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1

Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease  

PubMed Central

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374

Vickers, Mark H.

2014-01-01

2

Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review.  

PubMed

Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed 'programming' and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. PMID:24479490

Langley-Evans, S C

2015-01-01

3

The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function  

PubMed Central

Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

2015-01-01

4

Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders  

PubMed Central

This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

2014-01-01

5

Vitamin D deficiency in early life and the potential programming of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency is a major worldwide public health problem affecting people of all ages, from infants to the elderly. Of particular concern is the high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in women during pregnancy and lactation, leading to the exposure of the growing fetus/infant to inadequate levels of vitamin D, which is essential for normal development. Vitamin D deficiency in adulthood is linked to the etiology of hypertension and to a multitude of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. It is now well-established that the antecedents of cardiovascular disease can originate very early in life. The purpose of this review is to highlight how maternal vitamin D deficiency, and its effects in upregulating the fetal renin-angiotensin system and altering cardiomyocyte growth in the fetal heart, has the potential to program long-term vulnerability to cardiovascular disease. PMID:23719723

Gezmish, Oksan; Black, Mary Jane

2013-08-01

6

Frank A. Beach award: programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: a critical role for the immune system.  

PubMed

Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal Escherichia coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. PMID:23474365

Bilbo, Staci D

2013-05-01

7

Lung Dendritic Cell Developmental Programming, Environmental Stimuli, and Asthma in Early Periods of Life  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are important cells of our innate immune system. Their role is critical in inducing adaptive immunity, tolerance, or allergic response in peripheral organs—lung and skin. The lung DCs are not developed prenatally before birth. The DCs develop after birth presumably during the first year of life; exposures to any foreign antigen or infectious organisms during this period can significantly affect DC developmental programming and generation of distinct DC phenotypes and functions. These changes can have both short-term and long-term health effects which may be very relevant in childhood asthma and predisposition for a persistent response in adulthood. An understanding of DC development at molecular and cellular levels can help in protecting neonates and infants against problematic environmental exposures and developmental immunotoxicity. This knowledge can eventually help in designing novel pharmacological modulators to skew the DC characteristics and immune responses to benefit the host across a lifetime. PMID:23209481

Awasthi, Shanjana; Singh, Bhupinder; Welliver, Robert C.; Dietert, Rodney R.

2012-01-01

8

Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2012-01-01

9

Early Life Exposures and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

10

The Early Years: "Life" Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2013-01-01

11

SCIENCE Program early science program  

E-print Network

SCIENCE Program early science program Early at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility CONTACT: 150 Million Hours Using Multi-scale Dynamic Rupture Models to Improve Ground Motion Estimates PI Based on a Polarizable Force Field PI: Benoit Roux The University of Chicago Award: 80 Million Hours

Kemner, Ken

12

Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

PubMed Central

We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

2014-01-01

13

Cost-Effective Early Childhood Development Programs: A Synthesis of Evidence in the First Decade of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In recent years, greater attention has been given to promoting child well-being throughout the entire period of early childhood. We summarize evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of early childhood development programs from birth to age 10. Findings from17 estimates of 16 programs were emphasized. Birth to age 3 interventions including nutritional education and home visitation show family, health

Arthur J. Reynolds; Judy A. Temple; Barry A. White

14

Early Life Conditions and Later Life Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although the idea that early life conditions shape mortality is not new, there has been a resurgence of studies on the topic\\u000a in the last two decades. In our review of this work, we weigh the evidence for the major causal mechanisms, i.e., biological\\u000a imprint and pathway processes, thought to underlie the associations between childhood conditions and adult mortality. We

Jennifer Karas Montez; Mark D. Hayward

15

Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115

Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

2013-01-01

16

Early Career Development Program  

E-print Network

Early Career Development Program Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Council For more Association 9/14DS8669 Promo Code MBJ142ZZ The Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Council Acknowledging accomplishments of young investigators in arteriosclerosis, thrombosis and vascular biology

Bogyo, Matthew

17

The early life environment and the epigenome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence point to the early origin of adult onset disease. A key question is: what are the mechanisms that mediate the effects of the early environment on our health? Another important question is: what is the impact of the environment during adulthood and how reversible are the effects of early life later in life? The genome is

Moshe Szyf

2009-01-01

18

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

19

Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

2015-01-01

20

NEW RESEARCH Maternal Early Life Experiences and  

E-print Network

support for the notion that mediators linking early life experiences to parenting in humans may be similar experiences to maternal sensitivity. Early Experience and Parenting in Humans There is much evidence explanations have largely been overlooked. Early Experience and Maternal Behavior in Non- Human Animals Studies

Sokolowski, Marla

21

The "early life" origins of obesity-related health disorders: new discoveries regarding the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed traits in the global cardiometabolic health crisis.  

PubMed

Popular media reports concerning the causes of the current global obesity pandemic and its related sequelae-the cardiometabolic syndrome-are often couched in terms of dramatic changes in diet and lifestyle around the world; namely, drastically increasing dietary intakes of high energy foods and plummeting levels of daily physical activity-the hallmarks of the so called "nutrition transition." Far less attention is generally drawn to the important role phenotypic plasticity during early life (i.e., "developmental programming") plays in the cardiometabolic health crisis. Recently, however, researchers working within the field of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) and epigenetics have extended our understanding of the role played by these developmental processes and capacities in health and disease even further by investigating the transmissible nature of developmentally programmed cardiometabolic traits to subsequent generations. In this review, after briefly revisiting the fundamental discoveries of first-generation DOHaD research, I consider how recent discoveries regarding the transmissibility of developmentally acquired traits are providing new insights into the current global cardiometabolic pandemic, and how a better understanding of developmental programming-including transmissibility-are essential for the conceptualization and implementation of public health initiatives aimed at stemming this global health crisis. PMID:24249592

Benyshek, Daniel C

2013-12-01

22

EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

23

Life After the Ban: An Assessment of US Syringe Exchange Programs’ Attitudes About and Early Experiences With Federal Funding  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We aimed to determine whether syringe exchange programs (SEPs) currently receive or anticipate pursuing federal funding and barriers to funding applications following the recent removal of the long-standing ban on using federal funds for SEPs. Methods. We conducted a telephone-administered cross-sectional survey of US SEPs. Descriptive statistics summarized responses; bivariate analyses examined differences in pursuing funding and experiencing barriers by program characteristics. Results. Of the 187 SEPs (92.1%) that responded, 90.9% were legally authorized. Three received federal funds and 116 intended to pursue federal funding. Perceived federal funding barriers were common and included availability and accessibility of funds, legal requirements such as written police support, resource capacity to apply and comply with funding regulations, local political and structural organization, and concern around altering program culture. Programs without legal authorization, health department affiliation, large distribution, or comprehensive planning reported more federal funding barriers. Conclusions. Policy implementation gaps appear to render federal support primarily symbolic. In practice, funding opportunities may not be available to all SEPs. Increased technical assistance and legal reform could improve access to federal funds, especially for SEPs with smaller capacity and tenuous local support. PMID:22420810

Martin, Erika G.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Mann, Marita R.; Beletsky, Leo

2012-01-01

24

The Family & Life Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

Brand, Mellie R.

25

Early evolution without a tree of life.  

PubMed

Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. PMID:21714942

Martin, William F

2011-01-01

26

Early program development and implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs for the development and operation of meteorological satellites from the TIROS 1 satellite and the establishment of NASA through the 1960's are described. The technical problems confronted in the development of the early satellite systems are discussed in addition to issues in international involvement and program support. The TIROS and Nimbus series satellites are primarily addressed.

Tepper, M.

1982-01-01

27

Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers for Early Life  

E-print Network

ELSEVIER FIN AL PR O O F 8.03 Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers for Early Life J. J. Brocks AND KEROGEN ANALYSIS 70 8.03.5 DISCUSSION OF BIOMARKERS BY HYDROCARBON CLASS 71 8.03.5.1 Advantages.03.5.11 Steroid Hydrocarbons 91 8.03.6 RECONSTRUCTION OF ANCIENT BIOSPHERES: BIOMARKERS FOR THE THREE DOMAINS

Brocks, Jochen J.

28

Immunity to Cytomegalovirus in Early Life  

PubMed Central

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection and is the leading non-genetic cause of neurological defects. CMV infection in early life is also associated with intense and prolonged viral excretion, indicating limited control of viral replication. This review summarizes our current understanding of the innate and adaptive immune responses to CMV infection during fetal life and infancy. It illustrates the fact that studies of congenital CMV infection have provided a proof of principle that the human fetus can develop anti-viral innate and adaptive immune responses, indicating that such responses should be inducible by vaccination in early life. The review also emphasizes the fact that our understanding of the mechanisms involved in symptomatic congenital CMV infection remains limited. PMID:25400639

Huygens, Ariane; Dauby, Nicolas; Vermijlen, David; Marchant, Arnaud

2014-01-01

29

WorkLife Programs 2010 Satisfaction Survey  

E-print Network

satisfied (11%), satisfied (41%), or very satisfied (16%) with WorkLife Programs. Satisfaction with customer29% 34% 35% 37% 73% WorkLife Programs 2010 Satisfaction Survey WorkLife Programs conducted itsLife Programs Overall satisfaction was high, with 68 percent of those responding stating that they are somewhat

30

Development of Life on Early Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable conditions are meet. Perhaps it could start in a very short interval during the first tens of millions of years after crustal formation. Even with impact-driven extinction events, such a short start-up time would allow life to restart multiple times until it persevered. If panspermia is considered, life could be introduced as soon as liquid surface water was present and could instantly thrive and spread.

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

2009-01-01

31

The habitat and nature of early life.  

PubMed

Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope. PMID:11234022

Nisbet, E G; Sleep, N H

2001-02-22

32

Early evolution without a tree of life  

PubMed Central

Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942

2011-01-01

33

Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

Schoch, Rainer R.

2009-05-01

34

Life Detection on the Early Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

Runnegar, B.

2004-01-01

35

Immunity to RSV in Early-Life  

PubMed Central

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines. PMID:25324843

Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Culley, Fiona J.

2014-01-01

36

Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the case of the North Pole Chert huge barite growths, are juxtaposed with the otherwise generally low-energy sediments. Such localities are interpreted as sites of hydrothermal vents. Within this large-scale geological context, many environments on the micro-scale were habitable for life, such as hydrothermal vents and their vicinities, volcanic rock surfaces, subsurface sediments and sediment surfaces. These early collapse basins, hosting this bacterial life, are only partially comparable to Earthly analogues. A resemblance with Venus' coronae and the chaos terranes on Mars is suggested. This study forms part of an international project on Earth's Earliest Sedimentary Basins, supported by the Dutch Foundation Dr. Schürmannfonds. 2

Nijman, W.

37

GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR STUDYING EARLY LIFE STAGE SALMONID HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic approaches are being used to study pathological and normal processes in early life stage salmonids. Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), a disease associated with low egg thiamine levels, causes early life stage mortality and low recruitment of Great Lakes salmonids including lake trout. We use...

38

Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.  

PubMed

In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

2007-08-14

39

Space life support engineering program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a moon station or a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance work stations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

Seagrave, Richard C.

1992-01-01

40

Space life support engineering program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the first six months of work performed under the NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on two topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance workstations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

Seagrave, Richard C.

1991-01-01

41

Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

2010-01-01

42

Altered GABA Signaling in Early Life Epilepsies  

PubMed Central

The incidence of seizures is particularly high in the early ages of life. The immaturity of inhibitory systems, such as GABA, during normal brain development and its further dysregulation under pathological conditions that predispose to seizures have been speculated to play a major role in facilitating seizures. Seizures can further impair or disrupt GABAA signaling by reshuffling the subunit composition of its receptors or causing aberrant reappearance of depolarizing or hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor currents. Such effects may not result in epileptogenesis as frequently as they do in adults. Given the central role of GABAA signaling in brain function and development, perturbation of its physiological role may interfere with neuronal morphology, differentiation, and connectivity, manifesting as cognitive or neurodevelopmental deficits. The current GABAergic antiepileptic drugs, while often effective for adults, are not always capable of stopping seizures and preventing their sequelae in neonates. Recent studies have explored the therapeutic potential of chloride cotransporter inhibitors, such as bumetanide, as adjunctive therapies of neonatal seizures. However, more needs to be known so as to develop therapies capable of stopping seizures while preserving the age- and sex-appropriate development of the brain. PMID:21826277

Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

2011-01-01

43

Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life  

PubMed Central

Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at term delivery than in adults, and lower still at preterm delivery. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ontogeny of plasma factors can be viewed in the context of a lower effectiveness of immune responses to infection and immunization in early life, which may be influenced by the striking neonatal deficiency of complement system proteins or enhanced neonatal production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, among other ontogenic differences. Accordingly, we survey here a number of soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function, particularly direct innate interaction and skewing of adaptive lymphocyte activity in response to infectious microorganisms and adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:25309541

Pettengill, Matthew Aaron; van Haren, Simon Daniël; Levy, Ofer

2014-01-01

44

Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

2015-01-01

45

SENSITIVITY OF RAINBOW TROUT EARLY LIFE STAGES TO NICKEL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Four acute tests (96-h) with juvenile fish and four early life stage tests with embryos and larvae were completed with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Ninety-six-hour flow-through LC50 values for juveniles ranged from 8.1 to 10.9 mg/l nickel. Two early life stage tests were star...

46

Early Awareness Test Preparation Pilot Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines whether early targeted academic intervention can improve college admission test scores and pre- college planning for students identified through the Duke Talent Search and the school system Challenge Program. Students selected for the Early Awareness Test Preparation Pilot Program were invited to participate during their…

Muskin, Mary-Beth; Friedlander, Sharon Cipperley

47

Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

48

Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

1981-01-01

49

Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

2012-01-01

50

The early evolution of life: solution to Darwin's dilemma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of Precambrian fossils indicate that life on Earth originated earlier than assumed, microscopic life was prevalent in the Precambrian Eon, the tempo and mode of evolution during the Precambrian period were different from other periods, and that only the Precambrian fossil record can be used as evidence of early life. Implications for future research include directing the search for the origin of life away from the geological record, modification of hypotheses about molecular change, use of Precambrian microfossils in dating younger geological units, and progress in defining the nature of major events in early evolution.

Schopf, J. W.

1994-01-01

51

Early Childhood Programs: Multiple Perspectives on Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four approaches to assessing the quality of early childhood program: top-down, which focuses on the adult's view of setting, equipment, and the program; bottom-up, focusing on children's experience; outside-inside, emphasizing the family's view; and societal, in which agencies and communities assess programs. (LB)

Katz, Lilian G.

1992-01-01

52

Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

2011-01-01

53

MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

54

Early earth: Arsenic and primordial life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some modern microorganisms derive energy from the oxidation and reduction of arsenic. The association of arsenic with organic cellular remains in 2.7-billion-year-old stromatolites hints at arsenic-based metabolisms at the dawn of life.

Kulp, Thomas R.

2014-11-01

55

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

1996-01-01

56

Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

2011-01-01

57

Tangible Programming 1 Running head:TANGIBLE PROGRAMMING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

Tangible Programming 1 Running head:TANGIBLE PROGRAMMING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Tangible Programming in Early Childhood: Revisiting Developmental Assumptions through New Technologies Marina Umaschi Bers kindergarten classrooms. #12;Tangible Programming 3 Tangible Programming in Early Childhood: Revisiting

Bers, Marina Umaschi

58

Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.  

PubMed

The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic.The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body's "metabolic programming". Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood.The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. PMID:23259704

Guardamagna, Ornella; Abello, Francesca; Cagliero, Paola; Lughetti, Lorenzo

2012-01-01

59

[IBM Work and Personal Life Balance Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These five brochures describe the IBM Corporation's policies, programs, and initiatives designed to meet the needs of employees' child care and family responsibilities as they move through various stages of employment with IBM. The Work and Personal Life Balance Programs brochure outlines (1) policies for flexible work schedules, including…

International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

60

Space Life Support Engineering Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the second year of research relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. Emphasis was directed toward concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis in an effort to begin optimizing the system needed for water purification. Four appendices are attached. The first covers the ASPEN modeling of the closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) and its thermodynamic analysis. The second is a report on the dynamic model development for water regulation in humans. The third regards the development of an interactive computer-based model for determining exercise limitations. The fourth attachment is an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an ECLSS.

Seagrave, Richard C.

1993-01-01

61

Follow-Up Study: Early Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the evaluation scheme of the University of South Florida's College of Education Early Intervention Program, a followup study was conducted with 25 graduates of the program (1970-73). Ss responses to a followup scale provided information on changes in their professional aspirations, development, and involvement and on their retrospective…

Singh, S. P.; Allen, Elaine S.

62

The habitat and nature of early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500–700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 °C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years

E. G. Nisbet; N. H. Sleep

2001-01-01

63

AN EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR HIGH-RISK CHILDREN IN A HEALTH CARE SETTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early intervention programs are designed to provide detection, treatment, and prevention of handicaps, developmental delays, and environmental deprivation as early in a child's life as possible. Health care facilities, especially community health centers, are in a unique position to provide intervention services. The social work and nursing staffs of the Dimock Community Health Center in Roxbury, Massachusetts designed an early

Jane B. Mayer; Renee Meshel

1982-01-01

64

The intestinal microbiome in early life: health and disease.  

PubMed

Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3?years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M; Finlay, Brett

2014-01-01

65

The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3?years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett

2014-01-01

66

Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

Coats, Alfred C.

2001-01-01

67

Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.  

PubMed

Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change. PMID:22404764

Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

2012-03-01

68

Familial Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis Early in Life  

PubMed Central

Background. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disease, especially in infancy. Four infants have been reported up to the age of 12 months. So far, no familial patients are observed at this age. Patients. We report three siblings, two female newborns and a foetus of 15-week gestation of unrelated, healthy parents suffering from histologically proven PCH. The first girl presented with increased O2 requirements shortly after birth and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). She subsequently developed progressive respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension and died at the age of five months. The second girl presented with clinical signs of bronchial obstruction at the age of three months. The work-up showed a PDA—which was surgically closed—pulmonary hypertension, and bronchial wall instability with stenosis of the left main bronchus. Transient oxygen therapy was required with viral infections. The girl is now six years old and clinically stable without additional O2 requirements. Failure to thrive during infancy and a somewhat delayed development may be the consequence of the disease itself but also could be attributed to repeated episodes of respiratory failure and a long-term systemic steroid therapy. The third pregnancy ended as spontaneous abortion. The foetus showed histological signs of PCH. Conclusion. Despite the differences in clinical course, the trias of PCH, PDA, and pulmonary hypertension in the two life born girls suggests a genetic background. PMID:22937432

Wirbelauer, Johannes; Hebestreit, Helge; Marx, Alexander; Mark, Eugene J.; Speer, Christian P.

2011-01-01

69

Nutrition and brain development in early life.  

PubMed

Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. PMID:24684384

Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

2014-04-01

70

Programs That Work: Early Childhood Education Plan Continuing Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly described are 15 projects originally funded by the State of Maine as early childhood education plans, subsequently evaluated as successful and instituted by local units as part of a regular school program. After each program description, the names, telephone numbers, and addresses of contact persons are provided. (RH)

Deusen-Henkel, Jenifer Van

71

Life Planning Education: A Youth Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the curriculum guide for Life Planning Education, a youth development program that focuses on two of the most important tasks teenagers face: preparing for the world of work and dealing with their own sexual and reproductive development, feelings, and behaviors. These two tasks are integrated in the curriculum in a way that…

Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

72

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life  

PubMed Central

The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses. PMID:22110940

Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

2012-01-01

73

Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

2010-01-01

74

Early Environmental Origins of Neurodegenerative Disease in Later Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), the two most common neurodegenerative disorders in American adults, are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors. In this article we hypothesize that environmental exposures in early life may be of particular etiologic importance and review evidence

Philip J. Landrigan; Babasaheb Sonawane; Robert N. Butler; Leonardo Trasande; Richard Callan; Daniel Droller

2005-01-01

75

Early life tactile stimulation changes adult rat responsiveness to amphetamine  

E-print Network

Early life tactile stimulation changes adult rat responsiveness to amphetamine Vedran Lovic a amphetamine and the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate. Rats were mother-reared or artificially reared minimal stimulation). In adulthood, rats' locomotion was measured after an injection of d-amphetamine

Sokolowski, Marla

76

Attic still life southsoutheast looking northnorthwest. Shows an early toilet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Attic still life south-southeast looking north-northwest. Shows an early toilet, what is possibly the original front door, and a lead lined reservoir. Also shows the attic framing. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

77

Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

78

TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

79

Early-life risk factors for chronic nonrespiratory diseases.  

PubMed

We have witnessed a change in disease patterns contributing to the global burden of disease, with a shift from early childhood deaths due to the classic infectious communicable diseases to years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases. In both developing and developed countries, the years lived with disability attributable to chronic disease have increased: cardiovascular diseases by 17.7%; chronic respiratory disease by 8.5%; neurological conditions by 12.2%; diabetes by 30.0%; and mental and behavioural disorders by 5.0% over the past 20 years. Recognition of the contribution made by adverse environmental exposures in early life to noncommunicable diseases in later life is increasing. These early-life exposures appear to contribute to both chronic respiratory and chronic nonrespiratory diseases. In this State of the Art article, we aim to examine early-life environmental exposures that have an epidemiological association with chronic nonrespiratory diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurocognitive and behavioural problems. We will highlight the potential overlap in environmental risks with respiratory diseases, and point out knowledge gaps and research opportunities. PMID:25395038

Chacko, Archana; Carpenter, David O; Callaway, Leonie; Sly, Peter D

2015-01-01

80

Early life experience primes resistance to oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The extent to which early stress exposure is detrimental to darwinian fitness may depend on its severity, with mild stress exposure actually having a stimulatory and, possibly, beneficial effect through a hormetic response to the stressful stimulus. We need to understand such hormetic processes to determine how the early environment can help shape a phenotype adapted to the conditions the organism is most likely to experience in its adult environment. Using the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we tested the hypothesis that individuals exposed to mild heat stress earlier in life will suffer less oxidative stress when faced with high heat stress in adulthood than will individuals either not pre-exposed to heat stress or exposed to high heat stress earlier in life. Our findings demonstrate that early life exposure to mild heat stress primes the system to better withstand oxidative stress when encountering heat stress as an adult. These findings point to a potential mechanism linking early life experiences to future darwinian fitness. PMID:22837454

Costantini, David; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

2012-08-15

81

The California State University Early Assessment Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California State University (CSU) requires entering freshmen to be proficient in English reading and writing, as demonstrated on proficiency measures. Currently, approximately 46 percent of incoming college freshmen need remediation in English reading and writing. To assist these students, CSU instituted an Early Assessment Program (EAP),…

Knudson, Ruth E.; Zitzer-Comfort, Carol; Quirk, Matthew; Alexander, Pia

2008-01-01

82

The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease).

W. A. See; D. McLeod; P. Iversen; M. Wirth

2001-01-01

83

Showing Progress in Early Intervention Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation report of Oregon's early intervention programs describes the Oregon Preschool Assessment System, presents demographic information, and summarizes results of analysis of data on children's progress. It concludes that the infants and children enrolled (2,740 in 1991) are making substantial gains in all areas assessed. These gains…

Wilson, Darla; Brodsky, Meredith

84

Evaluation of the Meaning of Life Program in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 2009-2010 academic year, 10 schools participated in the Meaning of Life educational program, an adaption of the popular U.S. Laws of Life program. The program sought to encourage each participant to develop a personal approach to finding meaning in life. To evaluate the success of the program, we conducted a study to compare measures of…

Kasler, Jonathan; White, Gwyne W.; Elias, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

85

Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

2010-01-01

86

Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life’s early emergence on Earth  

PubMed Central

Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth’s history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe. PMID:22198766

Spiegel, David S.; Turner, Edwin L.

2012-01-01

87

NASA's space life sciences training program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-08-01

88

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

1994-01-01

89

NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program.  

PubMed

The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D.C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995. PMID:11537955

Coulter, G; Lewis, L; Atchison, D

1994-01-01

90

DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.  

PubMed

Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:25327140

Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

2014-12-01

91

Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

2006-01-01

92

Early life circumstances and their impact on menarche and menopause  

PubMed Central

Ages at menarche and menopause have been shown to be associated with adverse health outcomes in later life. For example, earlier menarche and later menopause have been independently linked to higher risk of breast cancer. Earlier menarche may also be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, menstrual problems and adult obesity. Given the associations of ages at menarche and menopause with future health outcomes, it is important to establish what factors across life, and generations, may influence these. This article examines the associations of early life factors, namely birthweight, bodyweight and growth during childhood, childhood socioeconomic circumstances and psychosocial factors with ages at menarche and menopause. It examines possible explanations of the associations found, including life history theory, and discusses areas for future research. PMID:19245355

Mishra, Gita D; Cooper, Rachel; Tom, Sarah E; Kuh, Diana

2012-01-01

93

Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life  

PubMed Central

Background A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. Objective To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases) and 12 infants were not (controls). After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H') as indicators. Results Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01) and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02). The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04) but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32). Conclusion Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life. PMID:18808715

Forno, Erick; Onderdonk, Andrew B; McCracken, John; Litonjua, Augusto A; Laskey, Daniel; Delaney, Mary L; DuBois, Andrea M; Gold, Diane R; Ryan, Louise M; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

2008-01-01

94

Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

2007-01-01

95

Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

2006-01-01

96

Space Life-Support Engineering Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

97

Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

1996-01-01

98

Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether the experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study. Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63 years). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Methods: Participants were 5309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB). SEC included socioeconomic and family factors. The AL index was based on nine cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. Results: Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. Conclusions: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress. PMID:25268115

Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Ase Marie; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Rod, Naja Hulvej

2014-10-30

99

End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life…

Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

2010-01-01

100

W88 integrated circuit shelf life program  

SciTech Connect

The W88 Integrated Circuit Shelf Life Program was created to monitor the long term performance, reliability characteristics, and technological status of representative WR ICs manufactured by the Allied Signal Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation (AMO) and by Harris Semiconductor Custom Integrated Circuits Division. Six types of ICs were used. A total of 272 ICs entered two storage temperature environments. Electrical testing and destructive physical analysis were completed in 1995. During each year of the program, the ICs were electrically tested and samples were selected for destructive physical analysis (DPA). ICs that failed electrical tests or DPA criteria were analyzed. Fifteen electrical failures occurred, with two dominant failure modes: electrical overstress (EOS) damage involving the production test programs and electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage during analysis. Because of the extensive handling required during multi-year programs like this, it is not unusual for EOS and ESD failures to occur even though handling and testing precautions are taken. The clustering of the electrical test failures in a small subset of the test operations supports the conclusion that the test operation itself was responsible for many of the failures and is suspected to be responsible for the others. Analysis of the electrical data for the good ICs found no significant degradation trends caused by the storage environments. Forty-six ICs were selected for DPA with findings primarily in two areas: wire bonding and die processing. The wire bonding and die processing findings are not surprising since these technology conditions had been documented during manufacturing and were determined to present acceptable risk. The current reliability assessment of the W88 stockpile assemblies employing these and related ICs is reinforced by the results of this shelf life program. Data from this program will aid future investigation of 4/3 micron or MNOS IC technology failure modes.

Soden, J.M.; Anderson, R.E.

1998-01-01

101

The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life  

PubMed Central

Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

2012-01-01

102

Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

Shaw, Benjamin A.

2006-01-01

103

Applying Machine Learners to GUI Specifications in Formulating Early Life Cycle Project Estimations  

E-print Network

1 Applying Machine Learners to GUI Specifications in Formulating Early Life Cycle Project and reliable early life cycle project estimates remains an open issue in the software engineering discipline cycle. Most early life cycle estimation models (e.g. COCOMO II, Function Point Analysis) use either

Boetticher, Gary D.

104

Early-life experience, epigenetics, and the developing brain.  

PubMed

Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent-offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

2015-01-01

105

The Enzymatic and Metabolic Capabilities of Early Life  

PubMed Central

We introduce the concept of metaconsensus and employ it to make high confidence predictions of early enzyme functions and the metabolic properties that they may have produced. Several independent studies have used comparative bioinformatics methods to identify taxonomically broad features of genomic sequence data, protein structure data, and metabolic pathway data in order to predict physiological features that were present in early, ancestral life forms. But all such methods carry with them some level of technical bias. Here, we cross-reference the results of these previous studies to determine enzyme functions predicted to be ancient by multiple methods. We survey modern metabolic pathways to identify those that maintain the highest frequency of metaconsensus enzymes. Using the full set of modern reactions catalyzed by these metaconsensus enzyme functions, we reconstruct a representative metabolic network that may reflect the core metabolism of early life forms. Our results show that ten enzyme functions, four hydrolases, three transferases, one oxidoreductase, one lyase, and one ligase, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks within central metabolic processes related to sugar and starch metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, and CoA biosynthesis, have high frequencies of these enzyme functions. We demonstrate that a large metabolic network can be generated from this small number of enzyme functions. PMID:22970111

Goldman, Aaron David; Baross, John A.; Samudrala, Ram

2012-01-01

106

LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

2010-11-30

107

Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

2015-01-01

108

Early life circumstances as contributors to HIV infection.  

PubMed

Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. Using qualitative data, we illustrated how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting, sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. Five representative cases from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16-24) who participated in a study about the disease-related adaptive challenges they faced are discussed. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with the disease. The findings revealed that these young women's unmet need for love, protection, and feeling valued left them vulnerable to exploitive relationships with men who were often significantly older and resulted in their HIV infection. PMID:25397349

Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric; VanDevanter, Nancy

2014-10-01

109

Japanese Studies on the Early Ocean Life of Juvenile Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all the salmon resources in Japan have been supported by artificial enhance- ment, and because of the success of this program the population size of chum salmon (Oncorhyn- chus keta) has increased dramatically since the early 1970s. About 90% of Japan's salmon catch is chum; 5-10% is pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and 0.5% masu (O. masou). Therefore, biological research

Hiroshi Mayama; Yukimasa Ishida

110

Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory. PMID:25489493

Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-12-01

111

CARES\\/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES\\/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and\\/or proof test loading. CARES\\/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC\\/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element

Noel N. Nemeth; Lynn M. Powers; Lesley A. Janosik; John P. Gyekenyesi

2003-01-01

112

Fetal growth, early life circumstances, and risk of suicide in late adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in Sweden and Scotland have found early life conditions to be associated with increased risk of attempted and\\u000a completed suicide in adolescence and young adulthood. It is not known, however, whether early life conditions affect suicide\\u000a risk throughout the life course, from adulthood into old age. We examined the effects of early life conditions, including\\u000a markers of fetal

Phoebe Day Danziger; Richard Silverwood; Ilona Koupil

2011-01-01

113

Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

2012-01-01

114

Fire and Life Safety Program Environmental Health and Safety Services  

E-print Network

Fire and Life Safety Program Environmental Health and Safety Services Fire Safety Division 806 Walter James ­ CFPS, CFI September 24, 2008 1.2 Updated written program #12;FIRE & LIFE SAFETY PROGRAM........................................................................................... 2 2 2 2 2 Emergency Planning and Preparedness.................. Responding to a Fire Emergency

Zhang, Yuanlin

115

Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Cada, G.F.

1991-01-01

116

Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats  

PubMed Central

Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent. PMID:22819985

Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

2012-01-01

117

Telomeres and Early-Life Stress: An Overview  

PubMed Central

The long-term sequelae of adverse early-life experiences have long been a focus in psychiatry, with a historic neurobiological emphasis on physiological systems that are demonstrably stress-responsive, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroimmune function. However, there has been increasing recognition in the general medical literature that such sequelae might encompass more pervasive alterations in health status and physiology. Recent findings in telomere biology have suggested a new avenue for exploring the adverse health effects of childhood maltreatment. Telomere length in proliferative tissues declines with cell replication, and the effect can be accelerated by such factors as inflammation, oxidative stress, radiation, and toxins. Reduced telomere length, as a proxy for cellular aging, has been associated with numerous chronic somatic diseases that are generally considered to be diseases of aging, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. More recently, shorter telomeres have been demonstrated in several psychiatric conditions, particularly depression. Sustained psychosocial stress of a variety of types in adulthood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres. Now, emerging work suggests a robust, and perhaps dose-dependent, relationship with early-life stress. These findings present new opportunities to re-conceptualize the complex relationships between experience, physical and psychiatric disease, and aging. PMID:22831981

Price, Lawrence H.; Kao, Hung-Teh; Burgers, Darcy E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

2012-01-01

118

Early life trauma and attachment: immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development.  

PubMed

Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups' sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides "hidden regulators" of pups' behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups' immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups' immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M

2014-01-01

119

Early Life Trauma and Attachment: Immediate and Enduring Effects on Neurobehavioral and Stress Axis Development  

PubMed Central

Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother–infant interactions. This stimulation provides “hidden regulators” of pups’ behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M.

2014-01-01

120

Maternal and genetic factors determine early life telomere length.  

PubMed

In a broad range of species--including humans--it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and environmental influences on telomere length variation. These studies have been based on (i) telomere lengths measured at different time points in different individuals, despite the fact that telomere length changes over life, and (ii) parent-offspring regression techniques, which do not enable differentiation between genetic and parental components of inheritance. To overcome these drawbacks, in our study of a songbird, the great reed warbler, we have analysed telomere length measured early in life in both parents and offspring and applied statistical models (so-called 'animal models') that are based on long-term pedigree data. Our results showed a significant heritability of telomere length on the maternal but not on the paternal side, and that the mother's age was positively correlated with their offspring's telomere length. Furthermore, the pedigree-based analyses revealed a significant heritability and an equally large maternal effect. Our study demonstrates strong maternal influence on telomere length and future studies now need to elucidate possible underlying factors, including which types of maternal effects are involved. PMID:25621325

Asghar, Muhammad; Bensch, Staffan; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis

2015-01-22

121

The Effects of an Early Observational Experience on Medical Students' Attitudes Toward End-of-Life Care.  

PubMed

End-of-life care is paramount in maintaining the quality of life of the terminally ill, protecting them from unnecessary treatment, and controlling costs incurred in their care. Training doctors to be effective end-of-life caregivers begins in medical school. A survey design was used to collect data from 166 first-year medical students before and after exposure to hospice or palliative care through an early clinical exposure program. Data demonstrated that students had a significant change in attitude scores after the observational experience (P < .05). Providing students with the opportunity to observe and participate in end-of-life care has a positive effect on attitudes toward the care of dying persons. We recommend that direct exposure to end-of-life care practices be incorporated early in the medical school curriculum. PMID:24198062

Wechter, Elizabeth; O'Gorman, Denise Carter; Singh, Mamta K; Spanos, Pete; Daly, Barbara J

2015-02-01

122

Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

2008-01-01

123

Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

2004-01-01

124

Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity  

PubMed Central

Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that ‘stout’ body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

2011-01-01

125

Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

126

Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life.  

PubMed

The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination. PMID:25559117

Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

2015-01-01

127

Early-Life Stress and Neurometabolites of the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) – an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity – using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N = 10) or control rearing conditions (N = 9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

2010-01-01

128

Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.  

PubMed

Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

2015-01-01

129

The Human Microbiome. Early Life Determinant of Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The development of new technologies to isolate and identify microbial genomes has markedly increased our understanding of the role of microbiomes in health and disease. The idea, first proposed as part of the hygiene hypothesis, that environmental microbes influence the developmental trajectories of the immune system in early life, has now been considerably extended and refined. The abundant microbiota present in mucosal surfaces, especially the gut, is actively selected by the host through complex receptor systems that respond differentially depending on the molecular patterns presented to mucosal cells. Germ-free mice are more likely to develop allergic airway inflammation and show alterations in normal motor control and anxiety. These effects can be reversed by neonatal microbial recolonization but remain unchanged if recolonization occurs in adults. What emerges from these recent studies is the discovery of a complex, major early environmental determinant of lifetime human phenotypes. To change the natural course of asthma, obesity, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, active manipulation of the extensive bacterial, phage, and fungal metagenomes present in mucosal surfaces may be required, specifically during the developing years. Domesticating the human microbiome and adapting it to our health needs may be a challenge akin to, but far more complex than, the one faced by humanity when a few dozen species of plants and animals were domesticated during the transition between hunter-gatherer and sedentary societies after the end of the Pleistocene era. PMID:24437411

2014-01-01

130

Space life sciences: Programs and projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

1989-01-01

131

LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework, approach, and methods for identifying and evaluating environmental burdens associated with the life cycles of materials and services, from cradle-to-grave. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Sustainab...

132

Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Gender-Based Vulnerability to Epileptogenesis in Rat Pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical

Sébastien Desgent; Sandra Duss; Nathalie T. Sanon; Pablo Lema; Maxime Lévesque; David Hébert; Rose-Marie Rébillard; Karine Bibeau; Michèle Brochu; Lionel Carmant

2012-01-01

133

On the Use of Nucleic Acid Sequences to Infer Early Branchings in the Tree of Life  

E-print Network

On the Use of Nucleic Acid Sequences to Infer Early Branchings in the Tree of Life Ziheng Yang *9 branchings in the tree of life involves as- sumptions made in various tree reconstruction methods, which

Yang, Ziheng

134

Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine  

E-print Network

-life conditions, no study on humans has demonstrated the predicted fitness benefit under low later-life nutrition of metabolic diseases. developmental plasticity | silver spoon | human life-history | DoHAD Nutrition duringInfluence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine

Lummaa, Virpi

135

Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group  

Cancer.gov

It is becoming increasingly evident that early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life. However, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges such as the long latency period, the distinctiveness of each cancer and large number of subjects that must be studied, all likely to increase costs.

136

An Exchange Program for Chinese and Canadian Early Childhood Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exchange program for early childhood teachers established by the University of British Columbia and Soong Ching Ling Kindergarten in Shanghai. Briefly discusses how the cooperative program was initiated, the importance of recognizing cultural considerations in the program, and expected outcomes of the program. (TJQ)

Dixon, Glen

1998-01-01

137

The Early Intervention Program at Rio Hondo College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1997, the Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) program at Rio Hondo College (California) created the Early Intervention Program (EIP) to help recognize and support high-risk students. EOPS is a state-funded program that assists low-income, high risk students in achieving their educational goals. To identify these…

O'Brien, Katherine

138

First Principles for Early Grades Reading Programs in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) program is an oral assessment designed to measure the most basic foundation skills for literacy acquisition in the early grades. EGRA's purpose is to document student performance on early grade reading skills in order to inform ministries…

Roskos, Kathy; Strickland, Dorothy; Haase, Janeen; Malik, Sakil

2009-01-01

139

Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes  

PubMed Central

A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

140

The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome  

PubMed Central

Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

2013-01-01

141

The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome.  

PubMed

Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual's predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Bagot, Rosemary C; Parker, Karen J; Vinkers, Christiaan H; de Kloet, E R

2013-09-01

142

Impact of Early Growth on Postprandial Responses in Later Life  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight and slow growth during infancy are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases in adulthood. Associations with risk factors such as fasting glucose and lipids concentrations are weaker than expected based on associations with disease. This could be explained by differences in postprandial responses, which, however, have been little studied. Our aim was to examine the impact of growth during infancy on postprandial responses to a fast-food meal (FF-meal) and a meal, which followed the macro-nutrient composition of the dietary guidelines (REC-meal). Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 24 overweight 65–75 year-old subjects, 12 with slow growth during infancy (SGI-group) and 12 with normal early growth. All the subjects were born at term. The study meals were isocaloric and both meals were consumed once. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in fasting state and over a 4-h period after both meals. Subjects who grew slowly during infancy were also smaller at birth. Fasting glucose, insulin or lipid concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. The TG responses were higher for the SGI-group both during the FF-meal (P?=?0.047) and the REC-meal (P?=?0.058). The insulin responses were significantly higher for the SGI-group after the FF-meal (P?=?0.036). Glucose and FFA responses did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Small birth size and slow early growth predict postprandial TG and insulin responses. Elevated responses might be one explanation why subjects who were small at birth and experiencing slow growth in infancy are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. PMID:21904606

Perälä, Mia-Maria; Valsta, Liisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Leiviskä, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G.

2011-01-01

143

How Does a Neuron “know” to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed Central

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2013-01-01

144

Prenatal and early life factors and risk of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the relation between early life factors and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), although a potential role of exposures during pregnancy and childhood has been hypothesized. The study population comprised participants in two prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (121,701 female nurses followed up from 1976-2002) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (51,529 male health professionals followed up from 1986-2002). PD risk was examined in relation to season of birth, birthweight, parental age at birth, preterm birth, multiple birth, ever having been breast-fed, and handedness. We identified 659 incident PD cases. No significant relation with PD was observed for birthweight, paternal age, preterm birth, multiple birth, and having been breast-fed. A modest nonsignificant association was suggested for season of birth (30% higher risk of PD associated with spring versus winter birth) and for older maternal age at birth (75% increased risk among those with mothers aged 30 years and older versus younger than 20 years). Left-handedness was associated with a 62% increased risk of PD in women but not in men. Further investigation of the relation between prenatal, perinatal, or neonatal factors and PD in other study populations is suggested. PMID:20740569

Gardener, Hannah; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

2010-08-15

145

Asthma onset prior to multiple sclerosis and the contribution of sibling exposure in early life  

E-print Network

Asthma onset prior to multiple sclerosis and the contribution of sibling exposure in early life A of higher infection load. The effect on Th1 disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is less clear. Here we with a protective role for early life infections. Keywords: asthma, herpes virus, hygeine hypothesis, multiple

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

146

Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

2014-03-01

147

THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SKIPJACK TUNA, Katsuwonus pelamis, IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN  

E-print Network

THE EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SKIPJACK TUNA, Katsuwonus pelamis, IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN HOWARD O. YOSHIDA' ABSTRAcr This study investigates the early life history of skipjack tuna, including the distribution, abundance, age, and growth. The study is based on 1,742 juvenile skipjack tuna that were found

148

Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life

Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2011-01-01

149

TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF STEELHEAD TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute and early life stage toxicity tests were conducted with trivalent chromium and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). A 96-h LC50 of 4,400 micrograms/l chromium was obtained with two-month-old juvenile fish. Early life stage exposure from newly fertilized eggs to 30-d post-swim...

150

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

151

The Toxicity of Diquat, Endothall, and Fluridone to the Early Life Stages of Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most aquatic herbicides have undergone some toxicity testing for effects on non-target aquatic organisms, little of this testing has been conducted on early life stages of gamefish found in lakes undergoing treatment. Commercial formulations of diquat, endothall, and fluridone were selected for acute toxicity testing using very early life stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and

Eric A. Paul; Howard A. Simonin; John Symula; Robert W. Bauer

1994-01-01

152

Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life. PMID:23314296

Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

2013-04-01

153

Learning Comes to Life: An Active Learning Program for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The High/Scope Institute for IDEAS began in the early 1960s as a summer camp program and is now a dynamic learning program for teens that emphasizes working with them in an environment which supports emotional, social, and intellectual development. The High/Scope model for adolescent programs is based on the following principles: (1) adolescents…

Ilfeld, Ellen Meredith

154

Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

2011-01-01

155

Findings from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs: Communities, Programs, and Families. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early Head Start is a comprehensive, two-generation federal initiative begun in 1995 aimed at enhancing the development of infants and toddlers while strengthening low-income families. This report contains information from the Survey of Early Head Start Programs. Beyond the need for an updated picture of the Early Head Start program, the Survey of…

Vogel, Cheri A.; Aikens, Nikki; Burwick, Andrew; Hawkinson, Laura; Richardson, Angela; Mendenko, Linda; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

2006-01-01

156

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of LIfe Studies Funding Program (BIQSFP)  

Cancer.gov

Funded Cooperative Groups (CGs) and funded Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support essential biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies which are associated with clinical trial concepts.

157

Early rehabilitation programs after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: Evidence and criticism  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, early rehabilitation programs for the care of patients with colorectal surgery have gained popularity. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the implementation of these evidence-based detailed perioperative care protocols is useful for early recovery of patients after colorectal resection. Patients cared for based on these protocols had a rapid recovery of bowel movement, shortened length of hospital stay, and fewer complications compared with traditional care programs. However, most of the previous evidence was obtained from studies of early rehabilitation programs adapted to open colonic resection. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effects of early rehabilitation after laparoscopic rectal resection, although this procedure seems to be associated with a higher morbidity than that reported with traditional care. In this article, we review previous studies and guidelines on early rehabilitation programs in patients undergoing rectal surgery. We investigated the status of early rehabilitation programs in rectal surgery and analyzed the limitations of these studies. We also summarized indications and detailed protocol components of current early rehabilitation programs after rectal surgery, focusing on laparoscopic resection. PMID:24379571

Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Heung-Kwon; In, Myung-Hoon

2013-01-01

158

Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.  

PubMed

A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309

Scher, Mark S

2013-01-01

159

Texas AgriLife Extension Service Customer Satisfaction Program Results  

E-print Network

Texas AgriLife Extension Service Customer Satisfaction Program Results Prepared by Dr. Scott R to complete customer satisfaction surveys. The survey consists of 22 questions about the quality and relevance audiences of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service. To determine the satisfaction of those individuals

160

Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

2003-01-01

161

Global Research Trends on Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Describe the epidemiologic literature related to early-life feeding practices and early childhood caries (ECC) with regard to publication attributes and trends in these attributes over time. Methods Systematic literature review including electronic and manual searches (in BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and WHOLIS), covering the years 1990–2013. Attributes of publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria were abstracted and organized by global region and trends over time. Attributes included country of origin and study design of included publications and age and caries prevalence of the populations studied. Results 244 publications drawn from 196 independent study populations were included. The number of publications and the countries represented increased over time, although some world regions remained underrepresented. Most publications were cross sectional (75%); while this percentage remained fairly constant over time, the percentage of studies to account for confounding factors increased. Publications varied with respect to the caries experience and age range of children included in each study. Conclusions Publication productivity regarding feeding practices and ECC research has grown, but this growth has not been evenly distributed globally. Individual publication attributes (i.e. methods and context) can differ significantly and should be considered when interpreting and synthesizing the literature. PMID:25328911

Cheng, Ashley

2014-01-01

162

Early Life Stress Differentially Modulates Distinct Forms of Brain Plasticity in Young and Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood. PMID:23071534

Reichardt, Wilfried; Clark, Kristin; Geiger, Julia; Gross, Claus M.; Heyer, Andrea; Neagu, Valentin; Bhatia, Harsharan; Atas, Hasan C.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Bischofberger, Josef; Haas, Carola A.; Normann, Claus

2012-01-01

163

Early referral and planned initiation of dialysis: what impact on quality of life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Early patient referral correlates with improved patient survival on dialysis. We examine whether early referral and a planned first dialysis affect quality of life (QoL). Methods. All patients commencing dialysis in nine centres in seven European countries between 1 July 1998 and 31 October 1999 were recruited. Definitions: early referralsfollowed by a nephrologist )1 month before first dialysis (-1

Fergus J. Caskey; Sarah Wordsworth; Thomas Ben; Frank T. de Charro; Catherine Delcroix; Henk van Hamersvelt; Iain Henderson; Elizabeth Kokolina; Izhar H. Khan; Anne Ludbrook; Merike Luman; Gordon J. Prescott; Dimitri Tsakiris; Myftar Barbullushi; Alison M. MacLeod

2003-01-01

164

Early Head Start Participants, Program, Families and Staff in 2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

Walker, Christina

2014-01-01

165

Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was created almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services.…

Schmit, Stephanie

2013-01-01

166

Collaboration and Subsidized Early Care and Education Programs in Illinois  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of policy changes following welfare reform in 1996 and the costs associated with providing high-quality early care and education for children of low-income working families, agency collaboration in the state of Illinois has become an increasingly salient feature of subsidized early care and education programs (SECE). The authors…

Spielberger, Julie; Zanoni, Wladimir; Barisik, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

167

RIKEN HPCI Program for Computational Life Sciences  

E-print Network

We are working to operate and maintain computing environments required for the efficient use" to encourage researchers in life sciences to make active use of the K computer and the HPCI environment. HumanShin-Kobe station Sannomiya station Kobe Port Island Osaka Bay Kobe City Subway Sanyo Shinkansen (bullet train) line

Fukai, Tomoki

168

CARES/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. CARES/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element analysis programs to evaluate component reliability due to inherent surface and/or volume type flaws. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker law. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled by using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. The probabilistic time-dependent theories used in CARES/LIFE, along with the input and output for CARES/LIFE, are described. Example problems to demonstrate various features of the program are also included.

Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

2003-02-01

169

CARES/LIFE Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program. The program calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. CARES/LIFE is an extension of the CARES (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. The program uses results from MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and ANSYS finite element analysis programs to evaluate component reliability due to inherent surface and/or volume type flaws. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker law. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled by using either the principle of independent action (PIA), the Weibull normal stress averaging method (NSA), or the Batdorf theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. The probabilistic time-dependent theories used in CARES/LIFE, along with the input and output for CARES/LIFE, are described. Example problems to demonstrate various features of the program are also included.

Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

2003-01-01

170

Early origins of chronic obstructive lung diseases across the life course.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive lung diseases, like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have high prevalences and are a major public health concern. Chronic obstructive lung diseases have at least part of their origins in early life. Exposure to an adverse environment during critical periods in early life might lead to permanent developmental adaptations which results in impaired lung growth with smaller airways and lower lung volume, altered immunological responses and related inflammation, and subsequently to increased risks of chronic obstructive lung diseases throughout the life course. Various pathways leading from early life factors to respiratory health outcomes in later life have been studied, including fetal and early infant growth patterns, preterm birth, maternal obesity, diet and smoking, children's diet, allergen exposure and respiratory tract infections, and genetic susceptibility. Data on potential adverse factors in the embryonic and preconception period and respiratory health outcomes are scarce. Also, the underlying mechanisms how specific adverse exposures in the fetal and early postnatal period lead to chronic obstructive lung diseases in later life are not yet fully understood. Current studies suggest that interactions between early environmental exposures and genetic factors such as changes in DNA-methylation and RNA expression patterns may explain the early development of chronic obstructive lung diseases. New well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to identify specific critical periods and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic obstructive lung disease throughout the life course. PMID:25537319

Duijts, Liesbeth; Reiss, Irwin K; Brusselle, Guy; de Jongste, Johan C

2014-12-01

171

Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.  

PubMed

The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the (summary) scale scores were adequate representations of the information obtained by the individual items. The DIF analyses identified a number of cases of DIF, which, among other things, contributed to detection of possible problems in the HAD Scale. It was concluded that DIF analyses are relevant when important analyses based on multi-item scales are made. A new way to evaluate the validity of questionnaires was developed. The results from questionnaires completed by patients were compared against results from open ended interviews with the same patients rated by observers. The idea was that if results were similar, the patients had then probably understood and completed the questionnaire items as intended. On the other hand, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires and interviews was excellent, indicating very good validity. The median weighted kappa for the EORTC QLQ-C30 was 0.85 (range 0.49-1.00); it was 0.79 (range 0.65-0.95) for the HAD Scale, and 0.92 (range 0.51-1.00) for the DBCG 89 Questionnaire. However, the study identified a mechanism called selective reporting, which may affect results from most HRQL questionnaires: in order to provide correct and useful answers some patients do not report symptoms they believe are irrelevant to the study, e.g., symptoms unrelated to cancer. This mechanism may lead to bias if results from patients are compared to results from populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have a priori hypotheses for all these potential comparisons. Therefore, a staff survey involving experienced doctors and nurses was conduc

Groenvold, Mogens

2010-09-01

172

The importance of early life in childhood obesity and related diseases: a report from the 2014 Gravida Strategic Summit.  

PubMed

Obesity and its related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer, impose huge burdens on society, particularly the healthcare system. Until recently, public health and policy were primarily focused on secondary prevention and treatment of NCDs. However, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that early-life exposures influence the risk of childhood obesity and related diseases later in life, and has now focused attention on the health of both mother and child. During pregnancy and the early neonatal period, individuals respond to their environment by establishing anatomical, physiological and biochemical trajectories that shape their future health. This period of developmental plasticity provides an early window of opportunity to mitigate the environmental insults that may increase an individual's sensitivity to, or risk of, developing obesity or related diseases later in life. Although much investigation has already occurred in the area of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease research, the science itself is still in its infancy. It remains for researchers to tackle the important outstanding questions and translate their knowledge into workable solutions for the public good. The challenge, however, is to decide which areas to focus on. With these opportunities and challenges in mind, the 2014 Gravida Summit convened to examine how its early-life research program can determine which areas of research into mechanisms, biomarkers and interventions could contribute to the international research strategy to fight childhood obesity and its related diseases. PMID:25308169

Macaulay, E C; Donovan, E L; Leask, M P; Bloomfield, F H; Vickers, M H; Dearden, P K; Baker, P N

2014-12-01

173

Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

Neugebauer, Roger

2008-01-01

174

Development of an Early Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following paper presents the main evaluation instruments used in early intervention, and reflects upon their use, taking into account that they were created with and for the normal population. Likewise, developmental characteristics of some child groups are described, more notably the x fragile syndrome, Williams syndrome and Prader Willi…

Gil, Isidoro Candel

2005-01-01

175

Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30  

E-print Network

Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life

Kraus, Nina

176

Bayesian Programming: life science modeling and robotics applications  

E-print Network

Bayesian Programming: life science modeling and robotics applications Pierre Bessiere1 and Francis to perceive, infer, decide and act efficiently? This is the challenge both living and artificial cognitive introduce Bayesian Programming, a methodology, a for- malism and an inference engine to build and compute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Hypertension in Early-Stage Kidney Disease: An Update From the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Systolic blood pressure as an associated feature of CKD has not been fully explored in community volunteer and nationally representative samples of the US population. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis evaluated hypertension and early-stage CKD in participants in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a voluntary community-based health screening program

Rigas Kalaitzidis; Suying Li; Changchun Wang; Shu-Cheng Chen; Peter A. McCullough; George L. Bakris

2009-01-01

178

Parental Responsiveness Moderates the Association Between Early-life Stress and Reduced Telomere Length  

PubMed Central

Early-life stress, such as maltreatment, institutionalization, and exposure to violence, is associated with accelerated telomere shortening. Telomere shortening may thus represent a biomarker of early adversity. Previous studies have suggested that responsive parenting may protect children from the negative biological and behavioral consequences of early adversity. This study examined the role of parental responsiveness in buffering children from telomere shortening following experiences of early-life stress. We found that high-risk children had significantly shorter telomeres than low-risk children, controlling for household income, birth weight, gender, and minority status. Further, parental responsiveness moderated the association between risk and telomere length, with more responsive parenting associated with longer telomeres only among high-risk children. These findings suggest that responsive parenting may have protective benefits on telomere shortening for young children exposed to early-life stress. Accordingly, this study has important implications for early parenting interventions. PMID:23527512

Roth, T. L.; Rosen, J. B.; Dozier, M.

2015-01-01

179

The Brookline Early Education Project: Resolving Methodological Issues in Evaluating an Early Childhood Education Program Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) was initiated to determine the cost effectiveness of providing comprehensive diagnostic and educational services for 285 very young children and their parents. The primary goal of the program is to bring the family, the school, and the medical profession into a working relationship early in the child's…

Bryk, Anthony S.

180

Hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early-life stress: Functional and molecular aspects  

PubMed Central

Whereas genetic factors contribute crucially to brain function, early-life events, including stress, exert long-lasting influence on neuronal function. Here, we focus on the hippocampus as the target of these early-life events because of its crucial role in learning and memory. Using a novel immature-rodent model, we describe the deleterious consequences of chronic early-life ‘psychological’ stress on hippocampus-dependent cognitive tasks. We review the cellular mechanisms involved and discuss the roles of stress-mediating molecules, including corticotropin releasing hormone, in the process by which stress impacts the structure and function of hippocampal neurons. PMID:16603235

Fenoglio, Kristina A.; Brunson, Kristen L.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2010-01-01

181

PROSTATE CANCER: IS IT TIME TO EXPAND THE RESEARCH FOCUS TO EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURES?  

PubMed Central

Preface Although the contribution of lifestyle and environment (non-genetic factors) to prostate carcinogenesis is indicated by international variation in prostate cancer occurrence and migration studies, no conclusive modifiable risk factors have been identified to date. One possible reason for this may be the dearth of epidemiological research on exposures experienced early-in-life when the immature prostate may be more susceptible to carcinogenic exposures. Herein, we motivate the study of early-life exposures, describe the small body of early-life research and its associated challenges, and point towards solutions for future research. PMID:23363989

Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A.

2013-01-01

182

Decreased Fetal Size Is Associated With ?-Cell Hyperfunction in Early Life and Failure With Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Low birth weight is associated with diabetes in adult life. Accelerated or “catch-up” postnatal growth in response to small birth size is thought to presage disease years later. Whether adult disease is caused by intrauterine ?-cell–specific programming or by altered metabolism associated with catch-up growth is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We generated a new model of intrauterine growth restriction due to fatty acid synthase (FAS) haploinsufficiency (FAS deletion [FASDEL]). Developmental programming of diabetes in these mice was assessed from in utero to 1 year of age. RESULTS—FASDEL mice did not manifest catch-up growth or insulin resistance. ?-Cell mass and insulin secretion were strikingly increased in young FASDEL mice, but ?-cell failure and diabetes occurred with age. FASDEL ?-cells had altered proliferative and apoptotic responses to the common stress of a high-fat diet. This sequence appeared to be developmentally entrained because ?-cell mass was increased in utero in FASDEL mice and in another model of intrauterine growth restriction caused by ectopic expression of uncoupling protein-1. Increasing intrauterine growth in FASDEL mice by supplementing caloric intake of pregnant dams normalized ?-cell mass in utero. CONCLUSIONS—Decreased intrauterine body size, independent of postnatal growth and insulin resistance, appears to regulate ?-cell mass, suggesting that developing body size might represent a physiological signal that is integrated through the pancreatic ?-cell to establish a template for hyperfunction in early life and ?-cell failure with age. PMID:18591393

Chakravarthy, Manu V.; Zhu, Yimin; Wice, Mitchell B.; Coleman, Trey; Pappan, Kirk L.; Marshall, Connie A.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

2008-01-01

183

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM...service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1...early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical...

2010-07-01

184

The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

185

Early Childhood Mentoring Programs: A Survey of Community Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…

Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan

186

Oregon Title 1-M Early Childhood and Elementary Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of Oregon Title 1-M early childhood and elementary education programs for migrant children from infants to grade 8, along with lists of contact persons for each program, include reading, pre-school skill development, English as a second language, individualized instruction, utilization of community services, and parental…

Lugo, Alfredo Morales, Comp.

187

The Role of Early Life Stress as a Predictor for Alcohol and Drug Dependence  

PubMed Central

Rationale Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcohol and drug dependence are equally important. Exposure to early life stress, that is unfortunately common in the general population, has been shown to predict a wide range of psychopathology, including addiction. Objective This review will look at the characteristics of early life stress that may be specific predictors for adolescent and adult alcohol and drug dependence and will focus on studies in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Results Experiencing maltreatment and cumulative stressful life events prior to puberty and particularly in the first few years of life is associated with early onset of problem drinking in adolescence and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Early life stress can result in permanent neurohormonal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes, morphological changes in the brain and gene expression changes in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, all of which are implicated in the development of addiction. However, a large proportion of children who have experienced even severe early life stress do not develop psychopathology indicating that mediating factors such as gene-environment interactions and family and peer relationships are important for resilience. Conclusions There appears to be a direct pathway from chronic stress exposure in pre-pubertal children via adolescent problem drinking to alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. However, this route can be moderated by genetic and environmental factors. The role that gene-environment interactions play in the risk-resilience balance is being increasingly recognized. PMID:20596857

Enoch, Mary-Anne

2010-01-01

188

The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90.  

E-print Network

The Life Safety Program Criteria Excerpt from Life Safety Funding Project Eligibility Criteria, dated 3/90. Projects eligible for Life Safety Funding should generally meet all of the following be a continuation of an existing operation or line of research. 4. Any Life Safety project must be the best life

189

RESPONSES OF EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF THE STRIPED BASS, 'MORONE SAXATILIS' TO CHLORINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of total residual chlorination (TRC) to early life stages of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, was determined using percent embryo hatchability, incipient LC50 bioassays, histopathology, and avoidance responses. Beginning 8 to 9 hours after fertilization, developin...

190

Stanford study identifies early-life risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Factors influencing early life non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence include family characteristics, high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and male gender, according to a study published May 22 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

191

Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

192

Behavioral deficits, abnormal corticosterone, and reduced prefrontal metabolites of adolescent rats subject to early life stress  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of early life stress in adolescent rats on brain metabolites, serum corticosterone, and depressive-like behavior. A group of rats were subject to early life stress from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14. A matched control group was studied. Behavioral tests, serum corticosterone and high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were conducted between PND 30 and 40. In this study, adolescent rats exposed to early life stress demonstrated depressive-like behavior and increased serum corticosterone during adolescence. They also showed reduced glutamate, glutamine, and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. A reduced myo-inositol level, consistent with astroglial deficits, was observed but was not statistically significant. Together, these findings characterize the effect of early life stress on adolescent animals and underscore the long-lasting and detrimental effects of childhood adversities. PMID:23643993

Zhang, Jie; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Tianhua; Huang, Qingjun; Xu, Chongtao; Xiao, Yeyu; Liu, Yuzhen; Ding, Yan; Wu, Renhua

2013-01-01

193

Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

2013-01-01

194

A randomised controlled trial of two early intervention programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with parent program and home-based  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill development in children, quality of life and stress for parents. Eligible

Jacqueline Roberts; Katrina Williams; Mark Carter; David Evans; Trevor Parmenter; Natalie Silove; Trevor Clark; Anthony Warren

2011-01-01

195

Searching for Life: Early Earth, Mars and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.

DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

196

Oakton Community College: Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program. Program Description Based on Grant Abstract.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program is a 21-week program of intensive training that provides limited-English-proficient Hispanic, Indian, and Pakistani adult students with the required skills for entry-level positions in the child care field. Courses in early childhood focus on child growth and development, introduction to…

Kerwin, Sheila

197

Inter-college program between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical Sciences  

E-print Network

Inter-college program between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical Sciences Offered by Natural-college program between Colleges of Life Sciences & Agriculture and Engineering & Physical Sciences Offered

Pringle, James "Jamie"

198

The Role of the Early-Life Environment in the Development of Allergic Disease.  

PubMed

A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. PMID:25459574

Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

2015-02-01

199

Integrated life sciences technology utilization development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the TU program was to maximize the development of operable hardware and systems which will be of substantial benefit to the public. Five working prototypes were developed, and a meal system for the elderly is now undergoing evaluation. Manpower utilization is shown relative to the volume of requests in work for each month. The ASTP mobile laboratories and post Skylab bedrest study are also described.

1975-01-01

200

Post-weaning diet determines metabolic risk in mice exposed to overnutrition in early life  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal overnutrition during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the offspring; a phenomenon attributed to ‘developmental programming’. The post-weaning development of obesity may associate with exacerbation of the programmed metabolic phenotype. In mice, we have previously shown that exposure to maternal overnutrition causes increased weight gain in offspring before weaning, but exerts no persistent effects on weight or glucose tolerance in adulthood. In order to determine whether post-weaning exposure to a cafeteria diet might lead to an exacerbation of programmed effects, offspring born and raised by mothers on control (CON) or cafeteria (DIO) diets were transferred onto either CON or DIO diets at weaning. Findings Post-weaning DIO caused the development of obesity, with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in males; and obesity with hyperinsulinaemia in females and with increased cholesterol levels in both sexes. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation caused only subtle additional effects on offspring phenotype. Conclusions These results suggest that post-weaning exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet has a more profound effect on offspring weight gain and glucose tolerance than exposure to maternal overnutrition. These data emphasise the importance of optimising early life nutrition in offspring of both obese and lean mothers. PMID:25082159

2014-01-01

201

Results of early defibrillation program in Piacenza.  

PubMed

Defibrillation as soon as possible is the mainstay of modern emergency system in the treatment of sudden cardiac death. The emergency medical system (EMS) should be integrated with first responders in the community trained to use the semiautomatic external defibrillators (AED). Piacenza Progetto Vita is a European project of early defibrillation through lay first responders integrated within the EMS. After 22 months of the project 1 285 first responders were trained to the use of AED. Survival from sudden cardiac arrest significantly increased (from 3.3% to 10.5%, p<0.01). In particular in the group of patients treated by first responders survival from ventricular fibrillation was 44.1% vs 21.2% of EMS treated group (p < 0.05). A simple training for the use of AED without cardiopulmonary resuscitation training increased survival and created a group of competent AED operator integrated within the EMS. PMID:12768166

Capucci, A; Aschieri, D

2003-05-01

202

Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson based on the village life of the Plains Indians during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and suggested student assignments. Provides two maps, two student readings, and five illustrations of American Indian village life. (CFR)

Metcalf, Fay

1994-01-01

203

Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was

K. J. Buhl; S. J. Hamilton

1990-01-01

204

Stress processes and trajectories of depressive symptoms in early life: Gendered development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable advances, significant gaps remain in our knowledge of how gender differences in depression develop over the life course. Applying mixed model growth curves to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigates gendered variation in the causes and course of depressive symptom trajectories across early life. Results show curvilinear trajectories, rising through adolescence, and falling in

Daniel E. Adkins; Victor Wang; Glen H. Elder

2008-01-01

205

Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design  

E-print Network

models to reduce building time (Eisenhard et al. 2000). Ideally, the fidelity (accuracy) and buildingPropagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design One of the challenges in accurately applying metrics for life cycle assessment lies in accounting

Yang, Maria

206

Early Life History of the Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens (Mitchell), in the Red Lakes, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early life history of the yellow perch, an important commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, has been studied with special reference to length at scale formation, growth rate during first season of life, and food habits as they relate to growth and survival. Scales are fully imbricated in the area of 12th to 14th lateral line scales at

Richard L. Pycha; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1955-01-01

207

Teaching with Historic Places: Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history lesson plan on village life among two groups of Plains Indians in the early nineteenth century. Includes student handouts of contemporary writings by Euro-Americans, maps of the area, and early American paintings of the villages. Describes and structures teaching activities, vocabulary, and additional reading. (DK)

Metcalf, Fay

1992-01-01

208

Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

2008-01-01

209

Cost and quality-of-life analyses of surgery for early endometrial cancer: Laparotomy versus laparoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cost or quality of life associated with surgical treatment of presumed early-stage endometrial cancer differed on the basis of the surgical approach. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on a consecutive series of women with presumed early-stage endometrial cancer treated at the Women's Cancer Center of Northern California.

Nick M. Spirtos; John B. Schlaerth; Gary M. Gross; Tanya W. Spirtos; Alan C. Schlaerth; Samuel C. Ballon

1996-01-01

210

Where Need Meets Opportunity: Youth Development Programs for Early Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early adolescence is a time of burgeoning independence, autonomy, and focus on peers. It is also a time when individual interests, skills, and preferences become salient to young people. Not surprisingly, out-of-school programs designed to capture the interest of early teens are diverse in focus and varied in structure, ranging from sports teams to drop-in recreation centers, from museum apprenticeships

Jane Quinn

211

76 FR 70152 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...a pilot program for early feasibility study investigational device exemption (IDE...Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain First in Human...

2011-11-10

212

Medicare hospice benefit: Early program experiences  

PubMed Central

In this article, an overview of the Medicare hospice benefit is presented and selected preliminary findings from the Medicare hospice benefit program evaluation are provided. By mid-1987, about one-half of all community home health agency-based hospices were Medicare certified, compared with about one-fifth of all independent/freestanding hospices and one-seventh of hospital and skilled nursing facility-based hospices. Medicare beneficiary election of the hospice benefit increased from about 2,000 beneficiaries in fiscal year 1984 to about 11,000 during fiscal year 1986. Medicare reimbursed hospices an average of $1,798, $2,078 and $2,337 per patient during fiscal years 1984, 1985, and 1986, respectively. PMID:10312635

Davis, Feather Ann

1988-01-01

213

Life Satisfaction and Maladaptive Behaviors in Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 ("n" = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2…

Lyons, Michael D.; Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

2014-01-01

214

Learning about life and death in early childhood.  

PubMed

have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death. Sixty preschool children between the ages of 3 years, 7 months and 5 years, 11 months participated. All children were initially given structured interviews to assess their knowledge of (1) human body function and (2) death. From this sample 40 children in the Training group were taught about the human body and how it functions to maintain life. The Control group (n=20) received no training. All 60 children were subsequently reassessed on their knowledge of human body function and death. Results from the initial interviews indicated that young children who spontaneously appealed to vitalistic concepts in reasoning about human body functioning were also more sophisticated in their understanding of death. Results from the posttraining interviews showed that children readily learned to adopt a vitalistic approach to human body functioning, and that this learning coincided with significant development in their understanding of human body function, and of death. The overall pattern of results supports the claim that the acquisition of a vitalistic causal-explanatory framework serves to structure children's concepts and facilitates learning in the domain of biology. PMID:12646154

Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

2003-02-01

215

Polycomb Binding Precedes Early-Life Stress Responsive DNA Methylation at the Avp Enhancer  

PubMed Central

Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development. PMID:24599304

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2014-01-01

216

Polycomb binding precedes early-life stress responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer.  

PubMed

Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development. PMID:24599304

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2014-01-01

217

Characteristics of Unified and Separate Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Special Education Programs: A National Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the characteristics of course content, field experiences, and program administration at 14 unified early childhood/early child special education (ECE/ECSE) and 13 separate ECE or ECSE undergraduate teacher preparation programs. Students from unified programs and ECSE (but not ECE) programs had a balance of ECE course content…

Dunne, Lora Fader

2002-01-01

218

Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution  

PubMed Central

In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution. PMID:24196527

Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

2013-01-01

219

Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution.

Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

2013-11-01

220

Learning Effects of an Experimental EFL Program in Second Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the effects an experimental English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program in Second Life (SL) had on Chinese student EFL learning. The study took an evaluative approach using quasi-experimental design with participants from one Chinese university and one American university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated…

Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Calandra, Brendan; Hibbard, Susan T.; McDowell Lefaiver, Mary L.

2012-01-01

221

Virtual Reality for Life Skills Education: Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program evaluation was completed for a Virtual Reality (VR) pilot project intended to aid deaf children in learning various life skills which they may be at risk of not adequately learning. Such skills include crossing the street safely, exiting a building during a fire drill, and avoiding situations in which strangers may harm them. The VR was…

Vogel, Jennifer; Bowers, Clint; Meehan, Cricket; Hoeft, Raegan; Bradley, Kristy

2004-01-01

222

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program  

Cancer.gov

Funded National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies with or without Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) proposals which are associated with NCI clinical trial concepts.

223

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease  

SciTech Connect

Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality.

Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

2013-10-15

224

A bug's life: change and transformation in early modern China.  

PubMed

Chanting wasps and shape-shifting worms were all in a day's work for sixteenth-century Chinese naturalists such as Li Shizhen (1518-1593). In an effort to understand the metamorphoses of both nature and the human body, he and other early modern Chinese scholars looked towards tiny creatures like roundworms, lice and demon bugs. For them, such animals could reveal the most intimate secrets of the universe. PMID:17964651

Nappi, Carla

2007-12-01

225

Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development  

EPA Science Inventory

The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

226

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

227

Evaluation of Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the evaluation of 32 model projects involving 160 children (birth to 8-years-old) in the federally funded Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP). The steps involved in developing six data collection instruments, (including a child-based measure of achievement, four measures of project effectiveness, and an instrument…

Stock, J. R.; And Others

228

Questionnaire Survey of the Early Identification and Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Identification and Prevention Program (EIP) was designed to identify and meet special needs of children in kindergarten through third year with special emphasis on the second grade. The findings of the report are based on a city-wide survey of the personnel working in all the 18 elementary schools which had a full complement of EIP…

Lolis, Kathleen; And Others

229

Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

2007-01-01

230

Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

2006-01-01

231

Graduate Program for Specialists in Early Childhood Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of New Hampshire Department of Education with federal support began in 1969 a tripartite graduate program for the preparation of early childhood specialists. Both experienced and beginning teachers may earn a masters degree while demonstrating theory in the classroom. After a summer of child study, graduate students in teams of two…

Stone, Deborah E.

232

Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

Griffin, Sherri

233

A Description of the Hawthorn Center Early Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…

Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie

234

Investing in Early Childhood: Increasing Funding for Smart Start Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, Voices for America's Children member Kansas Action for Children, partnered with state and local organizations to increase funding for Smart Start Kansas, a successful early care and education program. Kansas Children's Campaign, an initiative of Kansas Action for Children, collaborated with a key state organization, legislators,…

Voices for America's Children, 2005

2005-01-01

235

Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC) centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children). Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight) and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76) for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17) for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions. PMID:21159203

2010-01-01

236

The role of early life viral bronchiolitis in the inception of asthma  

PubMed Central

Propose of review Cumulative evidence suggest that early life bronchiolitis is a major risk factor for subsequent wheezing episodes and asthma. The purpose of this review is to present the recent findings and current perspectives regarding the interplay between bronchiolitis and long-term respiratory outcomes. Recent findings Recent studies have supported the long-recognized link between early life severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus bronchiolitis and the physician diagnosis of asthma by school age, and this association appears to continue into early adulthood. Evidence is accumulating regarding the role of early life infection with human rhinovirus as an important antecedent for future asthma. Whether viral bronchiolitis is causal or an early manifestation of future asthma remains uncertain. Vitamin D status has emerged as a potential modifying factor for viral-induced wheeze and could potentially influence the development of asthma. Summary Viral bronchiolitis early in life is a major and potential long-term risk factor for subsequent wheezing and asthma. Whether the association between bronchiolitis and subsequent asthma is due to causality or a reflection of predisposition may be dependent on host factors and virus-specific effects. PMID:23385289

Beigelman, Avraham; Bacharier, Leonard B.

2013-01-01

237

Evaluation of a Classwide Teaching Program for Developing Preschool Life Skills  

PubMed Central

Recently, nonmaternal center-based child care has been linked to problem behavior in young children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003). In response, a comprehensive program to promote prosocial skills was evaluated in a classroom of 16 children between the ages of 3 and 5?years. Classroom observations were conducted during evocative situations to determine the likelihood of problem behavior (noncompliance, vocal or motor disruptions, aggression) and preschool life skills. A classwide teaching program was then implemented in a staggered manner across instruction following, functional communication, delay tolerance, and friendship skills. These four categories of preschool life skills, which included two to four related skills, were selected for classwide teaching because they were either identified by educators as important for early school success, have often been taught following functional assessments of more severe problem behavior, or both. Skills were taught on a classwide basis during typically scheduled activities (circle, free play, transitions, meals) via instructions, modeling, role play, and feedback. A multiple probe design showed that the program resulted in an 74% reduction in problem behavior and a more than four-fold increase in preschool life skills. Similar beneficial effects of the program were evident in questionnaire data gathered prior to and at the close of the evaluation. Finally, the teachers who implemented the program reported overall high levels of satisfaction with the classwide teaching program, the target skills, and the results. Implications for the design of early childhood experiences for preempting the development of serious problem behavior are discussed. PMID:17624068

Hanley, Gregory P; Heal, Nicole A; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Ingvarsson, Einar T

2007-01-01

238

BEHAVIOR OF PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Whether through environmental criteria or site-specific risk assessments, many EPA programs rely on linking environmental exposures to levels of adverse effect (or no effect) in fish and wildlife. While empirical relationships of exposure to effect can be used for such assessmen...

239

A Growth Model for Academic Program Life Cycle (APLC): A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic program life cycle concept states each program's life flows through several stages: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. A mixed-influence diffusion growth model is fitted to enrolment data on academic programs to analyze the factors determining progress of academic programs through their life cycles. The regression analysis yield…

Acquah, Edward H. K.

2010-01-01

240

WorkLife Programs -Family Friendly Services Child Care Services Flexible Work Arrangements (FWA)  

E-print Network

campaigns (Money Smart Week/ Purdue University programs Purdue Saves) Elder Care WorkLife Programs Employee Assistance · WorkLife Programs offerings for elder care · Counseling/referral services · WorkLife Programs offerings for caregivers · Substance abuse assessments · Annual Family Caregiver Fair · Emergency

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

241

Evaluation of a School-Based Early Education Program: Results from the Brookline Early Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Initial results from the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) are presented. The project provided a comprehensive set of educational and diagnostic services to families and children from birth up until entry into kindergarten. Teacher ratings and independent observers recorded the classroom behavior of program participants as well as a group…

Tivnan, Terrence; Pierson, Donald E.

242

Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

Nemeth, Noel N.

2002-01-01

243

Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

244

Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

California Childcare Health Program, 2011

2011-01-01

245

Microbial mats and the early evolution of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

Des Marais, D. J.

1990-01-01

246

Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation used a non-randomized controlled design to evaluate the effect and feasibility of a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program on immune function, quality of life (QOL), and coping in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Early stage breast cancer patients, who did not receive chemotherapy, self-selected into an 8-week MBSR program or into an assessment only, control group.

Linda Witek-Janusek; Kevin Albuquerque; Karen Rambo Chroniak; Christopher Chroniak; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Herbert L. Mathews

2008-01-01

247

Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats.  

PubMed

Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1h each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this early life chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to early life CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that early life CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24005186

Carini, Lindsay M; Nephew, Benjamin C

2013-09-01

248

Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users  

PubMed Central

Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2013-01-01

249

Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

Goldenfeld, Nigel

2012-02-01

250

Competitive physical activity early in life is associated with bone mineral density in elderly Swedish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this population-based study of 75-year-old men (n?=?498), we investigated the association between physical activity (PA) early in life and present bone mineral density (BMD).\\u000a We demonstrate that a high frequency of competitive sports early in life is associated with BMD at several bone sites, indicating\\u000a that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Physical activity

M. Nilsson; C. Ohlsson; A. L. Eriksson; K. Frändin; M. Karlsson; Ö. Ljunggren; D. Mellström; M. Lorentzon

2008-01-01

251

Early Reproductive Experiences in Females Make Differences in Cognitive Function Later in Life  

PubMed Central

Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive function in later life, research conducted on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth (primiparous or multiparous) compared to virgin controls (nulliparous). In this mini review, we will focus on the effect of early motherhood on cognitive function later in life, which would provide insight on how reproductive experiences influence women’s health during ageing. PMID:23271317

Li, Rena; Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; Shen, Juliet; He, Ping; Shen, Yong

2012-01-01

252

UC Davis study links breast cancer risk to early-life diet and metabolic syndrome  

Cancer.gov

Striking new evidence suggesting that diet and related factors early in life can boost the risk for breast cancer — totally independent of the body’s production of the hormone estrogen — has been uncovered by a team of researchers at the University of California, Davis. The findings provide new insights into the processes that regulate normal breast development, which can impact the risk of developing breast cancer later in life. The study will be published Sept. 17 in the early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The University of California, Davis is home to the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center.

253

Environmental conditions during early life determine the consequences of inbreeding in Agrostemma githago (Caryophyllaceae).  

PubMed

In an inbred population, selection may reduce the frequency of deleterious recessive alleles through a process known as purging. Empirical studies suggest, however, that the efficacy of purging in natural populations is highly variable. This variation may be due, in part, to variation in the expression of inbreeding depression available for selection to act on. This experiment investigates the roles of life stage and early-life environment in determining the expression of inbreeding depression in Agrostemma githago. Four population-level crosses ('self', 'within', 'near' and 'far') were conducted on 20 maternal plants from a focal population. Siblings were planted into one of three early environmental treatments with varying stress levels. Within the focal population, evidence for purging of deleterious recessive alleles, as well as for variation in the expression of inbreeding depression across the life cycle was examined. In addition, the effect of early environment on the expression of inbreeding depression and the interaction with cross-type was measured. We find that deleterious recessive alleles have not been effectively purged from our focal population, the expression of inbreeding depression decreases over the course of the life cycle, and a stressful early environment reduces the variance in inbreeding depression expressed later in life, but does not consistently influence the relative fitness of inbred versus outcrossed individuals. PMID:23294449

Goodrich, S H; Beans, C M; Roach, D A

2013-03-01

254

Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life

Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

2010-01-01

255

Growth Failure in Early Life: An Important Manifestation of Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that girls with Turner syndrome (TS) experience growth failure early in life and to establish model-based normative growth charts for 0- to 8-year-old American girls with TS. Full-term girls with TS who had 5 or more measurements of height obtained during their first 10 years of life prior to initiation

Marsha L. Davenport; Natavut Punyasavatsut; Paul W. Stewart; Daniel F. Gunther; Lars Sävendahl; Virginia P. Sybert

2002-01-01

256

Early Life Stress Inhibits Expression of Ribosomal RNA in the Developing Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Children that are exposed to abuse or neglect show abnormal hippocampal function. However, the developmental mechanisms by which early life stress (ELS) impairs normal hippocampal development have not been elucidated. Here we propose that exposure to ELS blunts normal hippocampal growth by inhibiting the availability of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In support of this hypothesis, we show that the normal mouse hippocampus undergoes a growth-spurt during the second week of life, followed by a gradual decrease in DNA and RNA content that persists into adulthood. This developmental pattern is associated with accelerated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis during the second week of life, followed by a gradual decline in rRNA levels that continue into adulthood. Levels of DNA methylation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter are lower during the second week of life compared to earlier development or adulthood. Exposure to brief daily separation (BDS), a mouse model of early life stress, increased DNA methylation at the ribosomal DNA promoter, decreased rRNA levels, and blunted hippocampal growth during the second week of life. Exposure to acute (3 hrs) maternal separation decreased rRNA and increased DNA methylation at the rDNA proximal promoter, suggesting that exposure to stress early in life can rapidly regulate the availability of rRNA levels in the developing hippocampus. Given the critical role that rRNA plays in supporting normal growth and development, these findings suggest a novel molecular mechanism to explain how stress early in life impairs hippocampus development in the mouse. PMID:25517398

Wei, Lan; Hao, Jin; Kaffman, Arie

2014-01-01

257

First-Year Recruitment of Largemouth Bass: The Interdependency of Early Life Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four early life events (i.e., hatching, the ontogenetic diet shift to piscivory, fall lipid accumulation, and the first winter) are conceptualized as being critical to 1st-yr recruitment success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) via cause-and-effect as- sociations among them. Toward this end, we conducted a multiple life-stage investigation of largemouth bass to examine the functional dependency and significance to recruitment

Stuart A. Ludsin; Dennis R. DeVries

1997-01-01

258

Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of\\u000a ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects\\u000a of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of

Ryota Suwa; Masako Nakamura; Masaya Morita; Kazuaki Shimada; Akira Iguchi; Kazuhiko Sakai; Atsushi Suzuki

2010-01-01

259

Early-life stress has persistent effects on amygdala function and development in mice and humans  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about neurobiological changes attributable to early-life stressors (e.g., orphanage rearing), even though they have been associated with a heightened risk for later psychopathology. Human neuroimaging and animal studies provide complementary insights into the neural basis of problem behaviors following stress, but too often are limited by dissimilar experimental designs. The current mouse study manipulates the type and timing of a stressor to parallel the early-life stress experience of orphanage rearing, controlling for genetic and environmental confounds inherent in human studies. The results provide evidence of both early and persistent alterations in amygdala circuitry and function following early-life stress. These effects are not reversed when the stressor is removed nor diminished with the development of prefrontal regulation regions. These neural and behavioral findings are similar to our human findings in children adopted from orphanages abroad in that even following removal from the orphanage, the ability to suppress attention toward potentially threatening information in favor of goal-directed behavior was diminished relative to never-institutionalized children. Together, these findings highlight how early-life stress can lead to altered brain circuitry and emotion dysregulation that may increase the risk for psychopathology. PMID:24145410

Malter Cohen, Matthew; Jing, Deqiang; Yang, Rui R.; Tottenham, Nim; Lee, Francis S.; Casey, B. J.

2013-01-01

260

NASALIFE - Component Fatigue and Creep Life Prediction Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASALIFE is a life prediction program for propulsion system components made of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading and creep rupture conditions. Although the primary focus was for CMC components, the underlying methodologies are equally applicable to other material systems as well. The program references empirical data for low cycle fatigue (LCF), creep rupture, and static material properties as part of the life prediction process. Multiaxial stresses are accommodated by Von Mises based methods and a Walker model is used to address mean stress effects. Varying loads are reduced by the Rainflow counting method or a peak counting type method. Lastly, damage due to cyclic loading and creep is combined with Minor's Rule to determine damage due to cyclic loading, damage due to creep, and the total damage per mission and the number of potential missions the component can provide before failure.

Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.

2014-01-01

261

Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores.  

PubMed

Variations among individuals in phenotypic quality and fitness often confound analyses of life-history strategies assessed at the population level. We used detailed long-term data from three populations of large herbivores with generation times ranging from four to nine years to quantify heterogeneity in individual quality among females, and to assess its influence on mean annual reproductive success over the lifetime (MRS). We also determined how environmental conditions in early life shaped individual quality and tested A. Lomnicki's hypothesis that variance in individual quality should increase when environmental conditions deteriorate. Using multivariate analyses (PCA), we identified one (in sheep and deer) or two (in goats) covariations among life-history traits (longevity, success in the last breeding opportunity, adult mass, and social rank) as indexes of individual quality that positively influenced MRS of females. Individual quality was reduced by unfavorable weather, low resource availability, and high population density in the year of birth. Early-life conditions accounted for 35-55% of variation in individual quality. In roe deer, we found greater variance in individual quality for cohorts born under unfavorable conditions as opposed to favorable ones, but the opposite was found in bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneity in female quality can originate from environmental conditions in early life and can markedly influence the fitness of females in species located at different positions along the slow-fast continuum of life-history strategies. PMID:19694145

Hamel, Sandra; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

2009-07-01

262

78 FR 77365 - Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Options B and C  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3206-AM96 Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Options B and C AGENCY...to amend the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) regulations to provide...law. This law, the Federal Employees Life Insurance Improvement Act, changed...

2013-12-23

263

77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

2012-06-01

264

77 FR 71687 - Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Court Orders Prior to July 22, 1998  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3206-AM67 Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: Court Orders Prior...individual receive Federal Employee's Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) benefits. The interim...Hostages, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Life insurance, Retirement. U.S....

2012-12-04

265

Causes and consequences of early-life health.  

PubMed

We examine the consequences of child health for economic and health outcomes in adulthood, using height as a marker of childhood health. After reviewing previous evidence, we present a conceptual framework that highlights data limitations and methodological problems that complicate the study of this topic. We then present estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes--including schooling, employment, earnings, health, and cognitive ability--measured in five data sets from early to late adulthood. These results indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Height is also positively associated with better economic, health, and cognitive outcomes. These associations are only partially explained by the higher average educational attainment of taller individuals. We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults survey to document the associations between health, cognitive development, and growth in childhood. Even among children with the same mother, taller siblings score better on cognitive tests and progress through school more quickly. Part of the differences found between siblings arises from differences in their birth weights and lengths attributable to mother's behaviors while pregnant. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood. PMID:21302429

Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina

2010-01-01

266

Ceramic material life prediction: A program to translate ANSYS results to CARES/LIFE reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and CARES. Knowledge of compiling and linking FORTRAN programs is also required. Maximum use is made of existing routines (from other CARES interface programs and ANSYS routines) to extract the finite element results and prepare the neutral file for input to the reliability analysis. FORTRAN and machine language routines as described are used to read the ANSYS results file. Sub-element stresses are computed and written to a neutral file using FORTRAN subroutines which are nearly identical to those used in the NASCARES (MSC/NASTRAN to CARES) interface.

Vonhermann, Pieter; Pintz, Adam

1994-01-01

267

Inborn stress reactivity shapes adult behavioral consequences of early-life maternal separation stress.  

PubMed

Early-life experience strongly impacts neurodevelopment and stress susceptibility in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), an established model of early-life adversity, has been shown to negatively impact behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. However, the impact of MS in rats with heightened inborn stress susceptibility has not been fully explored. To address this issue we conducted MS in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of comorbid depression and anxiety, and Wistar rats, which share a similar genetic background with WKYs. WKY and Wistar pups experienced either 180-min daily MS or 15-min separation (neonatal handling) during the first two postnatal weeks, and were tested for depressive- and anxiety- like behaviors in adulthood. Exposure to early-life MS in WKY rats decreased anxiety- and depressive- like behaviors, leading to increased exploration on the open field test (OFT), enhanced social interaction, and diminished immobility on the forced swim test. MS had an opposite effect in Wistar offspring, leading to enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, such as reduced OFT exploration and decreased social interaction. These findings are consistent with the match/mismatch theory of disease and the predictive adaptive response, which suggests that early life stress exposure can confer adaptive value in later life within certain individuals. Our data supports this theory, showing that early-life MS has positive and perhaps adaptive effects within stress-vulnerable WKY offspring. Future studies will be required to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of contrasting behavioral effects of MS on WKY vs. Wistar offspring. PMID:25451726

Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Jackson, Nateka; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

2015-01-01

268

Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.  

PubMed

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

Chang, Ku-ming

2011-06-01

269

Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.  

PubMed

Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 ?g/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 ?g/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 ?g/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2013-01-01

270

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

2007-01-01

271

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for adolescents (n = 100). It was hypothesized

John Brunelle; Steven J. Danish; Tanya Forneris

2007-01-01

272

Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

Khochikar, Makarand V.

2011-01-01

273

Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease

F. P. H. Gazeau; J.-P. Gattuso; C. Dawber; A. E. Pronker; F. Peene; J. Peene; C. H. R. Heip; J. J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

274

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)  

E-print Network

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

Lailvaux, Simon

275

Alcohol Abuse and the Elderly: Comparison of Early & Late-Life Onset.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…

Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others

276

Effects of maternally transferred organochlorine contaminants on early life survival in a freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Laboratory research has shown that female fish can pass toxic organochlorines (OCs) from their bodies to their eggs, killing their offspring if sufficient quantities are transferred. We conducted a controlled incubation study using gametes from a wild, OC-contaminated walleye (Sander vitreus) population (Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada) in order to assess among-female variation in offspring early life survival in relation to ova concentrations of planar OCs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls) and a suite of other maternal and ova characteristics. Equal volumes of ova from each female were fertilized, pooled, and incubated together as an experimental cohort. Relative survival of each female's offspring was estimated as the proportion of surviving larvae (at approximately 5 d posthatch) that she contributed to the cohort as determined by microsatellite DNA parentage assignment. Total planar OC concentration (expressed as toxic equivalency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) of ova was positively related to maternal age and size and to ova lipid content. However, early life survival did not decline with increasing ova planar OC concentrations. Similarly, we observed no significant relationships between early life survival and ova thiamine content, ova fatty acid composition, or maternal age or size. Early life survival was more strongly correlated with date of spawn collection, thyroid hormone status of the ova, and ovum size. Maternally transferred planar OCs do not appear to negatively influence female reproductive success in this walleye population. PMID:16268162

Johnston, Thomas A; Miller, Loren M; Whittle, D Michael; Brown, Scott B; Wiegand, Murray D; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Leggett, William C

2005-10-01

277

Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates  

PubMed Central

Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

2013-01-01

278

EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SAND LANCE (AMMODYTES), WITH EVIDENCE FOR SPAWNING OF A. DUBIUS IN  

E-print Network

EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF SAND LANCE (AMMODYTES), WITH EVIDENCE FOR SPAWNING OF A. DUBIUS IN FORTUNE. Newfoundland. indicate that sand lance (Ammodytes sp.) larvae occur annually in Fortune Bay from February, when for the consistent polymodality in length.frequency distribution of sand lance larvae from the Newfoundland area

279

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

280

Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing…

Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

2011-01-01

281

Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

282

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE-STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug/L. n the 30-d ELS test was laboratory-sp...

283

EFFECTS OF FENVALERATE ON THE EARLY LIFE STAGES OF TOPSMELT (ATHERINOPS AFFINIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute and early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted with topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a Pacific Coast saltwater fish, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. he 96-h LC50 for juvenile fish was 0.66 ug?l. n the 30-d ELS test with laboratory-s...

284

GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY TESTS WITH JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual represents a procedural guide for conducting embryo-larval early life stage (ELS) toxicity tests with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). hese procedures are based upon evaluation of published papers and recent methods development work conducted at our laboratory in Du...

285

DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

2013-01-01

286

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.  

PubMed

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

287

A Musician's Odyssey William's early life in Hanover had not been easy. Despite Isaac's absences  

E-print Network

1 1707­1773 A Musician's Odyssey William's early life in Hanover had not been easy. Despite Isaac, and for the boys, arithmetic. William later recorded how "my father's great attachment to Music determined him violin, their lessons would begin. Isaac, Anna, and the Founding of the Herschel Dynasty Isaac himself

Landweber, Laura

288

Factors Regulating Early Life History Dispersal of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Coastal Newfoundland  

E-print Network

Factors Regulating Early Life History Dispersal of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Coastal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal

deYoung, Brad

289

The Enzymatic and Metabolic Capabilities of Early Life Aaron David Goldman1  

E-print Network

by the National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship through the Center network that may reflect the core metabolism of early life forms. Our results show that ten enzyme, are determined by metaconsensus to be present at least as late as the last universal common ancestor. Subnetworks

Samudrala, Ram

290

Predation on Early Life Stages of Lake Sturgeon in the Peshtigo River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of early life stages can limit recruitment of fishes, and understanding the impacts of various sources of mortality has long been a goal of fisheries management. The impacts of predation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify sources of predation that affect lake sturgeon eggs, larvae, and

David C. Caroffino; Trent M. Sutton; Robert F. Elliott; Michael C. Donofrio

2010-01-01

291

Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2008-01-01

292

The rate of senescence in maternal performance increases with early-life fecundity in red deer  

E-print Network

LETTER The rate of senescence in maternal performance increases with early-life fecundity in red performance in a natural population of red deer (Cervus elaphus), using a mixed model framework to control; Kirkwood & Rose 1991). Although reproduction is known to reduce breeding performance and survival

Nussey, Dan

293

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss  

PubMed Central

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

294

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE GREEN SUNFISH (LEPOMIS CYANELLUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of ammonia to early life stages of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus was studied. One chronic and four acute exposure studies were conducted. During the chronic study green sunfish were exposed to a series of ammonia concentrations from the blastula stage through 40 days p...

295

Revisiting the Swaziland Supergroup: New Approaches to Examining Evidence for Early Life on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The re-examination by SEM of 3.4 Ga fossiliferous carbonaceous cherts reveals fungal contaminants in addition to indigenous microfossils. Weathered volcanic flows associated with fossiliferous chert layers offer a promising area for further study of early life on Earth.

Walsh, M. M.; Westall, F.

2000-01-01

296

Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. Methods: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type

Molly M. Lamb; Dana Dabelea; Xiang Yin; Lorraine G. Ogden; Georgeanna J. Klingensmith; Marian Rewers; Jill M. Norris

2010-01-01

297

EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF COPPER ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX D. W. RICE, JR.,l F. L. HARRISON,l AND A. JEARLD, JR.2 ABSTRACT The sensitivity to copper of embryonic and larval total copper concentrations and the percent copper in labile forms were determined. From the cumulative

298

Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

299

A comparative study of the life satisfaction of early retirement military officers  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2005 Major Subject: Educational Psychology A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE LIFE SATISFACTION OF EARLY RETIREMENT MILITARY OFFICERS A..., Gonzalo Garcia, Jr. Committee Members, Dan F. Brossart Alvin Larke, Jr. Patricia S. Lynch Head of Department Michael R. Benz August 2005 Major Subject: Educational Psychology iii ABSTRACT A Comparative Study...

Graves, Russ Thomas

2005-11-01

300

Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma  

E-print Network

Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we

Strynadka, Natalie

301

The evolution of early hearing detection and intervention programs in the United States.  

PubMed

Identifying and treating children with congenital hearing loss during the first few months of life is a relatively new concept. To assist states in the development of statewide Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs, the federal government provides grants and/or cooperative agreements to almost all states and has established "National Goals, Program Objectives and Performance Measures" to guide the development and implementation of those systems. This article reviews the history of newborn hearing screening programs in the United States, summarizes the content of legislation and regulations passed by states related to universal newborn hearing screening, and describes how well each National Goal has been addressed. Although substantial progress has been made in the percentage of infants screened for hearing loss before hospital discharge, significant improvement is needed with respect to the availability of pediatric audiologists, implementation of effective tracking and data management systems, program evaluation and quality assurance, availability of appropriate early intervention programs, and linkages with medical home providers. PMID:20207267

White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene; Eichwald, John; Munoz, Karen

2010-04-01

302

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is...

2013-07-01

303

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is...

2014-07-01

304

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is...

2011-07-01

305

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...children from birth through age six and addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development. (3) A child care program is a program that is...

2012-07-01

306

Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

2009-12-01

307

NASA's Space Biology Outreach Program - Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing and discussing NASA's space missions and research is the goal of the Space Biology Outreach Program Web of Life. Visitors unfamiliar with space biology should definitely check out Space Biology FAQ's on the left hand side menu of the homepage. Questions covered range from those about the effect of weightlessness on the health of the astronauts to the significance of finding life on Mars to the definition of gravity. The Flight Experiments link on the same menu relates almost a dozen experiments that have been performed on space flights. Visitors can read about arterial remodeling and functional adaptations in the space experiment that used rats to model the human arterial system. Additionally, they can learn about how the blood vessels of the rats were examined to detect changes in a gravity-free environment. Finally, teachers should be sure to explore the Learning Resources section, which includes activities, resources, and links for teaching students of all ages.

2012-03-30

308

The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design  

PubMed Central

Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P, Thomsen C, Wright J, Athersuch TJ, Avellana N, Basagaña X, Brochot C, Bucchini L, Bustamante M, Carracedo A, Casas M, Estivill X, Fairley L, van Gent D, Gonzalez JR, Granum B, Gražulevi?ien? R, Gutzkow KB, Julvez J, Keun HC, Kogevinas M, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Sabidó E, Schwarze PE, Siroux V, Sunyer J, Want EJ, Zeman F, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2014. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design. Environ Health Perspect 122:535–544;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307204 PMID:24610234

Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevic?iene?, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

2014-01-01

309

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

310

Early life experiences as determinants of leadership role occupancy: The importance of parental influence and rule breaking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited behavioral genetics research reported in the leadership literature has not investigated the degree to which early life experiences predict future emergence into leadership roles. This is the first study to focus on parenting style and early life experiences of rule breaking, and their relationships to leadership roles assumed in adulthood, while controlling for genetic and personality contributions. Using

Bruce J. Avolio; Maria Rotundo; Fred O. Walumbwa

2009-01-01

311

Impulsivity as a Mediating Mechanism Between Early-Life Adversity and Addiction: Theoretical Comment on Lovic et al. (2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life adversity, impulsivity, and dopaminergic function have all been implicated in adult drug addiction. The article by Lovic, Keen, Fletcher, and Fleming in this issue further elucidates this relationship by demonstrating that early-life adversity can increase impulsivity and decrease behavioral flexibility in adulthood. Recent literature suggests that these results are likely due to structural and functional changes in regions such

Jay Hosking; Catharine A. Winstanley

2011-01-01

312

Improving Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health at an Early Psychosis Intervention Program in Vancouver, Canada  

PubMed Central

Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health early psychosis intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication, and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients’ physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program, where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment, where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study that evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25249985

Fredrikson, Diane H.; Boyda, Heidi N.; Tse, Lurdes; Whitney, Zachary; Pattison, Mark A.; Ott, Fred J.; Hansen, Laura; Barr, Alasdair M.

2014-01-01

313

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

Holland, L.E.

1986-01-01

314

Early life stress in epilepsy: A seizure precipitant and risk factor for epileptogenesis.  

PubMed

Stress can influence epilepsy in multiple ways. A relation between stress and seizures is often experienced by patients with epilepsy. Numerous questionnaire and diary studies have shown that stress is the most often reported seizure-precipitating factor in epilepsy. Acute stress can provoke epileptic seizures, and chronic stress increases seizure frequency. In addition to its effects on seizure susceptibility in patients with epilepsy, stress might also increase the risk of epilepsy development, especially when the stressors are severe, prolonged, or experienced early in life. Although the latter has not been fully resolved in humans, various preclinical epilepsy models have shown increased seizure susceptibility in naïve rodents after prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure. In the current review, we first provide an overview of the effects of stress on the brain. Thereafter, we discuss human as well as preclinical studies evaluating the relation between stress, epileptic seizures, and epileptogenesis, focusing on the epileptogenic effects of early life stress. Increased knowledge on the interaction between early life stress, seizures, and epileptogenesis could improve patient care and provide a basis for new treatment strategies for epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "NEWroscience 2013". PMID:24144618

van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; de Graan, Pierre N E; Braun, Kees P J; Joels, Marian

2014-09-01

315

Early-Life Forebrain Glucocorticoid Receptor Overexpression Increases Anxiety Behavior and Cocaine Sensitization  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors and early life adversity are critical in the etiology of mood disorders and substance abuse. Because of their role in the transduction of stress responses, glucocorticoid hormones and their receptors could serve as both genetic factors and mediators of environmental influences. We have shown that constitutive overexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in forebrain results in increased emotional reactivity and “lability” in mice. Here we asked whether there was a critical period for the emergence of this phenotype. Methods We generated a mouse line with inducible GR overexpression specifically in forebrain (GRov). Anxiety-like behaviors and cocaine-induced sensitization were assessed in adult mice following GR overexpression during different periods in development. The molecular basis of the behavioral phenotype was examined using microarray analyses of dentate gyrus and nucleus accumbens. Results Transient overexpression of GR during early life led to increased anxiety and cocaine sensitization, paralleling the phenotype of lifelong GR overexpression. This increased emotional reactivity was not observed when GR overexpression was induced after weaning. GR overexpression in early life is sufficient to alter gene expression patterns for the rest of the animal’s life, with dentate gyrus being more responsive than nucleus accumbens. The altered transcripts are implicated in GR and axonal guidance signaling in dentate gyrus and dopamine receptor signaling in nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Transient overexpression of GR early in life is both necessary and sufficient for inducing transcriptome-wide changes in the brain and producing a lifelong increase in vulnerability to anxiety and drugs of abuse. PMID:21872848

Wei, Qiang; Fentress, Hugh M.; Hoversten, Mary T.; Zhang, Limei; Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Watson, Stanley J.; Seasholtz, Audrey F.; Akil, Huda

2011-01-01

316

Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

2008-01-01

317

Activation but not blockade of GABAB receptors during early-life alters anxiety in adulthood in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Although the underlying pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is unknown it is clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors in early life predispose to disease risk. Preclinical research increasingly suggests an important role for the GABAB receptor in modulating anxiety behaviour, with GABAB receptor deficient mice having increased anxiety behaviour. Previous studies have highlighted critical windows during development where adult anxiety behaviour is primed. However, little is known regarding the role played by the GABAB receptors in the developmental processes that underlie adult anxiety behaviour. To this end, we treated male BALB/c mouse pups with the either the selective GABAB receptor agonist, R-baclofen (2 mg/kg, s.c), the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432 (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) or vehicle from postnatal days (P) 14-28. The anxiety behaviour of these mice was then assessed in adulthood (P62 onwards) in a battery of behavioural tests comprising; the stress induced hyperthermia (SIH) test, defensive marble burying (DMB), elevated-plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST). Postnatal R-baclofen treatment resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM as shown by approach-avoidance and ethological measures. Other behavioural measures were not significantly altered. Interestingly, blockade of GABAB receptors with CGP52432 in early life caused no alterations in emotional behaviour. These data suggest that during early life GABAB receptor signalling can play a functional role in programing anxiety behaviour in adulthood. The underlying neurodevelopmental processes underlying these effects remain to be discovered. PMID:24050962

Sweeney, Fabian F; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F

2014-06-01

318

An Integrated Components Preventive Intervention for Aggressive Elementary School Children: The Early Risers Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Risers prevention program aims to alter the developmental trajectory of children with early onset aggressive behavior. The program features 4 CORE components: (a) an annual 6-week summer school program, (b) a teacher consultation and student mentoring program, (c) child social skills groups, and (d) parent education and skills-training groups, all delivered in tandem with a FLEX family support

Gerald J. August; George M. Realmuto; Joel M. Hektner; Michael L. Bloomquist

2001-01-01

319

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity  

PubMed Central

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J.; Novak, Matthew F. X.; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

320

Predictors of early adulthood quality of life in children with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The goal of this study was to determine childhood clinical predictors of quality of life (QoL) in early adulthood in children\\u000a with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 36 (out of 62 eligible) children with OCD, interviewed once at childhood baseline\\u000a (mean age 12.1 ± 2.1, range 8.0–15.8), and again in early adulthood after an average follow-up interval

Sean D. Palermo; Michael H. Bloch; Brittany Craiglow; Angeli Landeros-Weisenberger; Philip A. Dombrowski; Kaitlyn Panza; Megan E. Smith; Bradley S. Peterson; James F. Leckman

2011-01-01

321

34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?  

... 2014-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

2014-07-01

322

34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

2012-07-01

323

34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

2010-07-01

324

34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

2013-07-01

325

34 CFR 490.1 - What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners Program...ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 490.1 What is the Life Skills for State and Local Prisoners...

2011-07-01

326

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program B Appendix B...Appendix B to Part 50—Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program A. Registration...continuous successful operation in the life insurance business for a period of not less...

2013-07-01

327

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program B Appendix B...Appendix B to Part 50—Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program A. Registration...continuous successful operation in the life insurance business for a period of not less...

2011-07-01

328

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program B Appendix B...Appendix B to Part 50—Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program A. Registration...continuous successful operation in the life insurance business for a period of not less...

2012-07-01

329

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program  

...2014-07-01 false Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program B Appendix B...Appendix B to Part 50—Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program A. Registration...continuous successful operation in the life insurance business for a period of not less...

2014-07-01

330

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program B Appendix B...Appendix B to Part 50—Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program A. Registration...continuous successful operation in the life insurance business for a period of not less...

2010-07-01

331

Traumatic brain injury and early life experiences among men and women in a prison population.  

PubMed

This study examined the proportion of men and women reporting previous traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an Ontario (Canada) prison sample by demographic characteristics; adverse life experiences; and criminal, drug, and alcohol use history. Using data from The Cost of Substance Abuse in Canada study based on a random sample from four Ontario prisons, this study found 50.4% of males and 38% of females reporting previous TBI. More TBIs occurred before the first crime for women than for men. Women with TBI experienced more early physical and sexual abuse than those without TBI. Additionally, this study shows high prevalence of early life experiences among persons, particularly women, with a history of TBI. Prisoners and prison staff should be educated on TBI and best practice for rehabilitation of TBI. PMID:25033995

Colantonio, Angela; Kim, Hwan; Allen, Stefan; Asbridge, Mark; Petgrave, Josian; Brochu, Serge

2014-10-01

332

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

333

Pulmonary Immunity during Respiratory Infections in Early Life and the Development of Severe Asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma affects 10% of the population in Westernized countries, being most common in children. It is a heterogeneous condition characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to normally innocuous antigens. Combination therapies with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators effectively manage mild to moderate asthma, but there are no cures, and patients with severe asthma do not respond to these treatments. The inception of asthma is linked to respiratory viral (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus) and bacterial (Chlamydia, Mycoplasma) infections. The examination of mouse models of early-life infections and allergic airway disease (AAD) provides valuable insights into the mechanisms of disease inception that may lead to the development of more effective therapeutics. For example, early-life, but not adult, Chlamydia respiratory infections in mice permanently modify immunity and lung physiology. This increases the severity of AAD by promoting IL-13 expression, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. We have identified novel roles for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and IL-13 in promoting infection-induced pathology in early life and subsequent chronic lung disease. Genetic deletion of TRAIL or IL-13 variously protected against neonatal infection-induced inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, altered lung structure, AHR, and impaired lung function. Therapeutic neutralization of these factors prevented infection-induced severe AAD. Other novel mechanisms and avenues for intervention are also being explored. Such studies indicate the immunological mechanisms that may underpin the association between early-life respiratory infections and the development of more severe asthma and may facilitate the development of tailored preventions and treatments. PMID:25525736

Hansbro, Philip M; Starkey, Malcolm R; Mattes, Joerg; Horvat, Jay C

2014-12-01

334

Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing\\u000a field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention\\u000a has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with\\u000a ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies

Pia Pechtel; Diego A. Pizzagalli

2011-01-01

335

Early-life exposure to a herbicide has enduring effects on pathogen-induced mortality  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stressors at formative stages in the development of wildlife and humans can have enduring effects on health. Understanding which, when and how stressors cause enduring health effects is crucial because these stressors might then be avoided or mitigated during formative stages to prevent lasting increases in disease susceptibility. Nevertheless, the impact of early-life exposure to stressors on the ability of hosts to resist and tolerate infections has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here, we show that early-life, 6-day exposure to the herbicide atrazine (mean ± s.e.: 65.9±3.48 µg l?1) increased frog mortality 46 days after atrazine exposure (post-metamorphosis), but only when frogs were challenged with a chytrid fungus implicated in global amphibian declines. Previous atrazine exposure did not affect resistance of infection (fungal load). Rather, early-life exposure to atrazine altered growth and development, which resulted in exposure to chytrid at more susceptible developmental stages and sizes, and reduced tolerance of infection, elevating mortality risk at an equivalent fungal burden to frogs unexposed to atrazine. Moreover, there was no evidence of recovery from atrazine exposure. Hence, reducing early-life exposure of amphibians to atrazine could reduce lasting increases in the risk of mortality from a disease associated with worldwide amphibian declines. More generally, these findings highlight that a better understanding of how stressors cause enduring effects on disease susceptibility could facilitate disease prevention in wildlife and humans, an approach that is often more cost-effective and efficient than reactive medicine. PMID:24266041

Rohr, Jason R.; Raffel, Thomas R.; Halstead, Neal T.; McMahon, Taegan A.; Johnson, Steve A.; Boughton, Raoul K.; Martin, Lynn B.

2013-01-01

336

Growth in early life predicts bone strength in late adulthood: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant growth is a determinant of adult bone mass, and poor childhood growth is a risk factor for adult hip fracture. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) allows non-invasive assessment of bone strength. We utilised this technology to examine relationships between growth in early life and bone strength.We studied 313 men and 318 women born in Hertfordshire between 1931 and 1939

Helen Oliver; Karen A. Jameson; Avan Aihie Sayer; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M. Dennison

2007-01-01

337

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD\\u000a may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine\\u000a aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects\\u000a of the biology of PTSD may reflect

Rachel Yehuda; Janine D. Flory; Laura C. Pratchett; Joseph Buxbaum; Marcus Ising; Florian Holsboer

2010-01-01

338

Maternal Early Life Risk Factors for Offspring Birth Weight: Findings from the Add Health Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the pathways that link mothers’ early life socioeconomic status (SES) and mothers’ experience of childhood maltreatment with birth weight among their later born offspring. Data were drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of school-aged respondents, initially enrolled during adolescence in Wave I (1994–1995) and Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed-up in adulthood in Wave III (2001–2002). Data on offspring birth weight were obtained from nulliparous females (N=1,897) who had given birth between Waves II and III. Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which early life maternal risk predicted offspring birth weight, and demonstrated that maternal childhood SES and maternal childhood maltreatment predicted offspring birth weight through several mediated pathways. First, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Second, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Third, adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Fourth, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. Finally, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify maternal childhood maltreatment as an early life risk factor for offspring birth weight among a nationally representative sample of young women, and to demonstrate the mechanisms that link childhood SES and maltreatment to offspring birth weight. These findings suggest the importance of designing and implementing prevention and intervention strategies to address early life maternal social conditions in an effort to improve intergenerational child health at birth. PMID:21986991

Thompson, Elaine; Rue, Tessa; Guo, Yuqing

2014-01-01

339

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Life History Stages of Caribbean Scleractinian Corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification (OA) refers to the increase in acidity (decrease in pH) of the ocean’s surface waters resulting from oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Mounting experimental evidence suggests that OA threatens numerous marine organisms, including reef-building corals; however, few studies have focused on the effects on early life history stages. Coral recruitment is critical to the persistence and

Rebecca Albright

2011-01-01

340

The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy  

PubMed Central

Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children’s life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children’s environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

Riley, Anne W.; Granger, Douglas A.; Riis, Jenna

2013-01-01

341

Neurotrophic and neuroimmune responses to early-life Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in rat lungs  

PubMed Central

Early-life respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in children with cystic fibrosis or immune deficits. Although many of its clinical manifestations involve neural reflexes, little information is available on the peripheral nervous system of infected airways. This study sought to determine whether early-life infection triggers a neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory response, the mechanisms of this response, and its relationship with other immunoinflammatory pathways. Weanling and adult rats were inoculated with suspensions containing P. aeruginosa (PAO1) coated on alginate microspheres suspended in Tris-CaCl2 buffer. Five days after infection, rats were injected with capsaicin to stimulate nociceptive nerves in the airway mucosa, and microvascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. PAO1 increased neurogenic inflammation in the extra- and intrapulmonary compartments of weanlings but not in adults. The mechanism involves selective overexpression of NGF, which is critical for the local increase in microvascular permeability and for the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into infected lung parenchyma. These effects are mediated in part by induction of downstream inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially IL-1?, IL-18, and leptin. Our data suggest that neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory mechanisms play important roles in airway inflammation and hyperreactivity associated with P. aeruginosa when infection occurs early in life. PMID:20543002

Cardenas, Silvia; Scuri, Mario; Samsell, Lennie; Ducatman, Barbara; Bejarano, Pablo; Auais, Alexander; Doud, Melissa; Mathee, Kalai

2010-01-01

342

Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).  

PubMed

The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

2014-03-01

343

The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy.  

PubMed

Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children's life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children's environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W; Granger, Douglas A; Riis, Jenna

2013-02-01

344

Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird  

PubMed Central

Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

2014-01-01

345

Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird.  

PubMed

Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a 'time bomb' that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

Herborn, Katherine A; Heidinger, Britt J; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

2014-05-01

346

Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother  

PubMed Central

While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

Gray, C

1998-01-01

347

Broad shifts in gene expression during early postnatal life are associated with shifts in histone methylation patterns.  

PubMed

During early postnatal life, extensive changes in gene expression occur concomitantly in multiple major organs, indicating the existence of a common core developmental genetic program. This program includes hundreds of growth-promoting genes that are downregulated with age in liver, kidney, lung, and heart, and there is evidence that this component of the program drives the widespread decline in cell proliferation that occurs in juvenile life, as organs approach adult sizes. To investigate epigenetic changes that might orchestrate this program, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-promoter tiling array to assess temporal changes in histone H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation (me3) at promoter regions throughout the genome in kidney and lung, comparing 1- to 4-wk-old mice. We found extensive genome-wide shifts in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 occurring with age in both kidney and lung. The number of genes with concordant changes in the two organs was far greater than expected by chance. Temporal changes in H3K4me3 showed a strong, positive association with changes in gene expression, assessed by microarray, whereas changes in H3K27me3 showed a negative association. Gene ontology analysis indicated that shifts in specific histone methylation marks were associated with specific developmental functions. Of particular interest, genes with decreases in H3K4me3 with age in both organs were strongly implicated in cell cycle and cell proliferation functions. Taken together, the findings suggest that the common core developmental program of gene expression which occurs in multiple organs during juvenile life is associated with a common core developmental program of histone methylation. In particular, declining H3K4me3 is strongly associated with gene downregulation and occurs in the promoter regions of many growth-regulating genes, suggesting that this change in histone methylation may contribute to the component of the genetic program that drives juvenile body growth deceleration. PMID:24489814

Lui, Julian C; Chen, Weiping; Cheung, Crystal S F; Baron, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

348

Modifications of glucocorticoid receptors mRNA expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to early-life stress in female Japanese quail.  

PubMed

Stress exposure during early-life development can programme individual brain and physiology. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary targets of this programming, which is generally associated with a hyperactive HPA axis, indicative of a reduced negative-feedback. This reduced feedback efficiency usually results from a reduced level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) within the HPA axis. However, a few studies have shown that early-life stress exposure results in an attenuated physiological stress response, suggesting an enhance feedback efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether early-life stress had long-term consequences on GR and MR levels in quail and whether the effects on the physiological response to acute stress observed in prenatally stressed individuals were underpinned by changes in GR and/or MR levels in one or more HPA axis components. We determined GR and MR mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland in quail exposed to elevated corticosterone during prenatal development, postnatal development, or both, and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. We showed that prenatal stress increased the GR:MR ratio in the hippocampus, GR and MR expression in the hypothalamus and GR expression in the pituitary gland. Postnatal stress resulted in a reduced MR expression in the hippocampus. Both early-life treatments permanently affected the expression of both receptor types in HPA axis regions. The effects of prenatal stress are in accordance with a more efficient negative-feedback within the HPA axis and thus can explain the attenuated stress response observed in these birds. Therefore, these changes in receptor density or number as a consequence of early-life stress exposure might be the mechanism that allows an adaptive response to later-life stressful conditions. PMID:25303060

Zimmer, C; Spencer, K A

2014-12-01

349

Modifications of Glucocorticoid Receptors mRNA Expression in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Response to Early-life Stress in Female Japanese Quail  

PubMed Central

Stress exposure during early-life development can programme individual brain and physiology. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary targets of this programming, which is generally associated with a hyperactive HPA axis, indicative of a reduced negative-feedback. This reduced feedback efficiency usually results from a reduced level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) within the HPA axis. However, a few studies have shown that early-life stress exposure results in an attenuated physiological stress response, suggesting an enhance feedback efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether early-life stress had long-term consequences on GR and MR levels in quail and whether the effects on the physiological response to acute stress observed in prenatally stressed individuals were underpinned by changes in GR and/or MR levels in one or more HPA axis components. We determined GR and MR mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland in quail exposed to elevated corticosterone during prenatal development, postnatal development, or both, and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. We showed that prenatal stress increased the GR:MR ratio in the hippocampus, GR and MR expression in the hypothalamus and GR expression in the pituitary gland. Postnatal stress resulted in a reduced MR expression in the hippocampus. Both early-life treatments permanently affected the expression of both receptor types in HPA axis regions. The effects of prenatal stress are in accordance with a more efficient negative-feedback within the HPA axis and thus can explain the attenuated stress response observed in these birds. Therefore, these changes in receptor density or number as a consequence of early-life stress exposure might be the mechanism that allows an adaptive response to later-life stressful conditions. PMID:25303060

Zimmer, C; Spencer, K A

2014-01-01

350

Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

Reynolds, Sarah

2014-01-01

351

Sibling cooperation in earwig families provides insights into the early evolution of social life.  

PubMed

The evolutionary transition from solitary to social life is driven by direct and indirect fitness benefits of social interactions. Understanding the conditions promoting the early evolution of social life therefore requires identification of these benefits in nonderived social systems, such as animal families where offspring are mobile and able to disperse and will survive independently. Family life is well known to provide benefits to offspring through parental care, but research on sibling interactions generally focused on fitness costs to offspring due to competitive behaviors. Here we show experimentally that sibling interactions also reflect cooperative behaviors in the form of food sharing in nonderived families of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Food ingested by individual offspring was transferred to their siblings through mouth-to-anus contacts and active allo-coprophagy. These transfers occurred in both the presence and the absence of the tending mothers, even though the direct contact with the mothers limited sibling food sharing. Neither food deprivation or relatedness influenced the total amount of transferred food, but relatedness affected frass release and the behavioral mechanisms mediating food sharing. Related offspring obtained food predominately through allo-coprophagy, whereas unrelated offspring obtained food through mouth-to-anus contacts. Overall, this study emphasizes that sibling cooperation may be a key process promoting the early evolution of social life. PMID:24642498

Falk, Joachim; Wong, Janine W Y; Kölliker, Mathias; Meunier, Joël

2014-04-01

352

Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The pituitary gland is integral in mediating the stress-response via its role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Pituitary gland volume (PGV) is altered in stress-related psychopathology, and one study to date has shown stress to be associated with age-related PGV change during adolescence. The current study investigated the effects of a number of different types of early life (i.e., childhood and adolescent) stress (including childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and maternal affective behavior) on PGV development from mid- to late adolescence using a longitudinal design. The influence of PGV development on depressive and anxiety symptoms was also investigated. Ninety one (49 male) adolescents took part in mother-child dyadic interaction tasks when they were approximately 12 years old, reported on childhood maltreatment and stressful life events when they were approximately 15 years old, and underwent two waves of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, when they were approximately 16 and 19 years old. Results revealed that childhood maltreatment predicted accelerated PGV development in females, and maternal dysphoric behavior predicted accelerated PGV development in the whole sample. PGV development was not associated with depressive or anxiety symptoms. These results suggest an effect of early life stress on altered HPA axis function across mid- to late adolescence. Further research is required to assess functional implications and whether these changes might be associated with risk for subsequent psychopathology. PMID:25622011

Ganella, Despina E; Allen, Nicholas B; Simmons, Julian G; Schwartz, Orli; Kim, Jee Hyun; Sheeber, Lisa; Whittle, Sarah

2015-03-01

353

Programmed life span in the context of evolvability.  

PubMed

Population turnover is necessary for progressive evolution. In the context of a niche with fixed carrying capacity, aging contributes to the rate of population turnover. Theoretically, a population in which death is programmed on a fixed schedule can evolve more rapidly than one in which population turnover is left to a random death rate. Could aging evolve on this basis? Quantitative realization of this idea is problematic, since the short-term individual fitness cost is likely to eliminate any hypothetical gene for programmed death before the long-term benefit can be realized. In 2011, one of us proposed the first quantitative model based on this mechanism that robustly evolves a finite, programmed life span. That model was based on a viscous population in a rapidly changing environment. Here, we strip this model to its essence and eliminate the assumption of environmental change. We conclude that there is no obvious way in which this model is unrealistic, and that it may indeed capture an important principle of nature's workings. We suggest aging may be understood within the context of the emerging science of evolvability. PMID:25141139

Mitteldorf, Joshua; Martins, André C R

2014-09-01

354

Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

2014-01-01

355

A Best Practice Model for Building Community: The University Life Programming Committee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At George Mason University, the University Life office charged a university-wide committee to improve the coherence and coordination of collaborative programming. By designing and funding more diverse programming, the University Life office offers programs that are more inclusive of the campuses ethnic and cultural subgroups. Article provides an…

Green, Ruth; Kidd, Mark; Walter, Rebecca

2002-01-01

356

Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Gender-Based Vulnerability to Epileptogenesis in Rat Pups  

PubMed Central

During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1), and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS) at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to epileptogenesis in a gender-specific manner. PMID:22880055

Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Sanon, Nathalie T.; Lema, Pablo; Lévesque, Maxime; Hébert, David; Rébillard, Rose-Marie; Bibeau, Karine; Brochu, Michèle; Carmant, Lionel

2012-01-01

357

Does early-life income inequality predict self-reported health in later life? Evidence from the United States.  

PubMed

We investigate the association between adult health and the income inequality they experienced as children up to 80 years earlier. Our inequality data track shares of national income held by top percentiles from 1913 to 2009. We average those data over the same early-life years and merge them to individual data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data for 1984-2009. Controlling for demographic and economic factors, we find both men and women are statistically more likely to report poorer health if income was more unequally distributed during the first years of their lives. The association is robust to alternative specifications of income inequality and time trends and remains significant even when we control for differences in overall childhood health. Our results constitute prima facie evidence that adults' health may be adversely affected by the income inequality they experienced as children. PMID:25577308

Lillard, Dean R; Burkhauser, Richard V; Hahn, Markus H; Wilkins, Roger

2015-03-01

358

Early life-stage and multigeneration toxicity study with bisphenol A and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

Regulatory guidelines for long term testing to assess the toxicity of xenobiotic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) with fish have focused on survival, growth, and development in early life stages. Early life stages are critical windows of exposure, but do not address later phases in the life cycle, such as reproduction, that are equally important for the continued survival of the organisms. Residual amounts of BPA are released to surface water. BPA has, therefore, been the subject of considerable toxicity testing with fish and other aquatic organisms. A long term multigeneration test with fish has been conducted to better interpret the environmental relevance of detectable levels of BPA. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 444 days over the course of three generations that included F0 reproducing adults, F1 eggs grown to be reproducing adults, and F2 eggs. Endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction, and vitellogenin concentrations. Concentrations tested ranged from 1 to 1,280 ?g/L. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) of 640 ?g/L and higher for growth parameters show few differences between age or generation. Reproductive NOEC in F0 and F1 breeding pairs were 640 and 160 ?g/L, respectively. The lowest NOEC related to survival, growth and development or reproduction was 16 ?g/L for F2 hatching success. This long term study covered both early life and adult reproduction stages that allowed examination of all critical windows of exposure. Overall, NOEC ranging from 16 to 1,280 ?g/L were found, which are well above median and upper 95th percentile concentrations of BPA in fresh waters in North America and Europe (0.081 and 0.47 ?g/L and 0.01 and 0.035 ?g/L, respectively). The likelihood is low that measured concentrations of BPA in surface water would affect fish, even if exposed over more than one generation. PMID:21700340

Staples, Charles A; Tilghman Hall, A; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Klecka, Gary M

2011-09-01

359

Malnutrition in Early Life and Adult Mental Health: Evidence From a Natural Experiment  

PubMed Central

As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4,972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of famine exposure in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959–1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR= 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: ?1.59, ?0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. PMID:23313495

Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R.; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

2013-01-01

360

Program-Level Influences on the Measurement of Early Communication for Infants and Toddlers in Early Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement in early childhood is an increasingly large-scale endeavor addressing purposes of accountability, program improvement, child outcomes, and intervention decision making for individual children. The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is a measure relevant to intervention decision making for infants and toddlers, including response to…

Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Jay; Walker, Dale; Howard, Waylon J.; Anderson, Rawni

2011-01-01

361

Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

Haigh, Karen M.

2009-01-01

362

Learning To Teach in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings: Experiencing an Innovative Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an innovative teacher education program designed to prepare early childhood teachers to work in inclusive classroom settings. The program was begun 5 years ago as part of a dramatic reform effort in the College of Education at the University of Tennessee. Designers of the Inclusive Early Childhood Education (IECE) program…

Collier, Lana; Hatch, Amos; Keyl, Julie; LoRe, Sondra; Phillips, Marian

363

Early Life Stress, MAOA, and Gene-Environment Interactions Predict Behavioral Disinhibition in Children  

PubMed Central

Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth – 3 years) stressors to influence behavior in pre-pubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, U.K., is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first three years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3 ½ years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of pre-pubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR - stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

Enoch, Mary-Anne; Steer, Colin D.; Newman, Timothy K.; Gibson, Nerea; Goldman, David

2009-01-01

364

Examining Breast Cancer Growth and Lifestyle Risk Factors: Early Life, Childhood, and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Dorgan, Joanne F.; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Hartman, Terryl J.

2009-01-01

365

UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND -COLLEGE OF HUMAN SCIENCE AND SERVICES EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM CURRICULUM PLANNING SHEET  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND - COLLEGE OF HUMAN SCIENCE AND SERVICES EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Engagement in Early Childhood Settings ___________________ *EDC 312 (3) Psychology of Learning to the ECE Certificate Program) EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION CERTIFICATE PROGRAM

Rhode Island, University of

366

EFFECTS OF DIET QUANTITY ON SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS 'CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS' DURING EARLY LIFE-STAGE EXPOSURES TO CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of food quantity on the effects of chlorpyrifos was determined in six early life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests with estuarine sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus. Three ELS tests were conducted simultaneously, each with a different feeding density: approximately ...

367

Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research  

PubMed Central

Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in early life and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts. PMID:25062846

Pembrey, Marcus; Saffery, Richard; Bygren, Lars Olov

2014-01-01

368

Processes on the Young Earth and the Habitats of Early Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions at the surface of the young (Hadean and early Archean) Earth were suitable for the emergence and evolution of life. After an initial hot period, surface temperatures in the late Hadean may have been clement beneath an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases over an ocean-dominated planetary surface. The first crust was mafic and it internally melted repeatedly to produce the felsic rocks that crystallized the Jack Hills zircons. This crust was destabilized during late heavy bombardment. Plate tectonics probably started soon after and had produced voluminous continental crust by the mid Archean, but ocean volumes were sufficient to submerge much of this crust. In the Hadean and early Archean, hydrothermal systems around abundant komatiitic volcanism may have provided suitable sites to host the earliest living communities and for the evolution of key enzymes. Evidence from the Isua Belt, Greenland, suggests life was present by 3.8 Gya, and by the mid-Archean, the geological record both in the Pilbara in Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa shows that microbial life was abundant, probably using anoxygenic photosynthesis. By the late Archean, oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved, transforming the atmosphere and permitting the evolution of eukaryotes.

Arndt, Nicholas T.; Nisbet, Euan G.

2012-05-01

369

Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research.  

PubMed

Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in early life and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts. PMID:25062846

Pembrey, Marcus; Saffery, Richard; Bygren, Lars Olov

2014-09-01

370

Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and immune development have been described recently. Here we studied whether the early life administration of antibiotics has long-lasting effects on the pig’s intestinal microbial community and on gut functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the long-lasting effect of early-life treatment, piglets were divided into three different groups receiving the following treatments: 1) no antibiotics and no stress, 2) antibiotics and no stress, and 3) antibiotics and stress. All treatments were applied at day four after birth. Sampling of jejunal content for community scale microbiota analysis, and jejunal and ileal tissue for genome-wide transcription profiling, was performed at day 55 (~8 weeks) and day 176 (~25 weeks) after birth. Antibiotic treatment in combination with or without exposure to stress was found to have long-lasting effects on host intestinal gene expression involved in a multitude of processes, including immune related processes. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained in this study indicate that early life (day 4 after birth) perturbations have long-lasting effects on the gut system, both in gene expression (day 55) as well as on microbiota composition (day 176). At day 55 high variance was observed in the microbiota data, but no significant differences between treatment groups, which is most probably due to the newly acquired microbiota during and right after weaning (day 28). Based on the observed difference in gene expression at day 55, it is hypothesized that due to the difference in immune programming during early life, the systems respond differently to the post-weaning newly acquired microbiota. As a consequence, the gut systems of the treatment groups develop into different homeostasis. PMID:25658611

Schokker, Dirkjan; Zhang, Jing; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie A.; Heilig, Hans G. H. J.; Smidt, Hauke; Rebel, Johanna M. J.; Smits, Mari A.

2015-01-01

371

Early life adversity alters the developmental profiles of addiction-related prefrontal cortex circuitry.  

PubMed

Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2-20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC?nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence. PMID:24961311

Brenhouse, Heather C; Lukkes, Jodi L; Andersen, Susan L

2013-01-01

372

Mechanisms of Late-Onset Cognitive Decline after Early-Life Stress  

PubMed Central

Progressive cognitive deficits that emerge with aging are a result of complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Whereas much has been learned about the genetic underpinnings of these disorders, the nature of “acquired” contributing factors, and the mechanisms by which they promote progressive learning and memory dysfunction, remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a period of early-life “psychological” stress causes late-onset, selective deterioration of both complex behavior and synaptic plasticity: two forms of memory involving the hippocampus, were severely but selectively impaired in middle-aged, but not young adult, rats exposed to fragmented maternal care during the early postnatal period. At the cellular level, disturbances to hippocampal long-term potentiation paralleled the behavioral changes and were accompanied by dendritic atrophy and mossy fiber expansion. These findings constitute the first evidence that a short period of stress early in life can lead to delayed, progressive impairments of synaptic and behavioral measures of hippocampal function, with potential implications to the basis of age-related cognitive disorders in humans. PMID:16221841

Brunson, Kristen L.; Kramár, Enikö; Lin, Bin; Chen, Yuncai; Colgin, Laura Lee; Yanagihara, Theodore K.; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z.

2011-01-01

373

Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than those fed a low-nutrition diet, and they provide clear evidence that nutritional modulation of Holstein bull calves during early life has profound effects on reproductive development. PMID:25497791

Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

2015-02-01

374

Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

1991-01-01

375

Targeting regulatory T cells to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life  

PubMed Central

Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses too many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs). It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limiting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine-induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future. PMID:25309517

Ndure, Jorjoh; Flanagan, Katie L.

2014-01-01

376

Targeting regulatory T cells to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life.  

PubMed

Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses too many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs). It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limiting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine-induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future. PMID:25309517

Ndure, Jorjoh; Flanagan, Katie L

2014-01-01

377

Community living long before man: fossil and living microbial mats and early life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial mats are layered communities of bacteria that form cohesive structures, some of which are preserved in sedimentary rocks as stromatolites. Certain rocks, approximately three and a half thousand million years old and representing the oldest known fossils, are interpreted to derive from microbial mats and to contain fossils of microorganisms. Modern microbial mats (such as the one described here from Matanzas, Cuba) and their fossil counterparts are of great interest in the interpretation of early life on Earth. Since examination of microbial mats and stromatolites increases our understanding of long-term stability and change, within the global environment, such structures should be protected wherever possible as natural science preserves. Furthermore, since they have existed virtually from the time of life's origin, microbial mats have developed exemplary mechanisms of local community persistence and may even play roles in the larger global environment that we do not understand.

Margulis, L.; Lopez Baluja, L.; Awramik, S. M.; Sagan, D.

1986-01-01

378

Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier. PMID:20739029

Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

2010-01-01

379

For better or worse: reduced adult lifespan following early-life stress is transmitted to breeding partners  

PubMed Central

Stressful conditions early in life can give rise to exaggerated stress responses, which, while beneficial in the short term, chronically increase lifetime exposure to stress hormones and elevate disease risk later in life. Using zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we show here that individuals whose glucocorticoid stress hormones were experimentally increased for only a brief period in early post-natal life, inducing increased stress sensitivity, had reduced adult lifespans. Remarkably, the breeding partners of such exposed individuals also died at a younger age. This negative effect on partner longevity was the same for both sexes; it occurred irrespective of the partner's own early stress exposure and was in addition to any longevity reduction arising from this. Furthermore, this partner effect continued even after the breeding partnership was terminated. Only 5 per cent of control birds with control partners had died after 3 years, compared with over 40 per cent in early stress–early stress pairs. In contrast, reproductive capability appeared unaffected by the early stress treatment, even when breeding in stressful environmental circumstances. Our results clearly show that increased exposure to glucocorticoids early in life can markedly reduce adult life expectancy, and that pairing with such exposed partners carries an additional and substantial lifespan penalty. PMID:21849320

Monaghan, Pat; Heidinger, Britt J.; D'Alba, Liliana; Evans, Neil P.; Spencer, Karen A.

2012-01-01

380

Microbleeds in Late-Life Depression: Comparison of Early- and Late-Onset Depression  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression could be classified roughly as early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD). LOD was proved to be associated with cerebral lesions including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), differently from EOD. However, it is unclear whether similar association is present between LOD and microbleeds which are also silent lesions. In this study, 195 patients of late-life depression were evaluated and divided into EOD, presenile-onset depression (POD), and LOD groups; 85 healthy elderly controls were enrolled as controls. Subjects were scanned by MRI including susceptibility weighted images to evaluate white matter hyperintensities (WMH), silent brain infarctions (SBI), and microbleeds. The severity of depression was evaluated with 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychosocial factors were investigated with Scale of Life Events and Lubben Social Network Scale. Logistic regression and linear regression were performed to identify the independent risk factors for depression. Results showed that LOD patients had higher prevalence of microbleeds than EOD, POD, and control patients. The prevalence of lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere was the independent risk factor for the occurrence of LOD; a high number of microbleeds were associated with severe state of LOD, whereas life events and lack of social support were more important for EOD and POD. All these results indicated that Microbleeds especially lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere were associated with LOD but not with EOD. PMID:24719883

Fang, Min; Xu, Yu; Hua, Ting; Liu, Xue-Yuan

2014-01-01

381

Serpentinization and Its Implications for Life on the Early Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ophiolites, sections of ocean crust tectonically displaced onto land, offer significant potential to support chemolithoautotrophic life through the provision of energy and reducing power during aqueous alteration of their highly reduced mineralogies. There is substantial chemical disequilibrium between the primary olivine and pyroxene mineralogy of these ophiolites and the fluids circulating through them. This disequilibrium represents a potential source of chemical energy that could sustain life. Moreover, E h-pH conditions resulting from rock- water interactions in ultrabasic rocks are conducive to important abiotic processes antecedent to the origin of life. Serpentinization-the reaction of olivine- and pyroxene-rich rocks with water-produces magnetite, hydroxide, and serpentine minerals, and liberates molecular hydrogen, a source of energy and electrons that can be readily utilized by a broad array of chemosynthetic organisms. These systems are viewed as important analogs for potential early ecosystems on both Earth and Mars, where highly reducing mineralogy was likely widespread in an undifferentiated crust. Secondary phases precipitated during serpentinization have the capability to preserve organic or mineral biosignatures. We describe the petrology and mineral chemistry of an ophiolite-hosted cold spring in northern California and propose criteria to aid in the identification of serpentinizing terranes on Mars that have the potential to harbor chemosynthetic life.

Schulte, Mitch; Blake, David; Hoehler, Tori; McCollom, Thomas

2006-04-01

382

On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.  

PubMed

Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. PMID:24246856

Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

2014-04-01

383

Exploring Lunar Impact Craters and Their Implications for the Origin and Early Evolution of Life on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The Apollo program demonstrated that the Earth-Moon system was targeted by impacting asteroids and comets far more frequently than that suggested by the small number of surviving craters on Earth. Because Apollo missions returned samples to Earth, a quantitative chronology of that impact flux began to emerge, indicating most impact craters on the Moon were produced during an early period of bombardment that ended ~3.85 Ga. These ages suggested that similar impact cratering events on the Earth affected the origin and early evolution of life. Because impact cratering is a continuing process, we also realize that the processes, even at scales far smaller than basin-forming events, pose a hazard for modern life. However, the details of the impact flux remain murky, because so few samples have been analyzed and many of those analyzed are without geologic context. Consequently, one of the most important scientific goals of renewed lunar exploration, both robotic and human, will be to collect appropriate samples to deduce impact cratering's effect on the fabric of life on Earth. Early Earth Bombardment: Ar-Ar, U-Pb, and Rb-Sr analyses of Apollo-era samples suggest early bombardment may have been particularly intense in a <200 Ma interval that ended ~3.85 Ga [Turner et al., 1973; Tera et al., 1974; Dalrymple and Ryder, 1996], which is consistent with more recent analyses of lunar meteorites [Cohen et al., 2000, 2005]. Although the source of debris remains controversial, geochemical [Kring and Cohen, 2002] and geological [Strom et al., 2005] fingerprints suggest an asteroid source. This bombardment is a process that appears to have also affected the entire inner solar system [Bogard, 1995; Kring and Cohen, 2002] and, thus, potentially habitable conditions on early Mars too [Abramov and Kring, 2004]. The volume of data is still insufficient, however, to confidently assess the temporal extent or magnitude of any brief period of bombardment. Additional samples are needed to test the hypothesis further. Specifically, a collection of impact melts unambiguously tied to large craters and basins are needed for detailed petrologic, geochemical, and radiometric age analyses. These should be selected to represent the entire distribution of relative ages among large basin-forming events, and of lunar geographic locations. The highest priority sample is an impact melt sample from the South Pole-Aitken basin-forming event. These same samples can also be used to test the source of projectiles. This will, in turn, permit an analysis of the delivery of biogenic elements during, and environmental consequences of, the bombardment. Some of the consequences were detrimental, but these same impact events may have generated vast hydrothermal systems that were critical for the origin and early evolution of life. Post-Bombardment Impact Flux: The Chicxulub impact crater and its link to the K/Pg mass extinction event demonstrates that the post-bombardment impact flux was still sufficient to cause dramatic biological upheaval on Earth. In addition to the flux of sporadic impact events, it will be important to determine if there were episodic storms of impact activity. This requires precise analyses of lunar impact melt ages from a moderate number of post-3.8 Ga impact craters and an accurate determination of the relative number of impact events that occur between those absolute benchmark ages. These analyses will allow us to determine the role impact cratering has had in the biologic evolution of Earth, how impact cratering has perturbed the climate, and the hazards other impactors pose for Earth in the future.

Kring, D. A.

2006-12-01

384

The genetic basis of early-life morphological traits and their relation to alternative male reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon  

E-print Network

variation, particularly at life-cycle stages where selection is known to occur, is required. In many animalThe genetic basis of early-life morphological traits and their relation to alternative male reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon D. J. PA´ EZ*, M. MORRISSEY , L. BERNATCHEZ* & J. J. DODSON* *Que

Bernatchez, Louis

385

A History of the Research on the Early Marine Life of Pacific Salmon Off Canada's Pacific Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies of the early ocean period of salmon life history conducted in the coastal areas off Canada's West Coast. The role of the ocean in the dynamics of salmon popula- tions has received considerably less study than their life cycle in fresh water, even though Pacific salmon in general spend more time in the ocean than in fresh

Richard J. Beamish; Isobell A. Pearsall; Mike C. Healey

2003-01-01

386

J Am Geriatr Soc. Author manuscript Successful aging: the contribution of early-life and midlife risk factors  

E-print Network

early life factors (education, height, father s social position) and midlife social, behavioral older life after adjustment for age and socioeconomic position. Conclusion Interventions to promote 8 (mean age 44, range 35 55­ ­ years) Measurements Behavioral, biological and psychosocial risk

Boyer, Edmond

387

Influence of Nutritional Deprivations in Early Life on Learning Behavior of Rats as Measured by Performance in a Water Maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning behavior was studied in rats that were subjected to different forms of nutritional deprivation in early life. Food deprivation during the first 3 weeks of life was achieved by increasing the number of rat pups nursing from one lactating female. At 3 weeks of age rats were weaned and some were fed an extremely low protein diet for 8

RICHARD H. BARNES; SUSAN ROBERTSON CUNNOLD

388

Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background: Although pesticide use is widespread, the possible effect of early-life exposure to organophosphate (OP) on pediatric respiratory health is not well described. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between early-life exposure to OPs and respiratory outcomes. Methods: Participants included 359 mothers and children from the CHAMACOS birth cohort. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, specifically diethyl (DE) and dimethyl (DM) phosphate metabolites, were measured in urine from mothers twice during pregnancy (mean = 13 and 26 weeks gestation) and from children five times during childhood (0.5–5 years). Childhood DAP concentrations were estimated by the area under curve (AUC). Mothers reported their child’s respiratory symptoms at 5 and 7 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine associations of prenatal and childhood DAP concentrations with repeated measures of respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing at 5 and 7 years of age, adjusting for child’s sex and age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand tobacco smoke, season of birth, PM2.5, breastfeeding, mold and cockroaches in home, and distance from highway. Results: Higher prenatal DAP concentrations, particularly DE, were nonsignificantly associated with respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10-fold increase = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.12]. This association was strongest with total DAP and DE from the second half of pregnancy (aOR per 10-fold increase = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.95; and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.39, respectively). Childhood DAP, DE, and DM concentrations were associated with respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced coughing in the previous 12 months at 5 or 7 years of age (total DAPs: aOR per 10-fold increase = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.86; and aOR = 5.40; 95% CI: 2.10, 13.91, respectively). Conclusions: Early-life exposure to OP pesticides was associated with respiratory symptoms consistent with possible asthma in childhood. Citation: Raanan R, Harley KG, Balmes JR, Bradman A, Lipsett M, Eskenazi B. 2015. Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides and pediatric respiratory symptoms in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:179–185;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408235 PMID:25369257

Harley, Kim G.; Balmes, John R.; Bradman, Asa; Lipsett, Michael; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-01-01

389

Impact of salinity on early life history traits of three estuarine fish species in Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive mechanisms on the early life stages of fishes to hypersaline stress are still poorly understood and probably determine the resistance of a population to disruption, compared with other less plastic species. The Casamance River in Senegal is an ideal location to test the adaptation to salinity as a dam was built in 1998 to exclude saline water intrusion. This lowered the salinity from 70 to 5 upstream and 60 downstream. The salinity influence on the growth in the early life of three West African fish species ( Ethmalosa fimbriata, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Tilapia guineensis) was studied using the width of microstructures in the otoliths and the individual migratory behaviour analysed from strontium (Sr) to calcium (Ca) ratios in the otoliths. The Sr:Ca ratio was quantified along individual transects measured from the posterior edge of the otolith to the core. The fishes were sampled on both sides of the dam that separated water with low salinity upstream from metahaline and hyperhaline water downstream. The results showed that salinity has different influence on the growth of each species. Ethmalosa fimbriata has the highest growth during the first 180 days in the freshwaters, indicating growth inhibition in the hyperhaline areas. For the two other species no growth difference were found. The Sr/Ca ratio varied widely, in Tilapia and Sarotherodon from below the dam. Individual life histories were more heterogeneous than upstream and showed a crossing of the dam for some individuals which could reach half of the fishes analysed. On the contrary in E. fimbriata, despite the large range of salinity, identical Sr/Ca profiles were found both upstream and downstream. This indicated that Sr/Ca ratio was not appropriate to evaluate life history patterns linked to salinity for this specie.

Labonne, Maylis; Morize, Eric; Scolan, Pierre; Lae, Raymond; Dabas, Eric; Bohn, Marcel

2009-05-01

390

[Esophageal precancerous lesions: early diagnosis, treatment, and preservation of quality of life].  

PubMed

Modern high-resolution video endoscopes allow detailed examination of the esophageal mucosa and diagnosis of early neoplastic changes in the gastrointestinal tract. Whereas Barrett's esophagus is a precancerous condition that can develop into adenocarcinoma, there is no defined precancerous lesion for squamous cell carcinoma. Various diseases are associated with the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Chromoendoscopy has become an established method in the diagnostic work-up for better visualization of early neoplasia. If Barrett's esophagus is present, acetic acid spraying or virtual chromoendoscopy can be used to accentuate the display of superficial gyriform structures in the mucosa. The gold standard for detecting squamous cell carcinoma is still the use of Lugol solution. When early neoplasia is suspected, diagnostic endoscopic resection should be performed. This allows precise histological assessment of the tumor. Early diagnosis of neoplastic changes in the esophagus provides patients not only with the option of curative therapy but also with a good quality of life through preservation of the esophagus. PMID:23657618

Behrens, A; May, A; Manner, H; Pohl, J; Ell, C

2013-06-01

391

Project Information Form Project Title Program for Vehicle Regulatory Reform: Assessing Life Cycle-Based  

E-print Network

Project Information Form Project Title Program for Vehicle Regulatory Reform: Assessing Life Cycle vehicle production emissions and other life cycle emissions. Non- operation emissions are more dominant the need, effectiveness, and policy strategies for capturing life cycle vehicle emissions in LDV GHG

California at Davis, University of

392

The Census of Marine Life in the Caribbean: A Biodiversity Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Census of Marine Life (CoML) is an international science program to assess and explain the diversity, distribution and abundance of marine life, past, present and future. The program has three major components which are historical, exploratory and modeling, all of which are integrated into an open source database (OBiS: Ocean Biogeographic information System) for visualization and analysis. in the

P. Miloslavich

2008-01-01

393

Epigenomic profiling of men exposed to early-life stress reveals DNA methylation differences in association with current mental state.  

PubMed

Early-life stress (ELS) is known to be associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic disease in later life. One of the potential mechanisms underpinning this is through effects on the epigenome, particularly changes in DNA methylation. Using a well-phenotyped cohort of 83 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who experienced ELS in the form of separation from their parents during childhood, and a group of 83 matched controls, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in peripheral blood. We found no differences in DNA methylation between men who were separated from their families and non-separated men; however, we did identify differences in DNA methylation in association with the development of at least mild depressive symptoms over the subsequent 5-10 years. Notably, hypomethylation was identified at a number of genes with roles in brain development and/or function in association with depressive symptoms. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of DNA methylation changes in pathways associated with development and morphogenesis, DNA and transcription factor binding and programmed cell death. Our results support the concept that DNA methylation differences may be important in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. PMID:25247593

Khulan, B; Manning, J R; Dunbar, D R; Seckl, J R; Raikkonen, K; Eriksson, J G; Drake, A J

2014-01-01

394

Epigenomic profiling of men exposed to early-life stress reveals DNA methylation differences in association with current mental state  

PubMed Central

Early-life stress (ELS) is known to be associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic disease in later life. One of the potential mechanisms underpinning this is through effects on the epigenome, particularly changes in DNA methylation. Using a well-phenotyped cohort of 83 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who experienced ELS in the form of separation from their parents during childhood, and a group of 83 matched controls, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in peripheral blood. We found no differences in DNA methylation between men who were separated from their families and non-separated men; however, we did identify differences in DNA methylation in association with the development of at least mild depressive symptoms over the subsequent 5–10 years. Notably, hypomethylation was identified at a number of genes with roles in brain development and/or function in association with depressive symptoms. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of DNA methylation changes in pathways associated with development and morphogenesis, DNA and transcription factor binding and programmed cell death. Our results support the concept that DNA methylation differences may be important in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. PMID:25247593

Khulan, B; Manning, J R; Dunbar, D R; Seckl, J R; Raikkonen, K; Eriksson, J G; Drake, A J

2014-01-01

395

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1997  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.

Nelson, John C. (Editor)

1998-01-01

396

Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1996  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.

Nelson, John C. (Editor)

1997-01-01

397

Modifiable early-life risk factors for childhood adiposity and overweight: an analysis of their combined impact and potential for prevention1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Early life may be a “critical period” when appetite and regulation of energy balance are programmed, with lifelong consequences for obesity risk. Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between the number of early-life risk factors and obesity outcomes among children in a prospective birth cohort (Southampton Women's Survey). Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Obesity outcomes examined when the children were aged 4 and 6 y were BMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–assessed fat mass, overweight, or obesity (International Obesity Task Force). Data were available for 991 mother-child pairs, with children born between 1998 and 2003. Results: Of the children, 148 (15%) had no early-life risk factors, 330 (33%) had 1, 296 (30%) had 2, 160 (16%) had 3, and 57 (6%) had 4 or 5. At both 4 and 6 y, there were positive graded associations between number of early-life risk factors and each obesity outcome (all P < 0.001). After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001). Conclusions: Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood. These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:25646335

Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Barton, Benjamin D; Law, Catherine M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

2015-01-01

398

Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, 1979-1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Publications of research sponsored by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program from 1979 to 1989 are listed. The CELSS Program encompasses research and technology with the goal of developing an autonomous bioregenerative life support system that continually recycles the solid, liquid, and gaseous materials essential for human life. The bibliography is divided into four major subject areas: food production, nutritional requirements, waste management, and systems management and control.

Wallace, Janice S.; Powers, Janet V.

1990-01-01

399

Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages  

PubMed Central

The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

2012-01-01

400

Risk Exposures in Early Life and Mortality at Older Ages: Evidence from Union Army Veterans  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relation between risk exposures in early life and hazard of mortality among 11,978 Union Army veterans aged 50 and over in 1900. Veterans’ risk exposures prior to enlistment–as approximated by birth season, country of origin, residential region, city size, and height at enlistment–significantly influence their chance of survival after 1900. These effects are robust irrespective of whether or not socioeconomic well-being circa 1900 has been taken into account; however, they are sensitive to the particular age periods that have been selected for survival analysis. Whereas some of the effects such as being born in Ireland and coming from big cities became fully unfolded in the first decade after 1900 and then dissipated over time, the effects of birth season, being born in Germany, residential region in the U.S., and height at enlistment were more salient in the post-1910 periods. Height at enlistment shows a positive association with risk of mortality in the post-1910 periods. Compared to corresponding findings from more recent cohorts, the exceptional rigidity of the effects of risk exposures prior to enlistment on old-age mortality among the veterans highlights the harshness of living conditions early in their life. PMID:20209063

Su, Dejun

2010-01-01

401

Intestinal Microbial Diversity during Early-Life Colonization Shapes Long-Term IgE Levels  

PubMed Central

Summary Microbial exposure following birth profoundly impacts mammalian immune system development. Microbiota alterations are associated with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders with elevated serum IgE as a hallmark. The previously reported abnormally high serum IgE levels in germ-free mice suggests that immunoregulatory signals from microbiota are required to control basal IgE levels. We report that germ-free mice and those with low-diversity microbiota develop elevated serum IgE levels in early life. B cells in neonatal germ-free mice undergo isotype switching to IgE at mucosal sites in a CD4 T-cell- and IL-4-dependent manner. A critical level of microbial diversity following birth is required in order to inhibit IgE induction. Elevated IgE levels in germ-free mice lead to increased mast-cell-surface-bound IgE and exaggerated oral-induced systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, appropriate intestinal microbial stimuli during early life are critical for inducing an immunoregulatory network that protects from induction of IgE at mucosal sites. PMID:24237701

Cahenzli, Julia; Köller, Yasmin; Wyss, Madeleine; Geuking, Markus B.; McCoy, Kathy D.

2013-01-01

402

Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of local adaptation and adaptive potential of natural populations is becoming increasingly relevant due to anthropogenic changes in the environment, such as climate change. The concern is that populations will be negatively affected by increasing temperatures without the capacity to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits. These populations spawn in rivers that experience different temperature conditions during the time of incubation of eggs and embryos. They were reared in a common-garden experiment at three different temperatures. Quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) exceeded neutral molecular differentiation (FST) for two traits, indicating local adaptation. A temperature effect was observed for three traits. However, this effect varied among populations due to locally adapted reaction norms, corresponding to the temperature regimes experienced by the populations in their native environments. Additive genetic variance and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes. PMID:18755673

Jensen, Lasse Fast; Hansen, Michael M; Pertoldi, Cino; Holdensgaard, Gert; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Loeschcke, Volker

2008-01-01

403

Records of our Early Biosphere Illuminate our Origins and Guide our Search for Life Beyond Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scientific "mission of exploration to early Earth" will help us chart the distribution of life elsewhere. We must discriminate between attributes of biospheres that are universal versus those attributes that represent principally the outcomes of long-term survival specifically on Earth. In addition to the basic physics and chemistry of matter, the geologic evolution of rocky habitable planets and their climates might be similar elsewhere in the Universe. Certain key agents that drive long-term environmental change (e.g., stellar evolution, impacts, geothermal heat flow, tectonics, etc.) can help us to reconstruct ancient climates and to compare their evolution among populations of Earth- like planets. Early Earth was tectonically more active than today and therefore it exhaled reduced chemical species into the more oxidized surface environment at greater rates. This tectonic activity thus sustained oxidation-reduction reactions that provided the basis for the development of biochemical pathways that harvest chemical energy ("bioenergetics"). Most examples of bioenergetics today that extract energy by reacting oxidized and reduced chemicals in the environment were likely more pervasive among our microbial ancestors than are the presently known examples of photosynthesis. The geologic rock record indicates that, as early as 3.5 billion years ago (3.5 Ga), microbial biofilms were widespread within the coastal environments of small continents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing (non-oxygenic) photosynthesis preceded oxygenic photosynthesis, but all types of photosynthesis contributed substantially to the long-term increase in global primary biological productivity. Evidence of photosynthesis is tentative by 3.5 Ga and compelling by 2.7 Ga. Evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis is strong by 2.7 Ga and compelling by 2.3 Ga. These successive innovations transformed life from local communities that survived principally by catalyzing chemical equilibration to a globally dominant agent that created and sustained widespread chemical disequilibria in the environment and shallow crust. Major biogeochemical perturbations ca. 2.3 to 2.0 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and also 0.8 to 0.6 Ga, contributed to the irreversible oxidation of the global environment and perhaps also triggered evolutionary innovations (e.g., the development of multi-cellular biota) that became the foundations of our modern biosphere. Understanding the nature and timing of this ascent of life is crucial for discerning our o m beginnings. This understanding also empowers OUT search for the origins, evolution and distribution of life elsewhere in our solar system and beyond.

DesMarais, David J.

2003-01-01

404

Growth in early life predicts bone strength in late adulthood: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Infant growth is a determinant of adult bone mass, and poor childhood growth is a risk factor for adult hip fracture. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) allows non-invasive assessment of bone strength. We utilised this technology to examine relationships between growth in early life and bone strength. We studied 313 men and 318 women born in Hertfordshire between 1931 and 1939 who were still resident there in adult life, for whom detailed early life records were available. Lifestyle factors were evaluated by questionnaire, anthropometric measurements made, and peripheral QCT examination of the radius and tibia performed (Stratec 4500). Birthweight and conditional weight at 1 year were strongly related to radial and tibial length in both sexes (p<0.001) and to measures of bone strength [fracture load X, fracture load Y, polar strength strain index (SSI)] at both the radius and tibia. These relationships were robust to adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), social class, cigarette and alcohol consumption, physical activity, dietary calcium intake, HRT use, and menopausal status in women. Among men, BMI was strongly positively associated with radial (r=0.46, p=0.001) and tibial (r=0.24, p=0.006) trabecular bone mineral density (BMD). Current smoking was associated with lower cortical (radius: p=0.0002; tibia: p=0.08) and trabecular BMD (radius: p=0.08; tibia: p=0.04) in males. Similar trends of BMD with these anthropometric and lifestyle variables were seen in women but they were non-significant. Current HRT use was associated with greater female cortical (radius: p=0.0002; tibia: p=0.001) and trabecular (radius: p=0.008; tibia: p=0.04) BMD. Current HRT use was also associated with greater radial strength (polar SSI: p=0.006; fracture load X: p=0.005; fracture load Y: p=0.02) in women. Women who had sustained any fracture since the age of 45 years had lower radial total (p=0.0001), cortical (p<0.005) and trabecular (p=0.0002) BMD, poorer forearm bone strength [polar SSI (p=0.006), fracture load X and Y (p=0.02)], and lower tibial total (p<0.001), cortical (p=0.008), and trabecular (p=0.0001) BMD. We have shown that growth in early life is associated with bone size and strength in a UK population aged 65-73 years. Lifestyle factors were associated with volumetric bone density in this population. PMID:17599849

Oliver, Helen; Jameson, Karen A; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Dennison, Elaine M

2007-09-01

405

Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival compared to wives of centenarians' brothers. This finding demonstrates an important role of shared familial environment and lifestyle in human longevity. The results of this study suggest that familial background, early-life conditions and midlife characteristics play an important role in longevity.

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

2014-01-01

406

Malnutrition in early life and adult mental health: evidence from a natural experiment.  

PubMed

As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with unexposed women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959-1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR = 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: -1.59, -0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. PMID:23313495

Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

2013-11-01

407

Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.  

PubMed

Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2015-03-01

408

Effects of early-life adversity on white matter diffusivity changes in patients at risk for major depression  

PubMed Central

Background Relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and people who experienced early-life adversity are at risk for MDD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether unaffected first-degree healthy relatives (UHRs) of patients with MDD show changes in white matter fibre connections compared with healthy controls and whether there are interactions between early-life adversity and these microstructural changes. Methods Unaffected, healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and healthy controls without any family history for a psychiatric disease underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging with 61 diffusion directions. Data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics, and findings were confirmed with tractography. Results Twenty-one UHRs and 24 controls participated in our study. The UHRs showed greater fractional anisotropy than controls in the body and splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and right fornix. The UHRs who experienced more early-life adversity had greater fractional anisotropy than those with less early-life adversity in the splenium of the corpus callosum, fornix, IFO and SLF; in controls, early-life adversity was found to be associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in these fibre tracts. Limitations Studying participants’ strategies for coping with early-life adversity would have been helpful. Crossing fibres in tracts are a general limitation of the method used. Conclusion Altogether, our findings provide evidence for greater fractional anisotropy in UHRs and for interaction between early-life adversity and family risk on white matter tracts involved in cognitive–emotional processes. Whether stronger neural fibre connections are associated with more resilience against depression needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:22008179

Frodl, Thomas; Carballedo, Angela; Fagan, Andrew J.; Lisiecka, Danuta; Ferguson, Yolande; Meaney, James F.

2012-01-01

409

MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING: EARLY CHILDHOOD (PRE K-3) PROGRAM OF STUDY  

E-print Network

hrs) (SP) EDEE 638 Mathematics and Science in Early Childhood Education (3 hrs) (FA) * PrerequisiteMASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING: EARLY CHILDHOOD (PRE K-3) PROGRAM OF STUDY SIGNATURES REQUIRED concurrentlyEDEE 617 Language, Literature, and Literacy for Early Childhood (3 hrs) (FA) FOCUS AREA II

Young, Paul Thomas

410

Investing Early: Intervention Programs in Selected U.S. States. Millennium Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines state-sponsored early intervention programs whose aims are to assist educationally and economically disadvantaged students to plan for postsecondary education. It highlighs common policy mechanisms and discusses practices that have become established over time. It highlights 17 programs in 12 states that are leaders in early…

Cunningham, Alisa; Redmond, Christina; Merisotis, Jamie

411

ANL/ALCF/ESP-13/17 ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Reports  

E-print Network

ANL/ALCF/ESP-13/17 ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Reports Compendium of Individual Technical Reports for the 16 ESP Projects Argonne Leadership Computing Facility #12;About Argonne National Laboratory, or UChicago Argonne, LLC. #12;ANL/ALCF/ESP-13/17 ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Reports

Kemner, Ken

412

A Parent-Focused Early Intervention Program for Autism: Who Gets Access?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The EarlyBird program is a psycho-educational early intervention program for parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). It aims to provide parents with skills to increase their child's communication and manage challenging behaviour using behavioural techniques. Method: Two interlinked studies examined access to the…

Birkin, Christina; Anderson, Angelika; Seymour, Fred; Moore, Dennis W.

2008-01-01

413

Attention Deficit Associated with Early Life Interictal Spikes in a Rat Model Is Improved with ACTH  

PubMed Central

Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABAA antagonist (bicuculline methiodine) delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p) 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse cognitive outcomes. PMID:24587054

Hernan, Amanda E.; Alexander, Abigail; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C.; Holmes, Gregory L.

2014-01-01

414

Early Life Precursors, Epigenetics, and the Development of Food Allergy1  

PubMed Central

Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of non-genetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birthweight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early-life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the inter-relationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA, and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention and management of FA. PMID:22777545

Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

2012-01-01

415

Malaria Modifies Neonatal and Early-Life Toll-Like Receptor Cytokine Responses  

PubMed Central

Protection from infections in early life relies extensively on innate immunity, but it is unknown whether and how maternal infections modulate infants' innate immune responses, thereby altering susceptibility to infections. Plasmodium falciparum causes pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM), and epidemiological studies have shown that PAM enhances infants' susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum. We investigated how PAM-mediated exposures in utero affect innate immune responses and their relationship with infection in infancy. In a prospective study of mothers and their babies in Benin, we investigated changes in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated cytokine responses related to P. falciparum infections. Whole-blood samples from 134 infants at birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age were stimulated with agonists specific for TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9. TLR-mediated interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10 production was robust at birth and then stabilized, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses were weak at birth and then increased. In multivariate analyses, maternal P. falciparum infections at delivery were associated with significantly higher TLR3-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the first 3 months of life (P < 0.05) and with significantly higher TLR3-, TLR7/8-, and TLR9-mediated TNF-? responses between 6 and 12 months of age (P < 0.05). Prospective analyses showed that higher TLR3- and TLR7/8-mediated IL-10 responses at birth were associated with a significantly higher risk of P. falciparum infection in infancy (P < 0.05). Neonatal and infant intracellular TLR-mediated cytokine responses are conditioned by in utero exposure through PAM late in pregnancy. Enhanced TLR-mediated IL-10 responses at birth are associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum infection, suggesting a compromised ability to combat infection in early life. PMID:23690399

Gbédandé, Komi; Varani, Stefania; Ibitokou, Samad; Houngbegnon, Parfait; Borgella, Sophie; Nouatin, Odilon; Ezinmegnon, Sem; Adeothy, Adicatou-laï; Cottrell, Gilles; Massougbodji, Achille; Moutairou, Kabirou; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Deloron, Philippe; Fievet, Nadine

2013-01-01

416

Waisman Early Childhood Program Meteors Summer 2014 Program Mailing Address: WECP Meteors, 1500 Highland Ave, Madison WI 53705  

E-print Network

Waisman Early Childhood Program Meteors Summer 2014 Program Mailing Address: WECP Meteors, 1500 children to our Summer Meteor Program. Please help us by providing the following information: Does your fees are due the first of each month. Office ­ Date Received: L: Meteors/Application #12;

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

417

Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels  

PubMed Central

Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently, during a field expedition to the eel spawning sites in the Sargasso Sea, we carried out a wide range of dedicated bio-physical studies across areas of eel larval distribution. Our findings suggest a key role of oceanic frontal processes, retaining eel larvae within a zone of enhanced feeding conditions and steering their drift. The majority of the more westerly distributed American eel larvae are likely to follow a westerly/northerly drift route entrained in the Antilles/Florida Currents. European eel larvae are generally believed to initially follow the same route, but their more easterly distribution close to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical–biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels. PMID:20573625

Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael M.; Maes, Gregory E.; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Sparholt, Henrik; Als, Thomas D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Bachler, Mirjam

2010-01-01

418

Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Many early life risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among racial/ethnic minority children. OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in adiposity and overweight are explained by differences in risk factors during pregnancy (gestational diabetes and depression), infancy (rapid infant weight gain, feeding other than exclusive breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods), and early childhood (sleeping <12 h/d, presence of a television set in the room where the child sleeps, and any intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or fast food). DESIGN Prospective prebirth cohort study. SETTING Multisite group practice in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Participants included 1116 mother-child pairs (63% white, 17% black, and 4% Hispanic) EXPOSURE Mother's report of child's race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z score, total fat mass index from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and overweight or obesity, defined as a BMI in the 85th percentile or higher at age 7 years. RESULTS Black (0.48 U [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64]) and Hispanic (0.43 [0.12 to 0.74]) children had higher BMI z scores, as well as higher total fat mass index and overweight/obesity prevalence, than white children. After adjustment for socioeconomic confounders and parental BMI, differences in BMI z score were attenuated for black and Hispanic children (0.22 U [0.05 to 0.40] and 0.22 U [-0.08 to 0.52], respectively). Adjustment for pregnancy risk factors did not substantially change these estimates. However, after further adjustment for infancy and childhood risk factors, we observed only minimal differences in BMI z scores between whites, blacks (0.07 U [-0.11 to 0.26]), and Hispanics (0.04 U [-0.27 to 0.35]). We observed similar attenuation of racial/ethnic differences in adiposity and prevalence of overweight or obesity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood adiposity and obesity are determined by factors operating in infancy and early childhood. Efforts to reduce obesity disparities should focus on preventing early life risk factors. PMID:23733179

Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

2013-08-01

419

Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2012-01-01

420

Lifetime reliability evaluation of structural ceramic parts with the CARES\\/LIFE computer program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer program CARES\\/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and\\/or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. CARES\\/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker equation. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative

Noel N. Nemeth; Lynn M. Powers; Lesley A. Janosik; John P. Gyekenyesi

1993-01-01

421

Early life factors initiate a ‘vicious circle’ of affective and gastrointestinal symptoms: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Objective Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) have been shown to be associated with both comorbid mood disorders and traumatic events such as abuse earlier in life. In a longitudinal study, we tested a model that hypothesized: (i) childhood abuse was associated with subsequent mood disorder and pain or interference in life by bowel symptoms both directly and indirectly via neurotic personality; and (ii) an ongoing cycle of mood disorder impacts on bowel symptoms. Design Subjects from the general population classified as irritable bowel syndrome and/or functional dyspepsia (IBS/FD, n?=?207) or free of FGID (n?=?100) were prospectively studied every 6 months over 18 months. In addition to bowel symptom interference and abdominal pain, measures of personality (neuroticism), childhood abuse history, depression, and anxiety were obtained. The hypothesized model was tested via Path Modelling. Results Childhood abuse was found to be directly associated with neuroticism but only indirectly associated with baseline interference and mood disorders (via neuroticism). The data further supported an ongoing cycle of elevations in mood disorders and pain/interference by bowel symptoms. The data supported direct effects of interference at one time point on interference at the subsequent time point in addition to indirect effects of prior anxiety and depression. Repeating the model with pain frequency as the outcome yielded almost identical findings which suggests the findings are generalized across domains of symptoms and quality-of-life. Conclusion Our data provide support for a model characterized by a ‘vicious circle’ between mood disorders and FGID symptoms in adulthood, with initial input from early life factors. PMID:24917988

Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Koloski, Natasha; Tack, Jan; Talley, Nicholas J

2013-01-01

422

Sleep Disordered Breathing in Early Childhood: Quality of Life for Children and Families  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To characterize health-related quality of life (QOL) in preschool children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and their families compared with nonsnoring control patients in the community. It was hypothesized that children with SDB and their families would have poorer QOL than control children, that a relationship would be found between SDB severity and QOL, and that even children with mild SDB and their families would have reduced QOL. Participants and Methods: A clinical sample of preschool children (3-5 y) with SDB diagnosed by gold standard polysomnography (primary snoring, PS = 56, mild obstructive sleep apnea, OSA = 35, moderate/severe OSA = 24) and control children recruited from the community (n = 38) were studied. Parents completed health-related QOL and parenting stress questionnaires. Results: Children and families in the PS and mild OSA groups had consistently poorer QOL than control children (both P < 0.05-0.001), based on parent ratings, and parents of children with PS had elevated stress ratings relative to control children (P < 0.05-0.001). The moderate/severe OSA group differed from the control group on select measures of parent and family QOL (worry, P < 0.001 and total family impact, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that sleep disordered breathing is associated with reduced quality of life in preschool children and their families. These results support previous quality of life findings in older children and in samples with broader age ranges. Furthermore, clinically referred preschool children with mild forms of sleep disordered breathing may be at greatest risk. Citation: Jackman AR; Biggs SN; Walter LM; Embuldeniya US; Davey MJ; Nixon GM; Anderson V; Trinder J; Horne RSC. Sleep disordered breathing in early childhood: quality of life for children and families. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1639-1646. PMID:24179296

Jackman, Angela R.; Biggs, Sarah N.; Walter, Lisa M.; Embuldeniya, Upeka S.; Davey, Margot J.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Anderson, Vicki; Trinder, John; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

2013-01-01

423

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

1992-01-01

424

Extending the Life-Course Interdependence Model: Life Transitions and the Enduring Consequences of Early Self-Derogation for Young Adult Crime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies exploring the association between adolescent self-esteem and crime have considered whether the early adolescent self-esteem has any enduring consequences for young adult crime. Inspired by the life course and developmental criminology approaches, Arnett's notion of emerging adulthood, and Kaplan's self-derogation theory, this article…

Eitle, David; Taylor, John; Pih, Kay Kei-ho

2010-01-01

425

INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24115264

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

426

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

Harkness, J. D.

1979-01-01

427

Feasibility of Implementing the Strong for Life Program in Community Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe the results of the dissemination of an efficacious, home-based exercise program called Strong for Life as it was implemented in a nationwide, volunteer caregiving program called Faith in Action, including training of volunteers who implemented the program, recruitment of older adult participants, exercise adherence, and…

Etkin, Caryn D.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Harris, Bette Ann; Latham, Nancy; Jette, Alan

2006-01-01

428

The Effects of a Life Review Program on Disorientation, Social Interaction and Self-Esteem of Nursing Home Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects on veteran and novice participants of a life review program for nursing home residents with Alzheimers disease or severe cognitive dysfunction. Results confirm the impact of the Life Review Program on level of disorientation, social interaction, and life review. Evidence suggests that life improvements may be stored in memory…

Tabourne, Carla E. S.

1995-01-01

429

Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies. PMID:24864200

Sloboda, Deborah M.; Li, Minglan; Patel, Rachna; Clayton, Zoe E.; Yap, Cassandra; Vickers, Mark H.

2014-01-01

430

Early life exposure to fructose and offspring phenotype: implications for long term metabolic homeostasis.  

PubMed

The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities-implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies. PMID:24864200

Sloboda, Deborah M; Li, Minglan; Patel, Rachna; Clayton, Zoe E; Yap, Cassandra; Vickers, Mark H

2014-01-01

431

The Role of Environmental Factors in Modulating Immune Responses in Early Life  

PubMed Central

The concept of immunological memory stipulates that past exposures shape present immune function. These exposures include not only specific antigens impacting adaptive immune memory but also conserved pathogen or danger associated molecular patterns that mold innate immune responses for prolonged periods of time. It should thus not come as a surprise that there is a vast range of external or environmental factors that impact immunity. The importance of environmental factors modulating immunity is most readily recognized in early life, a period of rapidly changing environments. We here summarize available data on the role of environment shaping immune development and from it derive an overarching hypothesis relating the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary principles involved. PMID:25309535

MacGillivray, Duncan M.; Kollmann, Tobias R.

2014-01-01

432

Measurement-systems evaluation for the Support Cushion Life Test Program  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were conducted to determine accuracy and precision (repeatability) capabilities of the measurement systems being used in the Support Cushion Life Test Program. Also, the experiments were intended to expose any system weaknesses, and provide baseline data for continuous monitoring of the measurement systems during the Life Test Program. Systems evaluated were the Instron Tension/Compression Tester System and the Kaman Eddy Current Thickness Measuring System. The experiments were conducted such that they evaluated all primary functions of the systems (i.e., multiple independent functions for the Instron). Interpretation of the experimental analyses indicated that both systems were acceptable for use in the Life Test Program.

Rodin, L.W.; Jasper, S.E.; Myers, J.C.

1982-02-01

433

Evolutionarily-conserved prefrontal-amygdalar dysfunction in early-life anxiety  

PubMed Central

Some individuals are endowed with a biology that renders them more reactive to novelty and potential threat. When extreme, this anxious temperament (AT) confers elevated risk for the development of anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. These disorders are highly prevalent, debilitating, and can be challenging to treat. The high-risk AT phenotype is expressed similarly in children and young monkeys and mechanistic work demonstrates that the central nucleus (Ce) of the amygdala is an important substrate. While it is widely believed that the flow of information across the structural network connecting the Ce to other brain regions underlies primates' capacity for flexibly regulating anxiety, the functional architecture of this network has remained poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in anesthetized young monkeys and quietly resting children with anxiety disorders to identify an evolutionarily-conserved pattern of functional connectivity relevant to early-life anxiety. Across primate species and levels of awareness, reduced functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a region thought to play a central role in the control of cognition and emotion, and the Ce was associated with increased anxiety assessed outside the scanner. Importantly, high-resolution 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging provided evidence that elevated Ce metabolism statistically mediates the association between prefrontal-amygdalar connectivity and elevated anxiety. These results provide new clues about the brain network underlying extreme early-life anxiety and set the stage for mechanistic work aimed at developing improved interventions for pediatric anxiety. PMID:24863147

Birn, Rasmus M.; Shackman, Alexander J.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Williams, Lisa E.; McFarlin, Daniel R.; Rogers, Gregory M.; Shelton, Steven E.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Davidson, Richard J.; Fox, Andrew S.; Kalin, Ned H.

2014-01-01

434

The Early Life History of the Clam Macoma balthica in a High CO2 World  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of experimentally manipulated seawater carbonate chemistry on several early life history processes of the Baltic tellin (Macoma balthica), a widely distributed bivalve that plays a critical role in the functioning of many coastal habitats. We demonstrate that ocean acidification significantly depresses fertilization, embryogenesis, larval development and survival during the pelagic phase. Fertilization and the formation of a D-shaped shell during embryogenesis were severely diminished: successful fertilization was reduced by 11% at a 0.6 pH unit decrease from present (pH 8.1) conditions, while hatching success was depressed by 34 and 87%, respectively at a 0.3 and 0.6 pH unit decrease. Under acidified conditions, larvae were still able to develop a shell during the post-embryonic phase, but higher larval mortality rates indicate that fewer larvae may metamorphose and settle in an acidified ocean. The cumulative impact of decreasing seawater pH on fertilization, embryogenesis and survival to the benthic stage is estimated to reduce the number of competent settlers by 38% for a 0.3 pH unit decrease, and by 89% for a 0.6 pH unit decrease from present conditions. Additionally, slower growth rates and a delayed metamorphosis at a smaller size were indicative for larvae developed under acidified conditions. This may further decline the recruit population size due to a longer subjection to perturbations, such as predation, during the pelagic phase. In general, early life history processes were most severely compromised at ?pH 7.5, which corresponds to seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite. Since recent models predict a comparable decrease in pH in coastal waters in the near future, this study indicates that future populations of Macoma balthica are likely to decline as a consequence of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:22970279

Van Colen, Carl; Debusschere, Elisabeth; Braeckman, Ulrike; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vincx, Magda

2012-01-01

435

Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b?=??0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: ?0.71 to ?0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b?=??0.89, 95% CI: ?1.58 to ?0.20) and (b?=??0.65, 95% CI: ?1.25 to ?0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b?=??0.70, 95% CI: ?1.35 to ?0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

2013-01-01

436

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-12-01

437

Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in the life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 ?atm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 ?atm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship between pCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which consequently should lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival and could affect the ecosystem and fisheries. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.

Franke, A.; Clemmesen, C.

2011-07-01

438

A low ?-linolenic intake during early life increases adiposity in the adult guinea pig  

PubMed Central

Background The composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) during early life may impact adult adipose tissue (AT) development. We investigated the effects of ?-linolenic acid (ALA) intake during the suckling/weaning period on AT development and metabolic markers in the guinea pig (GP). Methods Newborn GP were fed a 27%-fat diet (w/w %) with high (10%-ALA group), moderate (2.4%-ALA group) or low (0.8%-ALA group) ALA content (w/w % as total FA) until they were 21 days old (d21). Then all animals were switched to a 15%-fat diet containing 2% ALA (as total FA) until 136 days of age (d136). Results ALA and docosapentaenoic acid measured in plasma triglycerides (TG) at d21 decreased with decreasing ALA intake. Total body fat mass was not different between groups at d21. Adipose tissue TG synthesis rates and proliferation rate of total adipose cells, as assessed by 2H2O labelling, were unchanged between groups at d21, while hepatic de novo lipogenesis was significantly 2-fold increased in the 0.8%-ALA group. In older GP, the 0.8%-ALA group showed a significant 15-%-increased total fat mass (d79 and d107, p < 0.01) and epididymal AT weight (d136) and tended to show higher insulinemia compared to the 10%-ALA group. In addition, proliferation rate of cells in the subcutaneous AT was higher in the 0.8%-ALA (15.2 ± 1.3% new cells/5d) than in the 10%-ALA group (8.6 ± 1.7% new cells/5d, p = 0.021) at d136. AT eicosanoid profiles were not associated with the increase of AT cell proliferation. Conclusion A low ALA intake during early postnatal life promotes an increased adiposity in the adult GP. PMID:20205840

2010-01-01

439

Early Life Instruction in Foreign Language and Music and Incidence of Mild Cognitive Impairment.  

PubMed

Objective: To test the hypothesis that foreign language and music instruction in early life are associated with lower incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and slower rate of cognitive decline in old age. Method: At enrollment in a longitudinal cohort study, 964 older persons without cognitive impairment estimated years of foreign language and music instruction by age 18. Annually thereafter they completed clinical evaluations that included cognitive testing and clinical classification of MCI. Results: There were 264 persons with no foreign language instruction, 576 with 1-4 years, and 124 with > 4 years; 346 persons with no music instruction, 360 with 1-4 years, and 258 with > 4 years. During a mean of 5.8 years of observation, 396 participants (41.1%) developed MCI. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher levels (> 4 years) of foreign language (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.687, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.482, 0.961]) and music (HR = 0.708, 95% CI [0.539, 0.930]) instruction by the age of 18 were each associated with reduced risk of MCI. The association persisted after adjustment for other early life indicators of an enriched cognitive environment, and it was stronger for nonamnestic than amnestic MCI. Both foreign language and music instruction were associated with higher initial level of cognitive function, but neither instruction measure was associated with cognitive decline. Conclusions: Higher levels of foreign language and music instruction during childhood and adolescence are associated in old age with lower risk of developing MCI but not with rate of cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25110933

Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yang, Jingyun; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

2014-08-11

440

Serum concentrations of homocysteine are elevated during early pregnancy in rodent models of fetal programming.  

PubMed

Maternal malnutrition can lead to fetal abnormalities and increase susceptibility to disease in later life. Rat models have been developed to study the physiology and metabolism underlying this phenomenon. One particular model of 50 % protein restriction during pregnancy, the low-protein diet (LPD) supplemented with methionine, has been developed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that rats fed a LPD during only the first 4 d of pregnancy produce offspring that develop hypertension. These results suggest that the very earliest stages of embryo development are susceptible to diet-induced heritable changes. We demonstrate a marked elevation of maternal serum homocysteine (hcy) concentrations during the initial phases of pregnancy in both rats and mice fed an LPD. Fetal growth and many of the circulating amino acids are similarly perturbed in both rats and mice fed the LPD during pregnancy, indicating that the response to the LPD diet is similar in rats and mice. These findings allow us to exploit the advantages of the mouse experimental system in future analyses aimed at understanding the molecular basis of fetal programming. Our present findings are discussed with particular reference to mechanisms which may initiate fetal programming, and to the feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing early pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia in man. PMID:12425727

Petrie, Linda; Duthie, Susan J; Rees, William D; McConnell, Josie M L

2002-11-01

441

The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

Arend, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

442

Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Includes the description of NSF 's Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists  

E-print Network

Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Includes the description of NSF 's Presidential the absence of the need for such plans. FastLane will not permit submission of a proposal that is missing. Please be advised that if required, FastLane will not permit submission of a proposal that is missing

McQuade, D. Tyler

443

Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress.  

PubMed

Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals. PMID:24478326

Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

2014-11-01

444

Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

Margulis, L.

1981-01-01

445

Microbial trace fossils in Antarctica and the search for evidence of early life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is possible to hypothesize that, if microbial life evolved on early Mars, fossil remnants of these organisms may be preserved on the surface. However, the cooling and drying of Mars probably resembled a cold desert and such an environment is not suitable for the process of fossilization. The frigid Ross Desert of Antarctica is probably the closest terrestrial analog to conditions that may have prevailed on the surface of the cooling and drying Mars. In this desert, cryptoendolithic microbial communities live in the airspaces of porous rocks, the last habitable niche in a hostile outside environment. The organisms produce characteristic chemical and physical changes in the rock substrate. Environmental changes (deterioration of conditions) may result in the death of the community. Although no cellular structures are fossilized, the conspicuous changes in the rock substrate are preserved as trace fossils. Likewise, microbial trace fossils (without cellular structures) may also be preserved on Mars: Discontinuities in structure or chemistry of the rock that are independent of physical or chemical gradients may be of biological origin. Ros