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Sample records for early life programming

  1. Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    It has been >20 y since epidemiologic studies showed a relation between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted. However, the mechanisms by which a phenomenon that occurs in early life can have long-term effects on the function of a cell and therefore on the metabolism of an organism many years later are only starting to emerge. These mechanisms include 1) permanent structural changes in an organ resulting from suboptimal concentrations of an important factor during a critical period of development, eg, the permanent reduction in β cell mass in the endocrine pancreas; 2) persistent alterations in epigenetic modifications (eg, DNA methylation and histone modifications) that lead to changes in gene expression (eg, several transcription factors are susceptible to programmed changes in gene expression through such mechanisms); and 3) permanent effects on the regulation of cellular aging (eg, increases in oxidative stress that lead to macromolecular damage, including that to DNA and specifically to telomeres, can contribute to such effects). Further understanding of such processes will enable the development of preventive and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:21543536

  2. Programming the brain and behaviour by early-life stress: a focus on neuroactive steroids.

    PubMed

    Brunton, P J

    2015-06-01

    Animal studies have amply demonstrated that stress exposure during pregnancy or in early postnatal life can adversely influence brain development and have long-term 'programming' effects on future brain function and behaviour. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence from human studies supports the hypothesis that some psychiatric disorders may have developmental origins. Here, the focus is on three adverse consequences of early-life stress: dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, heightened anxiety behaviour and cognitive impairments, with review of what is known about the underlying central mechanisms. Neuroactive steroids modulate neuronal activity and play a key role in neurodevelopment. Moreover they can negatively modulate activity of the HPA axis, exert anxiolytic actions and influence cognitive performance. Thus, neuroactive steroids may provide a link between early-life stress and the resultant adverse effects on the brain and behaviour. Here, a role for neuroactive steroids, in particular the 5α-reduced/3α-hydroxylated metabolites of progesterone, testosterone and deoxycorticosterone, is discussed in the context of early-life stress. Furthermore, the impact of early-life stress on the brain's capacity to generate neurosteroids is considered and the evidence for an ability of neuroactive steroids to over-write the negative effects of early-life stress on the brain and behaviour is examined. An enhanced understanding of the influence of early-life stress on brain neurosteroid systems could aid the identification of new targets for developing treatments for stress-related conditions in humans. PMID:25688636

  3. [The role of early-life metabolic programming in the pathogenesis of lifestyle diseases].

    PubMed

    Roszkowska, Renata; Taranta-Janusz, Katarzyna; Wasilewska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a blooming period of genomics brings a window of opportunity to assess predispositions to some diseases in individuals, even before the first symptoms appear. However, a risk of becoming ill is more complex, as the gene expression is modified by epigenetic and environmental factors. Fetal development and first months of life are periods of dynamic growth and significant sensitivity to external factors. According to the theory of early-life metabolic programming, adaptive changes in these stages have lasting health effects. Among many environmental factors, the youngest children's diet plays an important role. Breastfeeding of newborns and infants is an essential part of lifestyle diseases prevention. Constantly increasing number of reports link natural nutrition of the youngest children with less risk of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in future life. However, further long-term studies taking into account number of bias factors, explaining protective mechanisms of human milk, are needed. PMID:25874787

  4. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. PMID:26712739

  5. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  6. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  7. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  8. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life. PMID:24847686

  9. Consequences of Early Life Programing by Genetic and Environmental Influences: A Synthesis Regarding Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christian L; DiVall, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, causing rapid weight gain with the risk for adult disease and premature onset of puberty. Environmental factors can cause modifications to the genome, so-called epigenetic changes, to affect gene expression and subsequently modify phenotypic expression of genomic information. Epigenetic modifications, which occur in children born small for gestational age, are thought to underlie part of the metabolic programming that subsequently effects both somatic and pubertal development. PMID:26680576

  10. Genetic and epigenetic catalysts in early-life programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Estampador, Angela C; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has emerged across the past few decades that the lifetime risk of developing morbidities like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease may be influenced by exposures that occur in utero and in childhood. Developmental abnormalities are known to occur at various stages in fetal growth. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies have sought to delineate developmental processes and plausible risk factors influencing pregnancy outcomes and later health. Whether these observations reflect causal processes or are confounded by genetic and social factors remains unclear, although animal (and some human) studies suggest that epigenetic programming events may be involved. Regardless of the causal basis to observations of early-life risk factors and later disease risk, the fact that such associations exist and that they are of a fairly large magnitude justifies further research around this topic. Furthermore, additional information is needed to substantiate public health guidelines on lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy to improve infant health outcomes. Indeed, lifestyle intervention clinical trials in pregnancy are now coming online, where materials and data are being collected that should facilitate understanding of the causal nature of intrauterine exposures related with gestational weight gain, such as elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations. In this review, we provide an overview of these concepts. PMID:25489250

  11. Frank A. Beach award: programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: a critical role for the immune system.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D

    2013-05-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal Escherichia coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. PMID:23474365

  12. Early life nutritional programming of health and disease in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Moore, S E

    2016-04-01

    Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs. PMID:26503192

  13. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  14. The Life Programming Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Waunita L.

    The paper explains how Project LIFE (Language Improvement to Facilitate Education) has applied the principles of programed instruction in developing language materials for language handicapped children, especially the hearing impaired. Early strategy decisions are said to have involved obtaining a teaching machine which would be equipped with a…

  15. Perinatal stress and early life programming of lung structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins during critical periods of prenatal and/or postnatal development may alter the normal course of lung morphogenesis and maturation, potentially resulting in changes that affect both structure and function of the respiratory system. Moreover, these early effects may persist into adult life magnifying the potential public health impact. Aberrant or excessive pro-inflammatory immune responses, occurring both locally and systemically, that result in inflammatory damage to the airway are a central determinant of lung structure-function changes throughout life. Disruption of neuroendocrine function in early development, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, may alter functional status of the immune system. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function (sympathovagal imbalance) is another integral component of airway function and immunity in childhood. This overview discusses the evidence linking psychological factors to alterations in these interrelated physiological processes that may, in turn, influence childhood lung function and identifies gaps in our understanding. PMID:20080145

  16. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  17. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  18. [Program for early detection of illness level in foals during the first 24 hours of life].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Hospes, R; Herfen, K

    1997-11-01

    Basing on exact investigations of normal behaviour and abnormalities in newborn and up to 24 hours old foals a program for evaluation, comprehending exogeniously judgable criteria, was developed. It aims at a quick recognition of aberrations in behaviour. The program includes a score, which allows early diagnosis of even subtile abnormalities. As a result, a veterinary surgeon should be consulted if the score exposes a critical situation, so that therapy can be started in time. Furthermore informations about investigations on blood-glucose- and immunoglobulin-G-concentration in relation to neonatal foal diseases are given. PMID:9451764

  19. Developmental Programming of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Effect of Early Life Nutrition on Susceptibility and Disease Severity in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is fast becoming the most common liver disease globally and parallels rising obesity rates. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis have linked alterations in the early life environment to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in later life. Altered early life nutrition, in addition to increasing risk for the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in offspring, is now associated with an increased risk for the development of NAFLD. This review summarizes emerging research on the developmental programming of NAFLD by both maternal obesity and undernutrition with a particular focus on the possible mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic dysfunction and potential strategies for intervention. PMID:26090409

  20. Early life origins of metabolic disease: Developmental programming of hypothalamic pathways controlling energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that perinatal exposure to adverse metabolic conditions - be it maternal obesity, diabetes or under-nutrition - results in predisposition of offspring to develop obesity later in life. This mechanism is a contributing factor to the exponential rise in obesity rates. Increased weight gain in offspring exposed to maternal obesity is usually associated with hyperphagia, implicating altered central regulation of energy homeostasis as an underlying cause. Perinatal development of the hypothalamus (a brain region key to metabolic regulation) is plastic and sensitive to metabolic signals during this critical time window. Recent research in non-human primate and rodent models has demonstrated that exposure to adverse maternal environments impairs the development of hypothalamic structure and consequently function, potentially underpinning metabolic phenotypes in later life. This review summarizes our current knowledge of how adverse perinatal environments program hypothalamic development and explores the mechanisms that could mediate these effects. PMID:26296796

  1. A novel role for maternal stress and microbial transmission in early life programming and neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Jašarević, Eldin; Rodgers, Ali B.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in the prenatal and early life environment can contribute to the development of offspring stress dysregulation, a pervasive symptom in neuropsychiatric disease. Interestingly, the vertical transmission of maternal microbes to offspring and the subsequent bacterial colonization of the neonatal gut overlap with a critical period of brain development. Therefore, environmental factors such as maternal stress that are able to alter microbial populations and their transmission can thereby shape offspring neurodevelopment. As the neonatal gastrointestinal tract is primarily inoculated at parturition through the ingestion of maternal vaginal microflora, disruption in the vaginal ecosystem may have important implications for offspring neurodevelopment and disease risk. Here, we discuss alterations that occur in the vaginal microbiome following maternal insult and the subsequent effects on bacterial assembly of the neonate gut, the production of neuromodulatory metabolites, and the developmental course of stress regulation. PMID:25530984

  2. Lung Dendritic Cell Developmental Programming, Environmental Stimuli, and Asthma in Early Periods of Life

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shanjana; Singh, Bhupinder; Welliver, Robert C.; Dietert, Rodney R.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important cells of our innate immune system. Their role is critical in inducing adaptive immunity, tolerance, or allergic response in peripheral organs—lung and skin. The lung DCs are not developed prenatally before birth. The DCs develop after birth presumably during the first year of life; exposures to any foreign antigen or infectious organisms during this period can significantly affect DC developmental programming and generation of distinct DC phenotypes and functions. These changes can have both short-term and long-term health effects which may be very relevant in childhood asthma and predisposition for a persistent response in adulthood. An understanding of DC development at molecular and cellular levels can help in protecting neonates and infants against problematic environmental exposures and developmental immunotoxicity. This knowledge can eventually help in designing novel pharmacological modulators to skew the DC characteristics and immune responses to benefit the host across a lifetime. PMID:23209481

  3. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  4. Early life programming of pain: focus on neuroimmune to endocrine communication.

    PubMed

    Zouikr, I; Bartholomeusz, M D; Hodgson, D M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for the scientific community and a significant economic and social cost for modern societies. Given the failure of current drugs to effectively treat chronic pain, which are based on suppressing aberrant neuronal excitability, we propose in this review an integrated approach that views pain not solely originating from neuronal activation but also the result of a complex interaction between the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Pain assessment must also extend beyond measures of behavioural responses to noxious stimuli to a more developmentally informed assessment given the significant plasticity of the nociceptive system during the neonatal period. Finally integrating the concept of perinatal programming into the pain management field is a necessary step to develop and target interventions to reduce the suffering associated with chronic pain. We present clinical and animal findings from our laboratory (and others) demonstrating the importance of the microbial and relational environment in programming pain responsiveness later in life via action on hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity, peripheral and central immune system, spinal and supraspinal mechanisms, and the autonomic nervous system. PMID:27154463

  5. Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

  6. Early-Life Stress Perturbs Key Cellular Programs in the Developing Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan; Hao, Jin; Lacher, Richard K; Abbott, Thomas; Chung, Lisa; Colangelo, Christopher M; Kaffman, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting reports are available with regard to the effects of childhood abuse and neglect on hippocampal function in children. While earlier imaging studies and some animal work have suggested that the effects of early-life stress (ELS) manifest only in adulthood, more recent studies have documented impaired hippocampal function in maltreated children and adolescents. Additional work using animal modes is needed to clarify the effects of ELS on hippocampal development. In this regard, genomic, proteomic, and molecular tools uniquely available in the mouse make it a particularly attractive model system to study this issue. However, very little work has been done so far to characterize the effects of ELS on hippocampal development in the mouse. To address this issue, we examined the effects of brief daily separation (BDS), a mouse model of ELS that impairs hippocampal-dependent memory in adulthood, on hippocampal development in 28-day-old juvenile mice. This age was chosen because it corresponds to the developmental period in which human imaging studies have revealed abnormal hippocampal development in maltreated children. Exposure to BDS caused a significant decrease in the total protein content of synaptosomes harvested from the hippocampus of 28-day-old male and female mice, suggesting that BDS impairs normal synaptic development in the juvenile hippocampus. Using a novel liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM) assay, we found decreased expression of many synaptic proteins, as well as proteins involved in axonal growth, myelination, and mitochondrial activity. Golgi staining in 28-day-old BDS mice showed an increase in the number of immature and abnormally shaped spines and a decrease in the number of mature spines in CA1 neurons, consistent with defects in synaptic maturation and synaptic pruning at this age. In 14-day-old pups, BDS deceased the expression of proteins involved in axonal growth and myelination, but did not

  7. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  8. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:26260665

  9. The Quality of Work Life in NAEYC Accredited and Nonaccredited Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Paula Jorde

    1996-01-01

    Compared work environments of NAEYC accredited and nonaccredited centers using the Early Childhood Work Environment Survey. Found that innovativeness, goal consensus, opportunities for professional growth, and clarity accounted for the greatest differences between accredited and nonaccredited centers. Also found differences in staff's job…

  10. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  11. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  12. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list. PMID:27347375

  13. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list. PMID:27347375

  14. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

  15. Aliskiren Administration during Early Postnatal Life Sex-Specifically Alleviates Hypertension Programmed by Maternal High Fructose Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Wu, Kay L. H.; Lee, Wei-Chia; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y. H.; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Key points summary Maternal high-fructose (HF) induces programmed hypertension in adult offspring.Early aliskiren administration prevents HF-induced hypertension in both sexes of adult offspring.HF regulates RAS components in the offspring kidney in a sex-specific manner.HF alters renal transcriptome, with female offspring being more sensitive.Deprogramming strategy to prevent hypertension might be sex-specific. Background: Maternal high fructose (HF) intake induced renal programming and hypertension in male adult offspring. We examined whether maternal HF intake causes programmed hypertension and whether aliskiren administration confers protection against the process in a sex-specific manner, with a focus on the transcriptome changes in the kidney using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Methods: Pregnant Sprague—Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with 60% fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were assigned to six groups: male control, male HF (MHF), MHF+Aliskiren, female control, female HF (FHF), and FHF+Aliskiren. Oral aliskiren 10 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage between 2 and 4 weeks of age. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Results: Maternal HF intake induced programmed hypertension in 12-week-old offspring of both sexes. HF regulated renal transcriptome and RAS components in the offspring kidney in a sex-specific manner. Aliskiren administration prevented HF-induced programmed hypertension in both sexes of adult offspring. Aliskiren administration increased ACE2 and MAS protein levels in female kidneys exposed to maternal HF intake. Conclusion: Maternal HF induced programmed hypertension in both sexes of adult offspring, which was sex-specifically mitigated by early aliskiren administration. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie maternal HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel sex-specific strategy to prevent

  16. Early Adolescent Helper Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Diane, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing the need for more active learning experiences and appropriate after-school activities for 11- to 14-year-olds, the Early Adolescent Helper Program has designed and tested a model program. Seminars and internships prepare students for placement, which is frequently in child-care or senior centers. (JMM)

  17. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115

  18. Ontogeny of Early Life Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, David J.; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    The human immune system is comprised of cellular and molecular components designed to coordinately prevent infection while avoiding potentially harmful inflammation and auto-immunity. Immunity varies with age, reflecting unique age-dependent challenges including fetal gestation, the neonatal phase and infancy. Herein, we review novel mechanistic insights into early life immunity, with emphasis on emerging models of human immune ontogeny, which may inform age-specific translational development of novel anti-infectives, immunomodulators and vaccines. PMID:24880460

  19. Early Life Bereavement and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hong; Olsen, Jørn; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingus, Sven; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to examine whether early life bereavement, as indicator of severe stress, was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life. Based on population registers, we established a cohort of all children born in Denmark (N = 1 686 416) and Sweden (N = 2 563 659) from 1973 to 1997. Children were categorized as exposed if they lost a first-degree relative during the first 18 years of life. Outcome is the first diagnosis of schizophrenia as either inpatient or outpatient. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). A total of 188,850 children (4.6%) experienced death of a first-degree relative from birth to 18 years of age. Compared with unexposed children, those exposed had overall a 39% higher risk of schizophrenia (= 1.39, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.32–1.47). The IRR was particularly high if the family member committed suicide (aIRR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.90–2.34) or died due to an injury or accident (aIRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27–1.63). The IRR of schizophrenia decreased with increasing child's age at bereavement (P < 0.0001). Children who experienced >1 death during the first 18 years of life (aIRR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.46–2.19) had a higher risk than those with a single death (aIRR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.30–1.45). The study suggested that exposure to death of a first-degree relative before 18 years was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in later life. The complex mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated. PMID:26817875

  20. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program—IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)—against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5–13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament, self-worth, social problems with peers). Method Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 1,484). A longitudinal quasi-experimental design (intervention/control) with schoolwise assignment to the respective groups was used. Data were gathered via self-report questionnaire. Two-part growth mixture modeling was applied. Results Two prototypical trajectory classes of early alcohol use were found: a problematic group with a sharp increase in prevalence and quantity of consumed alcohol (19.7%) and a normative group with a moderate increase in both outcomes (80.3%). The problematic trajectory class was associated with several risk factors. IPSY decreased the likelihood of membership in the problematic group. Furthermore, IPSY buffered the increase in prevalence and quantity for the normative group, whereas it had no effects on these indicators for the problematic group. Concerning quantity of alcohol use, the effect size in terms of a difference in estimated means between intervention and control group at the last measurement point in the normative group was d = 0.33 (95% CI [0.21, 0.44]). Conclusions Study findings indicate the usefulness of IPSY for reducing alcohol use especially in normative developing adolescents. However, the minority of adolescents consistently pursuing a problematic developmental pathway of alcohol use seem to be in need of earlier, more tailored treatments. PMID:20515209

  1. Early Childhood Programs for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    Investments in children during the early years of life are regarded as one of the most effective ways to promote children's learning. This book synthesizes the research base and state of practice of early childhood learning and answers such questions as: What programs are most effective, and who benefits most from them? What are the key components…

  2. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  3. MEASURING EARLY LIFE DISPARITY IN INDIA.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akansha; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2016-08-01

    Early life disparity - defined as the average life years lost due to death by the age of 60 years - can be used to assess more systematically the effect of savings from death at a young age. In addition, it can give valuable insight into the consequences of death in the early stages of life. Early life disparity can further be categorized into child life disparity (0-14 years) and adult life disparity (15-60 years). This study estimated early life disparity using complete life tables for the period 1970-1975 to 2006-2010, which were constructed from abridged life tables and death rates provided by the Sample Registration System (SRS) in India. The contribution of premature deaths to the difference in life disparity was estimated using a replacement algorithm. The findings clearly indicated an overall declining trend in early life disparity in India, with a notable reduction in child life disparity, and a deceleration of adult life disparity during the period 1970-1975 to 2006-2010. Interstate variations in early life disparity were seen to converge with time. Decomposition analysis suggested that these variations could be minimized further by averting death during childhood. PMID:26537823

  4. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (5α3α-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5α3α-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR δ subunit (δ0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, δ0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of δ0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress

  5. Epidemiological evaluation quality of life in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis: a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, blind allocation controlled of a modular program group intervention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epidemiology has taken on new roles in the management of health care services. In this study, we developed a non-pharmacological self-management modular program group intervention and evaluated its efficacy as an adjunct therapy in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either participate in a non-equivalent intervention group along with the standard of care or only receive standard-of-care treatment at a community rheumatology center. The outcomes measured were a pain visual analog scale (VAS), patient general health (GH) on a VAS, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 scale measuring quality of life. These parameters were evaluated in the first week to obtain baseline values, and at 20, 32, 48, and 60 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention group. RESULTS: The patients were randomized, with 100 patients in the intervention group and 106 in the control group. The intervention and control groups were similar with regard to the percentage of women (86% vs. 89.6%), tobacco usage (25% vs. 19.8%), mean age (42.6±13.2 years vs. 46.6±10.9 years), and disease duration (15.3±6.7 months vs. 14.5±6.6 months). The mean outcomes were significantly different between the two groups, and post-hoc pairwise analysis demonstrated significant deterioration in the control group in contrast to improvement in the intervention group at the second, third, fourth, and fifth evaluations. Improvements were often seen as early as the 12-week and 24-week follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiology contributes to the evaluation of how well specific therapies or other health interventions prevent or control health problems. The modular program group intervention implemented in this study appears to be a suitable and feasible method to facilitate much more comprehensive management of early RA in socioeconomically challenged communities. PMID:26552423

  6. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  7. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  8. The Family & Life Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Mellie R.

    The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

  9. The Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  10. Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

  11. Neurobiology of early life stress: clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2002-04-01

    A burgeoning number of clinical studies have evaluated the immediate and long-term neurobiological effects of early developmental stress, eg, child abuse and neglect or parental loss, in the past years. This review summarizes and discusses the available findings from neuroendocrine (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other neuroendocrine axes), neurochemical (catecholamines, serotonin, other neurotransmitters), psychophysiological (autonomic function, startle reactivity, brain electrical activity) and neuroimaging studies (brain structure, function) conducted in children or adults with a history of early life stress, with or without psychiatric disorders. Early developmental stress in humans appears to be associated with neurobiological alterations that are similar to many findings in animal models of early life stress, and likely represent the biological basis of an enhanced risk for psychopathology. Clinical studies are now beginning to explore potentially differential neurobiological effects of different types of early life stress and the existence of critical developmental periods, which may be sensitive to the neurobiological effects of specific stressors. In addition, the role of a multitude of moderating and mediating factors in the determination of individual vulnerability or resilience to the neurobiological effects of early life stress should be addressed. Findings from such studies may ultimately help to prevent the deleterious neurobiological and psychopathological consequences in the unacceptably high number of children exposed to early life stress in modern society. PMID:11953939

  12. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  13. Early Bird Gymnastics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary K.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes procedures for setting up a before- or after-school gymnastics program based on three principles: basic skills and safety rules; orientation to the physical setup and a demonstration of spotting techniques; and rewarding students. (JMF)

  14. AUSSAT battery life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorian, P. W.; Pickett, D. F., Jr.; Bogner, R. S.; Chao, T. I.; Jordan, J. P.; Clark, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    AUSSAT Pty. Ltd., the Australian National Satellite organization, has contracted with the Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) for the construction of 3 satellites based on the now familiar HS-376 product line. As part of the AUSSAT contract, HAC is conducting an extensive NiCd battery life test program. The life test program, objectives and test results to date are described. Particular emphasis is given to the evaluation of the FS2117 separator as a future replacement for the Pellon 2505 separator of which only a very limited quantity remains.

  15. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  16. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  17. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life. PMID:19960543

  18. Antibiotics in early life and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition and consequently its metabolic activity, can influence body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth, which is consistent with effects of the microbiota on development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early-life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repressed or promoted growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending its susceptibility to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases, such as obesity and types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25488483

  19. Magnetism and the putative early Martian life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.

    2001-08-01

    A short critical review is provided on three questions linking magnetism and the putative early Mars life. Was there a large internal Martian magnetic field, during which period, and is it a requisite for life? What is the origin of the paleomagnetic signal of Martian meteorites, including ALH84001? What is the present credibility of the case for fossil bacterial magnetite grains in ALH84001?

  20. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  1. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  2. The role of glucocorticoid receptor-dependent activity in the amygdala central nucleus and reversibility of early-life stress programmed behavior

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, M G; Pan, M S; Doak, W; Cyr, P E P; Muglia, L M; Muglia, L J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) leads to sustained changes in gene expression and behavior, increasing the likelihood of developing a psychiatric disorder in adulthood. The neurobiological basis for the later-in-life psychopathology is relatively unknown. The current study used a mouse model of ELS, achieved by daily maternal separations during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life, to test the role of amygdalar glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in mediating the persistent increase in risk-taking behaviors. ELS produced a decrease in GR mRNA in the brain, with a notable reduction in the amygdala that was associated with sustained alterations in anxiety, fear and sociability-like behaviors. Lentiviral-mediated restoration of the GR mRNA deficit, specifically within the adult central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), reversed the enduring changes in anxiety and social behavior after ELS. These results provide evidence of lasting changes in CeA GR neural circuitry following ELS and suggest a mechanistic role for GR-regulated processes in the CeA in mediating the lifelong maladaptive behaviors of ELS. We demonstrate that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ELS are reversible later in life and implicate the involvement of CeA GR-dependent activity in the sustained dysregulation of emotion following ELS. PMID:25849981

  3. Early evolution without a tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942

  4. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  5. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  6. Bone-specific gene expression patterns and whole bone tissue of female mice are programmed by early life exposure to soy isoflavones and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2015-10-01

    Female mice exposed to soy isoflavones (ISO) during early postnatal life have improved bone outcomes at adulthood. Since long-lasting effects may be mediated by DNA methylation, we hypothesized that providing supplemental folic acid (FA), a methyl donor, during early life, would enhance the positive effect of ISO to bone health. Bone-specific gene expression patterns were studied to understand potential mechanisms. CD-1 dams (n=36) were randomized to adequate or supplemental levels of FA (2 or 8 mg/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation, and offspring received corn oil or ISO (7 mg/kg body weight/d) from postnatal day 1 to 10. From weaning, pups were fed an adequate FA diet and were studied to 4 months of age. Female offspring exposed to supplemental FA+ISO had higher bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular connectivity and peak load at the lumbar spine compared to females exposed to adequate FA. Female offspring exposed to adequate FA+ISO or supplemental FA had higher (P<.05) BMD and greater resistance to fracture at the lumbar spine and the femur; higher trabecular connectivity at the lumbar spine; and lower expression of DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the femur compared to mice exposed to adequate FA. In addition, only mice exposed to adequate FA+ISO had microstructural improvements at the femur neck and higher serum osteoprotegrin (OPG) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). In summary, exposure to supplemental FA did not enhance the positive effect of ISO in bone. However, exposure to adequate FA+ISO or supplemental FA improved bone at least in part by suppressing Dnmt3a and NPY. PMID:26089235

  7. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-20

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease. PMID:26979945

  8. Symbiogenesis and the early evolution of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrapico, Francisco; Rodrigues, Telma

    2005-09-01

    The concept of symbiogenesis was introduced in 1909 by the Russian biologist Constantin Merezhkowsky as "the origin of organisms by the combination or by the association of two or several beings which enter into symbiosis". In this article we develop this idea, associated to the Freeman Dyson's hypothesis, applied to the early evolutive stages of life, considering that it could be a possible main rule in the appearance and development of life conditions on Earth and elsewhere. A cooperative, synergistic strategy should be considered as having been the determinant in the development of the survival of the fittest, especially under extremely adverse environmental conditions. This concept must be also applied to the first communities of cells as the base supporting evolution of the early "tree of life". Cells, like we have previously described, can be included in a new cellular concept entitled, "symbiocell", since survival of the community under such adverse conditions required a cooperative, synergistic strategy. Similar principles could also be used to understand chemical pre-biotic evolution. We believe that astrobiologists should consider it as a new approach to understand organic and biological evolution.

  9. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  10. Early life recorded in archean pillow lavas.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Harald; Banerjee, Neil R; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Staudigel, Hubert; de Wit, Maarten

    2004-04-23

    Pillow lava rims from the Mesoarchean Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa contain micrometer-scale mineralized tubes that provide evidence of submarine microbial activity during the early history of Earth. The tubes formed during microbial etching of glass along fractures, as seen in pillow lavas from recent oceanic crust. The margins of the tubes contain organic carbon, and many of the pillow rims exhibit isotopically light bulk-rock carbonate delta13C values, supporting their biogenic origin. Overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates from the pillow lavas suggest that microbial life colonized these subaqueous volcanic rocks soon after their eruption almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:15105498

  11. Space life support engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a moon station or a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance work stations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

  12. Space life support engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the first six months of work performed under the NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on two topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. A comprehensive study to develop software to simulate the dynamic operation of water reclamation systems in long-term closed-loop life support systems is being carried out as part of an overall program for the design of systems for a Mars voyage. This project is being done in parallel with a similar effort in the Department of Chemistry to develop durable accurate low-cost sensors for monitoring of trace chemical and biological species in recycled water supplies. Aspen-Plus software is being used on a group of high-performance workstations to develop the steady state descriptions for a number of existing technologies. Following completion, a dynamic simulation package will be developed for determining the response of such systems to changes in the metabolic needs of the crew and to upsets in system hardware performance.

  13. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Heidinger, Britt J.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-01

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P < 0.001); those individuals living longest had relatively long telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length. PMID:22232671

  14. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Sagfors, Agnes M.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Culley, Fiona J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalizations and around 66,000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes, which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarizing signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity toward dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarization. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV. This gives us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of protective vaccines

  15. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  16. Early life history: A computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Theoretical computer calculations, based in part on measurements of ‘young’ stars obtained with an orbiting telescope, may require a reexamination of some of the basic ideas about the composition of the earth's early atmosphere and the origin of life. According to Joel S. Levine, atmospheric geophysicist at the Langley Research Center, ‘the overwhelming majority of chemical evolution experiments since the first in 1952 may have been conducted with the wrong atmospheric mixture.’Astronomical measurements indicate that considerably more ultraviolet (UV) radiation may have been emitted by the young sun in comparison to that emitted by the present sun. Therefore, high levels of such radiation from the young sun, potentially harmful to life, would have been striking the earth at the very time life was being formed.Recent photochemical calculations by Levine and others at Langley state that at the time complex organic molecules (the precursors of living systems) were first formed from atmospheric gases the earth's atmosphere was not composed primarily of methane, ammonia, and hydrogen, as was previously supposed; instead, it was composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor, all resulting from volcanic activity. The calculations indicate that both methane and ammonia were extremely short-lived and that such an atmosphere was photochemically unstable if it existed at all.

  17. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: Early life conditions and later-life mortality

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Norton, Maria C.; Hollingshaus, Michael S.; Mineau, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child’s, adolescent’s, or even young adult’s life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring’s marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent’s remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages. PMID:24530028

  18. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-03-18

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  19. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  20. The lifespan consequences of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri

    2012-07-16

    Early life stress (ELS), an experience of severe stress due for example to parental loss, abuse or neglect during the childhood years, may have profound long-term effects on the individual's physiology and psychology. Here we review the findings of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-44 (n=13,345), of whom approximately 14% were temporarily separated from both their parents due to child evacuations in World War II. The children were evacuated from Finland, unaccompanied by their parents, to other countries in Scandinavia (Sweden and Denmark) at the average age of 4.7 years (SD=2.4 years) and for an average period of 1.7 years (SD=1.0 years). Information on these separations for each member of the HBCS was derived from the Finnish National Archives. We found significant effects of ELS on psychiatric morbidity and mortality, intellectual ability, stress reactivity, reproductive history, and inter-generational social mobility. PMID:22079583

  1. Four educational programs in Space Life Sciences.

    PubMed

    Luttges, M W; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1994-01-01

    Four different educational programs impacting Space Life Sciences are described: the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) Program, the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) Program, and the NASA Graduate Research Fellow Program. Each program makes somewhat different demands on the students engaged in them. Each program, at the University of Colorado, involves Space Life Sciences training. While the Graduate Student Research Fellow and NSCORT Programs are discipline oriented, the Advanced Design and CCDS Programs are focused on design, technologies and applications. Clearly, the "training paradigms" differ for these educational endeavors. But, these paradigms can be made to mutually facilitate enthusiasm and motivation. Discipline-oriented academic programs, ideally, must be flexible enough to accommodate the emergent cross-disciplinary needs of Space Life Sciences students. Models for such flexibility and resultant student performance levels are discussed based upon actual academic and professional records. PMID:11537954

  2. Cortical Reorganization following Injury Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Artzi, Moran; Shiran, Shelly Irene; Weinstein, Maya; Myers, Vicki; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Schertz, Mitchell; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Miller, Elka; Gordon, Andrew M.; Green, Dido; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2016-01-01

    The brain has a remarkable capacity for reorganization following injury, especially during the first years of life. Knowledge of structural reorganization and its consequences following perinatal injury is sparse. Here we studied changes in brain tissue volume, morphology, perfusion, and integrity in children with hemiplegia compared to typically developing children, using MRI. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated reduced total cerebral volume, with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and reduced total white matter volumes, with no differences in total gray matter volume, compared to typically developing children. An increase in cortical thickness at the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion (CLH) was detected in motor and language areas, which may reflect compensation for the gray matter loss in the lesion area or retention of ipsilateral pathways. In addition, reduced cortical thickness, perfusion, and surface area were detected in limbic areas. Increased CSF volume and precentral cortical thickness and reduced white matter volume were correlated with worse motor performance. Brain reorganization of the gray matter within the CLH, while not necessarily indicating better outcome, is suggested as a response to neuronal deficits following injury early in life. PMID:27298741

  3. Early life nutrition and neural plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Georgieff, Michael K.; Brunette, Katya E; Tran, Phu V

    2015-01-01

    The human brain undergoes a remarkable transformation during fetal life and the first postnatal years from a relatively undifferentiated but pluripotent organ to a highly specified and organized one. The outcome of this developmental maturation is highly dependent on a sequence of environmental exposures that can have either positive or negative influences on the ultimate plasticity of the adult brain. Many environmental exposures are beyond the control of the individual, but nutrition is not. An ever-increasing amount of research demonstrates that nutrition not only shapes the brain and affects its function during development, but that several nutrients early in life have profound and long-lasting effects on the brain. Nutrients have been shown to alter opening and closing of critical and sensitive periods of particular brain regions. This paper discusses the roles that various nutrients play in shaping the developing brain, concentrating specifically on recently explicated biological mechanisms by which particularly salient nutrients influence childhood and adult neural plasticity. PMID:25997762

  4. Children's Experiences in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Eeva

    This study explored children's experiences in early childhood education programs and their views about these programs. The quality of the experiences and the variation of the views were analyzed by program and by sex. An introduction emphasizes that research should center on the child's perspective because modern early childhood education trusts…

  5. Illinois Early Childhood Program Expanded Matrix, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.

    This matrix provides information on eight early childhood programs offered in Illinois. Presented in grid form, the information can be compared across programs. The programs described are: (1) Head Start and Early Head Start; (2) Illinois Department of Children and Family Services child care; (3) Illinois Department of Human Services child care;…

  6. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

    2007-08-14

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  7. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  8. Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160885.html Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life Also increases chances of having end- ... incurable cancer helps patients cope and improves their quality of life, a new study shows. It also ...

  9. Early Learning: Program Quality in Early Childhood Education. Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, research shows that program quality is a major determinant in the achievement gains for young children who participate in early education programs. Teacher quality, in particular, is closely related to positive educational outcomes for preschool participants. Research shows that children in programs whose lead and supporting…

  10. Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

  11. Altered GABA Signaling in Early Life Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of seizures is particularly high in the early ages of life. The immaturity of inhibitory systems, such as GABA, during normal brain development and its further dysregulation under pathological conditions that predispose to seizures have been speculated to play a major role in facilitating seizures. Seizures can further impair or disrupt GABAA signaling by reshuffling the subunit composition of its receptors or causing aberrant reappearance of depolarizing or hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor currents. Such effects may not result in epileptogenesis as frequently as they do in adults. Given the central role of GABAA signaling in brain function and development, perturbation of its physiological role may interfere with neuronal morphology, differentiation, and connectivity, manifesting as cognitive or neurodevelopmental deficits. The current GABAergic antiepileptic drugs, while often effective for adults, are not always capable of stopping seizures and preventing their sequelae in neonates. Recent studies have explored the therapeutic potential of chloride cotransporter inhibitors, such as bumetanide, as adjunctive therapies of neonatal seizures. However, more needs to be known so as to develop therapies capable of stopping seizures while preserving the age- and sex-appropriate development of the brain. PMID:21826277

  12. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew Aaron; van Haren, Simon Daniël; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at term delivery than in adults, and lower still at preterm delivery. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ontogeny of plasma factors can be viewed in the context of a lower effectiveness of immune responses to infection and immunization in early life, which may be influenced by the striking neonatal deficiency of complement system proteins or enhanced neonatal production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, among other ontogenic differences. Accordingly, we survey here a number of soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function, particularly direct innate interaction and skewing of adaptive lymphocyte activity in response to infectious microorganisms and adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:25309541

  13. Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

  14. Life Management Skills. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a life management skills program. Program content is presented first. A curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content, laboratory activities, special notes, major course…

  15. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  16. Early Childhood Programs for the Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Office for Regional Resource Centers, Lexington, KY.

    Reference material obtained from responses to questionnaires is presented on 25 early childhood programs for severely handicapped children. Each program report consists of components which include a program abstract; program summary; identification and screening procedures; diagnostic procedures; prescriptive procedures; child progress evaluation;…

  17. 77 FR 16551 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY... Register (75 FR 24450), we published an interim final regulation with comment period, implementing the... timeframe by which plan sponsors participating in the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) are...

  18. 78 FR 23936 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY... Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to establish the temporary Early Retiree Reinsurance Program.... In the May 5, 2010 Federal Register (75 FR 24450), we published an interim final regulation...

  19. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  20. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696

  1. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  2. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9–11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28–73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further. PMID:26811913

  3. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

  4. Space Life Support Engineering Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the second year of research relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. Emphasis was directed toward concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis in an effort to begin optimizing the system needed for water purification. Four appendices are attached. The first covers the ASPEN modeling of the closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) and its thermodynamic analysis. The second is a report on the dynamic model development for water regulation in humans. The third regards the development of an interactive computer-based model for determining exercise limitations. The fourth attachment is an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an ECLSS.

  5. Alteration of somatosensory response in adulthood by early life stress.

    PubMed

    Takatsuru, Yusuke; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is well-known as a critical risk factor for mental and cognitive disorders in adulthood. Such disorders are accompanied by altered neuro- (synapto-) genesis and gene expression. Because psychosomatic disorders induced by early life stress (e.g., physical and/or sexual abuse, and neglect) have become a socio-economic problem, it is very important to clarify the mechanisms underlying these changes. However, despite of intensive clinical and animal studies, such mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Although the disturbance of glucocorticoid and glutamate homeostasis by stress has been well-documented, it has not yet been clarified whether such disturbance by early life stress persists for life. Furthermore, since previous studies have focused on the detection of changes in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, it has not been clarified whether early life stress induced changes in the sensory/motor system. Thus, in this review, we introduce recent studies on functional/structural changes in the somatosensory cortex induced by early life stress. We believe that this review provides new insights into the functional alteration of the somatosensory system induced by early life stress. Such information may have clinical relevance in terms of providing effective therapeutic interventions to early life stressed individuals. PMID:26041988

  6. Alteration of somatosensory response in adulthood by early life stress

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuru, Yusuke; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is well-known as a critical risk factor for mental and cognitive disorders in adulthood. Such disorders are accompanied by altered neuro- (synapto-) genesis and gene expression. Because psychosomatic disorders induced by early life stress (e.g., physical and/or sexual abuse, and neglect) have become a socio-economic problem, it is very important to clarify the mechanisms underlying these changes. However, despite of intensive clinical and animal studies, such mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Although the disturbance of glucocorticoid and glutamate homeostasis by stress has been well-documented, it has not yet been clarified whether such disturbance by early life stress persists for life. Furthermore, since previous studies have focused on the detection of changes in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, it has not been clarified whether early life stress induced changes in the sensory/motor system. Thus, in this review, we introduce recent studies on functional/structural changes in the somatosensory cortex induced by early life stress. We believe that this review provides new insights into the functional alteration of the somatosensory system induced by early life stress. Such information may have clinical relevance in terms of providing effective therapeutic interventions to early life stressed individuals. PMID:26041988

  7. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  8. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  9. Early-life Origins of Lifecycle Well-being: Research and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the lifecycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the lifecycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socio-economic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the U.S. are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

  10. Bilingual Education in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys literature of research based on several early childhood bilingual education programs and guidelines. Common findings of each are outlined. It also includes a case study of instructional discourse in teaching language minority kindergarten children. (JL)

  11. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  12. Early-life exposure to high-fat diet may predispose rats to gender-specific hepatic fat accumulation by programming Pepck expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Huan; Cui, Hemiao; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) produces phosphoenolpyruvate during glyceroneogenesis. We previously demonstrated that a high-fat diet during pregnancy induced Pepck mRNA expression in neonatal rat pups, which is characterized by histone modifications in specific regions of the gene (Strakovsky RS, Zhang X, Zhou D, Pan YX. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats. The Journal of Physiology 2011;589:2707-17). In the present study, we investigated whether these alterations persistent in adult offspring. Dams were fed either control or high-fat diet throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring were placed on control diet after weaning, generating C/C and HF/C groups. Liver was collected at 12 weeks of age. Hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) level was increased in both genders, but fat accumulation occurred only in liver of female offspring in HF/C group. This was accompanied by a significant increase of Pepck and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) mRNA expression in only female liver. The induction of Pepck gene expression in females was associated with increased dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 level in multiple regions of the gene. Meanwhile, acetylated histone H3 and trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 were induced at a specific coding region in HF/C, accompanied by decreased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 level at the promoter of female offspring. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet programs Pepck expression through histone modifications in adult female offspring. Persistent Pepck induction in females may contribute to increased triglyceride synthesis, together with induced Fasn expression and NADH levels, which may lead to increased fat deposition in a gender-specific manner. PMID:25716581

  13. The early evolution of life: solution to Darwin's dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of Precambrian fossils indicate that life on Earth originated earlier than assumed, microscopic life was prevalent in the Precambrian Eon, the tempo and mode of evolution during the Precambrian period were different from other periods, and that only the Precambrian fossil record can be used as evidence of early life. Implications for future research include directing the search for the origin of life away from the geological record, modification of hypotheses about molecular change, use of Precambrian microfossils in dating younger geological units, and progress in defining the nature of major events in early evolution.

  14. Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

    2011-01-01

    Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

  15. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  16. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. PMID:26385447

  17. Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Dafne M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Zorrilla Zubilete, María A

    2016-07-01

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress during the first years of life has been shown to have profound effects on the growth and development of an adult individual. There are evidences demonstrating that stressful experiences during gestation or in early life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental disorders. Early-life stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and the associated neurochemical reactions following glucocorticoid release are accompanied by a rapid physiological response. An excessive response may affect the developing brain resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. This article reviews the data from experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming. We think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders. PMID:26774789

  18. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    ScienceCinema

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2009-09-01

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  19. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2006-02-08

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  20. Life Planning Education: A Youth Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the curriculum guide for Life Planning Education, a youth development program that focuses on two of the most important tasks teenagers face: preparing for the world of work and dealing with their own sexual and reproductive development, feelings, and behaviors. These two tasks are integrated in the curriculum in a way that…

  1. The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3 years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

  2. NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  3. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-05-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather indicators, and demographic indicators. We argue that these features can only affect high-age mortality by way of the individual early-life conditions. Moreover, they are exogenous from the individual point of view, which is a methodological advantage compared to the use of unique characteristics of the newborn individual or his or her family or household as early-life indicators. We collected national annual time-series data on the above-mentioned indicators, and we combine these to the individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births in 1873-1906. The empirical analyses (mostly based on the estimation of duration models) indicate a significant negative causal effect of economic conditions early in life on individual mortality rates at higher ages. If the national economic performance in the year of birth exceeds its trend value (i.e., if the business cycle is favorable) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life. PMID:19278762

  4. [Screening programs for early detection of psychosis?].

    PubMed

    Cougnard, Audrey; Verdoux, Hélène

    2006-03-01

    Programs for the early detection of psychosis are currently underway in most developed countries. Their aim is to improve the outcome of subjects with psychotic disorders, but neither their feasibility nor their usefulness was assessed before their implementation. The postulate underlying these programs - that early treatment improves the prognosis of psychosis - has not yet been demonstrated. The absence of effective and adequately specific screening tests implies that a substantial number of the subjects evaluated may be incorrectly diagnosed with and treated for psychoses (false positives). Development of facilities specializing in the assessment and care of subjects with early psychosis often implies a decrease in funding for facilities caring for patients with chronic psychoses. Educational and information campaigns aimed at the general public and health professionals, on the other hand, may help reduce the stigma associated with psychosis and improve access to care for subjects in early stages of psychosis. Risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of programs for the early detection of psychosis must be evaluated before promoting their development. PMID:16550146

  5. Early Life Socioeconomic Circumstance and Late Life Brain Hyperintensities – A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alison D.; McNeil, Christopher J.; Salarirad, Sima; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Staff, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    socioeconomic circumstance is similar to and independent from that of hypertension. Conclusions Childhood socioeconomic circumstance predicts the burden of brain white matter hyperintensities aged 68 years. The mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, but may act through fetal and/or early life programming of cerebrovascular disease. Future work to understand this vulnerability will inform strategies to reduce dementia and stroke. PMID:24558456

  6. The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Southam, G.

    Although the locations where the earliest traces of life can be studied are few and far between (Isua, 3.8 Ga; Pilbara and Barberton, 3.5-3.3 Ga), the life that existed in the Early Archaean life has left a wealth of testimony. Structural and chemical fossils found in Early Arcahean `habitats' demonstrate that the biosphere was already in an advanced evolutionary state, i.e., much of the strata preserved from this period appears to have been colonised by morphologically and biochemically diverse bacteria. The Early-Mid Archaean microorganisms were morphologically similar to modern organisms and behaved in the same way, building colonies, biofilms and mats and interacting directly with their immediate substrate and with each other (in consortia). Their metabolic processes included chemolithotrophy, possibly methanogenesis and possibly anoxygenic photosynthesis. Early life was diverse and included thermophilic, acid-tolerant, halo-tolerant to halophilic, and radiation resistant species. With one exception, the traces of early life are subtle, on the scale of tens to hundreds of µm although, where environmental conditions were stable and quiet enough for their development, microbial mats on sediment surfaces could contribute to the formation of stromatolites of about 10 cm in height. The diversity, relative level of evolution and widespread distribution of life by 3.5 Ga implies that it must have evolved much earlier, possibly even before or during the period of late heavy bombardment). However, no record of its appearance and early evolution remains on Earth. Given the conditions on early Mars were generally similar to those on early Earth, i.e., habitable, the Southern Highlands of Mars could potentially host this missing record. Life on early Mars would probably have been similarly subtle in its expression, although there is a possibility of "stumbling" across small macroscopic stromatolites. If life still exists on the planet today, it's in the subsurface and its

  7. The California State University Early Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Ruth E.; Zitzer-Comfort, Carol; Quirk, Matthew; Alexander, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) requires entering freshmen to be proficient in English reading and writing, as demonstrated on proficiency measures. Currently, approximately 46 percent of incoming college freshmen need remediation in English reading and writing. To assist these students, CSU instituted an Early Assessment Program (EAP),…

  8. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  9. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  10. Early Earth and early life: an extreme environment and extremophiles - application to the search for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, Frances; Brack, André; Barbier, Bernard; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, A.

    2002-11-01

    The early Earth was an extreme environment compared to the present day Earth: oceans with probably higher salinity and lower Ph, evaporitic conditions in the littoral environment, temperatures 70-80°C, little or no O2 in the atmosphere, pervasive volcanism and hydrothermal activity, and peak bolide activity between 4.0-3.85 b.y. ago. The oldest fossil evidence from 3.45 b.y. old sediments shows that life was widespread and thriving in and around hydrothermal vents and in evaporitic, littoral environments, exposed to high UV radiation. Given these conditions, life must have been extremophile by definition. Although there are strong dissimilarities between the geological evolution of early Mars and early Earth, from a microbial point of view, the environmental conditions on both planets were very similar, although the wider range in temperatures on Mars may have made a wider diversity possible. Early Earth and early life therefore represent an excellent analogue for the study of potential early Martian life.

  11. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  12. Evaluation of the Meaning of Life Program in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; White, Gwyne W.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 academic year, 10 schools participated in the Meaning of Life educational program, an adaption of the popular U.S. Laws of Life program. The program sought to encourage each participant to develop a personal approach to finding meaning in life. To evaluate the success of the program, we conducted a study to compare measures of…

  13. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD. PMID:26136145

  14. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Holgate, Joan Y; Bartlett, Selena E

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual's brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD. PMID:26136145

  15. Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and the Prevalence of Breast Cancer in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anishkin, Andriy; Shen, Yifang

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms linking early-life social environment and breast cancer remains limited. We explore direct and indirect effects of early-life socioeconomic status (SES) on breast cancer prevalence in later life. Using 50-year data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 4,275) and structural equation modeling, we found a negative direct effect of early-life SES, indicating that women from higher-SES family background had lower breast cancer prevalence than women from lower-SES families. Additionally, early-life SES has a positive indirect effect on breast cancer via women's adult SES and age at first birth. Were it not for their higher SES in adulthood and delayed childbearing, women from higher-SES families of origin would have had lower breast cancer prevalence than women from lower-SES families. Yet, early-life SES is associated positively with adult SES and age at first birth, and women's higher adult SES and delayed childbearing are related to higher breast cancer prevalence. PMID:22936839

  16. Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and Mortality in Later Life: An Integration of Four Life-Course Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we examine (a) how socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 affects all-cause mortality at ages 54–72, and (b) whether the effect of early-life SES is consistent with the critical period, accumulation of risks, social mobility, and pathway models. We also explore gender differences in the effect of early-life SES and life-course mechanisms. Method. Participants (N = 6,547) were surveyed in 1957, 1975, and 1993, with vital status established until 2011. We combine discrete-time survival analysis with structural equation modeling. SES and health behaviors are modeled as latent factors. Results. Early-life SES affects mortality indirectly via status attainment and health behaviors in adulthood and midlife. This finding is contrary to the critical period and consistent with the pathway model. Persistent disadvantage at three life stages is a strong risk factor for mortality, thus, supporting the accumulation of risks. Moreover, the mortality risk of individuals who experienced downward socioeconomic mobility is comparable to their peers with persistent disadvantage. Discussion. This study highlights the complexity of interrelated life-course processes underlying the effect of early-life SES on mortality in later life. PMID:24496607

  17. W88 integrated circuit shelf life program

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.M.; Anderson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The W88 Integrated Circuit Shelf Life Program was created to monitor the long term performance, reliability characteristics, and technological status of representative WR ICs manufactured by the Allied Signal Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation (AMO) and by Harris Semiconductor Custom Integrated Circuits Division. Six types of ICs were used. A total of 272 ICs entered two storage temperature environments. Electrical testing and destructive physical analysis were completed in 1995. During each year of the program, the ICs were electrically tested and samples were selected for destructive physical analysis (DPA). ICs that failed electrical tests or DPA criteria were analyzed. Fifteen electrical failures occurred, with two dominant failure modes: electrical overstress (EOS) damage involving the production test programs and electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage during analysis. Because of the extensive handling required during multi-year programs like this, it is not unusual for EOS and ESD failures to occur even though handling and testing precautions are taken. The clustering of the electrical test failures in a small subset of the test operations supports the conclusion that the test operation itself was responsible for many of the failures and is suspected to be responsible for the others. Analysis of the electrical data for the good ICs found no significant degradation trends caused by the storage environments. Forty-six ICs were selected for DPA with findings primarily in two areas: wire bonding and die processing. The wire bonding and die processing findings are not surprising since these technology conditions had been documented during manufacturing and were determined to present acceptable risk. The current reliability assessment of the W88 stockpile assemblies employing these and related ICs is reinforced by the results of this shelf life program. Data from this program will aid future investigation of 4/3 micron or MNOS IC technology failure modes.

  18. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life. PMID:27623622

  19. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  20. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  1. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  2. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  3. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  4. Imprinting: When Early Life Memories Make Food Smell Bad.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; Alkema, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    A recent study has found that pathogen exposure early in the life of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans leads to a long-lasting aversion that requires distinct sets of neurons for the formation and retrieval of the imprinted memory. PMID:27166694

  5. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  6. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  7. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  8. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  9. Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

  10. From Early Intervention to Early Childhood Programs: Timeline for Early Successful Transitions (TEST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandes, Joyce A.; Ormsbee, Christine K.; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2007-01-01

    More than one million transitions between early intervention services and early childhood programs are facilitated annually for youngsters with special needs. To be successful, these transitions require planning and ongoing communication between all parties. This article substantiates the need for a timeline/checklist and provides a model of…

  11. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  12. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  14. DNA methylation, early life environment, and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Schneper, Lisa M.; Notterman, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics, and especially DNA methylation, have recently become provocative biological explanations for early-life environmental effects on later health. Despite the large increase in papers on the topic over the last few years, many questions remain with regards to the biological feasibility of this mechanism and the strength of the evidence to date. In this review, we examine the literature on early-life effects on epigenetic patterns, with special emphasis on social environmental influences. First, we review the basic biology of epigenetic modification of DNA and debate the role of early-life stressful, protective, and positive environments on gene-specific, system-specific, and whole-genome epigenetic patterns later in life. Second, we compare the epigenetic literatures of both humans and other animals and review the research linking epigenetic patterns to health in order to complete the mechanistic pathway. Third, we discuss physical environmental and social environmental effects, which have to date, generally not been jointly considered. Finally, we close with a discussion of the current state of the area’s research, its future direction, and its potential use in pediatric health. PMID:26466079

  15. Early-Life Exposure to Clostridium leptum Causes Pulmonary Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Qiao, Hong-mei; Yin, Jia-ning; Gao, Yang; Ju, Yang-hua; Li, Ya-nan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low Clostridium leptum levels are a risk factor for the development of asthma. C. leptum deficiency exacerbates asthma; however, the impact of early-life C. leptum exposure on cesarean-delivered mice remains unclear. This study is to determine the effects of early-life C. leptum exposure on asthma development in infant mice. Methods We exposed infant mice to C. leptum (fed-CL) and then induced asthma using the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). Results Fed-CL increased regulatory T (Treg) cells in cesarean-delivered mice compared with vaginally delivered mice. Compared with OVA-exposed mice, mice exposed to C. leptum + OVA did not develop the typical asthma phenotype, which includes airway hyper-responsiveness, cell infiltration, and T helper cell subset (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17) inflammation. Early-life C. leptum exposure induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung concurrent with increased Treg cells, resulting in the inhibition of Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 cell responses. Conclusion These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby C. leptum exposure modulates adaptive immunity and leads to failure to develop asthma upon OVA sensitization later in life. PMID:26565810

  16. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  17. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function. PMID:21697884

  18. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries. PMID:23332566

  19. Searching for Life on Early Mars: Lessons from the Pilbara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.

  20. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  1. Microbial programming of health and disease starts during fetal life.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Petya T; Kim, Ji-Sun; Scott, James A; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2015-12-01

    The pioneer microbiota of the neonatal gut are essential for gut maturation, and metabolic and immunologic programming. Recent research has shown that early bacterial colonization may impact the occurrence of disease later in life (microbial programming). Despite early conflicting evidence, it has long been considered that the womb is a sterile environment and human microbial colonization begins at birth. In the last few years, several findings have reiterated the presence of microbes in infant first stool (meconium) and pointed to the existence of in utero microbial colonization of the infant gut. The dominant bacterial taxa detected in meconium specimens belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family (Escherichia genus) and lactic acid bacteria (notably members of the genera Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus). Maternal atopy promotes dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in newborn meconium, which in turn may lead to respiratory problems in the infant. This microbial interaction with the host immune system may in fact, originate during fetal life. Our review evaluates the evidence for an intrauterine origin of meconium microbiota, their composition and influences, and potential clinical implications on infant health. PMID:26663884

  2. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  3. Personal Well-Being of Gifted Students Following Participation in an Early College-Entrance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boazman, Janette; Sayler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this study, life satisfaction and its correlates were explored through analysis of the experiences and psychological traits of highly gifted students who were accelerated into an early college-entrance program. Happiness, fulfillment in life, assuredness, and good dispositions are constructs that point toward positive character development and…

  4. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults. PMID:15065927

  5. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  6. Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard D; Kinney, Hannah C; Willinger, Marian

    2016-06-01

    In March 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop entitled "Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood: New Opportunities." Its objective was to advance efforts to understand and ultimately prevent sudden deaths in early life, by considering their pathogenesis as a potential continuum with some commonalities in biological origins or pathways. A second objective of this meeting was to highlight current issues surrounding the classification of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and the implications of variations in the use of the term "SIDS" in forensic practice, and pediatric care and research. The proceedings reflected the most current knowledge and understanding of the origins and biology of vulnerability to sudden unexpected death, and its environmental triggers. Participants were encouraged to consider the application of new technologies and "omics" approaches to accelerate research. The major advances in delineating the intrinsic vulnerabilities to sudden death in early life have come from epidemiologic, neural, cardiac, metabolic, genetic, and physiologic research, with some commonalities among cases of unexplained stillbirth, SIDS, and sudden unexplained death in childhood observed. It was emphasized that investigations of sudden unexpected death are inconsistent, varying by jurisdiction, as are the education, certification practices, and experience of death certifiers. In addition, there is no practical consensus on the use of "SIDS" as a determination in cause of death. Major clinical, forensic, and scientific areas are identified for future research. PMID:27230764

  7. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  8. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  9. The Early Earth vs. the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.; Amend, J. P.; Zolotov, M. Y.

    Irrefutable evidence on how life originated does not exist. Hypotheses regarding its origin, however, are plentiful. Those that have prevailed for most of this century require an atmosphere dominated by ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4), organic synthesis driven by energy sources that are external to the hydrosphere/lithosphere, and a first organism that makes its living by consuming the resulting supply of organic compounds. Diverse lines of evidence have been amassed over the last several decades that refute these particular origin of life hypotheses. For example, geologic evidence, atmospheric photochemistry, and current constraints on the formation of terrestrial planets indicate that a plausible early atmosphere was not dominated by NH3 and CH4, but rather by nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, the location, duration, and quantity of external energy sources are not particularly predictable or reliable, and are not generally effective in driving the reduction reactions required to make organic compounds from N2 and CO2. Finally, revolutions in molecular biology have led to the observation that organisms that synthesize biomass from inorganic starting materials like CO2 populate the deepest and shortest branches on the universal phylogenetic tree of life on Earth. These fundamental developments have permitted new and more geologically consistent ideas about the emergence of life. We argue that plausible hypotheses of the emergence of life on Earth call for a network of energetically favorable gradual synthesis processes in response to normal geologic forces. Inescapable chemical disequilibrium states, established and at least partially maintained in the hydrosphere at or near the dynamic surface of early Earth, can provide the energy for organic and biomolecule synthesis from inorganic source materials. Geologic conditions conducive to the formation of aqueous organic compounds, including precursors to complex biopolymers such as nucleic acids and

  10. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  11. End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

    2010-01-01

    A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life…

  12. Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

  13. Early-life experience, epigenetics, and the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent-offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  14. Endocrine regulation of gut maturation in early life in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thymann, T

    2016-07-01

    After birth, the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings. The intestine is a particularly sensitive organ after birth, as it must adapt acutely to enteral nutrition and microbial colonization. Likewise, during the weaning phase, the intestine must adapt to new diet types. Both critical phases are associated with high morbidity. This review focuses on the endocrine changes occurring around birth and weaning. There are a number of endocrine adaptations in late gestation and early postnatal life that are under influence of development stage and environmental factors such as diet. The review discusses general endocrine changes in perinatal life but specifically focuses on the role of glucagon-like peptide-2. This gut-derived hormone plays a key role in development and function of the intestine in early life. PMID:27345327

  15. Early-Life Experience, Epigenetics, and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent–offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent–offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  16. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  17. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Kober, Olivia I.; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  18. Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    PubMed

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J

    1993-01-01

    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school. PMID:12317893

  19. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  20. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  1. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  2. Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  3. Space life sciences: Programs and projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

  4. Mortality modeling of early detection programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra J; Zelen, Marvin

    2008-06-01

    Consider a group of subjects who are offered an opportunity to receive a sequence of periodic special examinations for the purpose of diagnosing a chronic disease earlier relative to usual care. The mortality for the early detection group is to be compared with a group receiving usual care. Benefit is reflected in a potential reduction in mortality. This article develops a general probability model that can be used to predict cumulative mortality for each of these groups. The elements of the model assume (i) a four-state progressive disease model in which a subject may be in a disease-free state (or a disease state that cannot be detected), preclinical disease state (capable of being diagnosed by a special exam), clinical state (diagnosis by usual care), and a death state; (ii) age-dependent transitions into the states; (iii) age-dependent examination sensitivity; (iv) age-dependent sojourn time in each state; and (v) the distribution of disease stages on diagnosis conditional on modality of detection. The model may be used to (i) compare mortality rates for different screening schedules; (ii) explore potential benefit of subpopulations; and (iii) compare relative reductions in disease-specific mortality due to advances and dissemination of both treatment and early detection screening programs. PMID:17725809

  5. Early-life soy exposure and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Rogan, Walter J; Adair, Linda; Edwards, Lloyd J; Westreich, Daniel; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant-feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early-life feeding regimes, categorised as primarily breast, early formula, early soy and late soy, were defined using infant-feeding questionnaires administered during infancy. For this analysis, age at menarche was assessed using questionnaires administered approximately annually between ages 8 and 14.5. Eligible subjects were limited to term, singleton, White females. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at menarche and risk of menarche over the study period. The present analysis included 2920 girls. Approximately 2% of mothers reported that soy products were introduced into the infant diet at or before 4 months of age (early soy). The median age at menarche [interquartile range (IQR)] in the study sample was 153 months [144-163], approximately 12.8 years. The median age at menarche among early soy-fed girls was 149 months (12.4 years) [IQR, 140-159]. Compared with girls fed non-soy-based infant formula or milk (early formula), early soy-fed girls were at 25% higher risk of menarche throughout the course of follow-up (hazard ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.71]). Our results also suggest that girls fed soy products in early infancy may have an increased risk of menarche specifically in early adolescence. These findings may be the observable manifestation of mild endocrine-disrupting effects of soy isoflavone exposure. However, our study is limited by few soy-exposed subjects and is not designed to assess biological mechanisms. Because soy formula use is common in some populations, this subtle association with menarche warrants more in

  6. Evaluation of the Early Alert Program, Spring 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan; Hagen, Peter F.

    This report evaluates the Early Alert program at Cuesta College (California). The report is divided into four main sections: services accessed, accessibility, actions taken as a result of receiving an Early Alert letter, and timing and utility of the Early Alert program. These are followed by the demography of the respondents, a brief background…

  7. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B.; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  8. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-06-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  9. Student's Life-Style Classifications: Key to Improved Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1986-01-01

    Classifies student life-styles as entrepreneurs, superiors, regulars, suppliants, marginals, and underclass. Identifies demographic and attitudinal differences among these groups and discusses implications for programming decisions in adult literacy programs. (SK)

  10. Planetary Perspective on Life on Early Mars and the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Zahnle, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of early life on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.

  11. Programming of cardiovascular disease across the life-course.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Heather L; Ozanne, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting both developed and developing countries. Whilst it is well recognized that our risk of CVD can be determined by the interaction between our genetics and lifestyle, this only partly explains the variability at the population level. Based on these well-known risk factors, for many years, intervention and primary prevention strategies have focused on modifying lifestyle factors in adulthood. However, research shows that our risk of CVD can be pre-determined by our early life environment and this area of research is known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. The aim of this review is to evaluate our current understanding of mechanisms underlying the programming of CVD. This article is part of a special issue entitled CV Aging. PMID:25510678

  12. Early life mortality and height in Indian states.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  13. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    PubMed Central

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  15. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    PubMed

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  16. Early life mortality and height in Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  17. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…

  18. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  19. Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C T; Hallett, Michael T; Meaney, Michael J; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-10-16

    Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with early life experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin α, β, and γ gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to early life experience. PMID:23045659

  20. Population resilience to catastrophic mortality events during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-07-01

    Catastrophic mortality events that drastically reduce the abundance of a population or a particular life stage can have long-term ecological and economic effects, and are of great concern in species conservation and management. Severe die-offs may be caused by natural catastrophes such as disease outbreaks and extreme climates, or human-caused disturbances such as toxic spills. Forecasting potential impacts of such disturbances is difficult and highly uncertain due to unknown future conditions, including population status and environmental conditions at the time of impact. Here, we present a framework for quantifying the range of potential, population-level effects of catastrophic events based on a hindcasting approach. A dynamic population model with Bayesian parameter estimation is used to simulate the impact of severe (50-99%) mortality events during the early life stages of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), an abundant marine fish population of high economic value. We quantify the impact of such die-offs in terms of subsequent changes in population biomass and harvest through direct comparison of simulated and historical trends, and estimate the duration of the impact as a measure of population resilience. Our results demonstrate strong resilience to catastrophic events that affect early life stages owing to density dependence in survival and a broad population age structure. Yet, while population recovery is. relatively fast, losses in harvest and economic value can be substantial. Future research efforts should focus on long-term and indirect effects via food web interactions in order to better understand the ecological and economic ramifications of catastrophic mortality events. PMID:26485960

  1. Maternal and genetic factors determine early life telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Muhammad; Bensch, Staffan; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In a broad range of species—including humans—it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and environmental influences on telomere length variation. These studies have been based on (i) telomere lengths measured at different time points in different individuals, despite the fact that telomere length changes over life, and (ii) parent–offspring regression techniques, which do not enable differentiation between genetic and parental components of inheritance. To overcome these drawbacks, in our study of a songbird, the great reed warbler, we have analysed telomere length measured early in life in both parents and offspring and applied statistical models (so-called ‘animal models') that are based on long-term pedigree data. Our results showed a significant heritability of telomere length on the maternal but not on the paternal side, and that the mother's age was positively correlated with their offspring's telomere length. Furthermore, the pedigree-based analyses revealed a significant heritability and an equally large maternal effect. Our study demonstrates strong maternal influence on telomere length and future studies now need to elucidate possible underlying factors, including which types of maternal effects are involved. PMID:25621325

  2. The Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that ‘stout’ body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

  4. Early-life influences on obesity: from preconception to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Krawetz, Stephen A; Rizzo, Nico S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Szymanski, Linda M; Barkin, Shari; Yatkine, Ann; Waterland, Robert A; Mennella, Julie A; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Krebs, Nancy F; Young, Bridget E; Wardle, Jane; Wrann, Christiane D; Kral, John G

    2015-07-01

    The double burden of under- and overnutrition profoundly affects human health globally. According to the World Health Organization, obesity and diabetes rates have almost doubled worldwide since 1980, and, in 2011, more than 40 million children under 5 years of age were overweight. Ecologic factors, parental genetics and fitness, and the intrauterine environment significantly influence the likelihood of offspring developing the dysmetabolic diathesis of obesity. This report examines the effects of these factors, including preconception, intrauterine and postnatal energy balance affecting programming of transgenerational transmission, and development of chronic diseases later in life-in particular, diabesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26037603

  5. The Early Impact Program: An Early Intervention and Prevention Program for Children and Families At-Risk of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry

    2007-01-01

    The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…

  6. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations. PMID:26528276

  7. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations. PMID:26528276

  8. Early Life Trauma and Attachment: Immediate and Enduring Effects on Neurobehavioral and Stress Axis Development

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother–infant interactions. This stimulation provides “hidden regulators” of pups’ behavioral, physiological, and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology, and increase risk for later-life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant-attachment relationships program later-life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired-odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning) and rearing with an abusive mother that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later-life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver. PMID:24711804

  9. Early-life stress impacts the developing hippocampus and primes seizure occurrence: cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed. PMID:24574961

  10. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Understanding Brain Development in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination. PMID:25559117

  12. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  13. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  14. Life cycle cost based program decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, James S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.

  15. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  16. Early-Life Stress and Neurometabolites of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) – an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity – using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N = 10) or control rearing conditions (N = 9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

  17. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  18. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  19. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  20. The Human Microbiome. Early Life Determinant of Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of new technologies to isolate and identify microbial genomes has markedly increased our understanding of the role of microbiomes in health and disease. The idea, first proposed as part of the hygiene hypothesis, that environmental microbes influence the developmental trajectories of the immune system in early life, has now been considerably extended and refined. The abundant microbiota present in mucosal surfaces, especially the gut, is actively selected by the host through complex receptor systems that respond differentially depending on the molecular patterns presented to mucosal cells. Germ-free mice are more likely to develop allergic airway inflammation and show alterations in normal motor control and anxiety. These effects can be reversed by neonatal microbial recolonization but remain unchanged if recolonization occurs in adults. What emerges from these recent studies is the discovery of a complex, major early environmental determinant of lifetime human phenotypes. To change the natural course of asthma, obesity, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, active manipulation of the extensive bacterial, phage, and fungal metagenomes present in mucosal surfaces may be required, specifically during the developing years. Domesticating the human microbiome and adapting it to our health needs may be a challenge akin to, but far more complex than, the one faced by humanity when a few dozen species of plants and animals were domesticated during the transition between hunter-gatherer and sedentary societies after the end of the Pleistocene era. PMID:24437411

  1. Neuroanatomical changes in a mouse model of early life neglect.

    PubMed

    Duque, Alvaro; Coman, Daniel; Carlyle, Becky C; Bordner, Kelly A; George, Elizabeth D; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hyder, Fahmeed; Simen, Arthur A

    2012-04-01

    Using a novel mouse model of early life neglect and abuse (ENA) based on maternal separation with early weaning, George et al. (BMC Neurosci 11:123, 2010) demonstrated behavioral abnormalities in adult mice, and Bordner et al. (Front Psychiatry 2(18):1-18, 2011) described concomitant changes in mRNA and protein expression. Using the same model, here we report neuroanatomical changes that include smaller brain size and abnormal inter-hemispheric asymmetry, decreases in cortical thickness, abnormalities in subcortical structures, and white matter disorganization and atrophy most severely affecting the left hemisphere. Because of the similarities between the neuroanatomical changes observed in our mouse model and those described in human survivors of ENA, this novel animal model is potentially useful for studies of human ENA too costly or cumbersome to be carried out in primates. Moreover, our current knowledge of the mouse genome makes this model particularly suited for targeted anatomical, molecular, and pharmacological experimentation not yet possible in other species. PMID:21984312

  2. Neuroanatomical changes in a mouse model of early life neglect

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Alvaro; Coman, Daniel; Carlyle, Becky C.; Bordner, Kelly A.; George, Elizabeth D.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2013-01-01

    Using a novel mouse model of early life neglect and abuse (ENA) based on maternal separation with early weaning, George et al. (BMC Neurosci 11:123, 2010) demonstrated behavioral abnormalities in adult mice, and Bordner et al. (Front Psychiatry 2(18):1–18, 2011) described concomitant changes in mRNA and protein expression. Using the same model, here we report neuroanatomical changes that include smaller brain size and abnormal inter-hemispheric asymmetry, decreases in cortical thickness, abnormalities in subcortical structures, and white matter disorganization and atrophy most severely affecting the left hemisphere. Because of the similarities between the neuroanatomical changes observed in our mouse model and those described in human survivors of ENA, this novel animal model is potentially useful for studies of human ENA too costly or cumbersome to be carried out in primates. Moreover, our current knowledge of the mouse genome makes this model particularly suited for targeted anatomical, molecular, and pharmacological experimentation not yet possible in other species. PMID:21984312

  3. The human microbiome. Early life determinant of health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando D

    2014-01-01

    The development of new technologies to isolate and identify microbial genomes has markedly increased our understanding of the role of microbiomes in health and disease. The idea, first proposed as part of the hygiene hypothesis, that environmental microbes influence the developmental trajectories of the immune system in early life, has now been considerably extended and refined. The abundant microbiota present in mucosal surfaces, especially the gut, is actively selected by the host through complex receptor systems that respond differentially depending on the molecular patterns presented to mucosal cells. Germ-free mice are more likely to develop allergic airway inflammation and show alterations in normal motor control and anxiety. These effects can be reversed by neonatal microbial recolonization but remain unchanged if recolonization occurs in adults. What emerges from these recent studies is the discovery of a complex, major early environmental determinant of lifetime human phenotypes. To change the natural course of asthma, obesity, and other chronic inflammatory conditions, active manipulation of the extensive bacterial, phage, and fungal metagenomes present in mucosal surfaces may be required, specifically during the developing years. Domesticating the human microbiome and adapting it to our health needs may be a challenge akin to, but far more complex than, the one faced by humanity when a few dozen species of plants and animals were domesticated during the transition between hunter-gatherer and sedentary societies after the end of the Pleistocene era. PMID:24437411

  4. Early Childhood Health--Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lawrence S.

    The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…

  5. An Exchange Program for Chinese and Canadian Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Glen

    1998-01-01

    Describes an exchange program for early childhood teachers established by the University of British Columbia and Soong Ching Ling Kindergarten in Shanghai. Briefly discusses how the cooperative program was initiated, the importance of recognizing cultural considerations in the program, and expected outcomes of the program. (TJQ)

  6. The effect of early-life education on later-life mortality.

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Taylor, Lowell J

    2015-12-01

    Many studies link cross-state variation in compulsory schooling laws to early-life educational attainment, thereby providing a plausible way to investigate the causal impact of education on various lifetime outcomes. We use this strategy to estimate the effect of education on older-age mortality of individuals born in the early twentieth century U.S. Our key innovation is to combine U.S. Census data and the complete Vital Statistics records to form precise mortality estimates by sex, birth cohort, and birth state. In turn we find that virtually all of the variation in these mortality rates is captured by cohort effects and state effects alone, making it impossible to reliably tease out any additional impact due to changing educational attainment induced by state-level changes in compulsory schooling. PMID:26340596

  7. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  8. Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

  9. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  10. First Steps: An Early Intervention Program for Antisocial Kindergartners. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; And Others

    This report describes an early intervention program for at-risk kindergartners who show the early signs of antisocial behavior patterns. The "First Steps" program consists of three modules that are designed to be used in concert with each other. These modules are: (1) a universal screening procedure that affords each kindergarten child an equal…

  11. Who Drops out of Early Head Start Home Visiting Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Peterson, Carla A.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Early Head Start home-based programs provide services through weekly home visits to families with children up to age 3, but families vary in how long they remain enrolled. In this study of 564 families in home-based Early Head Start programs, "dropping out" was predicted by specific variations in home visits and certain family…

  12. Early Head Start Relationships: Association with Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…

  13. Learning Comes to Life: An Active Learning Program for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen Meredith

    The High/Scope Institute for IDEAS began in the early 1960s as a summer camp program and is now a dynamic learning program for teens that emphasizes working with them in an environment which supports emotional, social, and intellectual development. The High/Scope model for adolescent programs is based on the following principles: (1) adolescents…

  14. Latent carcinogenicity of early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles E; Hester, Susan D; Chorley, Brian N; Carswell, Gleta; George, Michael H; Ward, William; Vallanat, Beena; Ren, Hongzu; Fisher, Anna; Lake, April D; Okerberg, Carlin V; Gaillard, Elias T; Moore, Tanya M; Deangelo, Anthony B

    2015-07-01

    Environmental exposures occurring early in life may have an important influence on cancer risk later in life. Here, we investigated carryover effects of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a small molecule analog of pyruvate with metabolic programming properties, on age-related incidence of liver cancer. The study followed a stop-exposure/promotion design in which 4-week-old male and female B6C3F1 mice received the following treatments: deionized water alone (dH2O, control); dH2O with 0.06% phenobarbital (PB), a mouse liver tumor promoter; or DCA (1.0, 2.0 or 3.5g/l) for 10 weeks followed by dH2O or PB (n = 20-30/group/sex). Pathology and molecular assessments were performed at 98 weeks of age. In the absence of PB, early-life exposure to DCA increased the incidence and number of hepatocellular tumors in male and female mice compared with controls. Significant dose trends were observed in both sexes. At the high dose level, 10 weeks of prior DCA treatment induced comparable effects (≥85% tumor incidence and number) to those seen after continuous lifetime exposure. Prior DCA treatment did not enhance or inhibit the carcinogenic effects of PB, induce persistent liver cytotoxicity or preneoplastic changes on histopathology or alter DNA sequence variant profiles within liver tumors compared with controls. Distinct changes in liver messenger RNA and micro RNA profiles associated with prior DCA treatment were not apparent at 98 weeks. Our findings demonstrate that early-life exposure to DCA may be as carcinogenic as life-long exposures, potentially via epigenetic-mediated effects related to cellular metabolism. PMID:25913432

  15. Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James A.; And Others

    Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on…

  16. Early-life exposure to substance abuse and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, A M

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic non-communicable disease that is driven by insulin resistance as a result of increasing obesity and decreasing activity levels that occur with increasing age. This disease generally develops after the age of 40, but it is now increasingly diagnosed in children and young adults. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that T2D can originate during early development. It has been repeatedly found that malnutrition during the gestational period can result in intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight, which in combination with postnatal catch-up growth may subsequently lead to the development of T2D. There is ample evidence that T2D may also be programmed by maternal substance abuse (the harmful use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs or alcohol) during pregnancy and/or lactation. The research activity in this field is currently mainly focused on the childhood health problems following prenatal exposures to substance abuse. The delayed programming effects on adult-onset disorders, including metabolic syndrome and T2D, however, have been reported only rarely. This review provides animal and human evidence that early-life exposure to substance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, may program not only childhood health outcomes but also life-long metabolic health status, including risk of T2D and related conditions. PMID:26077016

  17. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  18. Research Breathes New Life Into Senior Travel Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazey, Michael

    1986-01-01

    A survey of older citizens concerning travel interests revealed constraints to participation in a travel program. A description is given of how research on attitudes and life styles indicated ways in which these constraints could be lessened. (JD)

  19. Profiles of Children Served in Early Intervention Programs for Behavioral Disorders: Early Literacy and Behavioral Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra Lynn; Epstein, Michael H.; Nelson, Ron; Synhorst, Lori; Hurley, Kristin Duppong

    2006-01-01

    Special education legislation has placed an increased emphasis on early intervention programs for children at risk for early literacy delays and behavioral disorders. Given this trend, it is important to understand the characteristics of students identified and served in at-risk programs. This study presents the findings from a cluster analysis on…

  20. Data Collection and System Monitoring in Early Childhood Programs. Early Childhood Family Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P.

    Identifying the growing interest in early childhood programs and services, this paper offers practical guidelines for collecting accurate and useful information about early childhood services in a particular country or region, focusing on data collection and system monitoring. The paper discusses how programs develop out of policy decisions and…

  1. Trends in the use of preconditioning to hypoxia for early prevention of future life diseases.

    PubMed

    Basovich, Simon N

    2013-02-01

    Environmental factors during fetal life program the health outcomes regarding many diseases in future life. This idea has been supported by worldwide epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Three questions should be answered. (i) Does a common underlying cause of ordinary pathological fetal development exist? (ii) If such a cause exists, which mechanism might develop disease in later life? (iii) Is it possible to prevent this underlying cause and therefore the associated obstetric complications to primarily prevent future life diseases? The objective of this review is to attempt to answer these three questions by using PubMed (extending to October 2012) and other sources. Three data-based answers corresponding to these questions were found: (i) hypoxia, (ii) excessive stimulation of neurogenesis, and (iii) preconditioning/adaptation to hypoxia. The method for such preconditioning/adaptation is intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), in which air with low oxygen concentration is breathed through a mask to protect against subsequent strong adverse influences. Data are cited for IHT applications for the prevention/treatment of diseases in different fields, particularly in obstetrics. Data suggested that all common fetal origins of adult diseases are likely predetermined by changes in the fetal brain; therefore, early detection of these changes must be very important. The use of IHT may be a real means to primarily prevent obstetric complications and therefore, prevent future life diseases. PMID:23524890

  2. Early Life Stress as an Influence on Limbic Epilepsy: An Hypothesis Whose Time has Come?

    PubMed Central

    Koe, Amelia S.; Jones, Nigel C.; Salzberg, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research. PMID:19838325

  3. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  4. Impact of early vs. late childhood early life stress on brain morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurie M; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Cohen, Ronald A; Heaps, Jodi M; Paul, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies of early life trauma suggest that in addition to its emotional impact, exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with alterations in brain structure. However, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between emotional processing and brain integrity as a function of age of ELS onset. In the present study we examined whether ELS onset in older ages of youth rather than younger ages is associated with smaller limbic and basal ganglia volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that later age of manifestation during youth is associated with smaller volumetric morphology in limbic and basal ganglia volumes in adulthood. A total of 173 individuals were divided into three groups based on the age of self-reported ELS. The three groups included individuals only experiencing early childhood ELS (1 month-7 years, n = 38), those only experiencing later childhood ELS (8 years -17 years, n = 59), and those who have not experienced ELS (n = 76). Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampus, amygdala, insula and caudate volumes were measured using a T1-weighted MRI. Analyses confirmed that later childhood ELS was associated with volumetric reductions in the ACC and insula volumes, while ELS experienced between the ages of 1 month and 7 years was not associated with lower brain volumes in these regions. The results may reflect the influence of more fully developed emotional processing of ELS on the developing brain and reinforce a body of research implicating both the ACC and insula in neuropsychiatric disorders and emotional regulation. PMID:23247614

  5. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L., Jr.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  6. Telomeres, Early-Life Stress and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Ridout, Samuel J.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Kao, Hung-Teh; Carpenter, Linda L.; Philip, Noah S.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are structures of tandem TTAGGG repeats at the ends of chromosomes which preserve the encoding DNA by serving as a disposable brake to terminate DNA duplication during chromosome replication. In this process, the telomere itself shortens with each cell division, and can consequently be thought of as a cellular “clock” reflecting the age of a cell and the time until senescence. Telomere shortening, and changes in levels of telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, occur in the context of certain somatic diseases and in response to selected physical stressors. Emerging evidence indicates that telomeres shorten with exposure to psychosocial stress (including early-life stress [ELS]), and perhaps in association with some psychiatric disorders. These discoveries suggest that telomere shortening might be a useful biomarker for the overall stress response of an organism to various pathogenic conditions. In this regard, telomeres and their response to both somatic and psychiatric illness could serve as a unifying biomarker of stress response that crosses the brain/body distinction often made in medicine. Prospective studies will help to clarify whether this biomarker has broad utility in psychiatry and medicine in the evaluation of responses to psychosocial stressors. The possibility that telomere shortening can be slowed or reversed by psychiatric and psychosocial interventions could represent an opportunity for developing novel preventative and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25832516

  7. First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

    In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

  8. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  9. Early Outcomes of the GEAR UP Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…

  10. Directory of Selected Early Childhood Programs, 1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Marcia J., Ed.

    This directory of selected early childhood programs sponsored by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) includes project grants in the following program categories administered by the Office of Special Education Programs: the Division of Innovation and Development (DID), the Division of Personnel Preparation (DPP), and…