of culturally sensitive educational practices in early childhood education programs. Includes suggestions for classroom decor, educational materials, and the following classroom learning centers: dramatic play and prop boxes, blocks and construction, science and cooking, creative art, music and movement, and library. Asserts
This article describes and evaluates the Go Grrrls Program, a preventive intervention specifically designed for early adolescent girls. The 12-session curriculum was designed to address developmental tasks considered critical for healthy psychosocial development, such as achieving competent gender role identification, establishing an acceptable
Waterford Early Reading Program[TM] is a software-based curriculum for students in Kindergarten through second grade. The curriculum is designed to promote reading, writing, and typing, incorporating literacy skills such as letter mastery, language stories, spelling, basic writing skills, reading and listening development, and comprehension
Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better
This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to
New York City's Early Grade Improvement Program (EGIP) was initiated in the 1985-86 school year as an effort to improve pupil achievement in the primary grades through a reduction of class size. Schools without sufficient space to reduce class size through creation of new classes were given EGIP funds to provide paraprofessional assistance to
Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in earlylife with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to earlylife sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years. PMID:24902476
This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated
Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.
A program evaluation was completed for a Virtual Reality (VR) pilot project intended to aid deaf children in learning various life skills which they may be at risk of not adequately learning. Such skills include crossing the street safely, exiting a building during a fire drill, and avoiding situations in which strangers may harm them. The VR was
Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials
K. Dunn; W. Daugherty; B. Hackney; E. Hoffman; E. Skidmore
Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity
W. Daugherty; K. Dunn; B. Hackney; E. Hoffman; E. Skidmore
Early adolescence is a time of burgeoning independence, autonomy, and focus on peers. It is also a time when individual interests, skills, and preferences become salient to young people. Not surprisingly, out-of-school programs designed to capture the interest of early teens are diverse in focus and varied in structure, ranging from sports teams to drop-in recreation centers, from museum apprenticeships to mentoring relationships between an individual teen and an adult. This article describes the array of various organizations that offer programs and services for youths in their early teens. It explains the philosophy of positive youth development that has emerged as a unifying theme in this long-standing but newly self-conscious field. Principles of best practice are reviewed, as are five key implementation challenges: increasing participation by youths; expanding access to programs, especially in low-income communities; improving funding; evaluating program effectiveness; and coordination with other youth services. The article closes with a discussion anticipating the new opportunities that accompany the attention and funding now going toward positive youth development programs that enrich the lives of young people through informal learning. PMID:10646262
Objectives. Studies of health and longevity require accurate age reporting. Age misreporting among older adults in the United States is common. Methods. Participants in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) were matched to early-life census records. Age recorded in the census was used to evaluate age reporting in the LLFS. The study population was 99% non-Hispanic white. Results. About 88% of the participants were matched to 1910, 1920, or 1930 U.S. censuses. Match success depended on the participants education, place of birth, and the number of censuses available to be searched. Age at the time of the interview based on the reported date of birth and early-life census age were consistent for about 89% of the participants, and age consistency within 1 year was found for about 99% of the participants. Discussion. It is possible to match a high fraction of older study participants to their early-life census records when detailed information is available on participants family of origin. Such record linkage can provide an important source of information for evaluating age reporting among the oldest old participants. Our results are consistent with recent studies suggesting that age reporting among older whites in the United States appears to be quite good. PMID:23704206
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether abdominal fatness in adult men is associated with retarded growth in fetal life and infancy. DESIGN--This was a follow up study of (1) men born during 1920-30 whose birthweights and weights at one year were recorded at the time by health visitors; and (2) men born during 1935-43 whose size at birth was measured in detail. The main outcome measure was the ratio of waist circumference to hip girth. SETTING--Hertfordshire and Preston, England. SUBJECTS--Subjects were 845 men born in east Hertfordshire who still live there; and 239 men born in Preston who still live in or close to the city. MAIN RESULTS--After allowing for body mass index, mean waist to hip ratio fell with increasing birthweight and rose as the ratio of placental weight to birthweight increased. These trends were independent of duration of gestation and therefore reflected retarded fetal growth. Waist to hip ratio also fell with increasing weight at one year. All these trends were independent of adult height, alcohol consumption, smoking, social class, and age. CONCLUSIONS--The tendency to store fat abdominally, which is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes independently of obesity, may be a persisting response to adverse conditions and growth failure in fetal life and infancy. PMID:1645067
Law, C M; Barker, D J; Osmond, C; Fall, C H; Simmonds, S J
This paper presents the results of a survey of 43 occupational therapy academic programs regarding their preparation of students to work with young children with special needs. The number of instructional hours devoted to topics related to services for infants or toddlers and their families varied greatly. Some programs plan an increase in hours but are limited by the total hours available within the curriculum. This paper also shares the recommendations of a panel of occupational therapists with expertise in early intervention and entry-level education. The panel was concerned with the quality of preparation of therapists entering early intervention programs and encouraged the profession to review the amount of course work within each curriculum that introduces students to basic knowledge and skills related to early intervention. Some knowledge, such as the consultant's role and working with families of persons who are physically or mentally challenged, are common to other practice areas. The panel stressed that students be taught strategies for obtaining the training necessary for postgraduate entry into a specialty area such as early intervention. PMID:1699420
This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and
Earlylife experiences have powerful effects on the brain and body lasting throughout the entire lifespan and influencing brain function, behavior and the risk for a number of systemic and mental disorders. Animal models of earlylife adversity are providing mechanistic insights, including glimpses into the fascinating world that is now called epigenetics as well as the role of naturally occurring alleles of a number of genes. These studies also provide insights into the adaptive value, as well as the negative consequences, of earlylife stress, exposure to novelty, and poor vs good quality maternal care. Animal models begin to provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how brain development and physiological functioning is affected in children exposed to earlylife abuse and neglect, where there is a burgeoning literature on the consequences for physical health and emotional and cognitive development. An important goal is to identify interventions that are likely to be most effective in earlylife and some guidelines are provided. PMID:18803958
Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766
Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earths history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766
Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earthâ??s history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe.
Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs. Part of the reason for this is that foundations an...
L. A. Karoly, M. R. Kilburn, J. H. Bigelow, J. P. Caulkins, J. S. Cannon
The OECD 210 fish earlylife]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...
Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5?years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed. PMID:17624068
Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T
This study examines the impact of earlylife malaria exposure on cognition in sample of Mexican adults, using the nationwide introduction of malaria eradication efforts to identify causal impacts. The core findings are that birth year exposure to malaria eradication was associated with increases in Raven Progressive Matrices test scores and consumption expenditures, but not schooling. Additionally, cohorts born after eradication both entered and exited school earlier than their pre-eradication counterparts. These effects were only seen for men and explanations for this are assessed. Collectively, these findings suggest that improvements in infant health help explain secular increases in cognitive test scores, that better cognition may link earlylife health to adulthood earnings, and that human capital investments through childhood and young adulthood respond sensitively to market returns to earlylife endowment shocks. PMID:22906550
The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia. PMID:25140503
Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B
Manganese exposure and biomarker concentrations during early pregnancy and lactation were investigated in 408 women living in an area with elevated concentrations of both arsenic and manganese in drinking water derived from wells. About 40% of the water samples had manganese concentrations above the World Health Organization's guideline value and showed a strong inverse correlation with arsenic concentrations. Water manganese was found to correlate to urine concentrations, but not to blood or breast milk concentrations. No correlations were found among manganese concentrations in urine, blood, or breast milk. Compared to other populations, manganese concentrations in both urine and blood, but not breast milk, were elevated in the Bangladeshi women and more similar to those of occupationally exposed groups. The lack of associations with water manganese is likely due to variable exposure via water and food, and differences in bioavailability, as well as a complex and/or strict regulation of intestinal manganese absorption, in turn being influenced by nutritional as well as physiological and genetic factors. The results indicate that elevated maternal manganese exposure does not necessarily lead to exposure of breast-fed infants, stressing the importance of breast feeding in high manganese areas. However, the implications of fetal exposurefrom elevated maternal exposure need further investigation. PMID:19452922
Ljung, Karin S; Kippler, Maria J; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, G Margaretha; Nermell, Barbro M; Vahter, Marie E
Exposure to earlylife stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of earlylife stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an earlylife social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1 hour each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this earlylife chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to earlylife CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that earlylife CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers, and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24005186
Background Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. Conclusions/Significance We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances. PMID:24941112
Zhang, Ling-li; Vastenhouw, Stephanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.
In an inbred population, selection may reduce the frequency of deleterious recessive alleles through a process known as purging. Empirical studies suggest, however, that the efficacy of purging in natural populations is highly variable. This variation may be due, in part, to variation in the expression of inbreeding depression available for selection to act on. This experiment investigates the roles of life stage and early-life environment in determining the expression of inbreeding depression in Agrostemma githago. Four population-level crosses ('self', 'within', 'near' and 'far') were conducted on 20 maternal plants from a focal population. Siblings were planted into one of three early environmental treatments with varying stress levels. Within the focal population, evidence for purging of deleterious recessive alleles, as well as for variation in the expression of inbreeding depression across the life cycle was examined. In addition, the effect of early environment on the expression of inbreeding depression and the interaction with cross-type was measured. We find that deleterious recessive alleles have not been effectively purged from our focal population, the expression of inbreeding depression decreases over the course of the life cycle, and a stressful early environment reduces the variance in inbreeding depression expressed later in life, but does not consistently influence the relative fitness of inbred versus outcrossed individuals. PMID:23294449
Relatively little is known about neurobiological changes attributable to early-life stressors (e.g., orphanage rearing), even though they have been associated with a heightened risk for later psychopathology. Human neuroimaging and animal studies provide complementary insights into the neural basis of problem behaviors following stress, but too often are limited by dissimilar experimental designs. The current mouse study manipulates the type and timing of a stressor to parallel the early-life stress experience of orphanage rearing, controlling for genetic and environmental confounds inherent in human studies. The results provide evidence of both early and persistent alterations in amygdala circuitry and function following early-life stress. These effects are not reversed when the stressor is removed nor diminished with the development of prefrontal regulation regions. These neural and behavioral findings are similar to our human findings in children adopted from orphanages abroad in that even following removal from the orphanage, the ability to suppress attention toward potentially threatening information in favor of goal-directed behavior was diminished relative to never-institutionalized children. Together, these findings highlight how early-life stress can lead to altered brain circuitry and emotion dysregulation that may increase the risk for psychopathology. PMID:24145410
Malter Cohen, Matthew; Jing, Deqiang; Yang, Rui R; Tottenham, Nim; Lee, Francis S; Casey, B J
Background There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and earlylife exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms arsenic, in utero, transplacental, prenatal and fetal. Discussion Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or earlylife exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in earlylife that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenics health effects. Conclusions As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenics relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. PMID:23859881
Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Chen, Yu
Attention is given to the goals and methods adopted in the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) for preparing scientists and engineers for space-related life-sciences research and operations. The SLSTP is based on six weeks of projects and lectures which give an overview of payload processing and experiment flow in the space environment. The topics addressed in the course of the program include descriptions of space vehicles, support hardware, equipment, and research directions. Specific lecture topics include the gravity responses of plants, mission integration of a flight experiment, and the cardiovascular deconditioning. The SLSTP is shown to be an important part of the process of recruiting and training qualified scientists and engineers to support space activities.
NASALIFE is a life prediction program for propulsion system components made of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading and creep rupture conditions. Although the primary focus was for CMC components, the underlying methodologies are equally applicable to other material systems as well. The program references empirical data for low cycle fatigue (LCF), creep rupture, and static material properties as part of the life prediction process. Multiaxial stresses are accommodated by Von Mises based methods and a Walker model is used to address mean stress effects. Varying loads are reduced by the Rainflow counting method or a peak counting type method. Lastly, damage due to cyclic loading and creep is combined with Minor's Rule to determine damage due to cyclic loading, damage due to creep, and the total damage per mission and the number of potential missions the component can provide before failure.
Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.
Objective: To understand the relationship of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) to earlylife experience. Methodology: Eight thousand five hundred and fifty-six women enrolled in a prospective study at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 13 years, of 5345 women remaining, a consecutive sample of 901 mother\\/child pairs provided data on adolescent HR-QOL using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Report form
AJ Wilkins; MJ O'Callaghan; JM Najman; W Bor; GM Williams; G Shuttlewood
The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.
Focus group discussions were conducted with inner-city ethnic minority families with regard to current life concerns, motherchild communication of concerns, and the influence of maternal HIV on both of those issues. Participants included early adolescents who were HIV-negative and their mothers (one-half were HIV-positive and one-half HIV-negative). Early adolescents were most concerned about sexual activity, pregnancy, safety and violence, and
Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Claude Ann Mellins; Megan Block
USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.
Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive
This volume explains the purposes and programs of the National Laboratory on Early Childhood Education. Its overriding objective is to broaden the base of knowledge concerning educational intervention and to develop comprehensive early childhood educational models. A brief discussion deals with the problems, strategies, and capacities of the
Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS earlylife stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for earlylife stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS earlylife stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699
Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus
...RIN 3206-AM67 Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Court Orders Prior...individual receive Federal Employee's Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) benefits. The interim...Hostages, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Life insurance, Retirement. U.S....
...RIN 3206-AM96 Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Options B and C AGENCY...to amend the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) regulations to provide...law. This law, the Federal Employees Life Insurance Improvement Act, changed...
...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...
...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...
...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...
...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is licensed or...
Issues influencing the formation of home and family oriented early childhood development programs are examined. Early childhood programs formerly focused on work with the child alone in a central setting outside the home. Due to increased awareness of the...
B. L. Cordry, E. C. Curtis, A. Smith-Osborne, S. Pyne, M. Slatin
Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions. PMID:25323240
In this paper, we focus on the interplay between earlylife events, socioeco- nomic conditions throughout the life course, and health outcomes at old ages in Mexico. We investigate how the eect of education on health changes as individuals age. We analyze whether the process of accumulation of endur- ing disease states over the life span diers between old Mexicans
The ability to develop effective antipredator responses early in life should be strongly promoted by natural selection. Recent work has shown that embryonic amphibians can learn to recognize predators even before they hatch. Here, we showed that embryonic woodfrogs, Rana sylvatica, learned the danger level associated with a predator prior to hatching and generalized their learned recognition to other similar
Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation
The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with
Pettit, Gregory S.; Erath, Stephen A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
characterized by resistance to glucocorticoid signaling, which in turn facilitates exaggerated adrenocorticalLow early-life social class leaves a biological residue manifested by decreased glucocorticoid, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates
The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the
The re-examination by SEM of 3.4 Ga fossiliferous carbonaceous cherts reveals fungal contaminants in addition to indigenous microfossils. Weathered volcanic flows associated with fossiliferous chert layers offer a promising area for further study of earlylife on Earth.
Impact of Early-Life Bisphenol A Exposure on Behavior and Executive Function in Children WHAT and their 3-year-old children from the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, area. We characterized gestational function were measured by using the Behavior Assessment System for Children 2 (BASC-2) and the Behavior
Toxicity of cadmium to earlylife stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined at multiple water hardnesses. Increasing water hardness decreased cadmium toxicity. Postswimup fry were much more sensitive than embryos and larvae. Chronic values from earlylife stage tests initiated with eyed embryos were 3.52, 6.36, and 13.6 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 30.6, 71.3, and 149 mg/L, respectively. In tests initiated with 30-d postswimup fry, chronic values were 1.02, 1.83, and 6.54 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 29.2, 67.6, and 151 mg/L, respectively. Higher chronic values from the earlylife stage tests compared to tests initiated with swimup fry likely are caused by acclimation during cadmium-tolerant embryo and larval stages. Growth was not affected by cadmium in the earlylife stage tests but was negatively affected in tests initiated with fry at water hardnesses of 29.2 and 67.6 mg/L. Concentrations of cadmium that reduced growth were higher than those that increased mortality. Median lethal concentrations for swimup fry after 96 h were 1.23, 3.90, and 10.1 microg Cd/L at water hardnesses of 29.2, 67.6, and 151 mg/L, respectively. Test results enable prediction of acute mortality of brown trout swimup fry based on cadmium concentration and water hardness. PMID:17702340
Mortality of earlylife stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and
David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio
Earlylife dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering earlylife dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in earlylife manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mothers milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370
Carotenoid-based colours are widespread in animals and are used as signals in intra- and interspecific communication. In nestling birds, the carotenoids used for feather pigmentation may derive via three pathways: (1) via maternal transfer to egg yolk; (2) via paternal feeds early after hatching when females are mainly brooding; or (3) via feeds from both parents later in nestling life.
Patrick S. Fitze; Barbara Tschirren; Heinz Richner
Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on earlylife stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease
F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg
One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing
Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.
1 Developmental tasks of early adulthood Â transitions in University life Â an inner world perspective. Biddy Youell, Head of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation an overview of the developmental tasks which face older adolescents...young adults...and will attempt
Encouraging healthy eating habit development early in life is a way to prevent the onset of diet-related diseases. This review focuses on the period ranging from the beginning of complementary feeding until the age of 3 years. Its first objective was to review relevant themes in the most recent literature on the development of healthy eating habits in this period.
Camille Schwartz; Petra A. M. J. Scholtens; Amandine Lalanne; Hugo Weenen; Sophie Nicklaus
for reconstruct- ing diet as they contain precise temporal and chemical records of earlylife4 . Teeth begin at weaning as Ba (and Ca) content and bioavail- ability is markedly different across plant and animal food sources11,12 . To test this hypothesis, we investigated Ba/Ca patterns in teeth from human children
Objective: Research suggests that earlylife adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators
Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.
Relationship of EarlyLife Stress and Psychological Functioning to Blood Pressure in the CARDIA explain these links and relate the model to blood pressure change over a 10-year period in the Coronary of childhood family environment, parental education, health behavior, and adult negative emotionality. Main
Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This earlylife course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage
Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.
Background: Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in earlylife cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in complex chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity, remains largely uncharacterized. Extensive work in animal models is
Synopsis Reproduction and earlylife history of northern squawfish,Ptychocheilus oregonensis, was investigated in Idaho's St. Joe River from 19801981. Spawning occurs in large aggregations which mill near the substrate to broadcast eggs and milt. Males greatly outnumber females in the aggregations. Males mature at smaller sizes and younger ages, and exhibit slower growth and greater mortality than females, although females
Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from
Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.
1 Early Childhood Conditions and Life Expectancy: Evidence from Japanese American Internment in a matter of months. #12;3 In this paper, I ask how the internment of the Japanese Americans affected War II internment of Japanese Americans is an important part of American history that affected tens
Flow-through acute and earlylife-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug/L. n the 30-d ELS test was laboratory-sp...
Flow-through acute and earlylife-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug?l. n the 30-d ELS test with laboratory-s...
Earlylife antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we
associated with learning and memory. Learning and memory require brain tissue, which is metabolically). Specifically, learning requires both the initial constitutive, or global, investment to develop the brainEffects of Early-Life Experience on Learning Ability in Fruit Flies Zachary Durisko & Reuven Dukas
Galaxias maculatus and Odontesthes microlepidotus undertook significant habitat shifts in a small Araucanian lake during their earlylife history. After hatching in the littoral zone, free embryos migrate to the limnetic zone. Later, larvae return to the littoral. A third movement, littoral-limnetic, is suggested through acoustic records of fish in the limnetic zone which correspond with the growth curve of
Victor E. Cussac; Patricia M. Cervellini; Miguel A. Battini
Earlylife-stage toxicity tests (continuous exposure from embryonic stage to approximately three weeks or more into the exogenous feeding stage) with North American marine fishes have been conducted almost exclusively with cyprinodontids. In this paper, the authors present method...
Results from birth cohort and cross-sectional studies of young children with wheezing have uncovered strong associations be- tween both lung function and immune responses in earlylife and the subsequent development of persistent wheezing and chronic airway obstruction up to mid-adulthood. It is now apparent that the pattern of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, deficits in lung function, and structural airway remodeling that
There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...
Laboratory research has shown that female fish can pass toxic organochlorines (OCs) from their bodies to their eggs, killing their offspring if sufficient quantities are transferred. We conducted a controlled incubation study using gametes from a wild, OC-contaminated walleye (Sander vitreus) population (Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada) in order to assess among-female variation in offspring earlylife survival in relation to ova concentrations of planar OCs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls) and a suite of other maternal and ova characteristics. Equal volumes of ova from each female were fertilized, pooled, and incubated together as an experimental cohort. Relative survival of each female's offspring was estimated as the proportion of surviving larvae (at approximately 5 d posthatch) that she contributed to the cohort as determined by microsatellite DNA parentage assignment. Total planar OC concentration (expressed as toxic equivalency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) of ova was positively related to maternal age and size and to ova lipid content. However, earlylife survival did not decline with increasing ova planar OC concentrations. Similarly, we observed no significant relationships between earlylife survival and ova thiamine content, ova fatty acid composition, or maternal age or size. Earlylife survival was more strongly correlated with date of spawn collection, thyroid hormone status of the ova, and ovum size. Maternally transferred planar OCs do not appear to negatively influence female reproductive success in this walleye population. PMID:16268162
Johnston, Thomas A; Miller, Loren M; Whittle, D Michael; Brown, Scott B; Wiegand, Murray D; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Leggett, William C
Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and earlylife history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in
Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: email@example.com FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdues College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.
Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.
The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main risk factors, substantial evidence now suggests that factors in earlylife also have a major role in the development of NCDs. For instance, breastfeeding and a slower pattern of infant weight gain have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in both low-income and high-income countries. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but include epigenetic changes and resetting of endocrine systems that affect energy metabolism and appetite. These earlylife factors may interact with and exacerbate the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle and energy-dense diets later in life. As a consequence, the impact of early-life factors on long-term health may be particularly important in low- and middle-income countries, which face the fastest increases in urbanization and greatest changes to lifestyle. Strategies to optimize infant nutrition could therefore make a major contribution to stemming the current global epidemic of NCD. PMID:24504213
Worldwide, there is no more consistently stressful job than that of the police officer. In the United States, police officers are more likely to die by suicide than by any type of criminal or criminal activity. This article discusses the Badge of Life Psychological Survival for Police Officers Program (BOL), founded in 2008, with the goal of developing an effective police officer suicide primary and secondary prevention program. Such a program is not a regular entity within the majority of accredited law enforcement agencies. Along with standard suicide prevention protocols typically used in other programs, an Emotional Self-Care Program (ESC) was designed to focus on the officer's ability and responsibility to care for his own emotional well-being. The model relies on teaching the factor of resilience as a significant component of stress-resistance (Everly, Welzant, & Jacobson, 2008). Selected for their credibility and trust level, peer support officers conduct the actual annual training workshops, set the example, and encourage involvement at all levels. A "cradle-to-the-grave" program (i.e., rookies to retirees), ESC calls upon departments to begin teaching their personnel about the effects of job-related stress and trauma while they are still in the academy, emphasizing the importance of voluntary, confidential "annual mental health checks." Representatives of BOL now lecture regularly across the United States and Canada. All consultations, lectures, educational and training workshops, services, and referrals are free, as are original training materials developed and approved by the BOL Board of Directors. PMID:21138153
Although epidemiological data provide evidence that earlylife experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the modulation of genome function in response to earlylife experience affecting gene function and the phenotype. Such modulations may serve as a mechanism for life-long genome adaptation. These changes seem to be widely distributed across the genome and to involve central and peripheral systems. Examining the environmental circumstances associated with the onset and reversal of DNA methylation will be critical for understanding risk and resiliency. PMID:22880724
Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent studies have described an effective and ethologically relevant chronic social stress (CSS) based rodent model for postpartum depression and anxiety. Since CSS attenuates maternal behavior and impairs both dam and offspring growth, it was hypothesized that CSS is an ethologically relevant form of earlylife stress for the developing female offspring and may have effects on subsequent adult maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology Dams exposed to earlylife CSS as infants display substantial increases in pup retrieval and nursing behavior that are specifically associated with attenuated oxytocin, prolactin, and vasopressin gene expression in brain nuclei involved in the control of maternal behavior. Since the growth patterns of both groups were similar despite substantial increases in nursing duration, the earlylife CSS dams exhibited an attenuated nursing efficiency. It is concluded that earlylife CSS has long term effects on the neuroendocrinology of maternal care (oxytocin and prolactin) which results in decreased nursing efficiency in the adult dams. The data support the use of earlylife CSS as an effective model for stress-induced impairments in nursing, such as those associated with postpartum depression and anxiety. PMID:22770862
WorkLifePrograms - Family Friendly Services Child Care Services Flexible Work Arrangements (FWA) Â· On-campus child care centers Â· Flex work Â· Community child care centers Â· Telecommuting Â· Camps Â· Compressed workweek Â· WorkLifePrograms child care website Â· Job share Â· WorkLifePrograms child care
Improving care at end of life (EOL) in the intensive care unit (ICU) remains a challenge, especially for older adults, who face a high likelihood of mortality or profound functional impairment with admission to the ICU and use of life-sustaining treatment (LST) such as mechanical ventilation. Multiple factors pose a barrier to high-quality EOL care that is consistent with patient preferences and values. This article outlines key contributory factors to this problem and offers, as a solution, a proposal for earlier engagement with decisional surrogates to clearly define the surrogate role; outline the risks, benefits, and alternatives to LSTs in use; and clarify patient-specific goals of care. Nurses should play a pivotal role in the development of programs to implement early discussion of goals of care, and they are instrumental in identifying patients at risk and facilitating early engagement with surrogates in facilities where such programs exist. Research that systematically evaluates outcomes of such protocols is needed to guide policy for patient-centered EOL care in the ICU. PMID:23758112
Objectives An implicit measure of early-life family conditions was created to help address potential biases in responses to self-reported questionnaires of early-life family environments. We investigated whether a computerized affect attribution paradigm designed to capture implicit, affective responses (anger, fear, warmth) regarding early-life family environments was a) stable over time, b) associated with self-reports of childhood family environments, c) able to predict adult psychosocial profiles (perceived social support, heightened vigilance), and d) able to predict adult cardiovascular risk (blood pressure) either alone or in conjunction with a measure of early-life socioeconomic status. Method Two studies were conducted to examine reliability and validity of the affect attribution paradigm (Study 1, N = 94) and associated adult psychosocial outcomes and cardiovascular risk (Study 2, N = 122). Results Responses on the affect attribution paradigm showed significant correlations over a 6-month period, and were moderately associated with self-reports of childhood family environments. Greater attributed negative affect about early-life family conditions predicted lower levels of current perceived social support and heightened vigilance in adulthood. Attributed negative affect also interacted with early-life socioeconomic status to marginally predict resting systolic blood pressure, such that those individuals high in early-life SES but who had implicit negative affect attributed to early-life family conditions had SBP levels that were as high as individuals low in early-life SES. Conclusions Implicit measures of early-life family conditions are a useful approach for assessing the psychosocial nature of early-life environments and linking them to adult psychosocial and physiological health profiles. PMID:21644806
Chan, Meanne; Chen, Edith; Hibbert, Anita S.; Wong, Jennifer H. K.; Miller, Gregory E.
The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.813.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100300?°C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301
The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301
Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health early psychosis intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication, and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program, where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment, where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study that evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
Fredrikson, Diane H.; Boyda, Heidi N.; Tse, Lurdes; Whitney, Zachary; Pattison, Mark A.; Ott, Fred J.; Hansen, Laura; Barr, Alasdair M.
Background and aims The aim of this study was to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL) related to depression, anxiety, pain, physical\\u000a functioning and social aspects for severely injured trauma survivors by early onset cognitive behavioural therapy applied\\u000a on the surgical ward.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods The study was a randomised, controlled study. Of 298 primary screened patients 171 were eligible and randomised.
Nicola Pirente; Christine Blum; Silja Wortberg; Sevgi Bostanci; Eva Berger; Rolf Lefering; Bertil Bouillon; Klaus E. Rehm; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer
Background: Developmental periods in earlylife may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposurehealth effect relationships. The exposome concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the early-life exposome. Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 motherchild pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 motherchild pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposureresponse estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Thomsen C, Wright J, Athersuch TJ, Avellana N, Basagaña X, Brochot C, Bucchini L, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, Casas M, Estivill X, Fairley L, van Gent D, Gonzalez JR, Granum B, Graulevi?ien? R, Gutzkow KB, Julvez J, Keun HC, Kogevinas M, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Sabidó E, Schwarze PE, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Want EJ, Zeman F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2014. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design. Environ Health Perspect 122:535544;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204 PMID:24610234
Slama, Remy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagana, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Grazulevic?iene?, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabido, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valerie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of earlylife Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model earlylife versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (earlylife only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) earlylife Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their earlylife-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of earlylife insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961
Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.
Reproduction and earlylife history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus ceriums) was investigated during April to July in 1993 and 1994 in the St. Louis River, a western Lake Superior tributary. This study was conducted to assist fishery managers in determining possible interactions among the earlylife stages of ruffe and other North American percids, and in obtaining information useful in developing
William P. Brown; James H. Selgeby; Hollie L. Collins
The limited behavioral genetics research reported in the leadership literature has not investigated the degree to which earlylife experiences predict future emergence into leadership roles. This is the first study to focus on parenting style and earlylife experiences of rule breaking, and their relationships to leadership roles assumed in adulthood, while controlling for genetic and personality contributions. Using
Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 3,4-dichloroaniline in three acute exposures and two earlylife-stage exposures. Mean LC50's were 10.8, 9.37, and 7.58 mg/l at 24, 48, and 96 hr, respectively. In the first earlylife-stage test, control fish were smaller than...
Many of the plant communities where earlier plant growth has been observed during the late 20th and early 21st Centuries are in seasonally snow covered landscapes. In these communities, snow cover, temperatures, day length, soil moisture, and other environmental cues determine the timing and duration of the window within which plants green and fade annually. In short-statured plant communities where snow accumulates, such as in the alpine tundra, rapid plant growth only begins after the snow melts, but may not occur immediately following snowmelt, especially when snow melts early. Multiple climate cues protect plants from emerging too early in environments where early growth could lead to tissue loss or death. Similarly, perennial plants senesce (shift to dormancy) to prevent greater tissue loss or death when seasonal environments become unfavorable for growth and tissue maintenance. Our objective was to determine how early snowmelt and climate warming influence alpine plant life histories, and due to the unusual, early loss of snow cover in 2012, we had the opportunity to characterize alpine plant life histories in an extreme climate year. We monitored when species first expanded their leaves and when whole leaf color change first occurred. These life history events mark the onset of the growing season and the onset of senescence for individual species and the plant community, which determine the window for plant growth. Subtle topographic features at our site and an experimental acceleration of snowmelt (via radiation absorbing shadecloth) led to variation in the timing of snowmelt (April 8 to May 10) across the 10 plots (8 m x 12 m) within our experiment. Within each plot, we monitored 1m x 1m control and experimentally warmed areas (via open top chambers). We found that earlier snowmelt lengthened the window for plant growth in the alpine tundra, because many species expanded their leaves within a few days to a week following snowmelt. However, warming shortened the window for plant growth due to earlier leaf loss. The summer of 2012 was unusual, because snowmelt was exceptionally early, temperatures were high, and almost no precipitation fell (< 1 cm) in May and June. Thus, species began senescing in early to mid June, when in a typical year snowmelt and leaf expansion would be occurring. For some species, the window for plant growth was over before it would typically have begun and prior to when monsoon rains typically begin in early July. This unusual timing for alpine plant life histories may be more common when winter and summer climates change.
The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.
Due to the recognition and diagnosis of breast cancer in increasingly early stages, quality of life becomes an important part of treatment beyond the efficacy indicators. In the scientific literature quality of life data related to adjuvant treament of early breast cancer is poorly represented. Our aim was collecting data to capture the changes in quality of life of postmenopausal, early breast cancer patients. This multicenter, prospective, observational, non-interventional study enrolled 1502 postmenopausal, early stage breast cancer patients. The answers to the QoL questionnaire were rated on a scale from 0 to 100. Overall the patients judged their working ability fairly negative at the start however, this parameter improved by the end of the survey. According to earlier studies the physical parameters deteriorated more significantly among patients belonging to the elderly (?65 years) age group compared to younger patients. This correlation was confirmed by our study as well. Our results however are somewhat conflicting with the observations by Fehlauer et al (14) that younger patients show greater absolute and relative functional deterioration in their physical status compared to middle-aged or elderly patients. Fatigue appeared in the same rate among different age groups, while deterioration in vitality and daily functionality levels could persist for several years. Based on our findings the elderly patient's care needs special attention from treating personnel. PMID:23236594
Elevated levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (CDPM) are a risk factor for the development of lung diseases such as asthma. Studies have shown that CDPM exacerbates asthma, inducing acute lung dysfunction and inflammation; however, the impact of CDPM exposure on early immunological responses to allergens remains unclear. To determine the effects of early-life CDPM exposure on allergic asthma development in infants, we exposed infant mice to CDPM and then induced a mouse model of asthma using house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Mice exposed to CDPM+HDM failed to develop a typical asthma phenotype including airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2-inflammation, Muc5ac expression, eosinophilia, and HDM-specific Ig compared to HDM-exposed mice. Although HDM-specific IgE was attenuated, total IgE was two-fold higher in CDPM+HDM mice compared to HDM-mice. We further demonstrate that CDPM exposure during earlylife induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung, concurrent with increases in tolerogenic dendritic cells and Tregs, resulting in suppression of Th2 responses. Despite having early immunosuppression, these mice develop severe allergic inflammation when challenged with allergen as adults. These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby CDPM exposure modulates adaptive immunity, inducing specific-antigen tolerance while amplifying total IgE, and leading to a predisposition to develop asthma upon rechallenge later in life. PMID:24172848
The Early Risers prevention program aims to alter the developmental trajectory of children with early onset aggressive behavior. The program features 4 CORE components: (a) an annual 6-week summer school program, (b) a teacher consultation and student mentoring program, (c) child social skills groups, and (d) parent education and skills-training groups, all delivered in tandem with a FLEX family support
Gerald J. August; George M. Realmuto; Joel M. Hektner; Michael L. Bloomquist
In recent years there has been a greater emphasis on support, guidance and orientation programs for early career teachers, referred to as induction programs. Though on a smaller scale, similar induction programs have been implemented for early career principals as well. This study provides information on whether such programs have a positive
One concern frequently cited regarding early childhood programs is that methods for assessing some of their more important objectives are inadequate or nonexistent. This paper addresses this concern in the areas of health, safety, nutrition, dental health, and physical development during the preschool years. An organizing framework for classifying
There is considerable evidence that the early climate of Mars was very different from the inhospitable conditions there today. This early climate was characterized by liquid water on the surface and a dense atmosphere composed predominantly of CO2. The duration of these warm initial conditions on the surface of Mars is uncertain, but theoretical models suggest that they could have persisted for hundreds of millions up to a billion years. From studies of the earth's earliest biosphere, it is known that, by 3.5 Gyr ago, life had originated on earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally. Since over two thirds of the Martian surface is more than 3.5 Gyr old, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life, even though there may be no life there today.
This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410
Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J.; Novak, Matthew F. X.; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J.
- sophical developments as they pertain to medical discourses during the early modern period. Susan Hardman Moore. Abandoning America: Life-Stories from Early New England. Woodbridge, UK: #2;e Boydell Press, #18;#17;#16;#30;. xxviii + #1;#16;#18; pp.... + #18; illus. $#12;#14;.#17;#17;. Review by #19; #11;#11; #8;? ?. #29;#23;#24;#28; #23;#6;, #22;#26; #27;#28;#21;#29; #25;#20; ?? #25;#28;#4;#8;#29; #8;#25; #8;#22;#29;#25; #26;. In Abandoning America Susan Hardman Moore begins with a salient point...
Although the underlying pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is unknown it is clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors in earlylife predispose to disease risk. Preclinical research increasingly suggests an important role for the GABAB receptor in modulating anxiety behaviour, with GABAB receptor deficient mice having increased anxiety behaviour. Previous studies have highlighted critical windows during development where adult anxiety behaviour is primed. However, little is known regarding the role played by the GABAB receptors in the developmental processes that underlie adult anxiety behaviour. To this end, we treated male BALB/c mouse pups with the either the selective GABAB receptor agonist, R-baclofen (2 mg/kg, s.c), the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432 (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) or vehicle from postnatal days (P) 14-28. The anxiety behaviour of these mice was then assessed in adulthood (P62 onwards) in a battery of behavioural tests comprising; the stress induced hyperthermia (SIH) test, defensive marble burying (DMB), elevated-plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST). Postnatal R-baclofen treatment resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM as shown by approach-avoidance and ethological measures. Other behavioural measures were not significantly altered. Interestingly, blockade of GABAB receptors with CGP52432 in earlylife caused no alterations in emotional behaviour. These data suggest that during earlylife GABAB receptor signalling can play a functional role in programing anxiety behaviour in adulthood. The underlying neurodevelopmental processes underlying these effects remain to be discovered. PMID:24050962
Sweeney, Fabian F; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F
BackgroundAcquisition of the intestinal microbiota in earlylife corresponds with the development of the mucosal immune system. Recent work on caesarean-delivered infants revealed that early microbial composition is influenced by birthing method and environment. Furthermore, we have confirmed that early-life environment strongly influences both the adult gut microbiota and development of the gut immune system. Here, we address the impact
Imke E. Mulder; Bettina Schmidt; Marie Lewis; Margaret Delday; Christopher R. Stokes; Mick Bailey; Rustam I. Aminov; Bhupinder P. Gill; John R. Pluske; Claus-Dieter Mayer; Denise Kelly
Background: Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that 2 wheezing syndromes coexist in earlylife: transient wheezing, limited to early childhood, and persistent wheezing, which starts in early childhood and persists beyond that age. Objective: Whether the nature of the immune response occurring during acute lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs) in infancy differs between these 2 groups of wheezers has yet to be
Fernando D. Martinez; Debra A. Stern; Anne L. Wright; Lynn M. Taussig; Marilyn Halonen
The earlylife stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of earlylife stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.
This study examined the proportion of men and women reporting previous traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an Ontario (Canada) prison sample by demographic characteristics; adverse life experiences; and criminal, drug, and alcohol use history. Using data from The Cost of Substance Abuse in Canada study based on a random sample from four Ontario prisons, this study found 50.4% of males and 38% of females reporting previous TBI. More TBIs occurred before the first crime for women than for men. Women with TBI experienced more early physical and sexual abuse than those without TBI. Additionally, this study shows high prevalence of earlylife experiences among persons, particularly women, with a history of TBI. Prisoners and prison staff should be educated on TBI and best practice for rehabilitation of TBI. PMID:25033995
Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 110]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A
The Pilbara contains the most complete sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks dating from 3.5 to 2.4 Ga. Because many of these rocks have experienced only low-grade metamorphism it is our best available natural laboratory for studying the origins and early evolution of life on Earth (and other planets) and the environments it inhabited. Indeed discoveries of the oldest possible
To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and earlylife exposure to sodium\\u000a arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water,\\u000a which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg\\/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral
Shuhua Xi; Wenjuan Sun; Fengzhi Wang; Yaping Jin; Guifan Sun
Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life- course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when
C Roustit; E Renahy; G Guernec; S Lesieur; I Parizot; P Chauvin
The earlylife history of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, was studied in 196567 to determine factors influencing year-class strength in a main stem Missouri River reservoir. Fish spawning occurred over a period of 67 weeks in June and July when water temperatures reached 18 C. Fecundity of fish 307 to 386 mm long and 69 years old ranged from 34,000
This study examines the relation between risk exposures in earlylife and hazard of mortality among 11,978 Union Army veterans aged 50 and over in 1900. Veterans' risk exposures prior to enlistment-as approximated by birth season, country of birth, residential region, city size, and height at enlistment-significantly influenced their chance of survival after 1900. These effects are robust irrespective of
Toxicity and histopathological effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) were studied in earlylife stages of minnows Phoxinus phoxinus. Eggs and yolk sac fry (newly hatched larvae) were exposed in a static-renewal procedure to aqueous TBT concentrations ranging from 0.82 to 19.51 µg\\/L for 3 to 10 days at 16°C and 21°C, respectively. Aqueous TBT concentrations were determined by capillary GC-FPD
ObjectiveThis study focused on geographic clustering of breast cancer based on residence in earlylife and identified spatio-temporal clustering of cases and controls. Methods: Data were drawn from the WEB study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study), a population-based casecontrol study of incident, pathologically confirmed breast cancer (19962001) in Erie and Niagara counties. Controls were frequency-matched to cases
Daikwon Han; Peter A. Rogerson; Jing Nie; Matthew R. Bonner; John E. Vena; Paola Muti; Maurizio Trevisan; Stephen B. Edge; Jo L. Freudenheim
Background In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Limitations Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. Conclusion We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group. PMID:20964960
Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight
Earlylife stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how earlylife stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats show a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by earlylife stress in an age- and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development. PMID:24600436
Loi, Manila; Koricka, Sylwia; Lucassen, Paul J; Joëls, Marian
Early-life respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in children with cystic fibrosis or immune deficits. Although many of its clinical manifestations involve neural reflexes, little information is available on the peripheral nervous system of infected airways. This study sought to determine whether early-life infection triggers a neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory response, the mechanisms of this response, and its relationship with other immunoinflammatory pathways. Weanling and adult rats were inoculated with suspensions containing P. aeruginosa (PAO1) coated on alginate microspheres suspended in Tris-CaCl2 buffer. Five days after infection, rats were injected with capsaicin to stimulate nociceptive nerves in the airway mucosa, and microvascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. PAO1 increased neurogenic inflammation in the extra- and intrapulmonary compartments of weanlings but not in adults. The mechanism involves selective overexpression of NGF, which is critical for the local increase in microvascular permeability and for the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into infected lung parenchyma. These effects are mediated in part by induction of downstream inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially IL-1?, IL-18, and leptin. Our data suggest that neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory mechanisms play important roles in airway inflammation and hyperreactivity associated with P. aeruginosa when infection occurs early in life. PMID:20543002
Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for childrens life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by earlylife adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to childrens environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224
Deleterious responses to pathogens during infancy may contribute to infection and associated asthma. Chlamydia respiratory infections in earlylife are common causes of pneumonia and lead to reduced lung function and asthma. We investigated the role of interleukin-13 (IL-13) in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and severe allergic airway disease (AAD). Infected infant Il13(-/-) mice had reduced infection, inflammation, and mucus-secreting cell hyperplasia. Surprisingly, infection of wild-type (WT) mice did not increase IL-13 production but reduced IL-13R?2 decoy receptor levels compared with sham-inoculated controls. Infection of WT but not Il13(-/-) mice induced persistent AHR. Infection and associated pathology were restored in infected Il13(-/-) mice by reconstitution with IL-13. Stat6(-/-) mice were also largely protected. Neutralization of IL-13 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe AAD. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection reduces IL-13R?2 production, which may enhance the effects of constitutive IL-13 and promote more severe infection, persistent AHR, and AAD. PMID:23131786
Starkey, M R; Essilfie, A T; Horvat, J C; Kim, R Y; Nguyen, D H; Beagley, K W; Mattes, J; Foster, P S; Hansbro, P M
Earlylife stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how earlylife stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats show a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by earlylife stress in an age- and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development. PMID:24600436
Loi, Manila; Koricka, Sylwia; Lucassen, Paul J.; Joels, Marian
The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. PMID:22266135
Insana, Salvatore P.; Kolko, David J.; Germain, Anne
... 2012-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...
... 2010-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...
... 2011-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...
... 2013-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...
Population turnover is necessary for progressive evolution. In the context of a niche with fixed carrying capacity, aging contributes to the rate of population turnover. Theoretically, a population in which death is programmed on a fixed schedule can evolve more rapidly than one in which population turnover is left to a random death rate. Could aging evolve on this basis? Quantitative realization of this idea is problematic, since the short-term individual fitness cost is likely to eliminate any hypothetical gene for programmed death before the long-term benefit can be realized. In 2011, one of us proposed the first quantitative model based on this mechanism that robustly evolves a finite, programmedlife span. That model was based on a viscous population in a rapidly changing environment. Here, we strip this model to its essence and eliminate the assumption of environmental change. We conclude that there is no obvious way in which this model is unrealistic, and that it may indeed capture an important principle of nature's workings. We suggest aging may be understood within the context of the emerging science of evolvability. PMID:25141139
Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Keplers Somnium and John Wilkins The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as habitability, and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.
Background: Early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase childhood obesity risk, but few prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this relationship. Objective: We sought to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) at 25 years of age in 297 motherchild pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (HOME Study). Methods: Urinary BPA concentrations were measured in samples collected from pregnant women during the second and third trimesters and their children at 1 and 2 years of age. BMI z-scores were calculated from weight/height measures conducted annually from 2 through 5 years of age. We used linear mixed models to estimate BMI differences or trajectories with increasing creatinine-normalized BPA concentrations. Results: After confounder adjustment, each 10-fold increase in prenatal (? = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.3) or early-childhood (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.6, 0.1) BPA concentrations was associated with a modest and nonsignificant reduction in child BMI. These inverse associations were suggestively stronger in girls than in boys [prenatal effect measure modification (EMM) p-value = 0.30, early-childhood EMM p-value = 0.05], but sex-specific associations were imprecise. Children in the highest early-childhood BPA tercile had lower BMI at 2 years (difference = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.6, 0.0) and larger increases in their BMI slope from 2 through 5 years (BMI increase per year = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) than children in the lowest tercile (BMI increase per year = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13). All associations were attenuated without creatinine normalization. Conclusions: Prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures were not associated with increased BMI at 25 years of age, but higher early-childhood BPA exposures were associated with accelerated growth during this period. Citation: Braun JM, Lanphear BP, Calafat AM, Deria S, Khoury J, Howe CJ, Venners SA. 2014. Early-life bisphenol A exposure and child body mass index: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 122:12391245;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408258 PMID:25073184
Lanphear, Bruce P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Deria, Sirad; Khoury, Jane; Howe, Chanelle J.; Venners, Scott A.
Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research. PMID:23443532
Background: Arsenic is a significant global environmental health problem. Exposure to arsenic in earlylife has been shown to increase the rate of respiratory infections during infancy, reduce childhood lung function, and increase the rates of bronchiectasis in early adulthood. Objective: We aimed to determine if earlylife exposure to arsenic exacerbates the response to earlylife influenza infection in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to arsenic in utero and throughout postnatal life. At 1 week of age, a subgroup of mice were infected with influenza A. We then assessed the acute and long-term effects of arsenic exposure on viral clearance, inflammation, lung structure, and lung function. Results: Earlylife arsenic exposure reduced the clearance of and exacerbated the inflammatory response to influenza A, and resulted in acute and long-term changes in lung mechanics and airway structure. Conclusions: Increased susceptibility to respiratory infections combined with exaggerated inflammatory responses throughout earlylife may contribute to the development of bronchiectasis in arsenic-exposed populations. Citation: Ramsey KA, Foong RE, Sly PD, Larcombe AN, Zosky GR. 2013. Earlylife arsenic exposure and acute and long-term responses to influenza A infection in mice. Environ Health Perspect 121:11871193;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306748 PMID:23968752
Foong, Rachel E.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme R.
We aim to explore the relationships between exposure to dampness, pets, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) early in life and asthma in Taiwanese children, and to discuss their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a 1:2 matched case-control study from the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide study that recruited 12-to-14 year-old school children in 14 communities. The 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone about their children's environmental exposures before they were 5 years old, including the in-utero period. Childhood asthma was associated with exposure to earlylife environmental factors, such as cockroaches (OR=2.16; 95% CI, 1.15-4.07), visible mould (OR=1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.67), mildewy odors (OR=5.04; 95% CI, 2.42-10.50), carpet (OR=2.36; 95% CI, 1.38-4.05), pets (OR=2.11; 95% CI, 1.20-3.72), and more than one hour of ETS per day (OR=1.93; 95% CI, 1.16-3.23). The ORs for mildewy odors, feather pillows, and ETS during early childhood were greater among children with late-onset asthma. Cockroaches, carpet, pets, and in-utero exposures to ETS affected the timing of early-onset asthma. Exposure to these factors led to dose-responsiveness in the risk of asthma. And the earlier exposures may trigger the earlier onset. Interventions in avoiding these environmental exposures are necessary for early-prevention of childhood asthma. PMID:21835690
Chen, Yang-Ching; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo
Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in earlylife could therefore give rise to a time bomb that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221
Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat
This article evaluates the utility of the Early Authors Program, a 12-month early literacy intervention emphasizing highly meaningful language interactions that was implemented in childcare facilities in an ethnically and linguistically diverse, urban, low-income community. Children learn to be writers and readers by creating their own self-authored, storybook texts, supported by the sensitive guidance of adults. Children (n = 280)
Judith K. Bernhard; Adam Winsler; Charles Bleiker; Jorge Ginieniewicz; Amy L. Madigan
During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in earlylife. Earlylife insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1), and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS) at P10. As earlylife stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to epileptogenesis in a gender-specific manner. PMID:22880055
A history of earlylife adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA. PMID:23407595
The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of advanced studies for the professional staff working in the field of early childhood education (ECE). Until 2001, Israeli MA programs were controlled exclusively by Israeli universities. The article deals with the development of MEd programs in Israeli colleges of education, using the Early Childhood Education program to exemplify the
...for early feasibility study investigational device...for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain...the pilot program are medical devices for which...3. Limited clinical study of the device...
A review of early childhood programs of the sixties is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: Converging Forces and Orthodoxies; Educational Programming; Review Criteria and Procedures; Program Review Structural Outline; Instructional Systems; Delivery Systems; Evaluation Systems; and Support Systems. The problems of
At George Mason University, the University Life office charged a university-wide committee to improve the coherence and coordination of collaborative programming. By designing and funding more diverse programming, the University Life office offers programs that are more inclusive of the campuses ethnic and cultural subgroups. Article provides an
As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of earlylife. Using data on 4,972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of famine exposure in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (19591961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR= 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: ?1.59, ?0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. PMID:23313495
Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris. PMID:15907068
The Sam Houston State University Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa used a 32-item questionnaire to collect discrete data on early childhood programs in Texas. Also collected were individuals' impressions, attitudes, and readiness plans for early childhood program expansion. The survey was a response to legislative developments, particularly a 1990 Texas
A lot of data in literature shows the importance of early stressful life events for the later existence and possible difficulties including suicide behaviours in adult life. The aim of the study was to identify the intensity of traumatic events in childhood and adolescence and distinguish the most significant categories of those events. Remarkable is the fact that the patients who experienced in the childhood situations of emotional abuse focused on the negative attitude of the environment (79%) and physical violence (78%) represented the largest proportion of subjects. Specific difficulties during childhood and adolescence among patients after suicide attempts were proven. Patients after suicide attempts in a large extent early experienced situations connected with emotional distance, negative feedback from the environment, manifestations of rejection and humiliation and misunderstanding. Males more than females declared experiencing situations classified as physical violence, low economic status of the family, interpersonal loss and general trauma. Comparatively often both groups pointed at perilous parents' acts. Females more often pointed at events concerning sexual domain. Very strong emotions assisted stressful life events, particularly significant among females and characterized by anxiety and helplessness. Patients after suicide attempts most often described their fathers as over controlling, demanding and intrusive with the deficiency of care and protectiveness. This pattern was equally distinct in the group of females and males. PMID:24466693
Musikowska, Barbara; Ma?gorzata, Kubiak; Sein Anand, Jacek
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, manifests mostly late in adult life. However, it is presently unclear when the disease process starts and how long the pathobiochemical processes take to develop. Our goal is to address the timing and nature of triggers that lead to AD. To explain the etiology of AD, we have recently proposed a "Latent Early-life Associated Regulation" (LEARn) model, which postulates a latent expression of specific genes triggered at the developmental stage. This model integrates both the neuropathological features (e.g., amyloid-loaded plaques and tau-laden tangles) and environmental factors (e.g., diet, metal exposure, and hormones) associated with the disease. Environmental agents perturb gene regulation in a long-term fashion, beginning at early developmental stages, but these perturbations do not have pathological results until significantly later in life. The LEARn model operates through the regulatory region (promoter) of the gene and by affecting the methylation status within the promoter of specific genes. PMID:18668339
Reduced fecundity has been associated with some alleles that enhance longevity in invertebrate and mammalian models. This observation has been suggested to support the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging, which predicts that alleles of some genes promoting fitness early in life have detrimental effects later in life that limit survival. In only a few cases, however, has the relative fitness of long-lived mutants been quantified through direct competition with the wild type genotype. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of longevity/fitness trade-offs by measuring the relative fitness of 49 long-lived yeast variants in a direct competition assay with wild type cells. We find that 32 (65%) of these variants show a significant defect in fitness in this competition assay. In 26 (81%) of these cases, this reduction in fitness can be partially accounted for by reduced maximal growth rate during earlylife, usually resulting from a G0/G1-specific cell cycle defect. A majority of the less fit longevity-enhancing variants are associated with reduced mRNA translation. These findings are therefore consistent with the idea that enhanced longevity often comes with a fitness cost and suggest that this cost is often associated with variation in a subset of longevity factors, such as those regulating mRNA translation, growth and reproduction. PMID:21191185
Delaney, Joe R; Murakami, Christopher J; Olsen, Brady; Kennedy, Brian K
Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1?µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed earlylife stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair earlylife stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined. PMID:23297254
King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J
Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in earlylife and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts. PMID:25062846
Pembrey, Marcus; Saffery, Richard; Bygren, Lars Olov
Conditions at the surface of the young (Hadean and early Archean) Earth were suitable for the emergence and evolution of life. After an initial hot period, surface temperatures in the late Hadean may have been clement beneath an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases over an ocean-dominated planetary surface. The first crust was mafic and it internally melted repeatedly to produce the felsic rocks that crystallized the Jack Hills zircons. This crust was destabilized during late heavy bombardment. Plate tectonics probably started soon after and had produced voluminous continental crust by the mid Archean, but ocean volumes were sufficient to submerge much of this crust. In the Hadean and early Archean, hydrothermal systems around abundant komatiitic volcanism may have provided suitable sites to host the earliest living communities and for the evolution of key enzymes. Evidence from the Isua Belt, Greenland, suggests life was present by 3.8 Gya, and by the mid-Archean, the geological record both in the Pilbara in Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa shows that microbial life was abundant, probably using anoxygenic photosynthesis. By the late Archean, oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved, transforming the atmosphere and permitting the evolution of eukaryotes.
Although work-related asthma and allergies are a huge burden for society, investigation of occupational exposures in early work life using an unexposed reference group is rare. Thus, the present analyses aimed to assess the potential impact of occupational exposure and other risk factors on the prevalence of work-related sensitisation and incidence of allergic rhinitis/asthma using a population-based approach and taking into account an unexposed reference group. In SOLAR (Study on Occupational Allergy Risks) II, German participants of ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase II were followed from childhood (9-11 years) until early adulthood (19-24 years). Data on 1570 participants were available to fit predictive models. Occupational exposure was not statistically significantly associated with disease prevalence/incidence. Sensitisation in childhood, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke exposure during puberty, sex and study location were statistically significant predictors of outcome. Our results indicate that occupational exposure is of little relevance for work-related sensitisation prevalence and allergic rhinitis/asthma incidence in early work life, while other risk factors can be used to improve career guidance for adolescents. Further research on the role of a potential healthy hire effect and the impact of longer exposure duration is needed. PMID:24969650
The fish earlylife-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, we outline and illustrate an overall strategy for discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swimbladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, we explored the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge and, in the process, identify important knowledge gaps. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. PMID:24115264
??Evaluating factors affecting survivorship during earlylife stages of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.), is essential to understand mechanisms of the population outbreaks. The (more)
Background Young children are at risk of not meeting physical activity recommendations. Identifying factors from the first year of life which influence toddlers physical activity levels may help to develop targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine early childhood predictors of toddlers physical activity across the domains of maternal beliefs and behaviours, infant behaviours and the home environment. Methods Data from 206 toddlers (53% male) participating in the Melbourne InFANT Program were collected in 20082010 and analysed in 2012. Mothers completed a survey of physical activity predictors when their child was 4- (T1) and 9- months old (T2). Physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers at 19- months (T3) of age. Results One infant behaviour at T1 and one maternal belief and two infant behaviours at T2 showed associations with physical activity at T3 and were included in multivariate analyses. After adjusting for the age at which the child started walking and maternal education, the time spent with babies of a similar age at 4-months (??=?0.06, 95% CI [0.02, 0.10]) and the time spent being physically active with their mother at 9-months (??=?0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 0.12]) predicted childrens physical activity at 19-months of age. Conclusions Promotion of peer-interactions and maternal-child co-participation in physical activity could serve as a health promotion strategy to increase physical activity in young children. Future research is required to identify other earlylife predictors not assessed in this study and to examine whether these factors predict physical activity in later life stages. PMID:24188589
A low-expressing polymorphic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene has been associated with emotional disorders\\u000a in humans and non-human primates following exposure to earlylife trauma. 5-HTT gene knockout (KO) mice exhibit increased\\u000a anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, and provide a model to study interactions between 5-HTT gene variation and early\\u000a life stress. The present study assessed the effects of
Jenna C. Carroll; Janel M. Boyce-Rustay; Rachel Millstein; Rebecca Yang; Lisa M. Wiedholz; Dennis L. Murphy; Andrew Holmes
The monograph presents guidelines for early intervention services for handicapped infants and their families. Guidelines are the result of a 1980 conference on health issues in early identification programs. Three state of the art papers are included: "Infancy, What We Know and What We Need to Know as a Basis for Intervention" by A. Korner; "Child
Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in earlylife. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses too many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in earlylife. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in earlylife, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs). It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limiting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine-induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future. PMID:25309517
Exposure to earlylife stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between earlylife adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 114. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs already high physiological response to stress stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs (but not bHRs) neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals response to earlylife stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals. PMID:24090131
Exposure to earlylife stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between earlylife adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3?h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to earlylife stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals. PMID:24090131
Tradeoffs between reproduction and somatic maintenance are a frequently cited explanation for reproductive senescence in long-lived vertebrates. Between-individual variation in quality makes such tradeoffs difficult to detect and evidence for their presence from wild populations remains scarce. Here, we examine the factors affecting rates of senescence in maternal breeding performance in a natural population of red deer (Cervus elaphus), using a mixed model framework to control for between-individual variance. Senescence began at 9 years of age in two maternal performance traits. In both traits, females that produced more offspring in earlylife had faster rates of senescence. This tradeoff is evident alongside significant effects of individual quality on late life breeding performance. These results present rare evidence in support of the disposable soma and antagonistic pleiotropy theories of senescence from a wild vertebrate population and highlight the utility of mixed models for testing theories of ageing. PMID:17118008
Nussey, Daniel H; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Donald, Alison; Fowlie, Martin; Clutton-Brock, Tim H
Traumatic experiences in childhood can alter behavioural responses and increase the risk for psychopathologies across life, not only in the exposed individuals but also in their progeny. In some conditions, such experiences can however be beneficial and facilitate the appraisal of adverse environments later in life. Here we expose newborn mice to unpredictable maternal separation combined with unpredictable maternal stress (MSUS) for 2 weeks and assess the impact on behaviour in the offspring when adult. We show that MSUS in male mice favours goal-directed behaviours and behavioural flexibility in the adult offspring. This effect is accompanied by epigenetic changes involving histone post-translational modifications at the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene and decreased MR expression in the hippocampus. Mimicking these changes pharmacologically in vivo reproduces the behavioural phenotype. These findings highlight the beneficial impact that early adverse experiences can have in adulthood, and the implication of epigenetic modes of gene regulation. PMID:25405779
Microbial mats are layered communities of bacteria that form cohesive structures, some of which are preserved in sedimentary rocks as stromatolites. Certain rocks, approximately three and a half thousand million years old and representing the oldest known fossils, are interpreted to derive from microbial mats and to contain fossils of microorganisms. Modern microbial mats (such as the one described here from Matanzas, Cuba) and their fossil counterparts are of great interest in the interpretation of earlylife on Earth. Since examination of microbial mats and stromatolites increases our understanding of long-term stability and change, within the global environment, such structures should be protected wherever possible as natural science preserves. Furthermore, since they have existed virtually from the time of life's origin, microbial mats have developed exemplary mechanisms of local community persistence and may even play roles in the larger global environment that we do not understand.
Margulis, L.; Lopez Baluja, L.; Awramik, S. M.; Sagan, D.
Earlylife experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. PMID:24246856
Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S
";ill;i~erat of the req. tire. ';;e )i, for tlute d-~ree of PASTER OF SCIENCE December l971 SOME PHYS IOLOG ICAL EFF ECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE EARLYLIFE STAGES OF THE ESTUARINE TELEOST FUNDULUS S IMILIS. A Thesis MAYNE LEROY MCCULLOCH Approved as to styl e... the larvae just prior to exposure to avoid losses due to starvation. Solutions were changed every 24 hours and at that time dead anima', s were removed and recorded. Criteria for death in eo bryos was cessa!ion of heartbeat; for larvae, lack of op...
Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stressearly stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320
Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.
Introduction: The Apollo program demonstrated that the Earth-Moon system was targeted by impacting asteroids and comets far more frequently than that suggested by the small number of surviving craters on Earth. Because Apollo missions returned samples to Earth, a quantitative chronology of that impact flux began to emerge, indicating most impact craters on the Moon were produced during an early period of bombardment that ended ~3.85 Ga. These ages suggested that similar impact cratering events on the Earth affected the origin and early evolution of life. Because impact cratering is a continuing process, we also realize that the processes, even at scales far smaller than basin-forming events, pose a hazard for modern life. However, the details of the impact flux remain murky, because so few samples have been analyzed and many of those analyzed are without geologic context. Consequently, one of the most important scientific goals of renewed lunar exploration, both robotic and human, will be to collect appropriate samples to deduce impact cratering's effect on the fabric of life on Earth. Early Earth Bombardment: Ar-Ar, U-Pb, and Rb-Sr analyses of Apollo-era samples suggest early bombardment may have been particularly intense in a <200 Ma interval that ended ~3.85 Ga [Turner et al., 1973; Tera et al., 1974; Dalrymple and Ryder, 1996], which is consistent with more recent analyses of lunar meteorites [Cohen et al., 2000, 2005]. Although the source of debris remains controversial, geochemical [Kring and Cohen, 2002] and geological [Strom et al., 2005] fingerprints suggest an asteroid source. This bombardment is a process that appears to have also affected the entire inner solar system [Bogard, 1995; Kring and Cohen, 2002] and, thus, potentially habitable conditions on early Mars too [Abramov and Kring, 2004]. The volume of data is still insufficient, however, to confidently assess the temporal extent or magnitude of any brief period of bombardment. Additional samples are needed to test the hypothesis further. Specifically, a collection of impact melts unambiguously tied to large craters and basins are needed for detailed petrologic, geochemical, and radiometric age analyses. These should be selected to represent the entire distribution of relative ages among large basin-forming events, and of lunar geographic locations. The highest priority sample is an impact melt sample from the South Pole-Aitken basin-forming event. These same samples can also be used to test the source of projectiles. This will, in turn, permit an analysis of the delivery of biogenic elements during, and environmental consequences of, the bombardment. Some of the consequences were detrimental, but these same impact events may have generated vast hydrothermal systems that were critical for the origin and early evolution of life. Post-Bombardment Impact Flux: The Chicxulub impact crater and its link to the K/Pg mass extinction event demonstrates that the post-bombardment impact flux was still sufficient to cause dramatic biological upheaval on Earth. In addition to the flux of sporadic impact events, it will be important to determine if there were episodic storms of impact activity. This requires precise analyses of lunar impact melt ages from a moderate number of post-3.8 Ga impact craters and an accurate determination of the relative number of impact events that occur between those absolute benchmark ages. These analyses will allow us to determine the role impact cratering has had in the biologic evolution of Earth, how impact cratering has perturbed the climate, and the hazards other impactors pose for Earth in the future.
here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the sameHabitat of earlylife: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4Â3.5 billion years ago of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables
In this paper, we use data from a representative sample of Irish people to investigate inequalities in self-assessed health and examine, for the first time in Ireland, the degree to which these inequalities can be accounted for by processes occurring over the life-course. Research in a number of countries has now shown that earlylife exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage and
Sickle blade life-history and the transition to agriculture: an early Neolithic case study from Department of Biology, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 t In Southwest Asia, sickle blades first appear early in the sequence of the transition to agriculture
Retention mechanisms of white perch (Morone americana) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) early and retention mecha- nisms of white perch (Morone americana) and striped bass (M. saxatilis) early-life stages- gested that retention of larval fish could result from tracking prey. Comparing fixed-station and mapping
With increased numbers of women employed in their children's first year of life and with increased attention being paid by parents and policy makers to the importance of early experiences for children, establishing the links that might exist between early maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes is more important than ever. Negative associations between maternal employment during the first year
This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.
This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.
Preparing students in the early childhood field to work with children both with and without disabilities and to collaborate with different professionals is an important endeavor for colleges and universities. The purpose of this paper is to articulate a unique model of program collaboration between early childhood special education and early childhood regular education that demonstrates a cohesive preservice teacher
Linda L. Hestenes; Karen Laparo; Catherine Scott-Little; Swetha Chakravarthi; Joanna K. Lower; Angie Cranor; Deborah J. Cassidy; Judith Niemeyer
Since 1965, Head Start has provided high quality early education and comprehensive support services to the nation's poorest children from ages 3 through school age. In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of poor children under age 3 and pregnant women. Head Start and Early Head Start's
Early childhood is a critical time for cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Many states have invested in comprehensive early childhood care and education systems that offer a wide range of supports and services to families from the prenatal period through school entry. Home visiting programs are an important component of state early
As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to intensify activities for development of the Space Station, decisions must be made concerning the technical state of the art that will be baselined for the initial Space Station system. These decisions are important because significant potential exists for enhancing system performance and for reducing life-cycle costs. However, intelligent decisions cannot be made without an adequate assessment of new and ready technologies, i.e., technologies which are sufficiently mature to allow predevelopment demonstrations to prove their application feasibility and to quantify the risk associated with their development. Therefore, the NASA has implemented a technology development program which includes the establishment of generic test bed capabilities in which these new technologies and approaches can be tested at the prototype level. One major Space Station subsystem discipline in which this program has been implemented is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Previous manned space programs such as Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle have relied heavily on consumables to provide environmental control and life support services. However, with the advent of a long-duration Space Station, consumables must be reduced within technological limits to minimize Space Station resupply penalties and operational costs. The use of advanced environmental control and life support approaches involving regenerative processes offers the best solution for significant consumables reduction while also providing system evolutionary growth capability. Consequently, the demonstration of these "new technologies" as viable options for inclusion in the baseline that will be available to support a Space Station initial operational capability in the early 1990's becomes of paramount importance. The mechanism by which the maturity of these new regenerative life support technologies will be demonstrated is the Space Station ECLSS Test Bed Program. The Space Station ECLSS Test Bed Program, which is managed by the NASA, is designed to parallel and to provide continuing support to the Space Station Program. The prime objective of this multiphase test bed program is to provide viable, mature, and enhancing technical options in time for Space Station implementation. To accomplish this objective, NASA is actively continuing the development and testing of critical components and engineering preprototype subsystems for urine processing, washwater recovery, water quality monitoring, carbon dioxide removal and reduction, and oxygen generation. As part of the ECLSS Test Bed Program, these regenerative subsystems and critical components are tested in a development laboratory to characterize subsystem performance and to identify areas in which further technical development is required. Proven concepts are then selected for development into prototype subsystems in which flight issues such as packaging and maintenance are addressed. These subsystems then are to be assembled as an integrated system and installed in an integrated systems test bed facility for extensive unmanned and manned testing.
An approach to designing field-based practicum opportunities for preservice students is described. First, the importance of quality field experiences is presented, together with a conceptual framework. Second, foundational and philosophical perspectives in early childhood and early intervention (EI) and early childhood special education (ECSE)
The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to
Waisman Early Childhood Program Meteors Summer 2014 Program Mailing Address: WECP Meteors, 1500 children to our Summer Meteor Program. Please help us by providing the following information: Does your fees are due the first of each month. Office Â Date Received: L: Meteors/Application #12;
Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to
This document consists of a six-panel promotional brochure and a 15-page program description, both detailing the Developing a Partnership (DAP) in Early Childhood Education Program. This Los Angeles County, California, preschool/primary school training effort aims to enhance teaching and parenting skills through early childhood education. It also
Champagne Prototyping: A Research Technique for Early Evaluation of Complex End-User Programming@microsoft.com Abstract Although a variety of evaluation techniques are available to researchers of visual and end-budget research technique for use during the early prototyping phase of designing changes to end-user programming
This article examines an extraordinarily successful early childhood education teacher preparation program at an urban 2-year college struggling with retention. The Early Childhood Education Program in this case study is able to maintain a graduation rate that is over four times greater than that of the college average and has a reputation for
A 1987 study, which involved 26 male and 805 female early childhood workers from 85 center-based programs in 20 states, was conducted to develop a social-ecological perspective on professional orientation and job satisfaction and on structural components of early childhood programs. Professional orientation is characterized by a person's emphasis
The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult, life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with parents, peers, and romantic partners that served as indicators of a latent construct of social capital depth, and (b) a measure of number of close friends. In follow-up interviews at age 24, participants reported on their behavioral adjustment, educational attainment, and arrests and illicit substance use. Early-adolescent assessments of behavioral adjustment and academic performance served as controls; data on what were construed as interpersonal assets (teacher-rated social skills) and opportunities (family income) were also collected at this time. Results showed that depth was associated with overall better young-adult adjustment, net of prior adjustment, and assets and opportunities. Breadth was only modestly associated with later outcomes, and when its overlap with depth was taken into account, breadth predicted higher levels of subsequent externalizing problems. These findings are consistent with the notion that social capital is multidimensional and that elements of