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Sample records for early modern samples

  1. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    PubMed Central

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  2. The Inquiring Eye: Early Modernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisotzki, Paula

    This teaching guide introduces students to early 20th century European and American art. Through critically viewing and discussing art images and participating in related activities, students are encouraged to explore the historical and cultural context within which the art was created. This guide includes background information and an overview…

  3. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  4. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  5. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  6. The Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touwen, L. Jeroen

    1992-01-01

    Illustrates the use of computer data banks in history by examining the Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank (MEMDB) located at Rutgers University. States the database contains an expanding collection of historical monetary and price/wage data. Includes instructions, examples of search strategies, and an annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  7. Sodomy and heresy in early modern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Monter, E W

    The author compares records, from the early modern era, of sodomy trials in two parts of French Switzerland (Geneva, a Protestant city, and Fribourg, A Catholic pastoral area) and presents evidence that: (1) men charged with "sodomy" were prosecuted more often for homosexuality in cities and for bestiality in rural areas, (2) male homosexual subcultures were associated with the growth of large urban centers, (3) sodomy was punished with greater severity than any other crime than infanticide, (4) in both Geneva and Fribourg repression of sodomy increased during periods of religious zeal. With the advent of the Enlightenment, the number of sodomy trials fell as prosecutions for crimes of personal violence declined and prosecutions for crimes against property increased. This is the first English translation of Monter's article, originally written in French. PMID:7042829

  8. Being Mad in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    It has become almost a rule that the birth of scientific psychiatry and what we today term clinical psychology took place in the short period between the last decade of the XVIII century and the 1820s. Everything that happened before that period—every description, diagnosis, and therapy—has been considered “pre-scientific,” outdated, in a way worthless. In this paper, however, I am providing the argument that, first, the roots of contemporary psychiatry reach at least to England of the early modern period, and that, second, it may still turn out that in the field of mental health care historical continuities are more numerous and persistent than discontinuities. Thus, I briefly review the most important surviving documents about the treatment of mental disorders in England of Elizabethan and Jacobian period, organizing the argument around the well-known markers: diagnostics and etiology, therapy, organization of the asylum, the public image of the mentally ill. PMID:26635656

  9. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones. PMID:27024940

  10. European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ≈33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

  11. Genealogical Relationships between Early Medieval and Modern Inhabitants of Piedmont

    PubMed Central

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Baricco, Luisella Pejrani; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration. PMID:25635682

  12. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  13. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-02-25

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000-65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought. PMID:26886800

  14. "Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

  15. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  16. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    PubMed

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field. PMID:27197414

  17. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J.; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M.; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000–65,000 years ago. Here, we analyze the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and of modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously reported. PMID:26886800

  18. Introduction: women, health, and healing in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Fissell, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Women played substantial roles in health and healing in medieval and early-modern Europe. They have been undercounted in studies that rely upon occupational labels, but when we look at caregiving and bodywork, we can see women providing a broad range of services. Although women often healed in domestic settings, neither female patients nor practitioners should be considered in isolation from larger market forces that shaped men's healing work. PMID:18344583

  19. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  20. Malocclusion in Early Anatomically Modern Human: A Reflection on the Etiology of Modern Dental Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Sarig, Rachel; Slon, Viviane; Abbas, Janan; May, Hila; Shpack, Nir; Vardimon, Alexander Dan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH) (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years); that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon. PMID:24278319

  1. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    PubMed

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory. PMID:20027761

  2. An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Zhang, Shuangquan; Chen, Fuyou; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-four elements of an early modern human (EMH) were found in Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China in 2003. Dated to 42,000–39,000 calendrical years before present by using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon, the Tianyuan 1 skeleton is among the oldest directly dated EMHs in eastern Eurasia. Morphological comparison shows Tianyuan 1 to have a series of derived modern human characteristics, including a projecting tuber symphyseos, a high anterior symphyseal angle, a broad scapular glenoid fossa, a reduced hamulus, a gluteal buttress, and a pilaster on the femora. Other features of Tianyuan 1 that are more common among EMHs are its modest humeral pectoralis major tuberosities, anteriorly rotated radial tuberosity, reduced radial curvature, and modest talar trochlea. It also lacks several mandibular features common among western Eurasian late archaic humans, including mandibular foramen bridging, mandibular notch asymmetry, and a large superior medial pterygoid tubercle. However, Tianyuan 1 exhibits several late archaic human features, such as its anterior to posterior dental proportions, a large hamulus length, and a broad and rounded distal phalangeal tuberosity. This morphological pattern implies that a simple spread of modern humans from Africa is unlikely. PMID:17416672

  3. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history. PMID:26256311

  4. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  5. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms." PMID:11143784

  6. Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey (Cambridgeshire).

    PubMed

    Falvey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the 1523 Lay Subsidy, the 1563 ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day 1674 Hearth Tax records and the 1676 Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing. The Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the 1674 Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. PMID:25080616

  7. Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period. It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body. This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society. PMID:24769802

  8. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boldsen, Jesper L.; Milner, George R.; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  9. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    PubMed

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  10. Accuracy and sampling error of two age estimation techniques using rib histomorphometry on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-02-01

    Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results. PMID:26698389

  11. Early Functional Treatment and Modern Cast Making for Indications in Hand Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bohr, S; Pallua, N

    2016-01-01

    Cast treatment can serve both as a nonsurgical treatment option and as a means for providing postoperative protection. However, with the duration of immobilization intervals, the benefits of cast treatment, especially in hand surgery, are at risk of being outweighed by undesired drawbacks such as joint stiffening and contracture formation. In order to minimize potential complications commonly associated with cast treatment, efforts to further improve cast making must attempt to reconcile two conflicting objectives: (1) to achieve stability and rigidity at the site of injury (e.g., fracture retention) and (2) to allow free range of joint movement as early as possible. In addition, in order to assure patient compliance, modern cast treatments should aim to improve wearing-comfort of the cast. This paper describes modern cast designs for four common types hand injuries, with sample cases highlighting the clinical outcome of each treatment. PMID:27190653

  12. Early Functional Treatment and Modern Cast Making for Indications in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, S.; Pallua, N.

    2016-01-01

    Cast treatment can serve both as a nonsurgical treatment option and as a means for providing postoperative protection. However, with the duration of immobilization intervals, the benefits of cast treatment, especially in hand surgery, are at risk of being outweighed by undesired drawbacks such as joint stiffening and contracture formation. In order to minimize potential complications commonly associated with cast treatment, efforts to further improve cast making must attempt to reconcile two conflicting objectives: (1) to achieve stability and rigidity at the site of injury (e.g., fracture retention) and (2) to allow free range of joint movement as early as possible. In addition, in order to assure patient compliance, modern cast treatments should aim to improve wearing-comfort of the cast. This paper describes modern cast designs for four common types hand injuries, with sample cases highlighting the clinical outcome of each treatment. PMID:27190653

  13. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  14. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-07-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials. PMID:2740336

  15. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-01-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials. Images PMID:2740336

  16. The evolution of modern corals and their early history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, George D.

    2003-02-01

    ephemeral, "naked coral", presents the greatest potential for solution of the enigma of the origin of scleractinians. It states that different groups of soft-bodied, unrelated "anemone-like" anthozoans gave rise to various calcified scleractinian-like corals through aragonitic biomineralization. Although there is evidence for this phenomenon being more universal in the mid-Triassic interval, following a lengthy Early Triassic post-extinction perturbation, it appears to have occurred at least three other times prior to this interval. This idea suggests that, because of ephemeral characteristics, the skeleton does not represent a clade of zoantharian evolution but instead represents a grade of organization. In the fossil record, skeletons may have appeared and disappeared at different times as some clades reverted to soft-bodied existence and these phenomena could account for notable gaps in the taxonomic and fossil record. A fuller understanding and possible solution to the problem of the origin of modern corals may be forthcoming. However, it will require synthesis of diverse kinds of data and an integration of findings from paleobiology, stratigraphy, molecular biology, carbonate geochemistry, biochemistry and invertebrate physiology.

  17. Peştera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Hélène; Milota, Stefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcina, Laurentiu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhão, João; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-23

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Peştera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of approximately 40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (approximately 35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe. PMID:17227863

  18. Peştera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Hélène; Milota, Ştefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcinǎ, Laurenţiu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhão, João; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Peştera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ≈40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (≈35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe. PMID:17227863

  19. Surfactant roles in modern sample preparation techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    The pressure to decrease organic solvent usage in laboratories is increasing. Thus miniaturization and improvement of sample handling using alternatives is a challenge that has been discussed by several researchers. From this perspective, surfactant-based sample preparations were an educated choice. Since the introduction of cloud point extraction by Watanabe, considerable studies have been focused on the chemical properties of surfactants in the extraction methods. The unique properties of surfactants make them flexible agents for different miniaturized sample preparation techniques based on solid- or liquid-phase extraction. As a result, the use of surfactants with different roles in sample-preparation methodologies (such as surfactant as an emulsifier, surfactant rich phase as an extraction medium, ion pair-based extraction, hemimicelle/admicelle extraction, surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticle, solid-phase microextraction with micellar desorption) is an important contribution to minimizing the problems arising from preliminary operations, which are the weakest step in analytical measurement. This paper reviews the literature dealing with the application of surfactant-based sample preparations to the separation and the preconcentration of organic and inorganic species. PMID:22887709

  20. No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution. PMID:15024415

  1. Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ≈40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography. PMID:19581579

  2. Behavioral inferences from the Skhul/Qafzeh early modern human hand remains

    PubMed Central

    Niewoehner, Wesley A.

    2001-01-01

    Two groups of humans are found in the Near East ≈100,000 years ago, the late archaic Neanderthals and the early modern Skhul/Qafzeh humans. Observations that Neanderthals were more heavily muscled, had stronger upper-limb bones, and possessed unusual shapes and orientations of some upper-limb joint complexes relative to the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, have led some researchers to conclude that significant between-group upper-limb-related behavioral differences must have been present, despite the association of the two groups with similar Middle Paleolithic archeological complexes. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the hand remains of the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, Neanderthals, early and late Upper Paleolithic humans, and Holocene humans supports the dichotomy. The Skhul/Qafzeh carpometacarpal remains do not have any unique morphologies relative to the other fossil samples remains examined. However, in the functionally significant metacarpal 1 and 3 bases they resemble Upper Paleolithic humans, not Neanderthals. Furthermore, the Skhul/Qafzeh sample differs significantly from the Neanderthals in many other aspects of hand functional anatomy. Given the correlations between changes in tool technologies and functional adaptations seen in the hands of Upper Paleolithic humans, it is concluded that the Skhul/Qafzeh hand remains were adapted to Upper Paleolithic-like manipulative repertoires. These results support the inference of significant behavioral differences between Neanderthals and the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids and indicate that a significant shift in human manipulative behaviors was associated with the earliest stages of the emergence of modern humans. PMID:11248017

  3. Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amussen, Susan Dwyer

    The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

  4. Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, the anthropogenic increase pCO2atm has been considered as one of the main contributors for the decline of modern coral reefs, and nearly 60% of these marine ecosystems are presently threatened (Bryant et al., 1998). Interactions between anthropogenic change and reef growth can, however, not be reduced to a single factor, and it is essential to look at the Earth's history to understand and counterbalance. During the Early Cretaceous, enhanced pCO2atm may have been responsible, at least in part, for the demise of the carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys through climatic feedback mechanisms. From the Hauterivian to the Early Aptian, increased rainfalls are documented from the clay-mineral association, by a change from a smectite-dominated (most of the Hauterivian), to a kaolinite-dominated assemblage (latest Hauterivian up to the early Late Barremian). This switch is dated to the Pseudothurmannia ohmi ammonozone in the Vocontian Trough of southeastern France (Angles section, Godet et al., 2008). It is immediately followed in time by major nutrient input, as is illustrated by the substantial increase in phosphorus accumulation rates (PAR), not only in this section, but also in the Ultrahelvetic area of Switzerland and in the Umbria-Marche basin of Italy (Bodin et al., 2006). On the other hand, the remainder of the Hauterivian is characterized by PAR mean values characteristic of mesotrophic conditions, whereas the Late Barremian witnesses the return to oligotrophic environments (lower PAR values). Synchronously, these perturbations are mirrored on the platform by changes in the type of carbonate ecosystems. Indeed, a stronger continental runoff, and a subsequent input in the oceanic domain of nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and clastic material modified marine palaeoenvironmental conditions and triggered changes in ecosystems. A unique archive of the Early Cretaceous carbonate platform is preserved in the Helvetic Alps, where the

  5. Combination of Modern Visualization Techniques for Imaging of Biological Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyda, Frantisek; Dammer, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    We have used several visualization techniques to characterize biological objects. A micro-radiography with the hybrid single photon counting silicon pixel detector Medipix2 (matrix 256 x 256 sq. pixels of 55 μm pitch) is an imaging technique using X-rays in the studies of internal structures of objects. The detector Medipix2 is used as an imager of an ionizing radiation, emitted by X-ray tubes (micro or nano-focus FeinFocus). An unlimited dynamic range of the Medipix2 detector and a high spatial resolution below 1μm is particularly suitable for a non-destructive and non-invasive radiographic imaging of small biological samples in a living state, including in vivo observations and a micro-tomography. Contrast agents (based on iodine or lanthanum) could be used for dynamic studies inside of organisms. Infrared digital photography has ability to shot still photographs or movies in complete dark. Is it also possible to use it for studies of internal organs and structures inside of living biological objects. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) in low temperature mode is sophisticated recent technique successfully used in biological laboratories. The main advantage is ability to study details of tissues and cells close to living state at very high magnification. Special cryotransfer system connected to FESEM allows deeply frozen samples to be prepared in way like freeze-fracturing followed by freeze-etching for observation directly inside of electron microscope. Combination of information from all above mentioned techniques could give us very powerful visualization tool for complex studies of biological specimen.

  6. How Did Early Earth Become Our Modern World?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Richard W.; Garnero, Edward; Harrison, T. Mark; Li, Jie; Manga, Michael; McDonough, William F.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Romanowicz, Barbara; Rubie, David; Williams, Quentin; Zhong, Shijie

    2014-05-01

    Several features of Earth owe their origin to processes occurring during and shortly following Earth formation. Collisions with planetary embryos caused substantial melting of the growing Earth, leading to prolonged core formation, atmosphere outgassing, and deepening of the magma ocean as Earth grew. Mantle noble gas isotopic compositions and the mantle abundance of elements that partition into the core record this very early Earth differentiation. In contrast, the elements that are not involved in either core or atmosphere formation show surprisingly muted evidence of the fractionation expected during magma ocean crystallization, and even this minimal evidence for early intramantle differentiation appears to have been erased by mantle convection within ˜1.5 billion years of Earth formation. By 4.36 Ga, Earth's surface and shallow interior had reached temperatures similar to those of the present Earth, and mantle melting, and perhaps plate subduction, was producing crustal rock types similar to those seen today. Remnants of early Earth differentiation may still exist in the deep mantle and continue to influence patterns of large-scale mantle convection, sequestration of some trace elements, geomagnetic reversals, vertical motions of continents, and hot-spot volcanism.

  7. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  8. Early modern humans and morphological variation in Southeast Asia: fossil evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  9. Early Modern Humans and Morphological Variation in Southeast Asia: Fossil Evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3. PMID:25849125

  10. End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sallan, Lauren Cole; Coates, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    The Devonian marks a critical stage in the early evolution of vertebrates: It opens with an unprecedented diversity of fishes and closes with the earliest evidence of limbed tetrapods. However, the latter part of the Devonian has also been characterized as a period of global biotic crisis marked by two large extinction pulses: a “Big Five” mass extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary (374 Ma) and the less well-documented Hangenberg event some 15 million years later at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary (359 Ma). Here, we report the results of a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these events on early vertebrate evolution, which was obtained from a database of vertebrate occurrences sampling over 1,250 taxa from 66 localities spanning Givetian to Serpukhovian stages (391 to 318 Ma). We show that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide. Marine and nonmarine faunas were equally affected, precluding the existence of environmental refugia. The subsequent recovery of previously diverse groups (including placoderms, sarcopterygian fish, and acanthodians) was minimal. Tetrapods, actinopterygians, and chondrichthyans, all scarce within the Devonian, undergo large diversification events in the aftermath of the extinction, dominating all subsequent faunas. The Hangenberg event represents a previously unrecognized bottleneck in the evolutionary history of vertebrates as a whole and a historical contingency that shaped the roots of modern biodiversity. PMID:20479258

  11. End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sallan, Lauren Cole; Coates, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    The Devonian marks a critical stage in the early evolution of vertebrates: It opens with an unprecedented diversity of fishes and closes with the earliest evidence of limbed tetrapods. However, the latter part of the Devonian has also been characterized as a period of global biotic crisis marked by two large extinction pulses: a "Big Five" mass extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary (374 Ma) and the less well-documented Hangenberg event some 15 million years later at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary (359 Ma). Here, we report the results of a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these events on early vertebrate evolution, which was obtained from a database of vertebrate occurrences sampling over 1,250 taxa from 66 localities spanning Givetian to Serpukhovian stages (391 to 318 Ma). We show that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide. Marine and nonmarine faunas were equally affected, precluding the existence of environmental refugia. The subsequent recovery of previously diverse groups (including placoderms, sarcopterygian fish, and acanthodians) was minimal. Tetrapods, actinopterygians, and chondrichthyans, all scarce within the Devonian, undergo large diversification events in the aftermath of the extinction, dominating all subsequent faunas. The Hangenberg event represents a previously unrecognized bottleneck in the evolutionary history of vertebrates as a whole and a historical contingency that shaped the roots of modern biodiversity. PMID:20479258

  12. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe. PMID:27024941

  13. Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. PMID:22520182

  14. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

  15. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

  16. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it. PMID:26946692

  17. Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruter, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

  18. The Commerce of Utility: Teaching Mathematical Geography in Early Modern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Lesley B.

    2006-01-01

    The teaching and learning of geographical and mathematical knowledge in early modern England was a complex interaction among scholars, practitioners, merchants, and gentry. Each group had different values and goals associated with geographical knowledge and therefore different educational venues and different topics to be investigated. This paper…

  19. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  20. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

  1. Teaching Petrarchan and Anti-Petrarchan Discourses in Early Modern English Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribes, Purificación

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to help students realize that Petrarchism has been an influential source of inspiration for Early Modern English lyrics. Its topics and conventions have lent themselves to a wide variety of appropriations which the present selection of texts for analysis tries to illustrate. A few telling examples from Spenser,…

  2. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  3. Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy. PMID:23488236

  4. From Apprentice to Master: Social Disciplining and Surgical Education in Early Modern London, 1570-1640

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ascendancy as the administrative and commercial center of early modern England, London experienced sustained growth in the latter half of the sixteenth century, as waves of rural immigrants sought to enhance their material conditions by tapping into the city's bustling occupational and civic networks. The resultant crowded urban…

  5. A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffioli, Cesare S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

  6. A Step towards Clerical Preferment: Secondary School Teachers' Careers in Early Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the function served by embarking on a teaching career in the Latin school system for recruitment to the clergy in early modern Sweden. The study is restricted to the eighty-nine teachers serving at Pitea Grammar School in Northern Sweden in the period from 1650 to 1849. The investigation pays considerable attention to the…

  7. Elementary Education and the Practices of Literacy in Catholic Girls' Schools in Early Modern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Girls' schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic…

  8. Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

  9. Modern non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the detection of early cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Malgorzata

    2014-03-31

    Over the past few years melanoma has grown into a disease of socio-economic importance due to the increasing incidence and persistently high mortality rates. Melanoma is a malignant tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Therefore, an extremely important part of the therapeutic process is to identify the disease at an early stage: in situ or stage I. Many tools for early diagnosis of melanoma are available today, including dermoscopy, videodermoscopy and in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy. Other methods such as high frequency ultrasound, optical coherence tomography and electrical impedance spectroscopy may serve as additional diagnostic aids. Modern imaging techniques also allow the monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions over months or years to detect the moment of malignant transformation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about modern diagnostic techniques, which may aid early diagnosis of melanoma. PMID:24748903

  10. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    PubMed

    Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D

    2007-01-12

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing modern humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, modern humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as early as anywhere else in northern Eurasia. PMID:17218523

  11. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M.; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe—one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory—is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter–gatherers. The proportion of hunter–gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  12. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques.

    PubMed

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-09-22

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe--one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory--is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  13. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  14. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

    2012-08-21

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  15. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Borić, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  16. Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373

  17. Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the direct isotopic evidence for Neanderthal and early modern human diets in Europe. Isotopic methods indicate the sources of dietary protein over many years of life, and show that Neanderthals had a similar diet through time (≈120,000 to ≈37,000 cal BP) and in different regions of Europe. The isotopic evidence indicates that in all cases Neanderthals were top-level carnivores and obtained all, or most, of their dietary protein from large herbivores. In contrast, early modern humans (≈40,000 to ≈27,000 cal BP) exhibited a wider range of isotopic values, and a number of individuals had evidence for the consumption of aquatic (marine and freshwater) resources. This pattern includes Oase 1, the oldest directly dated modern human in Europe (≈40,000 cal BP) with the highest nitrogen isotope value of all of the humans studied, likely because of freshwater fish consumption. As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe. PMID:19706482

  18. Juan Ruiz De Alarcón: Impairment as Empowerment in Early Modern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gloria Bodtorf

    2016-01-01

    Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, a seventeenth-century writer and native of New Spain, so excelled at the craft of writing "comedias" that he is recognized as one of the great writers of early modern Spain. In his personal life Ruiz de Alarcón struggled with a significant bodily impairment, a large hump on both his back and front, which made him…

  19. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones. PMID:19019438

  20. Role of modern radiation therapy in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: A young radiation oncologists’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ciammella, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy is well established in combined modality programs for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma, but still debated with regards to late toxicity issues. Modern radiotherapy prescribing attitudes include lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of this review is to briefly discuss the current role of radiotherapy in this field and the potential future developments. Major trials conducted in recent years in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma are critically reviewed and discussed with a focus on radiotherapy-related issues and with an attention to current treatment options by a “young” radiation oncologists’ perspective. PMID:24669302

  1. Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this ‘treasury for health.’ Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax ‘family books,’ this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households. PMID:23926360

  2. DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Meyer, Matthias; Gao, Xing; Stenzel, Udo; Burbano, Hernán A.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2013-01-01

    Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (∼30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia. PMID:23341637

  3. DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Meyer, Matthias; Gao, Xing; Stenzel, Udo; Burbano, Hernán A; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2013-02-01

    Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (∼30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia. PMID:23341637

  4. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol V; Tocheri, Matthew W; Plavcan, J Michael; Brown, Francis H; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276

  5. Modern hunting behavior in the early Middle Paleolithic: faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Reuven; Bar-Oz, Guy; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral adaptations and subsistence strategies of Middle Paleolithic humans is critical in the debate over the evolution and manifestations of modern human behavior. The study of faunal remains plays a central role in this context. Until now, the majority of Levantine archaeofaunal evidence was derived from late Middle Paleolithic sites. The discovery of faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel (>200 ka), allowed for detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological analyses of these early Middle Paleolithic remains. The Misliya Cave faunal assemblage is overwhelmingly dominated by ungulate taxa. The most common prey species is the Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), followed closely by the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella). Some aurochs (Bos primigenius) remains are also present. Small-game species are rare. The fallow deer mortality pattern is dominated by prime-aged individuals. A multivariate taphonomic analysis demonstrates (1) that the assemblage was created solely by humans occupying the cave and was primarily modified by their food-processing activities; and (2) that gazelle carcasses were transported complete to the site, while fallow deer carcasses underwent some field butchery. The new zooarchaeological data from Misliya Cave, particularly the abundance of meat-bearing limb bones displaying filleting cut marks and the acquisition of prime-age prey, demonstrate that early Middle Paleolithic people possessed developed hunting capabilities. Thus, modern large-game hunting, carcass transport, and meat-processing behaviors were already established in the Levant in the early Middle Paleolithic, more than 200 ka ago. PMID:17669471

  6. Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Korčula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽić, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽić (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature. PMID:23094840

  7. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Carol V.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Plavcan, J. Michael; Brown, Francis H.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276

  8. Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and early modern humans.

    PubMed

    Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

    2014-04-01

    One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than early modern humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of early modern humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and early modern humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored. PMID:24612646

  9. Animals inside. Anatomy, interiority and virtue in the early modern Dutch Republic.

    PubMed

    Knoeff, Rina

    2008-01-01

    People in the early modern period frequently gave accounts of little animals (such as worms, flies, slugs and even dogs) living and breeding inside their bodies. This article investigates descriptions of "animals inside" in the works of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch. It links the occurrence of such animals to the fear of pile worms endangering Dutch dikes and houses, and thereby the safety of society. The animals embodied pain and discomfort and were often associated with immorality and sexuality. As powerful symbols of interior corruption, they served as tangible reminders of the corruption of individuals as well as of the nation. PMID:18664011

  10. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    PubMed

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past. PMID:24855872

  11. ‘Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  12. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cidália; Maurício, João; Pettitt, Paul B.; Souto, Pedro; Trinkaus, Erik; van der Plicht, Hans; Zilhão, João

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a ≈4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins. PMID:10377462

  13. Early Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms

    PubMed Central

    Vannier, J; Steiner, M; Renvoisé, E; Hu, S.-X; Casanova, J.-P

    2006-01-01

    Although palaeontological evidence from exceptional biota demonstrates the existence of diverse marine communities in the Early Cambrian (approx. 540–520 Myr ago), little is known concerning the functioning of the marine ecosystem, especially its trophic structure and the full range of ecological niches colonized by the fauna. The presence of a diverse zooplankton in Early Cambrian oceans is still an open issue. Here we provide compelling evidence that chaetognaths, an important element of modern zooplankton, were present in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang biota with morphologies almost identical to Recent forms. New information obtained from the lowermost Cambrian of China added to previous studies provide convincing evidence that protoconodont-bearing animals also belonged to chaetognaths. Chaetognaths were probably widespread and diverse in the earliest Cambrian. The obvious raptorial function of their circumoral apparatuses (grasping spines) places them among the earliest active predator metazoans. Morphology, body ratios and distribution suggest that the ancestral chaetognaths were planktonic with possible ecological preferences for hyperbenthic niches close to the sea bottom. Our results point to the early introduction of prey–predator relationships into the pelagic realm, and to the increase of trophic complexity (three-level structure) during the Precambrian–Cambrian transition, thus laying the foundations of present-day marine food chains. PMID:17254986

  14. Early Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms.

    PubMed

    Vannier, J; Steiner, M; Renvoisé, E; Hu, S-X; Casanova, J-P

    2007-03-01

    Although palaeontological evidence from exceptional biota demonstrates the existence of diverse marine communities in the Early Cambrian (approx. 540-520 Myr ago), little is known concerning the functioning of the marine ecosystem, especially its trophic structure and the full range of ecological niches colonized by the fauna. The presence of a diverse zooplankton in Early Cambrian oceans is still an open issue. Here we provide compelling evidence that chaetognaths, an important element of modern zooplankton, were present in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang biota with morphologies almost identical to Recent forms. New information obtained from the lowermost Cambrian of China added to previous studies provide convincing evidence that protoconodont-bearing animals also belonged to chaetognaths. Chaetognaths were probably widespread and diverse in the earliest Cambrian. The obvious raptorial function of their circumoral apparatuses (grasping spines) places them among the earliest active predator metazoans. Morphology, body ratios and distribution suggest that the ancestral chaetognaths were planktonic with possible ecological preferences for hyperbenthic niches close to the sea bottom. Our results point to the early introduction of prey-predator relationships into the pelagic realm, and to the increase of trophic complexity (three-level structure) during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition, thus laying the foundations of present-day marine food chains. PMID:17254986

  15. Analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1993-01-01

    The EINSTEIN galaxy catalog contains x-ray data for 148 early-type (E and SO) galaxies. A detailed analysis of the global properties of this sample are studied. By comparing the x-ray properties with other tracers of the ISM, as well as with observables related to the stellar dynamics and populations of the sample, we expect to determine more clearly the physical relationships that determine the evolution of early-type galaxies. Previous studies with smaller samples have explored the relationships between x-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and luminosities in other bands. Using our larger sample and the statistical techniques of survival analysis, a number of these earlier analyses were repeated. For our full sample, a strong statistical correlation is found between L(sub X) and L(sub B) (the probability that the null hypothesis is upheld is P less than 10(exp -4) from a variety of rank correlation tests. Regressions with several algorithms yield consistent results.

  16. The molecular signatures of Taxodiaceae / Cupressaceae / Taxaceae (TCT) leaf waxes in modern and ancient samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.

    2005-12-01

    Members of the Taxodiaceae/Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (TCT) complex of conifers originated sometime before the late Jurassic. Since that time the group has diverged to fill diverse ecological niches in desert, marsh, tundra, alpine, and coastal habitats and a variety of forest types. 175 species from 35 genera are now found across 6 continents. The aims of this research project are 1) to analyze and describe cuticular isoprenoid and acetogenic lipids from a diverse group of living members of the TCT complex and 2) to begin a search for these compounds and their diagenetic products in geological samples with known contributions from ancient TCT members. Hexane extracts of several hundred modern conifer specimens from more than 25 genera were studied in an attempt to find phylogenetic trends in the distribution and abundance of wax components. Diverse skeletal types of bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic diterpenes were found throughout the TCT complex. These compounds were found to have the highest absolute and relative abundance in several temperate rainforest and marsh endemics and the lowest relative abundance in desert adapted species. Large scale phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of individual diterpenes were not evident. Some species showed little intraspecific variation in diterpenes, while others showed considerable variability in diterpene products from one tree to another. The waxes of many members of the TCT complex are dominated by uniquely long-chain normal alkanes, with peak abundance at 33 and/or 35 carbons. This character is found within a phylogenetically distinct group of TCT -- including the genera Austrocedrus, Callitris, Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Diselma, Fitzroya, Juniperus, Libocedrus, Platycladus, Taxodium, Tetraclinis, Thuja, and Thujopsis -- and is seen in plants from extremely different habitats. We postulate that this group within the TCT complex shares a conserved very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongase

  17. An enlarged postcranial sample confirms Australopithecus afarensis dimorphism was similar to modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Reno, Philip L.; McCollum, Melanie A.; Meindl, Richard S.; Lovejoy, C. Owen

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we introduced the template method as a means of enlarging the Australopithecus afarensis postcranial sample to more accurately estimate its skeletal dimorphism. Results indicated dimorphism to be largely comparable to that of Homo sapiens. Some have since argued that our results were biased by artificial homogeneity in our Au. afarensis sample. Here we report the results from inclusion of 12 additional, newly reported, specimens. The results are consistent with those of our original study and with the hypothesis that early hominid demographic success derived from a reproductive strategy involving male provisioning of pair-bonded females. PMID:20855309

  18. An enlarged postcranial sample confirms Australopithecus afarensis dimorphism was similar to modern humans.

    PubMed

    Reno, Philip L; McCollum, Melanie A; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2010-10-27

    In a previous study, we introduced the template method as a means of enlarging the Australopithecus afarensis postcranial sample to more accurately estimate its skeletal dimorphism. Results indicated dimorphism to be largely comparable to that of Homo sapiens. Some have since argued that our results were biased by artificial homogeneity in our Au. afarensis sample. Here we report the results from inclusion of 12 additional, newly reported, specimens. The results are consistent with those of our original study and with the hypothesis that early hominid demographic success derived from a reproductive strategy involving male provisioning of pair-bonded females. PMID:20855309

  19. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  20. Branched aliphatic alkanes with quaternary substituted carbon atoms in modern and ancient geologic samples

    PubMed Central

    Kenig, Fabien; Simons, Dirk-Jan H.; Crich, David; Cowen, James P.; Ventura, Gregory T.; Rehbein-Khalily, Tatiana; Brown, Todd C.; Anderson, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    A pseudohomologous series of branched aliphatic alkanes with a quaternary substituted carbon atom (BAQCs, specifically 2,2-dimethylalkanes and 3,3- and 5,5-diethylalkanes) were identified in warm (65°C) deep-sea hydrothermal waters and Late Cretaceous black shales. 5,5-Diethylalkanes were also observed in modern and Holocene marine shelf sediments and in shales spanning the last 800 million years of the geological record. The carbon number distribution of BAQCs indicates a biological origin. These compounds were observed but not identified in previous studies of 2.0 billion- to 2.2 billion-year-old metasediments and were commonly misidentified in other sediment samples, indicating that BAQCs are widespread in the geological record. The source organisms of BAQCs are unknown, but their paleobiogeographic distribution suggests that they have an affinity for sulfides and might be nonphotosynthetic sulfide oxidizers. PMID:14551322

  1. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  2. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  3. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene. PMID:26507275

  4. State policy, popular discourse, and the silence on homosexual acts in early modern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Liliequist, J

    1998-01-01

    In Sweden, homosexual acts between men were mentioned in secular law for the first time in 1608. Despite the explicit criminalization, very few trials are known from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the new National Law Code of 1734 contained no sanction at all. The central issue of this essay is how the insignificant number of court cases and the seemingly very limited judicial interest in the issue of sodomy in Early Modern Sweden should be interpreted. The silence of the new law is explained by a shift in the official policy from deterrence to a policy of silence, but the low number of court cases was foremost dependent on a lacking actualization and problematization of homosexual acts in the Swedish popular discourse on sexuality, gender, and prestige. Finally, it is argued that this undeveloped popular discourse probably also corresponded to a meagre and rather restricted sexual practice. PMID:9638557

  5. Prophecy, patriarchy, and violence in the early modern household: the revelations of Anne Wentworth.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Warren

    2009-10-01

    In 1676 the apostate Baptist prophet Anne Wentworth (1629/30-1693?) published "A True Account of Anne Wentworths Being Cruelly, Unjustly, and Unchristianly Dealt with by Some of Those People called Anabaptists," the first in a series of pamphlets that would continue to the end of the decade. Orignially a member of a London Baptist church, Wentworth left the congregation and eventually her own home after her husband used physical force to stop her writing and prophesying. Yet Wentworth persisted in her "revelations." These prophecies increasingly focused on her response to those who were trying to stop her efforts, especially within her own household. This article examines Wentworth's writings as an effort by an early modern woman, using arguments of spiritual agency, to assert ideas about proper gender roles and household responsibilities to denounce her husband and rebut those who criticized and attempted to suppress her. PMID:19999636

  6. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism. PMID:21874692

  7. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik; Qiao, Tuo; Zhu, You’an; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Crown or modern sarcopterygians (coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods) differ substantially from stem sarcopterygians, such as Guiyu and Psarolepis, and a lack of transitional fossil taxa limits our understanding of the origin of the crown group. The Onychodontiformes, an enigmatic Devonian predatory fish group, seems to have characteristics of both stem and crown sarcopterygians but is difficult to place because of insufficient anatomical information. We describe the new skull material of Qingmenodus, a Pragian (~409-million-year-old) onychodont from China, using high-resolution computed tomography to image internal structures of the braincase. In addition to its remarkable similarities with stem sarcopterygians in the ethmosphenoid portion, Qingmenodus exhibits coelacanth-like neurocranial features in the otic region. A phylogenetic analysis based on a revised data set unambiguously assigns onychodonts to crown sarcopterygians as stem coelacanths. Qingmenodus thus bridges the morphological gap between stem sarcopterygians and coelacanths and helps to illuminate the early evolution and diversification of crown sarcopterygians. PMID:27386576

  8. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear. PMID:25080642

  9. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  10. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik; Qiao, Tuo; Zhu, You'an; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2016-06-01

    Crown or modern sarcopterygians (coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods) differ substantially from stem sarcopterygians, such as Guiyu and Psarolepis, and a lack of transitional fossil taxa limits our understanding of the origin of the crown group. The Onychodontiformes, an enigmatic Devonian predatory fish group, seems to have characteristics of both stem and crown sarcopterygians but is difficult to place because of insufficient anatomical information. We describe the new skull material of Qingmenodus, a Pragian (~409-million-year-old) onychodont from China, using high-resolution computed tomography to image internal structures of the braincase. In addition to its remarkable similarities with stem sarcopterygians in the ethmosphenoid portion, Qingmenodus exhibits coelacanth-like neurocranial features in the otic region. A phylogenetic analysis based on a revised data set unambiguously assigns onychodonts to crown sarcopterygians as stem coelacanths. Qingmenodus thus bridges the morphological gap between stem sarcopterygians and coelacanths and helps to illuminate the early evolution and diversification of crown sarcopterygians. PMID:27386576

  11. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example. PMID:12785108

  12. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    PubMed

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data. PMID:16809862

  13. Expanding women's rural medical work in early modern Brittany: the Daughters of the Holy Spirit.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-07-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  14. Infection, contagion, and public health in late medieval and early modern German imperial towns.

    PubMed

    Kinzelbach, Annemarie

    2006-07-01

    From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures. PMID:16540700

  15. Osteometric sorting of skeletal elements from a sample of modern Colombians: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Guerrero; Hackman, Lucina; Martínez, Wendy; Medina, César Sanabria

    2016-03-01

    The Colombian armed conflict has been catalogued not only as the longest civil war in the western hemisphere, but also as having one of the highest indexes of missing persons. Among the several challenges faced by forensic practitioners in Colombia, the commingling of human remains has been recognised as one of the most difficult to approach. The method of osteometric sorting described by Byrd and Adams and Byrd (2008) has proven relevant as a powerful tool to aid in the reassociation process of skeletal structures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the three osteometric sorting models developed by Byrd (2008) (paired elements, articulating bone portions and other bone portions) in a sample of modern Colombian individuals. A set of 39 linear measurements was recorded from a sample of 100 individuals (47 females and 53 males aged between 20 and 74 and 18 and 77 years, respectively), which was used to create a reference sample database. A different subset of eight individuals (five females aged between 23 and 48 years, and three males aged between 27 and 43 years) was employed to randomly create six small-scale commingled assemblages for the purposes of testing the osteometric sorting models. Results demonstrate that this method has significant potential for use in the Colombian forensic context. PMID:25588668

  16. Early postdisaster health outreach to modern families: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Jon Magnus; Stene, Lise Eilin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated whether the early outreach programme following the Utøya massacre reached out to the parents of the young survivors. Additionally, we explored whether specialised mental healthcare services were provided to parents presenting elevated levels of PTSD and depression reactions. Design Cross-sectional survey, face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. Setting Norway, aftermath of the Utøya massacre, 4–7 months postdisaster. Background Following the Utøya massacre, proactive early outreach programmes were launched in all municipalities that were affected, facilitating access to appropriate healthcare services. Participants A total of 453 parents of the Utøya survivors aged 13–33 years took part. Overall, 59.8% of the survivors were represented by one or more parent in our study. Main outcome measures Engagement with the proactive early outreach programme (psychosocial crisis teams and contact persons in the municipalities), utilisation of healthcare services (general practitioner and specialised mental healthcare services) and mental distress (UCLA PTSD-RI and HSCL-8). Results A majority of the participants reported contact with the proactive early outreach programme (crisis team, 73.9%; and contact person, 73.0%). Failure of outreach to parents was significantly associated with non-intact family structure (crisis team: OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.72, p=0.032) and non-Norwegian origin (crisis team: OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.98, p=0.021). Gender of the parent was not significantly associated with failure of the outreach programme (p≥0.075). Provision of specialised mental healthcare services was significantly associated with higher levels of PTSD (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.79, p<0.001) and depression (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.43, p<0.001) and not with the sociodemography (p≥0.122). Conclusions Proactive early outreach strategies may be helpful in identifying healthcare needs and facilitating access to the required

  17. Modern sedimentation patterns in Laguna de Medina, Southern Spain, derived from lake surface and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment

  18. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2010-11-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21465995

  19. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). PMID:23278189

  20. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends. PMID:12938716

  1. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos. PMID:24341260

  2. Translation de domicile: rethinking sedentarity and mobility in the early modern French countryside.

    PubMed

    Collins, James B

    2006-01-01

    Was the countryside of early modern France marked fundamentally by mobility or sedentarity? Tax rolls suggest the former, high endogamy rates the latter. For the period 1660-1720, a rarely used source, the registers of translation de domicile (change of tax domicile), provide a more comprehensive answer than civil or tax records. They suggest that, first, 60,000-70,000 better-off families moved each year; second, poor migrants, such as day labourers, rarely made declarations; third, those who owned land, moved far less often; fourth, laboureurs typically moved between 10 and 40 kilometres to take on farms of greater importance; fifth, cottagers and day labourers moved to a nearby village, rarely more than 5 kilometres away and finally, men and their families moved for economic gain, whereas women moved because of economic loss, after the death of their husband. Because the laboureurs dominated the villages-for example, paying most of the taxes-their movement shook the village in fundamental ways. The translation de domicile registers indicate villages open to the outside, full of in-migrants, whose economic status often bore a close correlation to the distance of their move (high-long, low-short). PMID:20672481

  3. Differences and similarities in the regulation of medical practice between early modern Vienna and Osijek.

    PubMed

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    This paper evaluates the regulation of medical practice from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in two Habsburg cities, Vienna and Osijek, in the light of the spread of medical knowledge and practice from the centre to the periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy. Although both cities were part of the Habsburg Monarchy for much of the early modern period, there were more differences than similarities between them. This may be explained by appealing to a variety of factors, including geographical position, population structure, religion, government type, and professional organisations, all of which contributed to making medical practice very different in the two cities. The divergence occurred in spite of a central agenda for ensuring uniformity of medical practice throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. Although the legislation governing medical practice was the same in both cities, it was more strictly implemented in Vienna than in Osijek. In consequence, Osijek was the setting for some unique patterns of medical practice not to be found in the Habsburg capital. PMID:22580020

  4. Curiosity, forbidden knowledge, and the reformation of natural philosophy in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    2001-06-01

    From the patristic period to the beginning of the seventeenth century curiosity was regarded as an intellectual vice. Curious individuals were considered to be proud and "puffed up," and the objects of their investigations were deemed illicit, dispute engendering, unknowable, or useless. Seventeenth-century projects for the advancement of learning had to distance themselves from curiosity and its dubious fruits or, alternatively, enhance the moral status of the curious sensibility. Francis Bacon's proposals for the instauration of knowledge were an integral part of a process by which curiosity underwent a remarkable transformation from vice to virtue over the course of the seventeenth century. The changing fortunes of this human propensity highlight the morally charged nature of early modern debates over the status of natural philosophy and the particular virtues required of its practitioners. The rehabilitation of curiosity was a crucial element in the objectification of scientific knowledge and led to a gradual shift of focus away from the moral qualities of investigators and the propriety of particular objects of knowledge to specific procedures and methods. PMID:11590893

  5. Clumped isotope thermometry of modern and early Cretaceous molluscan carbonate from high-latitude seas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkes, G. A.; Price, G. D.; Ambrose, W. G.; Carroll, M. L.; Passey, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is based on the temperature sensitivity of the relative abundance of carbonate ion groups containing 13C-18O bonds. One application of clumped isotope thermometry is to determine the temperature of ancient seawater from the skeletal material of calcium carbonate-secreting marine organisms. The relationship between Δ47, a parameter describing isotopic clumping, and the temperature of carbonate biomineralization has been well-defined for fish otoliths, corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophore tests, but few data have been published for brachiopods and bivalve mollusks. A comprehensive evaluation of the Δ47-temperature relationship for mollusks is required for paleotemperature interpretations from the marine fossil record. Here we present a more comprehensive calibration for modern mollusks, including bivalves, cephalopods, and gastropods. Further, we focus on a subset of cold water, high-latitude species collected in the northern Barents Sea. The observed Δ47-temperature relationship is similar to the theoretical relationship presented by Guo et al. (2009) but deviates at low temperatures from the original Ghosh et al. (2007) calibration curve. This divergence could be related to methodological differences or unaccounted differences in the biomineralization of mollusks versus that of other carbonate-secreting organisms at low temperature. One advantage of clumped isotope thermometry over traditional oxygen isotope thermometry is that it does not require assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water in which the carbonate formed. This may be particularly useful in Mesozoic paleoceanography where the oxygen isotope value of seawater is uncertain. Using clumped isotope thermometry applied to early Cretaceous (Valangian) belemnite carbonate from the Yatria River, sub-polar Urals, Siberia, we find shell growth temperatures of 20-26°C at a paleolatitude of ~60-65°N. Our data imply average seawater δ18O values of 0

  6. Multivariate analysis of the sexual dimorphism of the hip bone in a modern human population and in early hominids.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1994-02-01

    A large sample of hip bones of known sex coming from one modern population is studied morphologically and by multivariate analysis to investigate sexual dimorphism patterns. A principal component analysis of raw data shows that a large amount of the hip bone sexual dimorphism is accounted for by size differences, but that sex-linked shape variation is also very conspicuous and cannot be considered an allometric consequence of differences in body size between the sexes. The PCA of transformed ("shape") variables indicates that the female hip bones are different in those traits associated with a relatively larger pelvic inlet (longer pubic bones, a greater degree of curvature of the iliopectineal line, and more posterior position of the auricular surface), as well as a broader sciatic notch. The analysis of nonmetric traits also shows marked sexual dimorphism in the position of the sacroiliac joint in the iliac bone, in the shape of the sciatic notch, in pubic morphology, and in the presence of the pre-auricular sulcus in females. When the australopithecine AL 288-1 and Sts 14 hip bones are included in the multivariate analysis, they appear as "ultra-females." In particular these early hominids exhibit extraordinarily long pubic bones and iliopectineal lines, which cannot be explained by allometry. PMID:8147439

  7. [Criminal responsibility and confinement of the insane from antiquity to early modern Japan].

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Genshiro

    2003-01-01

    ANTIQUITY: The third Japanese legal code, Youro Ritsuryo, was compiled in 718. The code classified the insane people as severely handicapped, exempted them from taxes and reduced their punishments when they committed a crime. MEDIEVAL: We cannot find any description on criminal responsibility of the insane in the legal documents of this age. EARLY MODERN: In 1742, the Tokugawa government enacted a criminal code named Osadamegaki-hyakkajyo, which contained a clause on the criminal responsibility of the people suffering from insanity or alcoholism. In principle, even if the criminal who committed homicide had been insane, he or she was sentenced to death. However, when the criminal had been obviously insane and the master or relatives of the victim appealed for mercy the judge could spare his/her life. The case of killing under the influence of simple alcohol intoxication was considered to be fully responsible. However, the case of pathological intoxication was treated in the same way as the case of insanity. There was a strict rule for confinement of the insane. When people thought that confinement was inevitable, a petition for confinement was submitted to the court under the joint signature of the family, the members of goningumi (a mutual responsibility unit), and the head of the town or village. In big cities like Edo (now Tokyo), a medical certificate of a doctor was attached to the petition. After receiving the petition, the court dispatched officials to inspect the case. When the court could confirm the necessity of confinement, they gave the permission and sealed the lock of a private cell where the insane was confined. People had to appeal to the court again when they wanted to free the insane from the cell. PMID:12708014

  8. Plume-induced subduction initiation: dynamics and significance for modern and early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Stern, Robert; Baes, Marzieh; Sobolev, Stephan; Whattam, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Subduction initiation scenarios can be markedly different in case of globally active vs. globally absent plate tectonics. Most present-day subduction initiation mechanisms require acting plate forces and/or preexisting zones of lithospheric weakness, which are themselves the consequence of plate tectonics (Stern 2004). In contrast, spontaneous plume-induced subduction initiation - suggested on the basis of numerical thermo-mechanical experiments (Ueda et al., 2008) and supported by data re-interpretation of how subduction started in Late Cretaceous time around the Caribbean LIP (Whattam and Stern, 2015) - does not require pre-existing lithospheric fabric, such as are created by active plate tectonics and is viable for both stagnant lid and mobile/deformable lid conditions. Here, we present results of high-resolution 3D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling of plume-induced subduction resulting from tectono-magmatic interaction of an ascending thermal mantle plume with old, cold, dense oceanic lithosphere. We demonstrate that weakening of the strong lithosphere by plume-induced magmatism is the key factor enabling subduction initiation around the plume head. A large plume head is required to overcome ring confinement by slab tearing, and subduction initiation is further favored when plume activity and lithospheric weakening continues for several tens of Ma. We further discuss possible implications of this scenario for modern plate tectonics as well as for plate tectonics initiation in the early Earth. References Stern, R.J., 2004. Subduction initiation: spontaneous and induced. EPSL 226, 275-292. Ueda, K., Gerya, T., Sobolev, S.V., 2008. Subduction initiation by thermal-chemical plumes. PEPI 171, 296-312. Whattam, S.A., Stern, R. 2015. Late Cretaceous plume-induced subduction initiation along the southern margin of the Caribbean and NW South America: The first documented example with implications for the onset of plate tectonics. Gondwana Research, 27, 38-63.

  9. Modernity and Empire: A Modest Analysis of Early Colonial Writing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyaraj, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  11. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  12. 'Very sore nights and days': the child's experience of illness in early modern England, c.1580-1720.

    PubMed

    Newton, Hannah

    2011-04-01

    Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children's experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfillment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children's emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors' casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

  13. High-throughput SNP genotyping of historical and modern samples of five bird species via sequence capture of ultraconserved elements.

    PubMed

    Lim, Haw Chuan; Braun, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Sample availability limits population genetics research on many species, especially taxa from regions with high diversity. However, many such species are well represented in museum collections assembled before the molecular era. Development of techniques to recover genetic data from these invaluable specimens will benefit biodiversity science. Using a mixture of freshly preserved and historical tissue samples, and a sequence capture probe set targeting >5000 loci, we produced high-confidence genotype calls on thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of five South-East Asian bird species and their close relatives (N = 27-43). On average, 66.2% of the reads mapped to the pseudo-reference genome of each species. Of these mapped reads, an average of 52.7% was identified as PCR or optical duplicates. We achieved deeper effective sequencing for historical samples (122.7×) compared to modern samples (23.5×). The number of nucleotide sites with at least 8× sequencing depth was high, with averages ranging from 0.89 × 10(6)  bp (Arachnothera, modern samples) to 1.98 × 10(6)  bp (Stachyris, modern samples). Linear regression revealed that the amount of sequence data obtained from each historical sample (represented by per cent of the pseudo-reference genome recovered with ≥8× sequencing depth) was positively and significantly (P ≤ 0.013) related to how recently the sample was collected. We observed characteristic post-mortem damage in the DNA of historical samples. However, we were able to reduce the error rate significantly by truncating ends of reads during read mapping (local alignment) and conducting stringent SNP and genotype filtering. PMID:27427784

  14. Assessing the effect of manual physical activity on proximal hand phalanges using Hellenistic and modern skeletal samples from Greece.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, F A; Le Quéré, E; Vanna, V; Moraitis, K

    2016-04-01

    In humans, physical activity is an important regulator of bone size. Furthermore, hand bones have been proposed as a potential avenue for assessing patterns of manual activity. However, there are very few studies presenting a metric comparison of proximal hand phalanges among different populations. Moreover, an osteoarchaeological approach to the manual activities performed by an ancient population is yet to be made. In this framework, this study aims at assessing and interpreting the metric variation in these bones between a documented modern Greek sample (20th century) and a Hellenistic sample from Demetrias (3rd-1st century BCE), in terms of size and sexual dimorphism. Ancient males were significantly larger than females for ten phalangeal measurements out of 35. Even though the degree of sexual dimorphism was lower in the Hellenistic material (the maximum sexual dimorphism observed - 12.46%) than in modern sample (the maximum observed - 21.19%), the ranking of rays and bone parts by sexual dimorphism was similar in both populations. No metric difference was observed between modern and ancient males, whereas ancient females were larger than modern females in seven dimensions (the maximum variation observed was 11.58%), which involved the bases and midshafts of phalanges. Given that these dimensions are affected by the degree of muscular recruitment for the formation of various hand grips, it is suggested that ancient females were involved in manual activities of greater grasping variance than modern females. Indeed, the historical and archaeological sources suggest that sexual distribution of labour in the Hellenistic society seems to explain the differences estimated between the sexes and the two populations under study. PMID:26772163

  15. [Academy idea and Curiositas as leitmotif of the early modern Leopoldina].

    PubMed

    Boehm, Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    , it deals with aspects of privilege law, regarding the development of new kinds of higher learning institutions and university politics in the imperial city in the confessional era ("Semi-Universities"/"Academies" Strassburg, Nuremberg-Altdorf). This is followed by a thematic balancing.--Chapter III. Curiositas as an Early Modern Leitmotif of Natural Science Academies refers first to the multivalent popular usage of the fashionable and borrowed German word "Kuriosität" [curiosity] during the Enlightenment, then inquires about the word's original definitions in ancient and medieval scholarly traditions. In the age of humanist source study and expeditions into "new worlds", the concept of curiositas as an (ethically ambivalent) "desire for knowledge" was revitalized; this is exemplified by two types of sources: the report of the Orient and Brazil explorer André Thevet and the literarily virulent figure (around 1600) of knowledge-thirsty Faust. A reexamination of the academy's foundational documents, in conjunction with the peregrinatio academica of Schweinfurt doctors to Italy, confirms the old question, now newly posed, about the methodological and programmatic signal of the curiositas device. The self-reflection of the naturae-curiosi and their focus on observational development and natural-historical classifications in the area of "materia medica" show--besides other advances in scholarship in the early 17th century--clear correlation with the "phenomenology of modern thought" that is so often discussed today. However, there must be an evolutionary and innovative differentiation from what would later be called "natural science" disciplines (like biology, zoology, mineralogy, chemistry), as opposed to an all-inclusively defined "scientific revolution", which pertains to astronomical and mathematical ways of thinking, as well as new insights in the physical-instrumental field.--Chapter IV. The Urban Medical Profession Between Scholarly Medicine and Practice applies

  16. [The "good doctor". Physicians' morality and the self-conception of medicine since the early modern period].

    PubMed

    Polianski, Igor J

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the historical change in medical ethics since the beginning of the early modern period, drawing on normative sources, mostly of German origin. The theoretical frame of reference is provided by historical moral sociology and the history of the modernisation, as expounded in Niklas Luhmann's system theory. In a first step, evidence for the change in the moral codes of the various social systems (science, economy etc.) of the early modern period is assembled (1) in order to approach the question, taking the medieval medical doctrines of salvation as a starting point (2), whether structurally analogous processes of change can be made out in the medical system. These are identified in the removal of a moral evaluation of disease and in the moral neutralization of doctors' behaviour which is reflected in the spread of medical happiness doctrines (3). Following an interim reflection on moral theory (4), the enforcement of a modern behavioural code in 19th-century medical deontology is outlined, which was based on moral restraint (5) and the specific professional identity of the doctor (6). A summary of the results leads to a concluding outlook on current trends in medical ethics discourse (7). PMID:23213865

  17. [The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period--Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern].

    PubMed

    Nipperdey, Justus

    2015-06-01

    The Significance of Terminology for the Idea of a Historical Period - Considerations on Frühe Neuzeit/Early Modern. This article focuses on the relationship between the names given to historical periods and the attributed substance of that period. It argues that the possibility of a neutralisation in terms of substantive meaning depends on the terminology used to delineate a historical period. Considering the example of 'early modern history' the article sketches the usage of that term in twentieth century historiography. While it is clear that the concept cannot escape the inherent teleology of modernity succeeding pre-modern ages, the analysis shows that historians have used 'early modern' in surprisingly divers ways trying to overcome the semantic meaning of the term itself. PMID:26140628

  18. The Early Republic: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Early Republic. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of the materials about "The Federalist Papers," the Bill of Rights, the Constitutional Convention, Thomas Jefferson, and other topics. (CMK)

  19. Modern sampled-data control theory: Design of the Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of varying the sampling period on the dynamic response of the sampled-data Large Space Telescope (LST) system. A range of sampling periods was recommended based on the criterion that self-sustained oscillations are to be avoided in the LST system. The step responses of the LST system were then investigated when various sampling periods are used. For small sampling periods, the dynamic behavior of the sampled-data system is very similar to that of the continuous-data system. When T is large (but less than 0.25 sec) the overshoot of the step response of the sampled-data becomes greater. However, the dynamic behavior of the sampled-data system may be improved by redesigning the controller. It appears that a sampling period as high as 0.1 second is feasible for the LST system. However, it should be noted that the conclusions are obtained with the existing system model. Other practical considerations such as noise, coupling effects and quantization errors, may restrict the sampling period to a lower value.

  20. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Sample Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Sample ages have enabled us to infer that impact-melt breccias from Apollo 14 and 15 record the formation of the Imbrium Basin, those from the highland massifs at Apollo 17 record the age of Serenitatis, those from the KREEP-poor Apollo 16 site record the age of Nectaris, and materials from Luna 24 record the age of Crisium. Ejecta from smaller and younger craters Copernicus and Tycho were sampled at Apollo 12 and 17, respectively, and local craters such as Cone at Apollo 14, and North Ray and South Ray at Apollo 16 were also sampled and ages determined for those events. Much of what we understand about the lunar impact flux is based on these ages. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples.

  1. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England†

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  2. Before the injection--modern methods of sample preparation for separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger M

    2003-06-01

    The importance of sample preparation methods as the first stage in an analytical procedure is emphasised and examined. Examples are given of the extraction and concentration of analytes from solid, liquid and gas phase matrices, including solvent phase extractions, such as supercritical fluids and superheated water extraction, solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction, headspace analysis and vapour trapping. The potential role of selective extraction methods, including molecular imprinted phases and affinity columns, are considered. For problem samples alternative approaches, such as derivatisation are discussed, and potential new approaches minimising sample preparation are noted. PMID:12877164

  3. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia. PMID:23870460

  4. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

  5. Children’s Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Summary Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors’ casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of ‘children’s physic’ existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children’s physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child’s humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children’s bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature. PMID:26306061

  6. Biogeography of Triassic tetrapods: evidence for provincialism and driven sympatric cladogenesis in the early evolution of modern tetrapod lineages.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martin D

    2010-08-22

    Triassic tetrapods are of key importance in understanding their evolutionary history, because several tetrapod clades, including most of their modern lineages, first appeared or experienced their initial evolutionary radiation during this Period. In order to test previous palaeobiogeographical hypotheses of Triassic tetrapod faunas, tree reconciliation analyses (TRA) were performed with the aim of recovering biogeographical patterns based on phylogenetic signals provided by a composite tree of Middle and Late Triassic tetrapods. The TRA found significant evidence for the presence of different palaeobiogeographical patterns during the analysed time spans. First, a Pangaean distribution is observed during the Middle Triassic, in which several cosmopolitan tetrapod groups are found. During the early Late Triassic a strongly palaeolatitudinally influenced pattern is recovered, with some tetrapod lineages restricted to palaeolatitudinal belts. During the latest Triassic, Gondwanan territories were more closely related to each other than to Laurasian ones, with a distinct tetrapod fauna at low palaeolatitudes. Finally, more than 75 per cent of the cladogenetic events recorded in the tetrapod phylogeny occurred as sympatric splits or within-area vicariance, indicating that evolutionary processes at the regional level were the main drivers in the radiation of Middle and Late Triassic tetrapods and the early evolution of several modern tetrapod lineages. PMID:20392730

  7. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M.; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500–1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400–1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change. PMID:24403343

  8. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe ~39,000–41,000 years ago but they have contributed one to three percent of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia1. Here, we analyze DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old2 modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of six to nine percent of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe. PMID:26098372

  9. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-08-13

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe approximately 39,000-41,000 years ago but they have contributed 1-3% of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia. Here we analyse DNA from a 37,000-42,000-year-old modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of 6-9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe. PMID:26098372

  10. The role of microbes in accretion, lamination and early lithification of modern marine stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, R. P.; Visscher, P. T.; Decho, A. W.; Stolz, J. F.; Bebout, B. M.; Dupraz, C.; Macintyre, I. G.; Paerl, H. W.; Pinckney, J. L.; Prufert-Bebout, L.; Steppe, T. F.; DesMarais, D. J.

    2000-08-01

    For three billion years, before the Cambrian diversification of life, laminated carbonate build-ups called stromatolites were widespread in shallow marine seas. These ancient structures are generally thought to be microbial in origin and potentially preserve evidence of the Earth's earliest biosphere. Despite their evolutionary significance, little is known about stromatolite formation, especially the relative roles of microbial and environmental factors in stromatolite accretion. Here we show that growth of modern marine stromatolites represents a dynamic balance between sedimentation and intermittent lithification of cyanobacterial mats. Periods of rapid sediment accretion, during which stromatolite surfaces are dominated by pioneer communities of gliding filamentous cyanobacteria, alternate with hiatal intervals. These discontinuities in sedimentation are characterized by development of surface films of exopolymer and subsequent heterotrophic bacterial decomposition, forming thin crusts of microcrystalline carbonate. During prolonged hiatal periods, climax communities develop, which include endolithic coccoid cyanobacteria. These coccoids modify the sediment, forming thicker lithified laminae. Preservation of lithified layers at depth creates millimetre-scale lamination. This simple model of modern marine stromatolite growth may be applicable to ancient stromatolites.

  11. Modern Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's Early Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The survival of our early biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the early evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for early evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of early Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's early atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving early environment. For example, modern mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater

  12. Research study on stabilization and control: Modern sampled data control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.; Yackel, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A numerical analysis of spacecraft stability parameters was conducted. The analysis is based on a digital approximation by point by point state comparison. The technique used is that of approximating a continuous data system by a sampled data model by comparison of the states of the two systems. Application of the method to the digital redesign of the simplified one axis dynamics of the Skylab is presented.

  13. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  14. Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid

  15. Variability in an early hominin percussive tradition: the Acheulean versus cultural variation in modern chimpanzee artefacts.

    PubMed

    Gowlett, J A J

    2015-11-19

    Percussion makes a vital link between the activities of early human ancestors and other animals in tool-use and tool-making. Far more of the early human actions are preserved as archaeology, since the percussion was largely used for making hard tools of stone, rather than for direct access to food. Both primate tools and early hominin tools, however, offer a means to exploring variability in material culture, a strong focus of interest in recent primate studies. This paper charts such variability in the Acheulean, the longest-lasting tool tradition, extant form about 1.7 to about 0.1 Ma, and well known for its characteristic handaxes. The paper concentrates on the African record, although the Acheulean was also known in Europe and Asia. It uses principal components and discriminant analysis to examine the measurements from 66 assemblages (whole toolkits), and from 18 sets of handaxes. Its review of evidence confirms that there is deep-seated pattern in the variation, with variability within a site complex often matching or exceeding that between sites far distant in space and time. Current techniques of study allow comparisons of handaxes far more easily than for other components, stressing a need to develop common practice in measurement and analysis. The data suggest, however, that a higher proportion of traits recurs widely in Acheulean toolkits than in the chimpanzee record. PMID:26483536

  16. Dental wear patterns in early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh: A response to Sarig and Tillier.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2015-10-01

    The use of teeth as tools for manipulating objects and simple food-processing methods was common among prehistoric and modern hunter-gatherer human populations. Paramasticatory uses of teeth frequently produce enamel chipping and distinctive types of dental wear that can readily be related to specific tool functions. In particular, the presence of unusual occlusal wear areas (named para-facets) on maxillary teeth of prehistoric, historic and modern hunter-gatherers has been associated with cultural habits involving extensive use of teeth (Fiorenza et al., 2011; Fiorenza and Kullmer, 2013). However, Sarig and Tillier (2014) believe that this wear had been caused by pathological occlusal relationships rather than by the use of teeth as tools. In this contribution, we show how occlusal contacts are created and how it is possible to distinguish between masticatory and non-masticatory wear facets by using an innovative digital approach called Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis. Statistical results from the analysis of comparative modern samples clearly demonstrate that described para-facets in Skhul and Qafzeh could not have been produced by dental occlusal anomalies such as malocclusions and crossbites. Moreover, dental pathologies in prehistoric humans were extremely rare. Only with the adoption of the modern lifestyle between 18th and 19th centuries, did the emergence of malocclusions become significantly more common. Because more than 50% of the Skhul and Qafzeh individuals analysed in our study are characterised by this distinctive type of wear, it is highly unlikely that their para-facets occurred as a result of dental pathologies. PMID:26048367

  17. Virtual reconstruction of modern and fossil hominoid crania: consequences of reference sample choice.

    PubMed

    Senck, Sascha; Bookstein, Fred L; Benazzi, Stefano; Kastner, Johann; Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-05-01

    Most hominin cranial fossils are incomplete and require reconstruction prior to subsequent analyses. Missing data can be estimated by geometric morphometrics using information from complete specimens, for example, by using thin-plate splines. In this study, we estimate missing data in several virtually fragmented models of hominoid crania (Homo, Pan, Pongo) and fossil hominins (e.g., Australopithecus africanus, Homo heidelbergensis). The aim is to investigate in which way different references influence estimations of cranial shape and how this information can be employed in the reconstruction of fossils. We used a sample of 64 three-dimensional digital models of complete human, chimpanzee, and orangutan crania and a set of 758 landmarks and semilandmarks. The virtually knocked out neurocranial and facial areas that were reconstructed corresponded to those of a real case found in A.L. 444-2 (A. afarensis) cranium. Accuracy of multiple intraspecies and interspecies reconstructions was computed as the maximum square root of the mean squared difference between the original and the reconstruction (root mean square). The results show that the uncertainty in reconstructions is a function of both the geometry of the knockout area and the dissimilarity between the reference sample and the specimen(s) undergoing reconstruction. We suggest that it is possible to estimate large missing cranial areas if the shape of the reference is similar enough to the shape of the specimen reconstructed, though caution must be exercised when employing these reconstructions in subsequent analyses. We provide a potential guide for the choice of the reference by means of bending energy. PMID:25689596

  18. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Christopher A.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Talbot, Michael R.; Brown, Erik T.; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Lyons, Robert P.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Castañeda, Isla S.; Heil, Clifford W.; Forman, Steven L.; McHargue, Lanny R.; Beuning, Kristina R.; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-01-01

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after ≈70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations. PMID:17785420

  19. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Erich D.; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J.; Li, Bo; Houde, Peter; Li, Cai; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Nabholz, Benoit; Howard, Jason T.; Suh, Alexander; Weber, Claudia C.; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Long; Narula, Nitish; Liu, Liang; Ganapathy, Ganesh; Boussau, Bastien; Bayzid, Md. Shamsuzzoha; Zavidovych, Volodymyr; Subramanian, Sankar; Gabaldón, Toni; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Munch, Kasper; Schierup, Mikkel; Lindow, Bent; Warren, Wesley C.; Ray, David; Green, Richard E.; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Li, Shengbin; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sheldon, Frederick H.; Brumfield, Robb T.; Mello, Claudio V.; Lovell, Peter V.; Wirthlin, Morgan; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Velazquez, Amhed Missael Vargas; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Campos, Paula F.; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Pas, An; Bailey, Tom; Scofield, Paul; Bunce, Michael; Lambert, David M.; Zhou, Qi; Perelman, Polina; Driskell, Amy C.; Shapiro, Beth; Xiong, Zijun; Zeng, Yongli; Liu, Shiping; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Binghang; Wu, Kui; Xiao, Jin; Yinqi, Xiong; Zheng, Qiuemei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Smeds, Linnea; Rheindt, Frank E.; Braun, Michael; Fjeldsa, Jon; Orlando, Ludovic; Barker, F. Keith; Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Johnson, Warren; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; O’Brien, Stephen; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Glenn, Travis C.; McCormack, John; Burt, Dave; Ellegren, Hans; Alström, Per; Edwards, Scott V.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Mindell, David P.; Cracraft, Joel; Braun, Edward L.; Warnow, Tandy; Jun, Wang; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie

    2015-01-01

    To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago. PMID:25504713

  20. [The admirable effects of panaceas: ideas between antiquity and early modern times].

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Panaceas, i. e. medicines that can cure many or almost all diseases, were used throughout the history from antiquity until modern times. The paper focuses on ideas developed to explain the admirable actions of these medicines. In antiquity such actions seem to be related to the large number of ingredients as well as to the presence of materials connected to potent poisons (e. g. viper flesh). Later, with the advent of alchemy, the alchemical preparation is regarded to produce medicines with such properties, the most pregnant example being lapis philosophorum. Such explanations are underpinned by the correspondences with higher astral influences as espoused by Paracelsus, as well as by van Helmont's idea that both disease and cure depend exclusively on the state of the 'spirit of life'. At the same time Galenic-like ideas survive, in the sense that panaceas are something like universal purifiers. Besides curing diseases panaceas were used to ensure long living, permanent health as well as for achieving rejuvenation. In this respect, they show an affinity to the so-called 'healing power of nature'. PMID:22400194

  1. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Erich D; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J; Li, Bo; Houde, Peter; Li, Cai; Ho, Simon Y W; Faircloth, Brant C; Nabholz, Benoit; Howard, Jason T; Suh, Alexander; Weber, Claudia C; da Fonseca, Rute R; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Long; Narula, Nitish; Liu, Liang; Ganapathy, Ganesh; Boussau, Bastien; Bayzid, Md Shamsuzzoha; Zavidovych, Volodymyr; Subramanian, Sankar; Gabaldón, Toni; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Munch, Kasper; Schierup, Mikkel; Lindow, Bent; Warren, Wesley C; Ray, David; Green, Richard E; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Li, Shengbin; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sheldon, Frederick H; Brumfield, Robb T; Mello, Claudio V; Lovell, Peter V; Wirthlin, Morgan; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Vargas Velazquez, Amhed Missael; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Campos, Paula F; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Pas, An; Bailey, Tom; Scofield, Paul; Bunce, Michael; Lambert, David M; Zhou, Qi; Perelman, Polina; Driskell, Amy C; Shapiro, Beth; Xiong, Zijun; Zeng, Yongli; Liu, Shiping; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Binghang; Wu, Kui; Xiao, Jin; Yinqi, Xiong; Zheng, Qiuemei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Smeds, Linnea; Rheindt, Frank E; Braun, Michael; Fjeldsa, Jon; Orlando, Ludovic; Barker, F Keith; Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Johnson, Warren; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; O'Brien, Stephen; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Rahbek, Carsten; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Glenn, Travis C; McCormack, John; Burt, Dave; Ellegren, Hans; Alström, Per; Edwards, Scott V; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Mindell, David P; Cracraft, Joel; Braun, Edward L; Warnow, Tandy; Jun, Wang; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-12-12

    To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago. PMID:25504713

  2. NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

  3. A Fish-Eating Enantiornithine Bird from the Early Cretaceous of China Provides Evidence of Modern Avian Digestive Features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Zhonghe; Sullivan, Corwin

    2016-05-01

    Modern birds differ from their theropod ancestors in lacking teeth and heavily constructed bony jaws, having evolved a lightly built beak and a specialized digestive system capable of processing unmasticated food [1, 2]. Enantiornithes, the most successful clade of Mesozoic birds, represents the sister group of the Ornithuromorpha, which gave rise to living birds [3]. Nevertheless, the feeding habits of enantiornithines have remained unknown because of a lack of fossil evidence. In contrast, exceptionally preserved fossils reveal that derived avian features were present in the digestive systems of some non-enantiornithine birds with ages exceeding 125 million years [4, 5]. Here, we report a new piscivorous enantiornithine from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. This specimen preserves a gastric pellet that includes fish bones. The new enantiornithine, like many modern piscivores and raptors, seems to have swallowed its prey whole and regurgitated indigestible materials such as bones, invertebrate exoskeletons, scales, and feathers. This fossil represents the oldest unambiguous record of an avian gastric pellet and the only such record from the Mesozoic. The pellet points to a fish diet and suggests that the alimentary tract of the new enantiornithine resembled that of extant avians in having efficient antiperistalsis and a two-chambered stomach with a muscular gizzard capable of compacting indigestible matter into a cohesive pellet. The inferred occurrence of these advanced features in an enantiornithine implies that they were widespread in Cretaceous birds and likely facilitated dietary diversification within both Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha. PMID:27133872

  4. Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Labandeira, Conrad C; Williams, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Generalities of food web structure have been identified for extant ecosystems. However, the trophic organization of ancient ecosystems is unresolved, as prior studies of fossil webs have been limited by low-resolution, high-uncertainty data. We compiled highly resolved, well-documented feeding interaction data for 700 taxa from the 48 million-year-old latest early Eocene Messel Shale, which contains a species assemblage that developed after an interval of protracted environmental and biotal change during and following the end-Cretaceous extinction. We compared the network structure of Messel lake and forest food webs to extant webs using analyses that account for scale dependence of structure with diversity and complexity. The Messel lake web, with 94 taxa, displays unambiguous similarities in structure to extant webs. While the Messel forest web, with 630 taxa, displays differences compared to extant webs, they appear to result from high diversity and resolution of insect-plant interactions, rather than substantive differences in structure. The evidence presented here suggests that modern trophic organization developed along with the modern Messel biota during an 18 Myr interval of dramatic post-extinction change. Our study also has methodological implications, as the Messel forest web analysis highlights limitations of current food web data and models. PMID:24648225

  5. Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Williams, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Generalities of food web structure have been identified for extant ecosystems. However, the trophic organization of ancient ecosystems is unresolved, as prior studies of fossil webs have been limited by low-resolution, high-uncertainty data. We compiled highly resolved, well-documented feeding interaction data for 700 taxa from the 48 million-year-old latest early Eocene Messel Shale, which contains a species assemblage that developed after an interval of protracted environmental and biotal change during and following the end-Cretaceous extinction. We compared the network structure of Messel lake and forest food webs to extant webs using analyses that account for scale dependence of structure with diversity and complexity. The Messel lake web, with 94 taxa, displays unambiguous similarities in structure to extant webs. While the Messel forest web, with 630 taxa, displays differences compared to extant webs, they appear to result from high diversity and resolution of insect–plant interactions, rather than substantive differences in structure. The evidence presented here suggests that modern trophic organization developed along with the modern Messel biota during an 18 Myr interval of dramatic post-extinction change. Our study also has methodological implications, as the Messel forest web analysis highlights limitations of current food web data and models. PMID:24648225

  6. ‘Nature Concocts & Expels’: The Agents and Processes of Recovery from Disease in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The ‘golden saying’ in early modern medicine was ‘Nature is the healer of disease’. This article uncovers the meaning and significance of this forgotten axiom by investigating perceptions of the agents and physiological processes of recovery from illness in England, c.1580–1720. Drawing on sources such as medical texts and diaries, it shows that doctors and laypeople attributed recovery to three agents—God, Nature and the practitioner. While scholars are familiar with the roles of providence and medicine, the vital agency of Nature has been overlooked. In theory, the agents operated in a hierarchy: Nature was ‘God's instrument’, and the physician, ‘Nature's servant’; but in practice the power balance was more ambivalent. Nature was depicted both as a housewife who cooked and cleaned the humours, and as a warrior who defeated the disease. Through exploring these complex dynamics, the article sheds fresh light on concepts of gender, disease and bodies. PMID:26217069

  7. Testing the applicability of six macroscopic skeletal aging techniques on a modern Southeast Asian sample.

    PubMed

    Gocha, Timothy P; Ingvoldstad, Megan E; Kolatorowicz, Adam; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Meghan-Tomasita J; Sciulli, Paul W

    2015-04-01

    Most macroscopic skeletal aging techniques used by forensic anthropologists have been developed and tested only on reference material from western populations. This study examined the performance of six aging techniques on a known age sample of 88 Southeast Asian individuals. Methods examined included the Suchey-Brooks method of aging the symphyseal face of the os pubis (Brooks and Suchey, Hum. Evol. 5 (1990) 227), Buckberry and Chamberlain's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 231 and Osborne et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 49 (2004) 1 revisions of the Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15 method of aging the auricular surface of the ilium, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 29 (1984) 1094, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 30 (1985) 853 method of aging the sternal end of the fourth rib, and Meindl and Lovejoy's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 57 methods for aging both lateral-anterior and vault sutures on the cranium. The results of this study indicate that application of aging techniques commonly used in forensic anthropology to individuals identified as Asian, and more specifically Southeast Asian, should not be undertaken injudiciously. Of the six individual methods tested here, the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging method performs best, though average age estimates were still off by nearly 10 years or greater. Methods for aging the auricular surface perform next best, though the Osborne et al. method works better for individuals below 50 years and the Buckberry and Chamberlain method works better for those above 50 years. Methods for age estimation from the sternal ends of the fourth rib and vault and lateral-anterior cranial sutures perform poorly and are not recommended for use on remains of Southeast Asian ancestry. Combining age estimates from multiple indicators, specifically the pubic symphysis and one auricular surface method, was superior to individual methods. Data and a worked example are provided for calculating the conditional

  8. The Evolution of Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers from Early to Modern Devices.

    PubMed

    Roche, Nicolas; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard

    2016-08-01

    Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) are sometimes viewed as old-fashioned and as having been superseded by dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Here, we review the technological advances that characterize modern pMDIs, and consider how they can influence the effectiveness of drug delivery for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared with old chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based inhalers, many hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-driven pMDIs have more favorable plume characteristics such as a reduced velocity and a higher fine particle fraction; together, these advances have resulted in the development of pMDIs with reduced oropharyngeal deposition and increased lung deposition. In addition, the plume from many HFA-pMDIs is warmer, which may facilitate their use by patients; moreover, devices are equipped with dose counters, which improves their reliability. As well as reviewing the technological advances of pMDIs, we also discuss the importance of individualizing inhaler therapies to each patient by accounting for their personal preferences and natural breathing patterns. Because pMDIs and DPIs differ considerably in their handling characteristics, matching the right inhaler to the right patient is key to ensuring effective therapy and good compliance. Finally, the majority of patients can be trained successfully in the correct use of their pMDI; training and regular monitoring of inhalation technique are essential prerequisites for effective therapy. While the 'ideal inhaler' may not exist, pMDIs are an effective device option suitable for many patients. pMDIs, together with other types of devices, offer opportunities for the effective individualization of treatments. PMID:26824873

  9. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  10. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S Y; Jago, James B; García-Bellido, Diego C; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Gehling, James G; Paterson, John R

    2011-06-30

    Despite the status of the eye as an "organ of extreme perfection", theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (∼ 515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized 'bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event. PMID:21720369

  11. Modern Subsurface Bacteria in Pristine 2.7 Ga-Old Fossil Stromatolite Drillcore Samples from the Fortescue Group, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Emmanuelle; Moreira, David; Philippot, Pascal; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; López-García, Purificación

    2009-01-01

    Background Several abiotic processes leading to the formation of life-like signatures or later contamination with actual biogenic traces can blur the interpretation of the earliest fossil record. In recent years, a large body of evidence showing the occurrence of diverse and active microbial communities in the terrestrial subsurface has accumulated. Considering the time elapsed since Archaean sedimentation, the contribution of subsurface microbial communities postdating the rock formation to the fossil biomarker pool and other biogenic remains in Archaean rocks may be far from negligible. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the degree of potential contamination of Archean rocks by modern microorganisms, we looked for the presence of living indigenous bacteria in fresh diamond drillcores through 2,724 Myr-old stromatolites (Tumbiana Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia) using molecular methods based on the amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNAs). We analyzed drillcore samples from 4.3 m and 66.2 m depth, showing signs of meteoritic alteration, and also from deeper “fresh” samples showing no apparent evidence for late stage alteration (68 m, 78.8 m, and 99.3 m). We also analyzed control samples from drilling and sawing fluids and a series of laboratory controls to establish a list of potential contaminants introduced during sample manipulation and PCR experiments. We identified in this way the presence of indigenous bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria in aseptically-sawed inner parts of drillcores down to at least 78.8 m depth. Conclusions/Significance The presence of modern bacterial communities in subsurface fossil stromatolite layers opens the possibility that a continuous microbial colonization had existed in the past and contributed to the accumulation of biogenic traces over geological timescales. This finding casts shadow on bulk analyses of early life

  12. Great Danube flood peak of the late medieval - early modern transition: the 1470s-1520s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of very detailed contemporary documentation, namely legal-administrative documentation (charters) and the annual (or daily) information available in the Bratislava accounts (mainly bridgemasters' accounts), a relatively detailed picture of a massive flood peak can be detected in the Carpathian Basin documentation concerning the decades of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These decades are one of the most important period in the millennial flood history of the Danube in this area: both concerning the number of individual flood events and regarding the information on multiannual problems. Moreover, archaeological evidence, for example the flood sediment layers in Visegrád and also the damages, structural and elevation changes of renovated buildings in Buda or along the Upper-Danube, provide similar examples of multiannual flood-related problems. Moreover, clear flood peaks can be also detected at this time on the Austrian sections of the Danube, but especially on its Eastern Alpine tributaries, centred around the 1480s and the greatest flood events of 1501, and also partly of 1503 and 1508 (best documented for the Traun at Wels: see Rohr 2007, 2013). In the poster presentation on the one hand a general overview of the documented flood events and multiannual flood-related information - based on documentary and archaeological evidence -, occurred in the Carpathian Basin are presented regarding frequency, magnitude (3-scaled classification) and seasonality information (when available). On the other hand, differences in flood frequencies, flood types and seasonality is also separately discussed on an annual and decadal scale: while, for example, in the drought-affected 1470s were characterised by ice jam floods, the great flood peak of the 1480s were both rich in ice jams and summer-flood events (with a peak in 1485 with 4 great floods). The decade of the 1500s was mainly influenced by the 1501 "deluge" and further two great flood events (and

  13. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. PMID:25080643

  14. Famine relief and imperial policy in early modern Morocco: the political functions of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, A R

    1981-01-01

    There has been no systematic ethnology nor comparative history of public health. In fact, there has been a broad consensus that prior to the arrival of missionaries and colonial health authorities there was no indigenous public health. These assumptions apply to only some settings and do not reflect the general history of public health. The present study concerns public health in the first century of Alawi rule in Morocco, ca. 1670-1790. The early Alawi sultans undertook public health programs, most of which concerned the prevention and relief of mass starvation. Goals of the programs were consistent with other features of their public policies. Effectiveness of the programs was limited partly by technical and scientific factors, but more by political constraints, especially the sultans' higher priorities for political stability than public welfare and public health. These data provide important insights not only into Moroccan social and political history, but also into the more general problem of the political nature of public health. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:7027811

  15. Biomarkers of sulfate reducing bacteria from a variety of different aged samples including a modern microbial mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pages, A.; Grice, K.; Lockhart, R.; Holman, A.; Melendez, I.; Van Kranendonk, M.; Jaraula, C.

    2011-12-01

    Most biomarkers present in sediments occur in only trace concentrations, trapped in kerogen or may be highly functionalised especially in recent sedimentary deposits making them difficult to chromatographically resolve, thus presenting considerable analytical challenges, especially for isotope studies. Innovative hydro (Hy) pyrolysis (Py) techniques are able to target or convert many of these compounds into free hydrocarbons more amenable to gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). HyPy has been applied to a modern layered smooth mat from Shark Bay, Western Australia. Saturate and aromatic fractions from different layers of the mat have been analysed by GC-MS and CSIA. After HyPy, an even-odd distribution of n-alkanes has been revealed as well as very long-chain n-alkanes up to n-C38. Stable carbon isotopic values of the n-alkanes indicated the presence of at least two bacterial communities. The short-chain n-alkanes were likely to be representative of a cyanobacteria community (δ13C, C15-C23, - 18 to -25 %VPDB) while the carbon isotopic values of the long-chain n-alkanes supported the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria (δ13C, C25-C33, - 30 to - 34 %VPDB). Long-chain fatty acids have been previously reported in sulfate reducing bacteria. It is hypothesised that this distribution and isotopic character representing sulfate reducing bacteria consortia may be preserved in the rock record. This hypothesis has been tested in Australian rocks: a Devonian carbonaceous concretion containing an exceptionally well preserved fossil invertebrate from the Canning Basin, Western Australia, a Paleoproterozoic sample (1.6 billion years old) from a lead-zinc ore deposit from the McArthur Basin, Northern Territories and a Paleoproterozoic chert (2.3 billion years old) from the Pilbara, Western Australia. Biomarkers of these samples showed a strong predominance of long-chain n-alkanes, up to n-C38 with an even-odd distribution

  16. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

    PubMed Central

    Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by modern humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

  17. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.

    PubMed

    Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

  18. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still’s lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20th century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18th century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19th century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders, as

  19. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still's lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20(th) century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18(th) century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19(th) century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders

  20. Early effects of modern electroconvulsive therapy on subjective memory in patients with mania or depression

    PubMed Central

    Bag, Sevda; Canbek, Ozge; Atagun, Ilhan Murat; Kutlar, Tarik Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Context: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a very effective tool for the treatment of psychiatric diseases, memory disturbances are among the most important adverse effects. Aims: This study aimed to assess prospectively early subjective memory complaints in depressive and manic patients due to bilateral, brief-pulse ECT, at different stages of the treatment, compare the associations between psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic characteristics, and ECT characteristics. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done with patients undergoing ECT between November 2008 and April 2009 at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital of 2000 beds. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 patients, scheduled for ECT with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (depressive or manic episode) or unipolar depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnostic criteria, were included in the study and invited to complete the Squire Subjective Memory Questionnaire (SSMQ) before ECT, after the first and third sessions and end of ECT treatment. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were compared with the Kruskal–Wallis test and comparison of the longitudinal data was performed with a nonparametric longitudinal data analysis method, F1_LD_F1 design. Results: SSMQ scores of the patients before ECT were zero. SSMQ scores showed a decrease after the first and third ECT sessions and before discharge, showing a memory disturbance after ECT and were significantly less severe in patients with mania in comparison to those with depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest an increasing degree of subjective memory complaints with bilateral brief-pulse ECT parallel to the increasing number of ECT sessions. PMID:27385854

  1. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans using Modern Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J.

    2015-12-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only α-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced greater preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady

  2. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a

  3. Physical Records of Impacts in the Early and Modern Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauford, Robert E.

    The study of terrestrial meteorite impact craters and of impacted meteorites expands our understanding of cratered rocky surfaces throughout the solar system. Terrestrial craters uniquely expand upon data from remote imaging and planetary surface exploration by providing analogs for understanding the buried sub-surface portions of impact structures, while impacted meteorites provide examples of a much wider range of surface and subsurface impactite materials than we can directly sample thus far through solar system exploration. This report examines three facets of the impact record preserved in terrestrial impact craters and in meteorites. First, it looks at the macroscopic structure of the Sutters Mill meteorite, a brecciated regolithic CM chondrite that preserves a three-dimensional record of the one of the most primitive known impact gardened surfaces in the solar system. The report details distinct lithologies preserved in the meteorite and the ways in which these lithologies reflect impact and alteration processes, with the intention of contextualizing and illuminating the wider body of recently published instrumental work on the stone by the current authors and others. Second, this dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the origin and nature of unique sub-spherical `round rocks' commonly associated with the surface exposed sediments at the proposed Weaubleau impact structure, in west-central Missouri. Third, and finally, the dissertation looks at the nature of impact evidence for small impact pits and craters on earth. Unambiguously proving the impact origin of sub-kilometer terrestrial impact craters has presented significant historical challenges. A systematic analysis of field reports for all widely recognized sub-km terrestrial craters addresses both the nature of compelling evidence for impact origin for structures in this size range and the adequacy of the existing record of evidence for currently recognized structures.

  4. Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Wellens, H L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Halazonetis, D J

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5–40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7–19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws. PMID:23425043

  5. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

  6. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration "Out of Africa" of early modern humans 120,000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, A. H.; Vance, D.; Rohling, E. J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Fello, N.

    2008-12-01

    The climatic history of the Sahara in the Quaternary is likely to have been a key control on the history of human migrations out of Africa. For example, it is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub- Saharan Africa around 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyper-arid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant around 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during the humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of - now buried - fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. This would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age (MSA) Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. We have previously used neodymium and oxygen isotope data to suggest that there was enhanced Nile outflow to the Levantine Sea during Saharan humid periods in Stage 5e and the Holocene1. Here, however, we present further geochemical data which suggest that the freshwater signal from Africa was much stronger further west in the Ionian Sea. Furthermore, analyses of shell samples retrieved from the Libyan fossil river channels traces the geochemical signature found in the Ionian Sea to the Tibesti Mountains in the southern Sahara. These data demonstrate that water in the fossil river systems of the Sahara derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular, confirming the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across

  7. Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (59th, Las Vegas, Nevada, April 11-13, 1987). No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.

    Eleven conference papers explore physical activity in ancient societies as well as human adaptation of physical activities in modern society. The following papers are included: (1) "Physical Activity in Early and Modern Populations: An Evolutionary View" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "How Active Were Early Populations? or Squeezing the Fossil Record"…

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  9. Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

  10. EXTREMELY ISOLATED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. I. THE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, C.; Marcum, P.; Fanelli, M. E-mail: pamela.m.marcum@nasa.gov

    2012-08-15

    We describe the properties of a sample of extremely isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs) selected from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Sample galaxies are isolated from nearest neighbors more luminous than M{sub V} = -16.5 by a minimum distance corresponding to 2.5 Mpc and 350 km s{sup -1} in redshift space. The candidate IEGs exhibit a number of unusual features as compared to bulge-dominated galaxies in cluster and group environments, including fainter luminosities, blue colors suggesting possible recent star formation, and smaller physical sizes. The paper is the first in a series analyzing this isolated galaxy sample.

  11. Marine and terrestrial foods as a source of brain-selective nutrients for early modern humans in the southwestern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, K; Blackhurst, D M; Parkington, J E; Marais, A D

    2016-08-01

    Many attempts have been made to define and reconstruct the most plausible ecological and dietary niche of the earliest members of the human species. While earlier models emphasise big-game hunting in terrestrial, largely savannah environments, more recent scenarios consider the role of marine and aquatic foods as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other brain-selective nutrients. Along the coast of southern Africa, there appears to be an association between the emergence of anatomically modern humans and accumulation of some of the earliest shell middens during the Middle Stone Age (200-40 ka). Fragmentary fossil remains classified as those of anatomically modern humans, along with marine food residues and numerous material cultural indicators of increased social and behavioural complexity have been recovered from coastal sites. In this paper, new information on the nutrient content of marine and terrestrial foods available to early modern humans in the southwestern Cape is presented and compared with existing data on the nutritional value of some wild plant and animal foods in Africa. The results suggest that coastal foraging, particularly the collection of abundant and predictable marine molluscs, would have allowed early modern humans to exploit some of the richest and most accessible sources of protein, micronutrients and longer-chain omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Reliable and accessible sources of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid are considerably more restricted in terrestrial foods. PMID:27457547

  12. Circles of Confidence in Correspondence: Modeling Confidentiality and Secrecy in Knowledge Exchange Networks of Letters and Drawings in the Early Modern Period.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Charles; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Science in the early modern world depended on openness in scholarly communication. On the other hand, a web of commercial, political, and religious conflicts required broad measures of secrecy and confidentiality; similar measures were integral to scholarly rivalries and plagiarism. This paper analyzes confidentiality and secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchange via letters and drawings. We argue that existing approaches to understanding knowledge exchange in early modern Europe--which focus on the Republic of Letters as a unified entity of corresponding scholars--can be improved upon by analyzing multilayered networks of communication. We describe a data model to analyze circles of confidence and cultures of secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchanges. Finally, we discuss the outcomes of a first experiment focusing on the question of how personal and professional/official relationships interact with confidentiality and secrecy, based on a case study of the correspondence of Hugo Grotius. PMID:27071301

  13. ‘Very Sore Nights and Days’: The Child’s Experience of Illness in Early Modern England, c.1580–1720

    PubMed Central

    NEWTON, HANNAH

    2011-01-01

    Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children’s experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfilment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children’s emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors’ casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife. PMID:21461308

  14. Extensive necrotising fasciitis in a 4-day-old neonate: a successful outcome from modern dressings, intensive care and early surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Das Gupta, Romi; Leditschke, J Fred; Kimble, Roy M

    2009-01-01

    Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a fulminant and life-threatening soft tissue infection, which leads to vascular thrombosis and cutaneous ischemia. We present our experience with extensive necrotising fasciitis in a 4-day-old neonate and stress the importance of early diagnosis, modern dressings including negative pressure therapy, prompt surgical debridement and intensive care to improve the survival and cosmetic outcome of children with NF. PMID:18982332

  15. Volcanic Glasses as Habitat for Microfossils: Evidence from the Early Paleoproterozoic Pillow Lavas of Karelia and their Modern Analogues in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adtafieva, M. M.; Rozanov, A. Yu; Sharkov, E. V.; Chistyakov, A. V.; Bogina, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial complexes were identified in the volcanic glasses from the ancient (2.4-Ga-old basaltic pillow-lavas of Karelia) and modern (pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge) volcanic rocks. It was shown that that their microbial colonization is likely to occur by the same mechanism. Thus, well preserved pillow lavas, which occupy a spacious fields in the Archean and Early Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, are promising object for search of the earliest traces of life on Earth.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: a sample of blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris; Thomas, Daniel; Sarzi, Marc; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven P.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Khochfar, Sadegh; Land, Kate; Murray, Phil; Nichol, Robert C.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alex; Vandenberg, Jan; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2009-06-01

    We report the discovery of a population of nearby, blue early-type galaxies with high star formation rates (0.5 < SFR < 50Msolaryr-1). They are identified by their visual morphology as provided by Galaxy Zoo for Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 and their u - r colour. We select a volume-limited sample in the redshift range 0.02 < z < 0.05, corresponding to luminosities of approximately L* and above and with u - r colours significantly bluer than the red sequence. We confirm the early-type morphology of the objects in this sample and investigate their environmental dependence and star formation properties. Blue early-type galaxies tend to live in lower density environments than `normal' red sequence early-types and make up 5.7 +/- 0.4 per cent of the low-redshift early-type galaxy population. We find that such blue early-type galaxies are virtually absent at high velocity dispersions above 200kms-1. Our analysis uses emission line diagnostic diagrams and we find that ~25 per cent of them are actively star forming, while another ~25 per cent host both star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Another ~12 per cent are AGN. The remaining 38 per cent show no strong emission lines. When present and uncontaminated by an AGN contribution, the star formation is generally intense. We consider star formation rates derived from Hα, u band and infrared luminosities, and radial colour profiles, and conclude that the star formation is spatially extended. Of those objects that are not currently undergoing star formation must have ceased doing so recently in order to account for their blue optical colours. The gas-phase metallicity of the actively star-forming blue early-types galaxies is supersolar in all cases. We discuss the place of these objects in the context of galaxy formation. A catalogue of all 204 blue early-type galaxies in our sample, including star formation rates, emission line classification is provided. This publication has been made possible by

  17. Response to Comment on "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds".

    PubMed

    Cracraft, Joel; Houde, Peter; Ho, Simon Y W; Mindell, David P; Fjeldså, Jon; Lindow, Bent; Edwards, Scott V; Rahbek, Carsten; Mirarab, Siavash; Warnow, Tandy; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Braun, Edward L; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-09-25

    Mitchell et al. argue that divergence-time estimates for our avian phylogeny were too young because of an "inappropriate" maximum age constraint for the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and that, as a result, most modern bird orders diverged before the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event 66 million years ago instead of after. However, their interpretations of the fossil record and timetrees are incorrect. PMID:26404820

  18. [Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the early-modern dietetic literature].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of early modern times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational

  19. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  20. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Uski, Oskari; Jalava, Pasi I; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2013-01-15

    Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM(2.5) emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and fuels are poorly known. In this study, health related toxicological properties of PM(1) emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. The PM(1) samples were collected by using a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI). The collected samples were weighed and extracted with methanol for chemical and toxicological analyses. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to a single dose of 1, 3, 10 or 15 mg/kg of the particulate samples for 4, 18 or 24h. Thereafter, the lungs were lavaged and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lungs of 24h exposed mice were collected for inspection of pulmonary tissue damage. There were substantial differences in the combustion qualities of old and modern technology appliances. Modern technology appliances had the lowest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but they induced the highest inflammatory, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities. In contrast, old technology appliances had clearly the highest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but their effect in the mouse lungs were the lowest. Increased inflammatory activity was associated with ash related components of the emissions, whereas high PAH concentrations were correlating with the smallest detected responses, possibly due to their immunosuppressive effect. PMID:23201646

  1. Early Earth differentiation investigated through 142Nd, 182W, and highly siderophile element abundances in samples from Isua, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo, H.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Touboul, M.; Horan, M. F.; Puchtel, I. S.; Boyet, M.; Rosing, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    We report new data for W concentrations, stable W isotopic compositions, high-precision 182W/184W ratios, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and 187Re-187Os systematics in a suite of 3.8-3.3 Ga mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Isua supracrustal belt, and the Paleoarchean terrane in the northwestern part of the belt. These data are compared with published data for 146Sm-142Nd systematics in the same samples. The samples from the Isua supracrustal belt show well resolved excesses of 182W/184W of up to ∼21 ppm, consistent with previous W isotopic data reported by Willbold et al. (2011). While there is abundant evidence that W was mobilized in the crust accessed by the Isua supracrustal suite, the isotopic anomalies are interpreted to primarily reflect processes that affected the mantle precursors to these rocks. The origin of the 182W excesses in these rocks remains uncertain. The Isua mantle source could represent a portion of the post-core-formation mantle that was isolated from late accretionary additions (e.g., Willbold et al., 2011). However, the combined 182W, Re-Os isotopic systematics and HSE abundances estimated for the source of the Isua basalts are difficult to reconcile with this interpretation. The W isotope variations were more likely produced as a result of fractionation of the Hf/W ratio in the mantle during the lifetime of 182Hf, i.e., during the first 50 Ma of Solar System history. This could have occurred as a result of differentiation in an early magma ocean. The Isua suite examined is also characterized by variable 142Nd/144Nd, but the variations do not correlate with the variations in 182W/184W. Further, samples with ages between 3.8 and 3.3 Ga show gradual diminution of 142Nd anomalies until these are no longer resolved from the modern mantle isotopic composition. By contrast, there is no diminishment of 182W variability with time, suggesting different mechanisms of origin and retention of isotopic variations for these two extinct

  2. Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, M.; Alonso, M. V.; da Costa, L. N.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Wegner, G.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Rité, C.; Maia, M. A. G.

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEAR survey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong to clusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction of a Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes new measurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift, velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameter dn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopic data are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometry is presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations with external data sets are used to construct a final merged catalog consisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objective criteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from complete redshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies to clusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct the template Dn-σ distance relation for early-type galaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derive peculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observations at Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the European Southern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica and the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.

  3. Early mantle composition and evolution inferred from 142Nd and 182W variation in Isua samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Touboul, M.; Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Horan, M. F.; Boyet, M.

    2013-12-01

    The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometer applied to Eoarchean rocks from Greenland led to the discovery of the oldest known mantle reservoir, likely formed during the first 150 Ma of Earth's history [1-4]. The geochemical composition and evolution of this reservoir can, thus, reveal the nature of early Earth differentiation events, and its survival provides information on the mixing rates of early heterogeneities in the mantle. High precision 142Nd analyses have revealed that the early-formed reservoir sampled by the Greenland rocks was depleted in incompatible elements, and that its obliteration by remixing into the mantle was completed around 3.3 Ga [5]. High precision 182W data are a promising tool that can provide new information about the earliest phase of Earth's evolution. Excesses in182W of ~+13 ppm relative to terrestrial standards, detected in ~ 3.8 Ga rocks from Greenland [6] were interpreted to reflect the incomplete mixing of late-accreted materials into the mantle sources of these rocks during the period between 4.5 and 3.8 Ga. Here, we measured highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and 182W in Greenland rocks with ages ranging between 3.8 and 3.3 Ga. Platinum concentrations of ~3 to nearly 8ppb were measured in all samples, except for the of the 3.3 Ga rocks. The relatively high Pt abundances are not consistent with mantle sources characterized by strong HSE depletion. The tungsten isotopic data for the 3.8 Ga old samples show no 182W anomalies. By contrast, variable 182W excesses of as high as 13ppm are present in 3.7, 3.4 and 3.3 Ga samples. The 182W results do not correlate with the 142Nd variability in the same rocks. The 3.8 Ga samples also stand out with respect to their high W concentrations (2 - 3 ppm) compared to the other Greenland samples (0.1- 0.8 ppm). The 182W data, together with the HSE data may help to constrain the composition of the Archean mantle through time, and will allow modeling of the mixing rate of late arriving

  4. Towards successful OSL sampling strategies in glacial environments: deciphering the influence of depositional processes on bleaching of modern glacial sediments from Jostedalen, Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. E.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Finch, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals of quartz and K-feldspar are known to bleach poorly within some glacial settings, and can present a major challenge to dating applications. However, because the OSL signal is extremely sensitive to sunlight exposure history, the residual luminescence signals of modern glacial sediments also encode information about transport and depositional processes. Through examination of the residual luminescence properties (equivalent dose (De) and overdispersion values) of a suite of modern glacial sediments from different depositional settings (sandar, proglacial delta and main meltwater channel), this study provides insights not only into which sediments are likely to be fully bleached within glacial settings, but also into how OSL can be used to trace different depositional processes across sedimentary landforms. Improved understanding of the processes of sediment bleaching will enable better sample selection and may improve the accuracy and precision of OSL dating of glacial sediments.

  5. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    the lunar surface was resurfaced; on Earth, this would scale to ~23,000 large impacts in a brief time. Impact ages in ordinary chondrites, HED meteorites, and the Martian meteorite ALH 84001 suggest that this early bombardment event affected the entire inner solar system. If true, the late heavy bombardment may have directly affected the evolution of life on Earth and our understanding of "habitable" planets. Lunar sample ages have also been used to drive large-scale dynamical modeling of solar system formation. These new models of planetary dynamics show a violent beginning to our solar system, where the late formation or outward migration of the gas giant planets destabilizes the Kuiper belt and main-belt asteroids, sending a cascade of impactors into the Moon and all the inner planets. The existence of an early bombardment has even been postulated in extrasolar planetary systems. Even after 40+ years of study, the provenance of returned lunar samples and ages of key events continue to be a focus of research and a topic of debate. One of the most important lessons learned from Apollo missions is that small samples yield a wealth of information and are gifts that keep on giving. The legacy of Apollo samples serves as a model and impetus for future sample return missions from the Moon, Mars, and asteroids.

  6. Convergent Validity of the Early Memory Index in Two Primary Care Samples.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Cogan, Rosemary; Melchior, Katherine A; Jasinski, Matthew J; Richardson, Laura; Fowler, Shannon; Morris, Pierre; Murdoch, William

    2016-01-01

    Karliner, Westrich, Shedler, and Mayman (1996) developed the Early Memory Index (EMI) to assess mental health, narrative coherence, and traumatic experiences in reports of early memories. We assessed the convergent validity of EMI scales with data from 103 women from an urban primary care clinic (Study 1) and data from 48 women and 24 men from a suburban primary care clinic (Study 2). Patients provided early memory narratives and completed self-report measures of psychopathology, trauma, and health care utilization. In both studies, lower scores on the Mental Health scale and higher scores on the Traumatic Experiences scale were related to higher scores on measures of psychopathology and childhood trauma. Less consistent associations were found between the Mental Health and Traumatic Experiences scores and measures of health care utilization. The Narrative Coherence scale showed inconsistent relationships across measures in both samples. In analyses assessing the overall fit between hypothesized and actual correlations between EMI scores and measures of psychopathology, severity of trauma symptoms, and health care utilization, the Mental Health scale of the EMI demonstrated stronger convergent validity than the EMI Traumatic Experiences scale. The results provide support for the convergent validity of the Mental Health scale of the EMI. PMID:26620156

  7. Comment on "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds".

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Cooper, Alan; Phillips, Matthew J

    2015-09-25

    Jarvis et al. (Research Articles, 12 December 2014, p. 1320) presented molecular clock analyses that suggested that most modern bird orders diverged just after the mass extinction event at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (about 66 million years ago). We demonstrate that this conclusion results from the use of a single inappropriate maximum bound, which effectively precludes the Cretaceous diversification overwhelmingly supported by previous molecular studies. PMID:26404819

  8. Research study on stabilization and control modern sampled-data control theory. Design of the Large Space Telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Singh, G.

    1974-01-01

    The numerical technique is applied to the prediction of self-sustained oscillations in a two-axis model of the nonlinear system with sampled data. The sampled-data two-axis LST system model, and its stability equation are analyzed along with the exact solution of the stability equation by numerical-iterative techniques.

  9. Early stages of pediatric bipolar disorder: retrospective analysis of a Czech inpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Michal; Novak, Tomas; Vesela, Marie; Hlavka, Zdenek; Brunovsky, Martin; Povazan, Michal; Ptacek, Radek; Sebela, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 30%–60% of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) report onset between the ages 15 and 19 years; however, a correct diagnosis is often delayed by several years. Therefore, investigations of the early features of BD are important for adequately understanding the prodromal stages of the illness. Methods A complete review of the medical records of 46 children and adolescents who were hospitalized for BD at two psychiatric teaching centers in Prague, Czech Republic was performed. Frequency of BD in all inpatients, age of symptom onset, phenomenology of mood episodes, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, differences between very-early-onset (<13 years of age) and early-onset patients (13–18 years), and differences between the offspring of parents with and without BD were analyzed. Results The sample represents 0.83% of the total number of inpatients (n=5,483) admitted during the study period at both centers. BD often started with depression (56%), followed by hypomania (24%) and mixed episodes (20%). The average age during the first mood episode was 14.9 years (14.6 years for depression and 15.6 years for hypomania). Seven children (15%) experienced their first mood episode before age 13 years (very early onset). Traumatic events, first-degree relatives with mood disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly more frequent in the very-early-onset group vs the early-onset group (13–18 years) (P≤0.05). The offspring of bipolar parents were significantly younger at the onset of the first mood episode (13.2 vs 15.4 years; P=0.02) and when experiencing the first mania compared to the offspring of non-BD parents (14.3 vs 15.9 years; P=0.03). Anxiety disorders, substance abuse, specific learning disabilities, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were the most frequent lifetime comorbid conditions. Conclusion Clinicians must be aware of the potential for childhood BD onset in patients who suffer from

  10. Multiwavelength Study of Radio Loud Early-Type Galaxies from the B2 Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sheetal Kumar; Chaware, Laxmikant; Pandey, S. K.; Kulkarni, Samridhi; Pandge, M. B.; Chakradhari, N. K.

    2014-07-01

    We present multiwavelength study of a sample of radio loud early-type galaxies chosen from the B2 sample. We performed surface photometry in BVR broad band filters and Hα narrow band filter on CCD images of sample galaxies using IGO 2m telescope, Pune (INDIA), to get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters that describe elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The analysis of radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients are main focus of our study. We generated color maps, residual maps, and dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust and ionized gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the properties of the dust present in our sample galaxies. Additionaly, we investigated properties of the dust in the central ~10 arcsec region of our sample galaxies using optical images available from the HST (WFPC2) data archive. We estimated mass and temperature of the dust, molecular gas mass, in the sample galaxies using FIR fluxes of the galaxies obtained from IRAS. We used spectroscopic data available from the SDSS (DR7) to get an estimate of the mass of the central super massive black-hole for B2 1257+28 (NGC 4874). We plotted rotation curve for coma cluster (Abell 1656), which indicates the presence of dark matter halo around the galaxy B2 1257+28.

  11. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Anne H.; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J.; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa ≈150–200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant ≈120–90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130–117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of—now buried—fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. PMID:18936490

  12. Probative value of gunshot residue on victims of shootings and comparison of gunshot residue results with modern technology versus older testing of samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert S.; Mershon, William J.

    2011-06-01

    Some government agencies take the position that the results of gunshot residue from the hands of victims of shootings are not probative and meaningless. It is my opinion from experience in many cases that this is not the case and the results can mean life or death in some cases. Actual individual cases are described. The results of samples examined years ago with a small number of gunshot residue particles and reexamined recently shows the number and quality of particles that can be located and identified with modern equipment.

  13. Early Predictors of Sexually Intimate Behaviors in an Urban Sample of Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate; Loeber, Rolf; Battista, Deena

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, concern has been raised about girls’ involvement in sexual activity at progressively younger ages. Little is known about the prevalence of emerging intimate behaviors, the psychosocial factors associated with these behaviors, or the moderating effects of race on these associations in early adolescence. In the current prospective study, we examine the prevalence and predictors of sexually intimate behaviors at age 12 years in an urban community sample of 1,116 racially diverse girls. Cluster analysis revealed three groups at age 12: none, mild (e.g. holding hands) and moderate (e.g. laying together). Minority group girls reported higher rates of both mild and moderate sexually intimate behaviors compared with European American girls. After controlling for the significant effects of age 11 intimate behaviors, lifetime alcohol use, poor parent-child communication, deviant peer behavior, onset of menarche, and interactions between race and impulsivity, social self-worth and depression uniquely increased the odds of engaging in moderately intimate behaviors at age 12 years. Parenting characteristics increased the likelihood of moderate, relative to mild, behaviors. For European American girls only, high levels of impulsivity and low social self-worth were associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in moderate intimate behaviors, whereas high levels of depressive symptoms reduced the odds. The results suggest that early prevention efforts need to incorporate awareness of different social norms relating to sexual behavior. PMID:20210496

  14. ‘A Wonderfull Monster Borne in Germany’: Hairy Girls in Medieval and Early Modern German Book, Court and Performance Culture*

    PubMed Central

    Katritzky, MA

    2014-01-01

    Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veränderungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des

  15. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  16. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern…

  17. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  18. Formation of the modern current system in the East China Sea since the early Holocene and its relationship with sea level and the monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Yin, Xueming; Lu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a natural laboratory for the study of air-sea interaction and paleoenvironmental change. It has been demonstrated that present offshore export of particles in the bottom nepheloid layer occur primarily with downwelling from the northeast winter monsoon, which is inhibited by a transverse circulation pattern in summer. This current system was very different during the Last Glacial Maximum owing to low sea level (-120 m) and exposure of a large shelf area. We collected sediment core Oki01 from the middle Okinawa Trough during 2012 using R/V Kexue No. 1 to elucidate the timing and cause of the current system transition in the East China Sea. Clay mineral, dry density, and elemental (Ti, Ca) composition of core Oki01 was analyzed. The results indicate that clay minerals derived mainly from the Huanghe (Yellow) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) Rivers during 16.0-11.6 ka, and the modern current system in the East China Sea formed beginning in the early Holocene. Therefore, mixing of East China Sea continental shelf, Changjiang River and partially Taiwan Island sediment are the major contributors. The decrease of log(Ti/Ca) and alternating provenance since the early Holocene indicate less sediment from the East China in summer because of resistance of the modern current system, i.e., a "water barrier" and upwelling. Conversely, sediment delivery persists in winter and log(Ti/Ca) indicates the winter monsoon signal since the early Holocene. Our evidence also suggests that sediment from Taiwan Island could be transported by the Kuroshio Current to the middle Okinawa Trough, where it mingles with winter monsoon-induced export of sediment from the Changjiang River and East China Sea continental shelf. Although the present research advances understanding of the evolutionary history of paleoenvironmental change in the Okinawa Trough, more sediment cores should be retrieved over wide areas to construct a larger scenario.

  19. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  20. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Reading Difficulties and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Behaviours: Evidence of an Early Association in a Nonclinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoni, Chiara; Balottin, Umberto; Zaccagnino, Maria; Brembilla, Laura; Livetti, Giulia; Termine, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with reading disability. A cross-sectional study in an Italian-speaking, nonclinical sample was conducted in an attempt to document the existence of an early association between reading difficulties (RD) and ADHD behaviours. We recruited a sample of 369 children in their first year at…

  2. CFD modelling of sampling locations for early detection of spontaneous combustion in long-wall gob areas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted to optimize gas sampling locations for the early detection of spontaneous heating in longwall gob areas. Initial simulations were carried out to predict carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at various regulators in the gob using a bleeder ventilation system. Measured CO concentration values at these regulators were then used to calibrate the CFD model. The calibrated CFD model was used to simulate CO concentrations at eight sampling locations in the gob using a bleederless ventilation system to determine the optimal sampling locations for early detection of spontaneous combustion. PMID:26213572

  3. A shortened and deformed humerus from early modern Lithuania (16th/17th century A.D.) : an unusual case of amputation in childhood?

    PubMed Central

    TEEGEN, WOLF-RÜDIGER; SCHULTZ, MICHAEL; JANKAUSKAS, RIMANTAS

    1997-01-01

    During archaeological excavations in the early modern cemetery in Kernavé, Lithuania, a complete skeleton of a presumed adult male individual was found (grave 108). This skeleton showed a short right humerus and missing radius, ulna and hand. Other parts of the skeleton appeared to be normal, characteristic of a robust constitution. The skeletal material was analysed by macroscopic and radiological techniques. Sex and age were determined following the suggestions of the European Association of Anthropologists (Ferembach et al. 1980), measurements were recorded according to Martin (1928) and Bräuer (1988), and the pathological alterations according to Schultz (1988). The robustness and the measurements indicate a male individual, whose age was put at 40–45 y using the combined method (cf. Ferembach et al. 1980; Szilvássy, 1988) of cranial suture closure, spongiosa structure of the proximal humerus and femur and structure of the pubic symphysis. Skeletal elements analysed included both humeri, clavicles and scapulae. PMID:9419007

  4. Calcified Pulmonary Nodules Identified in a 350-Year-Old-Joseon Mummy: the First Report on Ancient Pulmonary Tuberculosis from Archaeologically Obtained Pre-modern Korean Samples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We found calcified pulmonary nodules in a middle-aged female mummy discovered from 350-yr-old Joseon tomb of Korea. In the CT scan, we found six radiopaque nodules in right lung, through the levels of thoracic vertebrae 1 to 6. We also found presumptive pleural adhesions in right thoracic cavity of CT images. We re-confirmed radiological findings by our post-factum dissection on the same mummy. By the differential diagnosis, we speculate that the radiopaque calcification nodules and associated pleural adhesion could have been caused by tuberculosis. This is the first-ever report on the pulmonary tuberculosis identified in archaeologically obtained, pre-modern Korean samples. PMID:26770051

  5. Probabilistic earthquake early warning in complex earth models using prior sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Andrew; Käufl, Paul; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-04-01

    In an earthquake early warning (EEW) context, we must draw inferences from small, noisy seismic datasets within an extremely limited time-frame. Ideally, a probabilistic framework would be used, to recognise that available observations may be compatible with a range of outcomes, and analysis would be conducted in a theoretically-complete physical framework. However, implementing these requirements has been challenging, as they tend to increase computational demands beyond what is feasible on EEW timescales. We present a new approach, based on 'prior sampling', which implements probabilistic inversion as a two stage process, and can be used for EEW monitoring within a given region. First, a large set of synthetic data is computed for randomly-distributed seismic sources within the region. A learning algorithm is used to infer details of the probability distribution linking observations and model parameters (including location, magnitude, and focal mechanism). This procedure is computationally expensive, but can be conducted entirely before monitoring commences. In the second stage, as observations are obtained, the algorithm can be evaluated within milliseconds to output a probabilistic representation of the corresponding source model. We demonstrate that this gives robust results, and can be implemented using state-of-the-art 3D wave propagation simulations, and complex crustal structures.

  6. The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément

    2014-05-01

    The origin of modern rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the early phase of angiosperm evolution in the early Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late Early Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the early late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical early diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and

  7. Early diagenetic quartz formation at a deep iron oxidation front in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific - A modern analogue for banded iron/chert formations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick; Chapligin, Bernhard; Picard, Aude; Meyer, Hanno; Fischer, Cornelius; Rettenwander, Daniel; Amthauer, Georg; Vogt, Christoph; Aiello, Ivano W.

    2014-07-01

    concentration is locally decreased below opal-A and opal-CT saturation allowing for precipitation of the thermodynamically more stable phase: quartz. This mechanism of chert formation at the iron oxidation front in suboxic zones may explain why early-diagenetic microcrystalline chert only occurs sporadically in modern marine sediments. It may also serve as a modern analogue for the deposition of much more abundant banded iron/chert formations at the time of the great oxidation event around 2.4 Ga BP, which was probably the largest iron oxidation front in Earth's history.

  8. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K J; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Mills, John G; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-05-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ(2)= 6.3,P= 0.044), activities (χ(2)= 6.7,P= 0.036), and areas (χ(2)= 9.4,P= 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ(2)= 9.3,P= 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ(2)= 5.7,P= 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ(2)= 12.3,P= 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. PMID:26834027

  9. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K. J.; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H.; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L.; Mills, John G.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M.; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-01-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ2 = 6.3, P = 0.044), activities (χ2 = 6.7, P = 0.036), and areas (χ2 = 9.4, P = 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ2 = 9.3, P = 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ2 = 5.7, P = 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ2 = 12.3, P = 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. PMID:26834027

  10. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in modern and fossil food-webs of the Sterkfontein Valley: implications for early hominid habitat preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillen, Andrew; Hall, Grant; Richardson, Stephen; Armstrong, Richard

    1998-07-01

    This research addresses the potential contribution of strontium isotopes to the reconstruction of early hominid behavior at the Swartkrans site in the Sterkfontein Valley of Gauteng Provence (formally known as the Transvaal), South Africa. We report that, while there is considerable variability in the 87Sr/ 86Sr of whole soils within a 15 km radius of this site, available soil and grassland plant 87Sr/ 86Sr is much less variable and generally above 0.730. This value is higher (more radiogenic) than the 87Sr/ 86Sr of plants growing within the greenbelt surrounding the Blaaubank stream adjacent to Swartkrans and streamwater itself (0.721). The difference between grassland and riparian strontium isotope composition suggests a method for determining habitat utilization by early hominids. In this study, a geological explanation for a natural difference between Blaaubank stream and grassland Sr is suggested, based on relatively less radiogenic Sr (having lower 87Sr/ 86Sr values) in the carbonate component of the local dolomite when compared to other nearby geological formations. The explanation was tested initially using a top-down approach in which the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of water, soil, and plants from the entire Blaaubank catchment were measured. Next, a bottom-up approach was used to examine Swartkrans Member I faunal species known to have obtained their Sr from well-defined habitats. The results are that (1) pollution is not the explanation for the relatively low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the Blaaubank stream, (2) Swartkrans Member I carbonate has a similar 87Sr/ 86Sr to that of modern Blaaubank water, indicating that relationships seen today existed in the Pleistocene, and (3) Pleistocene riparian fauna have relatively low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios when compared to fauna adapted to drier habitats. Together these results make it possible to interpret the strontium isotope composition of Pleistocene early hominids from Swartkrans in terms of habitat utilization.

  11. Assessment of two different types of sample for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, Saulo; Dolz, Roser; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the optimal method for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broilers at farm level, two types of samples were compared: caecal contents obtained by necropsy and cloacal swabs transported in charcoal Amies medium. The study was conducted in five batches of broilers from five different farms, where weekly samples (caecal contents and cloacal swabs) from 30 birds were obtained. Samples were plated onto selective agar (modified charcoal cefoperazone desoxycholate agar, mCCDA) for Campylobacter isolation. Four out of five batches were positive for Campylobacter. No marked differences in sensitivity of both sample types were observed. However, a higher percentage of positive birds were detected when cloacal swabs were used. The results show that cloacal swab samples are adequate, and in some cases even better than caecal samples for the early detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks at farm level. Also, this sample avoids sacrificing birds to test Campylobacter, which not only allows saving time in sample collection, transportation and processing at the laboratory, but also improves bird welfare and cost of sampling. PMID:25588419

  12. Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. PMID:24630359

  13. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  14. Attachment from Infancy to Early Adulthood in a High-Risk Sample: Continuity, Discontinuity, and Their Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinfield, Nancy S.; Sroufe, L. Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2000-01-01

    Explored the stability of attachment security and representations from infancy to early adulthood in a high risk sample. Found no evidence for significant continuity between infant and adult attachment, but rather a lawful discontinuity, with many participants transitioning to insecurity. Continuous and discontinuous groups were differentiated on…

  15. Early Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (EL-IGDIs): Growth Trajectories Using a Large, Internet-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…

  16. A critique of the evidence for scavenging by Neanderthals and early modern humans: new data from Kobeh Cave (Zagros Mountains, Iran) and Die Kelders Cave 1 layer 10 (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Marean, C W

    1998-08-01

    The primary mode of faunal exploitation by Neandertals and early modern humans remains a debated topic. Binford (1981, 1984, 1985, 1988) has argued for an obligate scavenging mode, Stiner (1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1993, 1994) for a more opportunistic scavenging mode, while other researchers (Chase, 1986, 1988, 1989; Klein, 1989, 1994, 1995; Klein & Cruz-Uribe, 1996) deny the importance of scavenging as a faunal exploitation tactic. The scavenging interpretations rely primarily on several patterns in the faunal remains: the presence of a skeletal element pattern dominated by heads or head and foot parts, the presence of carnivore tooth marks on bone fragments, and infrequent cut marks that typically are not located on shaft regions of long bones or on fleshy bones. Five sites have been used to argue for scavenging: Klasies River Mouth, Combe Grenal, Grotta Guattari, Grotta dei Moscerini, and Grotte Vaufrey. The former four of the five sites are biased samples in that long bone shafts and other difficult to identify fragments were discarded at excavation. The analysis of Grotte Vaufrey included only those shafts identifiable to species or genus, thus excluding the vast majority of shaft specimens. This bias systematically shapes the skeletal element and surface modification patterning in ways that make the assemblages appear to fit a model of scavenging, when in fact the main determinant of the pattern is the bias in the flawed samples. This problem is illustrated with two unbiased faunal assemblages (Kobeh Cave and Die Kelders Layer 10). Skeletal element abundance is calculated in a way that mimics the bias in the sites listed above by excluding the shafts. Using this procedure, both Kobeh and Die Kelders have a head and foot skeletal element pattern and thus appear scavenged. Both assemblages are then analyzed in their entirety and a new pattern, consistent with hunting, is revealed. Taphonomic data on bone survival and destruction provide an explanation for this

  17. 'He plays on the pillory'. The use of musical instruments for punishment in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld-Schild, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    Illustrations by the Dutch renaissance artists Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Jan Wierix both show a man imprisoned on a pillory, a former place of enforcement of judicial sentences, and playing a musical instrument. Taken as legal iconographic sources, these illustrations of the old saying 'He plays on the pillory' can be understood as references to a specific kind of punishment used in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. Specifically, delinquents had to wear wooden or iron 'neck violins' or 'neck flutes' while being pilloried or chased through the streets in order to be humiliated in public. As well as this historical fact, there also exists an interpretation that takes the illustrations by Bruegel and Wierix literally. It suggests that these punishment practices originally date back to a more ancient use of real instruments in a penal system that was applied and understood as a 'healing punishment' (poena medicinalis) to banish the ill and re-establish the good in the delinquent, the community and the world as a whole due to musical sounds. By means of legal iconographical and historical methods, this article explores the different nuances of punishment that employed real or symbolic musical instruments. Thus, it examines a historical aspect of 'music in detention' where the (symbolic) sounds do not emanate from the punisher but from the punished themselves. PMID:24480889

  18. Early maladaptive schemas in Finnish adult chronic pain patients and a control sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom Harri; Saariaho, Anita Sylvia; Karila, Irma Anneli; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2011-04-01

    Engel (1959) suggested that negative physical or emotional experiences in childhood predispose to the development of chronic pain. Studies have shown that physical and sexual abuse in early life is connected with chronic pain. Emotional adversities are much less studied causes contributing to the development of chronic pain and disability. Early emotional abuse, neglect, maltreatment and other adversities are deleterious childhood experiences which, according to Young's schema theory (1990), produce early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The primary goal of this study was to examine whether early adversities were more common in chronic pain patients than in a control group. A total of 271 (53% women) first-visit chronic pain patients and 331 (86% women) control participants took part in the study. Their socio-demographic data, pain variables and pain disability were measured. To estimate EMSs the Young Schema Questionnaire was used. Chronic pain patients scored higher EMSs reflecting incapacity to perform independently, catastrophic beliefs and pessimism. The most severely disabled chronic pain patients showed an increase in all the EMSs in the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain, namely Abandonment/Instability, Mistrust/Abuse, Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame and Social Isolation/Alienation EMSs. The results of the study suggested that chronic pain patients had suffered early emotional maltreatment. PMID:21054422

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. Aims The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Method Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Results Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Conclusions Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots. PMID:24701252

  20. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  1. Early Developmental Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from an International Multiplex Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Jeremy R.; Le Couteur, Ann; Baird, Gillian; Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew; Fombonne, Eric; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of early developmental regression (EDR) were investigated in individuals with ASD from affected relative pairs recruited to the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC). Four hundred and fifty-eight individuals with ASD were recruited from 226 IMGSAC families. Regression before age 36 months occurred…

  2. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  3. Organizations Concerned with Early Care and Education in Illinois: A Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Research & Practice, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Several sectors and levels of organizations, agencies, and projects are involved in promoting and providing education, care, and intervention services for young children and their families in Illinois. State government entities involved in matters of early care and education include the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE), the Department of…

  4. Early Predictors of Sexually Intimate Behaviors in an Urban Sample of Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate; Loeber, Rolf; Battista, Deena

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, concern has been raised about girls' involvement in sexual activity at progressively younger ages. Little is known about the prevalence of emerging intimate behaviors, the psychosocial factors associated with these behaviors, or the moderating effects of ethnicity on these associations in early adolescence. In the current…

  5. Familial Religiosity, Family Processes, and Juvenile Delinquency in a National Sample of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Spencer D.

    2014-01-01

    Personal religiosity has been identified as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency. However, the influence of familial religiosity on delinquent behavior is less known. This study addresses this gap by investigating how family participation in organizational religious activities is related to delinquent involvement in early adolescence.…

  6. Early detection of eukaryotic communities from marine biofilm using high-throughput sequencing: an assessment of different sampling devices.

    PubMed

    Pochon, Xavier; Zaiko, Anastasija; Hopkins, Grant A; Banks, Jonathan C; Wood, Susanna A

    2015-01-01

    Marine biofilms are precursors for colonization by larger fouling organisms, including non-indigenous species (NIS). In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 18S rRNA metabarcodes was used to investigate four sampling methods (modified syringe, sterilized sponge, underwater tape and sterilized swab) for characterizing eukaryotic communities in marine biofilms. Perspex™ plates were sampled in and out of water. DNA collected with tape did not amplify. Otherwise, there were no statistical differences in communities among the remaining three sampling devices or between the two environments. Sterilized sponges are recommended for ease of use underwater. In-depth HTS analysis identified diverse eukaryotic communities, dominated by Metazoa and Chromoalveolata. Among the latter, diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) were particularly abundant (33% of reads assigned to Chromalveolata). The NIS Ciona savignyi was detected in all samples. The application of HTS in marine biofilm surveillance could facilitate early detection of NIS, improving the probability of successful eradication. PMID:25877857

  7. The Stardust Discovery Mission - Returning Unique Samples of Early Solar System Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott

    2006-01-01

    On January 2,2004, the STARDUST spacecraft made the closest ever flyby (236 km) of the nucleus of a comet - Comet Wild 2. During the flyby the spacecraft collected samples of dust from the coma of the comet. These samples were successfully returned to Earth on January 15,2006. After a six-month preliminary examination to establish the nature of the returned samples, they will be made available to the general scientific community for study. During my talk I will discuss the scientific goals of the STARDUST mission and provide a brief overview of the mission's design and flight. I will also discuss the recovery of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC), with an emphasis on those aspects of the recovery important for minimizing the degree of contamination (particularly organic contamination) of the samples. Finally, the first samples are only just now being distributed for preliminary examination, but I hope to be able to talk about some of the preliminary findings from the returned comet samples.

  8. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples. Selenochronology is getting more complicated: new results question meaning of sample ages, crater counts, crater production functions, and the solar system itself. Improved geological mapping of lunar geologic units and boundaries using multiple remote sensing datasets. High-resolution image-based crater counting of discrete geologic units and relating them to location. Improved understanding of the regolith thickness and its global variation (GRAIL). Tying the sampling of impact-melt rocks to the lunar impact flux. Using improved techniques (magnetic fields, diffusion studies, isotopic analysis) on existing samples. New sample return from benchmark craters, particularly SPA, which appears in 2013 Decadal Survey.

  9. Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Martin; Gottardi, Riccardo; Raiteri, Roberto; Miot, Sylvie; Martin, Ivan; Imer, Raphaël; Staufer, Urs; Raducanu, Aurelia; Düggelin, Marcel; Baschong, Werner; Daniels, A. U.; Friederich, Niklaus F.; Aszodi, Attila; Aebi, Ueli

    2009-03-01

    The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of osteoarthritis are therefore important for developing effective therapies. Here, we show that indentation-type atomic force microscopy can monitor age-related morphological and biomechanical changes in the hips of normal and osteoarthritic mice. Early damage in the cartilage of osteoarthritic patients undergoing hip or knee replacements could similarly be detected using this method. Changes due to aging and osteoarthritis are clearly depicted at the nanometre scale well before morphological changes can be observed using current diagnostic methods. Indentation-type atomic force microscopy may potentially be developed into a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool to diagnose the early onset of osteoarthritis in situ.

  10. Sex determination by three-dimensional geometric morphometrics of the vault and midsagittal curve of the neurocranium in a modern Greek population sample.

    PubMed

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Valakos, Efstratios D; Manolis, Sotiris K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess sexual dimorphism of adult crania in the vault and midsagittal curve of the vault using three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods. The study sample consisted of 176 crania of known sex (94 males, 82 females) belonging to individuals who lived during the 20th century in Greece. The three-dimensional co-ordinates of 31 ecto-cranial landmarks and 30 semi-landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe 3DX contact digitizer. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) was used to obtain size and shape variables for statistical analysis. Shape, size and form analyses were carried out by logistic regression and three discriminant function analyses. Results indicate that there are shape differences between sexes. Females in the region of the parietal bones are narrower and the axis forming the frontal and occipital bones is more elongated; the frontal bone is more vertical. Sex-specific shape differences give better classification results in the vault (79%) compared with the midsagittal curve of the neurocranium (68.8%). Size alone yielded better results for cranial vault (82%), while for the midsagittal curve of the vault the result is poorer (68.1%). As anticipated, the classification accuracy improves when both size and shape are combined (89.2% for vault, and 79.4% for midsagittal curve of the vault). These latter findings imply that, in contrast to the midsagittal curve of the neurocranium, the shape of the cranial vault can be used as an indicator of sex in the modern Greek population. PMID:27109917