Science.gov

Sample records for early plant growth

  1. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  2. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. . Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  3. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of starter fertilizer on cotton growth, development, lint yield, and fiber quality production for an early planted no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved yield potentials occur when planting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) early, but cool conditions often associated with early planting can hamper early seedling growth. Starter fertilizers could be good source of P for seedling growth under cool conditions due to reduced soil P mineralizatio...

  5. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy. PMID:25644367

  6. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    PubMed

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing. PMID

  7. Iron partitioning at an early growth stage impacts iron deficiency responses in soybean plants (Glycine max L.)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carla S.; Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to leaf yellowing, stunted growth and drastic yield losses. Plants have been differentiated into ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) if they resist to IDC and ‘Fe-inefficient’ (IN) if they do not, but the reasons for this contrasting efficiency remain elusive. We grew EF and IN soybean plants under Fe deficient and Fe sufficient conditions and evaluated if gene expression and the ability to partition Fe could be related to IDC efficiency. At an early growth stage, Fe-efficiency was associated with higher chlorophyll content, but Fe reductase activity was low under Fe-deficiency for EF and IN plants. The removal of the unifoliate leaves alleviated IDC symptoms, increased shoot:root ratio, and trifoliate leaf area. EF plants were able to translocate Fe to the aboveground plant organs, whereas the IN plants accumulated more Fe in the roots. FRO2-like gene expression was low in the roots; IRT1-like expression was higher in the shoots; and ferritin was highly expressed in the roots of the IN plants. The efficiency trait is linked to Fe partitioning and the up-regulation of Fe-storage related genes could interfere with this key process. This work provides new insights into the importance of mineral partitioning among different plant organs at an early growth stage. PMID:26029227

  8. Phosphoproteome Dynamics Upon Changes in Plant Water Status Reveal Early Events Associated With Rapid Growth Adjustment in Maize Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Ludovic; Valot, Benoît; Tardieu, François; Zivy, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth adjustment during water deficit is a crucial adaptive response. The rapid fine-tuned control achieved at the post-translational level is believed to be of considerable importance for regulating early changes in plant growth reprogramming. Aiming at a better understanding of early responses to contrasting plant water statuses, we carried out a survey of the protein phosphorylation events in the growing zone of maize leaves upon a range of water regimes. In this study, the impact of mild and severe water deficits were evaluated in comparison with constant optimal watering and with recovery periods lasting 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min. Using four biological replicates per treatment and a robust quantitative phosphoproteomic methodology based on stable-isotope labeling, we identified 3664 unique phosphorylation sites on 2496 proteins. The abundance of nearly 1250 phosphorylated peptides was reproducibly quantified and profiled with high confidence among treatments. A total of 138 phosphopeptides displayed highly significant changes according to water regimes and enabled to identify specific patterns of response to changing plant water statuses. Further quantification of protein amounts emphasized that most phosphorylation changes did not reflect protein abundance variation. During water deficit and recovery, extensive changes in phosphorylation status occurred in critical regulators directly or indirectly involved in plant growth and development. These included proteins influencing epigenetic control, gene expression, cell cycle-dependent processes and phytohormone-mediated responses. Some of the changes depended on stress intensity whereas others depended on rehydration duration, including rapid recoveries that occurred as early as 5 or 10 mins after rewatering. By combining a physiological approach and a quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis, this work provides new insights into the in vivo early phosphorylation events triggered by rapid changes in

  9. Effects of Silver Nanoparticle Exposure on Germination and Early Growth of Eleven Wetland Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liyan; Colman, Benjamin P.; McGill, Bonnie M.; Wright, Justin P.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing commercial production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has led to concerns over the potential adverse impacts of these ENPs on biota in natural environments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used ENPs and are expected to enter natural ecosystems. Here we examined the effects of AgNPs on germination and growth of eleven species of common wetland plants. We examined plant responses to AgNP exposure in simple pure culture experiments (direct exposure) and for seeds planted in homogenized field soils in a greenhouse experiment (soil exposure). We compared the effects of two AgNPs–20-nm polyvinylpyrrolidine-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) and 6-nm gum arabic coated silver nanoparticles (GA-AgNPs)–to the effects of AgNO3 exposure added at equivalent Ag concentrations (1, 10 or 40 mg Ag L−1). In the direct exposure experiments, PVP-AgNP had no effect on germination while 40 mg Ag L−1 GA-AgNP exposure significantly reduced the germination rate of three species and enhanced the germination rate of one species. In contrast, 40 mg Ag L−1 AgNO3 enhanced the germination rate of five species. In general root growth was much more affected by Ag exposure than was leaf growth. The magnitude of inhibition was always greater for GA-AgNPs than for AgNO3 and PVP-AgNPs. In the soil exposure experiment, germination effects were less pronounced. The plant growth response differed by taxa with Lolium multiflorum growing more rapidly under both AgNO3 and GA-AgNP exposures and all other taxa having significantly reduced growth under GA-AgNP exposure. AgNO3 did not reduce the growth of any species while PVP-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of only one species. Our findings suggest important new avenues of research for understanding the fate and transport of NPs in natural media, the interactions between NPs and plants, and indirect and direct effects of NPs in mixed plant communities. PMID:23091638

  10. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

  11. Dynamics of seed-borne rice endophytes on early plant growth stages.

    PubMed

    Hardoim, Pablo R; Hardoim, Cristiane C P; van Overbeek, Leonard S; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

  12. How Does Your Garden Grow? Early Conceptualization of Seeds and Their Place in the Plant Growth Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Anne K.; Gelman, Susan A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined young children's understanding of seed origins and growth preconditions and the stages of plant growth. Found that, by 4.5 years, children realized that natural causal mechanisms underlie plant growth and appreciated the relationship of seeds to plants. Results suggest that preschoolers hold theory-like understandings of plants similar to…

  13. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  14. Weed management practices for organic production of trailing blackberry. I. Plant growth and early fruit production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management practices were evaluated in a new field of trailing blackberry established in western Oregon. The field was planted in May 2010 and certified organic in May 2012. Treatments included two cultivars, ‘Marion’ and ‘Black Diamond’, grown in 1) non-weeded plots, where weeds were cut to th...

  15. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  16. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  17. Microgravity Plant Growth Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two visitors watch a TV monitor showing plant growth inside a growth chamber designed for operation aboard the Space Shuttle as part of NASA's Space Product Development program. The exhibit, featuring work by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, was at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  18. ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors delay plant growth by triggering early differentiation of meristematic cells but no developmental patterning change

    PubMed Central

    Menand, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The TOR (target of rapamycin) protein, a large phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinase (PIKK) that is conserved in eukaryotes and is a central regulator of growth and metabolism. The analysis of function of TOR in plant growth and development has been limited by the fact that plants are very poorly sensitive to rapamycin. As the kinase domain of TOR is highly conserved, this study analysed the dose-dependent effect of three sets of first- and second-generation ATP-competitive inhibitors (called asTORis for active-site TOR inhibitors) recently developed for the human TOR kinase on Arabidopsis thaliana growth. All six asTORis inhibited plant root growth in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% growth inhibitory doses (GI50) of <10 μM and <1 μM for the first- and second-generation inhibitors, respectively, similarly to the values in mammalian cells. A genetic approach further demonstrated that only asTORis inhibited root growth in an AtTOR gene-dosage-dependent manner. AsTORis decreased the length of: (i) the meristematic zone (MZ); (ii) the division zone in the MZ; (iii) epidermal cells in the elongation zone; and (iv) root hair cells. Whereas meristematic cells committed to early differentiation, the pattern of cell differentiation was not affected per se. AsTORis-induced root hair growth phenotype was shown to be specific by using other growth inhibitors blocking the cell cycle or translation. AsTORis dose-dependent inhibition of growth and root hairs was also observed in diverse groups of flowering plants, indicating that asTORis can be used to study the TOR pathway in other angiosperms, including crop plants. PMID:23963679

  19. Increased Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Activity in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Stimulates Photosynthesis and Growth from an Early Stage in Development1

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Stephane; Lawson, Tracy; Zakhleniuk, Oksana V.; Lloyd, Julie C.; Raines, Christine A.

    2005-01-01

    Activity of the Calvin cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) was increased by overexpression of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cDNA in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased, higher levels of Suc and starch accumulated during the photoperiod, and an increase in leaf area and biomass of up to 30% was also evident. Light saturated photosynthesis increased with increasing SBPase activity and analysis of CO2 response curves revealed that this increase in photosynthesis could be attributed to an increase in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regenerative capacity. Seedlings with increased SBPase activity had an increased leaf area at the 4 to 5 leaf stage when compared to wild-type plants, and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of these young plants revealed a higher photosynthetic capacity at the whole plant level. Measurements of photosynthesis, made under growth conditions integrated over the day, showed that mature plants with increased SBPase activity fixed 6% to 12% more carbon than equivalent wild-type leaves, with the young leaves having the highest rates. In this paper, we have shown that photosynthetic capacity per unit area and plant yield can be increased by overexpressing a single native plant enzyme, SBPase, and that this gives an advantage to the growth of these plants from an early phase of vegetative growth. This work has also shown that it is not necessary to bypass the normal regulatory control of SBPase, exerted by conditions in the stroma, to achieve improvements in carbon fixation. PMID:15863701

  20. Unraveling the effect of structurally different classes of insecticide on germination and early plant growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Il-Doo; Kwak, Hwa-Sook; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Although a considerable number of studies about the effect of different insecticides on plant physiology and metabolism have been carried out, research work about the comparative action of structurally different classes of insecticide on physiological and biochemical properties of soybean seed germination and early growth has not been found. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different classes of insecticides on soybean seed germination and early plant growth. Soybean seeds of Bosuk cultivar were soaked for 24h in distilled water or recommended dose (2mLL(-1), 1mLL(-1), 0.5gL(-1), and 0.5gL(-1) water for insecticides Mepthion, Myungtaja, Actara, and Stonate, respectively) of pesticide solutions of four structurally different classes of insecticides - Mepthion (fenitrothion; organophosphate), Myungtaja (etofenprox; pyrethroid), Actara (thiamethoxam; neonicotinoid), and Stonate (lambda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam; pyrethroid cum neonicotinoid) - which are used for controlling stink bugs in soybean crop. Insecticides containing thiamethoxam and lamda-cyhalothrin cum thiamethoxam showed positive effects on seedling biomass and content of polyphenol and flavonoid, however fenitrothion insecticide reduced the seed germination, seed and seedling vigor, and polyphenol and flavonoid contents in soybean. Results of this study reveal that different classes of insecticide have differential influence on physiologic and metabolic actions like germination, early growth, and antioxidant activities of soybean and this implies that yield and nutrient content also might be affected with the application of different types of insecticide. PMID:27155482

  1. Plant Growth Facility (PGF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2000-10-26

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Jimmy O. Ong; Mike K. Porter; Randy Roberts; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2002-11-22

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Lalit S. Shah; William K. Davis

    2000-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal or coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Test Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of Coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  5. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-06-09

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  6. Early Entrance Coproduction Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-01-26

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The work performed under Phase II will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-12-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The work performed under Phase II will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-09-09

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-02-15

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  11. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Anderson; William K. Davis; Thomas W. Sloop

    2001-03-21

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery.

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several important

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the manufacture

  15. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Roberts

    2003-04-25

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using petroleum coke and ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC. (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified F-T reactor scale-up as a potential technical risk. The objective of Task 2.3 was to confirm engineering models that allow scale-up to commercial slurry phase bubble column (SPBC) reactors operating in the churn-turbulent flow regime. In

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla H. Ali; Raj Kamarthi; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified the integration of the water produced in the F-T synthesis section with the gasification section as an area of potential synergy. By utilizing the F-T water in the petroleum coke slurry for the gasifier, the EECP can eliminate a potential waste stream and reduce capital costs. There is a low technical risk for this synergy, however, the economic risk, particularly in regards to the water, can be high. The economic costs include the costs

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; O.O. Omatete; T.D. Burchell

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified several potential methods to reduce or minimize the environmental impact of the proposed EECP. The EECP Project Team identified F-T catalyst disposal, beneficial gasifier slag usage (other than landfill), and carbon dioxide recovery for the gas turbine exhaust for study under this task. Successfully completing the Task 2.10 RD&T provides additional opportunities for the EECP to meet the

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

    2003-08-21

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst/wax separation device and

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Donald Todd; Robert Schavey

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to its detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES) (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR). The work was under cooperative agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing the gasification technology and the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech Inc., GE is providing the combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing the air separation technology, and KBR is providing overall engineering. Each of the EECP's subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers in Phase I. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP concept, Phase II RD&T included tests for

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making

  1. Early effects of altered gravity environments on plant cell growth and cell proliferation: Characterization of morphofunctional nucleolar types in an Arabidopsis cell culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Ana Isabel; Herranz, Raul; Manzano, Aránzazu; Van Loon, Jack; Medina, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased,. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  2. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows. PMID:25628114

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids levels

  4. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  5. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla H. Ali; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified petroleum coke characteristics as a potential technical risk. The composition of petroleum coke varies from one refinery to another. Petroleum coke characteristics are a function of the crude oil slate available at the refinery and the coker operating parameters. The specific

  6. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  7. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results.

    PubMed

    Davies, M S

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at "ion-cyclotron resonance" conditions for stimulation of Ca(2+) (B(H) = 78.3 mu T, B(HAC) = 40 mu T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B(V) = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science. PMID:8860733

  8. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  9. Plant growth chamber M design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Crop production is just one of the many processes involved in establishing long term survival of man in space. The benefits of integrating higher plants into the overall plan was recognized early by NASA through the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program. The first step is to design, construct, and operate a sealed (gas, liquid, and solid) plant growth chamber. A 3.6 m diameter by 6.7 m high closed cylinder (previously used as a hypobaric vessel during the Mercury program) is being modified for this purpose. The chamber is mounted on legs with the central axis vertical. Entrance to the chamber is through an airlock. This chamber will be devoted entirely to higher plant experimentation. Any waste treatment, food processing or product storage studies will be carried on outside of this chamber. Its primary purpose is to provide input and output data on solids, liquids, and gases for single crop species and multiple species production using different nutrient delivery systems.

  10. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  11. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  12. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice. PMID:26580942

  13. Effects of drought stress on the seed germination and early seedling growth of the endemic desert plant Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Liu, Huiliang; Guan, Kaiyun

    2013-01-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is an endemic and extremely drought-resistant desert plant with populations that are gradually declining due to the failure of sexual recruitment. The effects of drought stress on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of seeds and seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the germination percentage decreased with an increase of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) concentration: -0.3 MPa (5 % PEG) had a promoting effect on seed germination, -0.9 MPa (15 % PEG) dramatically reduced germination, and -1.8 MPa (30 % PEG) was the threshold for E. songoricum germination. However, the contents of proline and soluble sugars and the activity of CAT increased with increasing PEG concentrations. At the young seedling stage, the proline content and CAT, SOD and POD activities all increased at 2 h and then decreased; except for a decrease at 2 h, the MDA content also increased compared to the control (0 h). These results indicated that 2 h may be a key response time point for E. songoricum to resist drought stress. The above results demonstrate that drought stress can suppress and delay the germination of E. songoricum and that the seeds accumulate osmolytes and augment the activity of antioxidative enzymes to cope with drought injury. E. songoricum seedlings are sensitive to water stress and can quickly respond to drought but cannot tolerate drought for an extended period. Although such physiological and biochemical changes are important strategies for E. songoricum to adapt to a drought-prone environment, they may be, at least partially, responsible for the failure of sexual reproduction under natural conditions. PMID:26417219

  14. Bean Plants: A Growth Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Teaching plant growth to seventh-grade life science students has been interesting for the author because she grew up in a rural area and always had to help in the garden. She made many assumptions about what her rural and suburban students knew. One year she decided to have them grow plants to observe the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit…

  15. A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxlade, E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

  16. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  17. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length) was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting that other tropisms (such as

  18. Sequential Transphosphorylation of the BRI1/BAK1 Receptor Kinase Pair Regulates Early Events of the Brassinosteriod Signaling Pathway Promoting Plant Growth and Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development through a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by BR binding to the transmembrane receptor kinase BRI1. Activated BRI1 heterodimerizes with a second receptor kinase, BAK1, leading to enhanced signaling output. ...

  19. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland

    2013-01-01

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders. PMID:23586744

  20. Phenotypic and genetic dissection of component traits for early vigour in rice using plant growth modelling, sugar content analyses and association mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, M. C.; Dingkuhn, M.; Courtois, B.; Gibon, Y.; Clément-Vidal, A.; Cruz, D. F.; Duitama, J.; Lorieux, M.; Luquet, D.

    2015-01-01

    Early vigour of rice, defined as seedling capacity to accumulate shoot dry weight (SDW) rapidly, is a complex trait. It depends on a genotype propensity to assimilate, store, and/or use non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for producing large and/or numerous leaves, involving physiological trade-offs in the expression of component traits and, possibly, physiological and genetic linkages. This study explores a plant-model-assisted phenotyping approach to dissect the genetic architecture of rice early vigour, applying the Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to morphological and NSC measurements, as well as fitted parameters for the functional–structural plant model, Ecomeristem. Leaf size, number, SDW, and source-leaf NSC concentration were measured on a panel of 123 japonica accessions. The data were used to estimate Ecomeristem genotypic parameters driving organ appearance rate, size, and carbon dynamics. GWAS was performed based on 12 221 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Twenty-three associations were detected at P <1×10–4 and 64 at P <5×10–4. Associations for NSC and model parameters revealed new regions related to early vigour that had greater significance than morphological traits, providing additional information on the genetic control of early vigour. Plant model parameters were used to characterize physiological and genetic trade-offs among component traits. Twelve associations were related to loci for cloned genes, with nine related to organogenesis, plant height, cell size or cell number. The potential use of these associations as markers for breeding is discussed. PMID:26022255

  1. Phenotypic and genetic dissection of component traits for early vigour in rice using plant growth modelling, sugar content analyses and association mapping.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, M C; Dingkuhn, M; Courtois, B; Gibon, Y; Clément-Vidal, A; Cruz, D F; Duitama, J; Lorieux, M; Luquet, D

    2015-09-01

    Early vigour of rice, defined as seedling capacity to accumulate shoot dry weight (SDW) rapidly, is a complex trait. It depends on a genotype propensity to assimilate, store, and/or use non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for producing large and/or numerous leaves, involving physiological trade-offs in the expression of component traits and, possibly, physiological and genetic linkages. This study explores a plant-model-assisted phenotyping approach to dissect the genetic architecture of rice early vigour, applying the Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to morphological and NSC measurements, as well as fitted parameters for the functional-structural plant model, Ecomeristem. Leaf size, number, SDW, and source-leaf NSC concentration were measured on a panel of 123 japonica accessions. The data were used to estimate Ecomeristem genotypic parameters driving organ appearance rate, size, and carbon dynamics. GWAS was performed based on 12 221 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Twenty-three associations were detected at P <1×10(-4) and 64 at P <5×10(-4). Associations for NSC and model parameters revealed new regions related to early vigour that had greater significance than morphological traits, providing additional information on the genetic control of early vigour. Plant model parameters were used to characterize physiological and genetic trade-offs among component traits. Twelve associations were related to loci for cloned genes, with nine related to organogenesis, plant height, cell size or cell number. The potential use of these associations as markers for breeding is discussed. PMID:26022255

  2. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  3. Water-Conserving Plant-Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents further information about plant-growth apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375). Apparatus provides nutrient solution to roots of seedlings without flooding. Conserves water by helping to prevent evaporation from plant bed. Solution supplied only as utilized by seedlings. Device developed for supporting plant growth in space, also has applications for growing plants with minimum of water, such as in arid environments.

  4. LED Systems Target Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  5. (Plant growth with limited water)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  6. The microfossil record of early land plants.

    PubMed

    Wellman, C H; Gray, J

    2000-06-29

    Dispersed microfossils (spores and phytodebris) provide the earliest evidence for land plants. They are first reported from the Llanvirn (Mid-Ordovician). More or less identical assemblages occur from the Llanvirn (Mid-Ordovician) to the late Llandovery (Early Silurian), suggesting a period of relative stasis some 40 Myr in duration. Various lines of evidence suggest that these early dispersed microfossils derive from parent plants that were bryophyte-like if not in fact bryophytes. In the late Llandovery (late Early Silurian) there was a major change in the nature of dispersed spore assemblages as the separated products of dyads (hilate monads) and tetrads (trilete spores) became relatively abundant. The inception of trilete spores probably represents the appearance of vascular plants or their immediate progenitors. A little later in time, in the Wenlock (early Late Silurian), the earliest unequivocal land plant megafossils occur. They are represented by rhyniophytoids. It is only from the Late Silurian onwards that the microfossil/ megafossil record can be integrated and utilized in interpretation of the flora. Dispersed microfossils are preserved in vast numbers, in a variety of environments, and have a reasonable spatial and temporal fossil record. The fossil record of plant megafossils by comparison is poor and biased, with only a dozen or so known pre-Devonian assemblages. In this paper, the early land plant microfossil record, and its interpretation, are reviewed. New discoveries, novel techniques and fresh lines of inquiry are outlined and discussed. PMID:10905606

  7. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K.; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K.; Kalra, Alok

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants. PMID:26503744

  8. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    PubMed

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact. PMID:19121038

  9. Mycorrhizal response trades off with plant growth rate and increases with plant successional status.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Liz; Bever, James D

    2015-07-01

    Early-successional plant species invest in rapid growth and reproduction in contrast to slow growing late-successional species. We test the consistency of "trade-offs between plant life history and responsiveness on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We selected four very early-, seven early-, 11 middle-, and eight late-successional plant species from six different families and functional groups and grew them with and without a mixed fungal inoculum and compared root architecture, mycorrhizal responsiveness, and plant growth rate. Our results indicate mycorrhizal responsiveness increases with plant successional stage and that this effect explains more variation in mycorrhizal response than is explained by phylogenetic relatedness. The mycorrhizal responsiveness of individual plant species was positively correlated with mycorrhizal root infection and negatively correlated with average plant mass and the number of root tips per unit mass, indicating that both plant growth rate and root architecture trade off with investment in mycorrhizal mutualisms. Because late-successional plants are very responsive to mycorrhizal fungi, our results suggest that fungal community dynamics may be an important driver of plant succession. PMID:26378299

  10. REVIEW OF "PLANT GROWTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews a recent book on the topic entitled APlant Growth and Climate Change@ edited by James I.L. Morison and Michael D. Morecroft. The authors discuss effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on plant growth and development and on plant water relations. The book gives a generally good ov...

  11. Spiral Growth in Plants: Models and Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bradford D.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis and simulation of spiral growth in plants integrates algebra and trigonometry in a botanical setting. When the ideas presented here are used in a mathematics classroom/computer lab, students can better understand how basic assumptions about plant growth lead to the golden ratio and how the use of circular functions leads to accurate…

  12. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  13. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  14. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  15. How Plants Make Light Work of Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is one of a series of articles designed to help science teachers keep current on ideas in specific areas in biology. Contained is information on how plants use light for growth, seed germination, and flowering. (PB)

  16. Enhancement in leaf photosynthesis and upregulation of rubisco in the C4 sorghum plant at elevated growth carbon dioxide and temperature occur at early stages of leaf ontogeny.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum was grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and at daytime maximum/nighttime minimum temperatures of 30/20 and 36/26C. Gas exchange rates, activities of Rubisco and PEP carboxylase (PEPC), leaf area, and biomass of various plant components were determined at different stages of leaf and p...

  17. Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory chamber for growing plants used to measure photosynthesis and respiration in simulated microgravity. Holds plant specimens while rotated on clinostat, see article, "Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets" (KSC-11537). Provides way of comparing gas-exchange rates of plants rotated horizontally on clinostat with those of stationary or vertically rotated plants. Gas extracted for analysis without stopping clinostat. Chamber includes potlike base and cylindrical cover, both made of transparent acrylic pipe. Gasket forms seal between cover and bottom plate of base. Cover bolted to pot baseplate, which in turn bolted to clinostat.

  18. Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus. [weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedolph, R. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plant beds supported radially removed from a primary axis of rotation, with each plant bed being driven about its own secondary axis of rotation and simultaneously moved in a planetary path about the primary axis of rotation. Each plant bed is formed by an apertured outer cylinder, a perforated inner cylinder positioned coaxially, and rooting media disposed in the space between. A rotatable manifold distributes liquid nutrients and water to the rooting media through the perforations in the inner cylinders as the plant beds are continuously rotated by suitable drive means.

  19. Plant Growth Module (PGM) conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Rasmussen, Daryl

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Growth Module for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), designed to answer basic science questions related to growing plants in closed systems, is described functionally with artist's conception drawings. Subsystems are also described, including enclosure and access; data acquisition and control; gas monitor and control; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; air delivery; nutrient monitor and control; microbial monitoring and control; plant support and nutrient delivery; illumination; and internal operations. The hardware development plan is outlined.

  20. Effect of microgravity on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

  1. Dissolved iron supply limits early growth of estuarine mangroves.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Three mesocosm experiments were performed in an outdoor facility to quantify the responses of five mangrove species grown from seedling to sapling stage to increasing rates of dissolved iron supply. Stem extension and biomass of mangroves were measured in the first two experiments, and in the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were measured in relation to stem extension of two mangrove species. In all experiments, mangrove growth was enhanced by increasing iron supply, although some species showed iron toxicity at the higher supply rates. In the first two experiments, stem extension rates of Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Xylocarpus moluccensis best fit Gaussian curves with maximal growth at supply rates of 50-60 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1), whereas growth of Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal increased to the highest rate (100 mmol Fe x m(-2) x d(-1)) of iron supply. Changes in leaf chlorophyll concentrations and iron content of roots mirrored the growth responses. In the third experiment, rates of microbial iron reduction were greater with R. apiculata and A. marina than in controls without plants; for both species, there was a positive relationship between stem extension and iron reduction. The rates of iron reduction and rates of iron supplied to the plants were well within the range of interstitial iron concentrations and rates of iron reduction found in the natural mangrove soils from which the seedlings were obtained. The responses of these species show that mangroves growing from seedling to sapling stage have a strong nutritional requirement for iron, and that there is a close relationship between plant roots and the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. These results suggest that mangrove growth may be limited in some natural forests by the rate at which iron is solubilized by iron-reducing bacteria. Such biogeochemical conditions have significant implications for successful recruitment, establishment, and early growth of

  2. (Plant growth with limited water)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

  3. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  4. Early growth response-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khachigian, Levon M

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the regulatory roles of the immediate-early gene product and prototypic zinc finger transcription factor, early growth response-1 in models of cardiovascular pathobiology, focusing on insights using microRNA, DNAzymes, small hairpin RNA, small interfering RNA, oligonucleotide decoy strategies and mice deficient in early growth response-1. PMID:27251707

  5. Stochasticity in plant cellular growth and patterning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heather M.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, along with other multicellular organisms, have evolved specialized regulatory mechanisms to achieve proper tissue growth and morphogenesis. During development, growing tissues generate specialized cell types and complex patterns necessary for establishing the function of the organ. Tissue growth is a tightly regulated process that yields highly reproducible outcomes. Nevertheless, the underlying cellular and molecular behaviors are often stochastic. Thus, how does stochasticity, together with strict genetic regulation, give rise to reproducible tissue development? This review draws examples from plants as well as other systems to explore stochasticity in plant cell division, growth, and patterning. We conclude that stochasticity is often needed to create small differences between identical cells, which are amplified and stabilized by genetic and mechanical feedback loops to begin cell differentiation. These first few differentiating cells initiate traditional patterning mechanisms to ensure regular development. PMID:25250034

  6. A nondestructive method for continuously monitoring plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, plant growth generally has been measured using destructive methods. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for continuously monitoring plant growth. The technique provides a means of directly and accurately measuring plant growth over both short and long time intervals. Application of this technique to the direct measurement of plant growth rates is illustrated using corn (Zea mays L.) as an example.

  7. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Editor); Henninger, Donald L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  8. Dynamical scaling analysis of plant callus growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, J.; Buceta, J.; Juarez, K.; Pumariño, B.; de la Torre, J.; Iriondo, J. M.

    2003-07-01

    We present experimental results for the dynamical scaling properties of the development of plant calli. We have assayed two different species of plant calli, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa, under different growth conditions, and show that their dynamical scalings share a universality class. From a theoretical point of view, we introduce a scaling hypothesis for systems whose size evolves in time. We expect our work to be relevant for the understanding and characterization of other systems that undergo growth due to cell division and differentiation, such as, for example, tumor development.

  9. Importance of Gravity for Plant Growth and Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments on the importance of gravity to plant growth and behavior are reported. The following studies were undertaken: (1) hyperastic responses to incremental changes of an axially imposed centripetal force; (2) Spacelab-1 experiments, methods for preparing soil in flight hardware containers were impound, to ensure desired moisture content and minimal contamination probability; (3) mesocotyl growth patterns were established by Avena lore exposure to red light during early seedling outogency; (4) the development of flight hardware; (5) choice of member of seedlings in each cube; (6) data processing and reduction; (7) clinostat validation; circummutation in space was more vigorous than on Earth based clinostat.

  10. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  11. Book Review: Plant Growth and Climate Change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Plant Growth and climate Change" (2006. James I.L. Morison and M.D. Morecroft, Eds. Blackwell Publishing. 213 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed journal HortScience. The text is well organized into nine independently-authored chapters each of whi...

  12. Static Magnetic Field and Plant Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharramov, Akif A.

    2007-04-01

    In the conditions of stable existence of Static Magnetic Field (SMF) the growth processes of some plants' (chickpeas, beans and lentils) seeds have been investigated in different temperatures of microenvironment. It has been established that the rate of the plant growths is affected (speeded up) by SMF that is intimately related to environmental temperature, any other environmental parameters (humidity, illumination, soil chemical state, etc) being under control. At the same time, the highest rate of growth has been observed in beans at a range of 30, 0 +/- 2, 0 °C. Special experiments and analyses of the data obtained, testified that the plants roots occurred the main target for SMF to be affected to get increasing rate. In order to standardize experimental conditions, the SMF have been created by magnetic bars of the intensity of B, equal that of the Earth at a distance of 23 cm from a pole of a bar magnet on the line passing along the both of its poles. Taking as a basis the results, it may be concluded that SMF can affect plant growth process, being regarded as an environmental factor of ecological importance.

  13. Plant growth responses to polypropylene--biocontainers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of bio-fillers incorporated into polypropylene (PP) on the growth of plants was evaluated. Biocontainers were created by injection molding of PP with 25-40% by weight of Osage orange tree, Paulownia tree, coffee tree wood or dried distillers grain and 5% by weight of maleated polypropy...

  14. Water vapor recovery from plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.; Colton, R. H.; Mccray, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of plant growth chambers (PGCs) for space missions and for bases on the moon and Mars. Key to successful development of PGCs is a system to recover and reuse the water vapor that is transpired from the leaves of the plants. A design is presented for a simple, reliable, membrane-based system that allows the recovery, purification, and reuse of the transpired water vapor through control of temperature and humidity levels in PGCs. The system is based on two membrane technologies: (1) dehumidification membrane modules to remove water vapor from the air, and (2) membrane contactors to return water vapor to the PGC (and, in doing so, to control the humidity and temperature within the PGC). The membrane-based system promises to provide an ideal, stable growth environment for a variety of plants, through a design that minimizes energy usage, volume, and mass, while maximizing simplicity and reliability.

  15. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2008-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and

  16. Mechanical regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean and eggplant grown and shaken in a greenhouse exhibited decreased internode length, internode diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots in much the same way as outdoor-exposed plants. Perhaps more important than decreased dimensions of plant parts resulting from periodic seismic treatment is the inhibition of photosynthetic productivity that accompanies this stress. Soybeam plants briefly shaken or rubbed twice daily experienced a decrease in relative as well as absolute growth rate compared to that of undisturbed controls. Growth dynamics analysis revealed that virtually all of the decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was due to a decline in net assimilation rate (NAR), but not in leaf area ratio (LAR). Lower NAR suggests that the stress-induced decrease in dry weight gain is due to a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Possible effects on stomatal aperture was investigated by measuring rates of whole plant transpiration as a function of seismo-stress, and a transitory decrease followed by a gradual, partial recovery was detected.

  17. Circularly Polarized Light and Growth of Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayev, Pavel; Pergolizzi, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The influence of linearly polarized light on the direction of plants growth has been recently demonstrated. The state of circularly polarized (CP) light can also change when it is reflected from the surface of leaves and stems. However, the role of light handedness in the development of plants and CP light interaction with the complexes of chlorophyll molecules have still not been studied enough. In this work, the role of left CP light in the accelerated growth of lentil and pea plants is revealed and studied. The mechanism of such an enhancement is discussed in terms of the model considering transmission, absorption, and scattering of CP light on micro and macro levels of leaf organization. Theoretical modeling of light interaction with the interior of the leaf was conducted for a number of recently proposed models of organization of chlorophyll molecules and chloroplasts. All the calculations were performed by employing a 4x4 matrix method in solving Maxwell equations. It is shown that left-handed chiral organization of chlorophyll molecules can greatly enhance the absorption of light and therefore lead to the enhanced growth of the whole plant under CP light.

  18. Condensate Recycling in Closed Plant Growth Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, J. O.; Sager, J. C.; Fortson, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Water used in the the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the Kennedy Space Center is being recycled. Condensation is collected in the air ducts, filtered and deionized, and resupplied to the system for nutrient solutions, supplemental humidification, solvents and diluents. While the system functions well from a process control standpoint, precise and accurate tracking of water movement through the system to answer plant physiological questions is not consistent. Possible causes include hardware errors, undetected vapor loss from chamber leakage, and unmeasured changes in water volume in the plant growth trays.

  19. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  20. 22-Oxocholestanes as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Zeferino-Diaz, Reyna; Hilario-Martinez, J Ciciolil; Rodriguez-Acosta, Maricela; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A

    2015-06-01

    The spirostanic steroidal side-chain of diosgenin and hecogenin was modified to produce 22-oxocholestane derivatives. This type of side-chain was obtained in good yields through a straightforward four-step pathway. These compounds show potent brassinosteroid-like growth promoting activity evaluated via the rice lamina joint inclination bioassay. This is the first report of steroidal skeletons bearing the 22-oxocholestane side-chain and preserving the basic structure (A-D rings) from their corresponding parent compounds acting as plant growth promoters. PMID:25795152

  1. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOEpatents

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  2. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  3. Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, A; Khan, M S; Ahemad, M; Oves, M

    2009-09-01

    Most agronomic soils contain large reserves of total phosphorus [P], but the fixation and precipitation of P cause P deficiency, and in turn, restrict the growth of crops severely. Phosphorus replenishment, especially in sustainable production systems, remains a major challenge as it is mainly fertilizer-dependent. Though the use of chemical P fertilizers is obviously the best means to circumvent P deficiency in different agro-ecosystems, their use is always limited due to its spiralling cost. A greater interest has, therefore, been generated to find an alternative yet inexpensive technology that could provide sufficient P to plants while reducing the dependence on expensive chemical P fertilizers. Among the heterogeneous and naturally abundant microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including bacteria have provided an alternative biotechnological solution in sustainable agriculture to meet the P demands of plants. These organisms in addition to providing P to plants also facilitate plant growth by other mechanisms. Despite their different ecological niches and multiple functional properties, P-solubilizing bacteria have yet to fulfil their promise as commercial bio-inoculants. Current developments in our understanding of the functional diversity, rhizosphere colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application are likely to facilitate their use as reliable components in the management of sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:19789141

  4. Mechanisms of the early phases of plant gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitropism is directed growth of a plant or plant organ in response to gravity and can be divided into the following temporal sequence: perception, transduction, and response. This article is a review of the research on the early events of gravitropism (i.e., phenomena associated with the perception and transduction phases). The two major hypotheses for graviperception are the protoplast-pressure and starch-statolith models. While most researchers support the concept of statoliths, there are suggestions that plants have multiple mechanisms of perception. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in graviperception/transduction, but the details of these mechanisms remain elusive. A number of recent developments, such as increased use of the molecular genetic approach, magnetophoresis, and laser ablation, have facilitated research in graviperception and have allowed for refinement of the current models. In addition, the entire continuum of acceleration forces from hypo- to hyper-gravity have been useful in studying perception mechanisms. Future interdisciplinary molecular approaches and the availability of sophisticated laboratories on the International Space Station should help to develop new insights into mechanisms of gravitropism in plants.

  5. The growth and form of plant shoots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Growing plant stems and shoots exhibit a variety of shapes that embody growth in response to various stimuli. We provide a quantitative biophysical theory for these shapes by accounting for the inherent observed passive and active effects: (i) the passive elastic deflection of the shoot due to its own weight, and (ii) the active controllable growth response of the shoot in response to its orientation relative to gravity, and (iii) proprioception, the shoot's growth response to its own observable shape, which is itself determined by its elasticity and weight. A morphospace diagram in terms of two dimensionless parameters representing a scaled local active gravitropic sensitivity, and a scaled passive elastic sag shows how a variety of observed transient and steady morphologies with effective positive, negative and even oscillatory gravitropic behaviors arise in a sentient growing filament naturally, without the need for ad-hoc complex spatio-temporal control strategies.

  6. How alpine plant growth is linked to snow cover and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, Tobias; Rixen, Christian; Sturm, Matthew; Stoeckli, Veronika

    2008-09-01

    Recent climate models predict future changes in temperature and precipitation in the Alps. To assess the potential response of alpine plant communities to climate change, we analyzed specific and combined effects of temperature, precipitation, and snow season timing on the growth of plants. This analysis is based on data from 17 snow meteorological stations and includes plant growth records from the same sites over 10 years. Using multiple regression and path analysis, we found that plant growth was primarily driven by climatic factors controlled by the timing of the snow season. Air temperature and precipitation before snow-up and after melt-out yielded the greatest direct impact on maximum plant height as well as growth rates. The variability of environmental drivers between sites versus between years had different effects on plant growth: e.g., sites with early melt-out dates hosted plant communities with tall, slow-growing vegetation. But interannual variations in melt-out dates at a given site did not produce measurable differences in plant growth performance. However, high temperatures after melt-out invariably resulted in a shortened growth period. We speculate that the plant growth patterns we observed in response to climate variation between sites are indicative of the long-term responses of alpine plant communities to persistent climate changes. With most climate models indicating shorter winters, we thus expect alpine grasslands in the Alps to display an enhanced biomass production in the future.

  7. Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.

    PubMed

    Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181

  8. Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. PMID:27075181

  9. Early warning indicators for monitoring nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company`s (FP&L`s) Nuclear Division has developed a set of early warning indicators that are used to provide precursor indications of future plant performance. These indicators are monitored by management and safety committees to enable early detection of negative performance so that corrective actions may be taken prior to experiencing a significant decline in plant performance.

  10. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  11. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kimberley L.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Sanchez, Jessica; Potma, Eric O.; Santos, Guaciara M.

    2015-01-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate, and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin, and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a “glass wastebasket.” Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins, and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction. PMID:26442066

  12. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kimberley L; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Sanchez, Jessica; Potma, Eric O; Santos, Guaciara M

    2015-01-01

    Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate, and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM) that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin, and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a "glass wastebasket." Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins, and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction. PMID:26442066

  13. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L

    2006-05-01

    The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

  14. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 μl of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 μg/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  15. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  16. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scherdel, Pauline; Dunkel, Leo; van Dommelen, Paula; Goulet, Olivier; Salaün, Jean-François; Brauner, Raja; Heude, Barbara; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic review to address two key and interconnected questions underlying growth monitoring: which conditions should be targeted, and how should abnormal growth be defined? We systematically searched for studies reporting algorithms for growth monitoring in children and studies comparing the performance of new WHO growth charts with that of other growth charts. Among 1556 identified citations, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Six target conditions have mainly been studied: Turner syndrome, coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, growth hormone deficiency, renal tubular acidosis, and small for gestational age with no catch-up after 2 or 3 years. Seven algorithms to define abnormal growth have been proposed in the past 20 years, but their level of validation is low, and their overall sensitivities and specificities vary substantially; however, the Grote and Saari clinical decision rules seem the most promising. Two studies reported that WHO growth charts had poorer performance compared with other existing growth charts for early detection of target conditions. Available data suggest a large gap between the widespread implementation of growth monitoring and its level of evidence or the clinical implications of early detection of serious disorders in children. Further investigations are needed to standardise the practice of growth monitoring, with a consensus on a few priority target conditions and with internationally validated clinical decision rules to define abnormal growth, including the selection of appropriate growth charts. PMID:26777129

  17. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive. PMID:11543164

  18. Mechanical forces in plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. D.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Plant cells perceive forces that arise from the environment and from the biophysics of plant growth. These forces provide meaningful cues that can affect the development of the plant. Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were used to examine the cytoplasmic tensile character of cells that have been implicated in the gravitropic response. Laser-trapping technology revealed that the starch-containing statoliths of the central columella cells in root caps are held loosely within the cytoplasm. In contrast, the peripheral cells have starch granules that are relatively resistant to movement. The role of the actin cytoskeleton in affecting the tensile character of these cells is discussed. To explore the role that biophysical forces might play in generating developmental cues, we have developed an experimental model system in which protoplasts, embedded in a synthetic agarose matrix, are subjected to stretching or compression. We have found that protoplasts subjected to these forces from five minutes to two hours will subsequently elongate either at right angles or parallel to the tensive or compressive force vector. Moreover, the cortical microtubules are found to be organized either at right angles or parallel to the tensive or compressive force vector. We discuss these results in terms of an interplay of information between the extracellular matrix and the underlying cytoskeleton.

  19. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  20. [Application of spectroscopy technique to obtain plant growth information].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan-yu; Ying, Yi-bin; Xie, Li-juan

    2008-06-01

    Detection of plant growth information can predict growth and health status of plant and realize intelligentized management, detection techniques of plant growth information include electrical properties, optical reflectance and machine vision, with the development of spectroscopy technique, near infrared spectroscopy technique, multispectral technique and hyperspectral technique are widely used in plant growth information measurement. Spectroscopy technique is extremely fast, high efficient, cheap to implement and no sample preparation, has been a rapid and non-destructive modern measuring technique. In this paper, the application of spectroscopy technique to measurement of plant growth information was briefly introduced. Some considerable aspects existing in the application were also discussed and it is pointed out that because of real time information obtain and intelligentized management of plant, automation analysis equipment should be developed to improve the speed of plant growth information measurement and cooperating with several other techniques, such as machine vision, thermal imaging technique and spectroscopy technique, is the research trend. PMID:18800709

  1. Ammonia And Ethylene Optrodes For Research On Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Quan; Tabacco, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors developed for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia and ethylene near plants during experiments on growth of plants in enclosed environments. Developmental fiber-optic sensors satisfy need to measure concentrations as low as few parts per billion (ppb) and expected to contribute to research on roles of ethylene and ammonia in growth of plants.

  2. Recent Advances in Plant Early Signaling in Response to Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are frequently attacked by herbivores and pathogens and therefore have acquired constitutive and induced defenses during the course of their evolution. Here we review recent progress in the study of the early signal transduction pathways in host plants in response to herbivory. The sophisticated signaling network for plant defense responses is elicited and driven by both herbivore-induced factors (e.g., elicitors, effectors, and wounding) and plant signaling (e.g., phytohormone and plant volatiles) in response to arthropod factors. We describe significant findings, illuminating the scenario by providing broad insights into plant signaling involved in several arthropod-host interactions. PMID:21747702

  3. Plant Growth Under Light Emitting Diode Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Daniel John

    Plant growth under light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated to determine if LEDs would be useful to provide radiant energy for two plant processes, photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Photosynthesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) was measured using photons from LEDs to answer the following: (1) Are leaves able to use red LED light for photosynthesis? and (2) Is the efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light equal to that of continuous light? In 175 Pa CO _2, or in response to changes in CO _2,<=af photosynthesis and ATP status were the same in LED as in white xenon arc light. In 35 Pa CO_2, photosynthesis was 10% lower in LED than in xenon arc light due to lowered stomatal conductance. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light was equal to continuous light, even when pulses were twice as bright as sunlight. Xanthophyll pigments were not affected by these bright pulses. Photomorphogenesis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and transformed tobacco and tomato (expressing oat phytochrome-A) was assessed by growing plants under red LED lamps in an attempt to answer the following: (1) What is the developmental response of non-transformed and transformed tobacco to red LED light? and (2) Can tomato plants that grow tall and spindly in red LED light be made to grow short by increasing the amount of phytochrome-A? The short phenotype of transformed tobacco was not evident when plants were grown in LED light. Addition of photons of far-red or blue light to red light resulted in short transformed tobacco. Tomato plants grew three times as tall and lacked leaf development in LED versus white light, but transformed tomato remained short and produced fruit under LED light. I have determined that the LED photons are useful for photosynthesis and that the photon efficiency of photosynthesis is the same in pulsed as in continuous light. From responses of tobacco, I

  4. Origin and early evolution of land plants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The origin of the sporophyte in land plants represents a fundamental phase in plant evolution. Today this subject is controversial, and scarcely considered in textbooks and journals of botany, in spite of its importance. There are two conflicting theories concerning the origin of the alternating generations in land-plants: the “antithetic” theory and the “homologous” theory. These have never been fully resolved, although, on the ground of the evidences on the probable ancestors of land plants, the antithetic theory is considered more plausible than the homologous theory. However, additional phylogenetic dilemmas are the evolution of bryophytes from algae and the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes. All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualist neo-Darwinian theory and other genetic evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:19513262

  5. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  6. Martian Soil Plant Growth Experiment: The Effects of Adding Nitrogen, Bacteria, and Fungi to Enhance Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, D. M.; Cooper, J. B.; Anderson, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Plant growth is enhanced by the presence of symbiotic soil microbes. In order to better understand how plants might prosper on Mars, we set up an experiment to test whether symbiotic microbes function to enhance plant growth in a Martian soil simulant.

  7. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Afshan; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  8. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Afshan; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  9. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  10. New methods for early selection and development of plant genotypes for rapid biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Anekonda, T.S.; Criddle, R.S.; Hansen, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    Calorespirometric investigation of respiratory metabolism and its temperature dependencies can be used to identify plants with superior growth characteristics. Measurements of the metabolic heat rate, rate of CO{sub 2} evolution and O{sub 2} uptake over a range of temperature are analyzed with a mechanistic model of plant growth to allow early selection of superior trees. This analysis provides information about indicies of genetic characteristics to use in breeding programs and guidelines for matching trees to appropriate climatic conditions. These procedures can enhance the rate of production of biomass by shortening the time to harvest and increase total economic returns.

  11. Capabilities of the Advanced Astroculture plant growth unit to support plant research conducted on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Durst, S.; Meyers, R.; Tellez, G.; Demars, M.; Sandstrom, P.

    Since 1990, WCSAR has developed a number of technologies for plant-based space life support systems, with a goal of providing robust and capable facilities suitable for conducting quality plant research in microgravity environment. These technologies have been substantially validated using the Astroculture payload through a series of space shuttle flights. Advanced ASTROCULTURETM (ADVASC), a space-based plant growth unit, has been developed to take advantage of plant research opportunities during the early assembly phase of the International Space Station (ISS) when ISS resources and up/down mass availability are limited. ADVASC provides an enclosed, environmentally controlled plant growth chamber with controlled parameters of temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, fluid nutrient delivery, and CO2 and hydrocarbon (ethylene) concentrations. Auto-prime technology eliminates the need for electrical power during launch vehicle ascent/descent, and therefore greatly relieves the shortage of launch vehicle resources and ISS crew time. State-of-the-art control software combined with fault tolerance and recovery technology significantly increases overall system robustness and efficiency. Tele-science features allow engineers and scientists to remotely receive telemetry data and video images, send remote commands, monitor plant development status, and troubleshoot subsystems if any unexpected behavior occurs. ADVASC is configured as two single-Middeck-Locker inserts installed in a standard EXPRESS Rack, with one insert containing the support systems and the other containing a large plant growth chamber. Thus, the insert with the support systems can remain on the ISS and only the insert containing the plant chamber needs to be transported to and from the ISS to accommodate different experiments. ADVASC has been used to successfully conduct three plant life cycle studies on board the ISS, two for Arabidopsis seed-to-seed growth and one for soybean seed-to-seed growth

  12. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    PubMed Central

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisation, leaf protein and chlorophyll content of the host plants were observed. The results revealed that the inocula successfully colonised roots of the host plants. Plants inoculated with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (R12) had more root dry weight and volume than plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7). Leaf protein and chlorophyll content were higher in the bacterised plants compared to Control 2 plants (inoculated with killed Sp7). These results suggest that the diazotrophs successfully improved the growth of the host plant (oil palm) and minimised the amount of N fertiliser necessary for growth. PMID:24575180

  13. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    PubMed

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same. PMID:25033667

  14. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and funct...

  15. The research on Virtual Plants Growth Based on DLA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, YunLan; Chai, Bencheng

    This article summarizes the separated Evolutionary Algorithm in fractal algorithm of Diffusion Limited Aggregation model (i.e. DLA model) and put forward the virtual plant growth realization in computer based on DLA model. The method is carried out in the VB6.0 environment to achieve and verify the plant growth based on DLA model.

  16. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rocheli; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  17. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  18. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three different reference power plant configurations were considered with parametric variations of the various design parameters for each plant. Two of the reference plant designs were based on the use of high temperature regenerative air preheaters separately fired by a low Btu gas produced from a coal gasifier which was integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design was based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to a more moderate temperature in a tubular type metallic recuperative heat exchanger which is part of the bottoming plant heat recovery system. Comparative information was developed on plant performance and economics. The highest net plant efficiency of about 45 percent was attained by the reference plant design with the use of a high temperature air preheater separately fired with the advanced entrained bed gasifier. The use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air yielded the lowest cost of generating electricity at a slightly lower plant efficiency. Both of these two reference plant designs are identified as potentially attractive for early MHD power plant applications.

  19. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  20. The early growth of the first black holes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-04

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur atmore » super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.« less

  1. Effects of root decomposition on plant-soil feedback of early- and mid-successional plant species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naili; Van der Putten, Wim H; Veen, G F Ciska

    2016-10-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) is an important driver of plant community dynamics. Many studies have emphasized the role of pathogens and symbiotic mutualists in PSFs; however, less is known about the contribution of decomposing litter, especially that of roots. We conducted a PSF experiment, where soils were conditioned by living early- and mid-successional grasses and forbs with and without decomposing roots of conspecific species (conditioning phase). These soils were used to test growth responses of conspecific and heterospecific plant species (feedback phase). The addition of the roots of conspecifics decreased the biomass of both early- and mid-successional plant species in the conditioning phase. In the feedback phase, root addition had positive effects on the biomass of early-successional species and neutral effects on mid-successional species, except when mid-successional grasses were grown in soils conditioned by conspecifics, where effects were negative. Biomass of early- and mid-successional forbs was generally reduced in soils conditioned by conspecifics. We conclude that root decomposition may increase short-term negative PSF effects, but that the effects can become neutral to positive over time, thereby counteracting negative components of PSF. This implies that root decomposition is a key element of PSF and needs to be included in future studies. PMID:27214646

  2. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christian P; King, George; Plocher, Milt; Storm, Marjorie; Pokhrel, Lok R; Johnson, Mark G; Rygiewicz, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2 ) or nano-cerium oxide (nCeO2 ) (0 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL, and 1000 μg/mL) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. The authors modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to 2 common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2 , and 5 species responded to nCeO2 . Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain the developmental effects of these 2 ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, with unknown effects at later stages of the life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2223-2229. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26773270

  3. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

  4. Mammalian Herbivores Alter the Population Growth and Spatial Establishment of an Early-Establishing Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lauren L.; Danielson, Brent J.; Harpole, W. Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions influence the establishment context of plant species, as herbivores alter the community context in which individual species establish, and the spatial relationship between individuals and their source population as plants invade. This relationship can be described using an establishment kernel, which takes into account movement through seed dispersal, and subsequent establishment of adults. Mammalian herbivores are hypothesized to influence plant population growth and establishment through a combination of consumption of seeds and seedlings, and movement of seeds. While the movement abilities of plants are well known, we have very few empirical mechanistic tests of how biotic factors like mammalian herbivores influence this spread potential. As herbivores of all sizes are abundant on the landscape, we asked the question, how do mammalian herbivores influence the population growth, spatial establishment, and the community establishment context of an early-recruiting native prairie legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata? We planted C. fasciculata in source populations within a four-acre tallgrass prairie restoration in plots with and without herbivores, and monitored its establishment with respect to distance from the source populations. We found that herbivores decreased population growth, and decreased the mean and range establishment distance. Additionally, C. fasciculata established more often without herbivores, and when surrounded by weedy, annual species. Our results provide insight into how the interactions between plants and herbivores can alter the spatial dynamics of developing plant communities, which is vital for colonization and range spread with fragmentation and climate change. Mammalian herbivores have the potential to both slow rates of establishment, but also determine the types of plant communities that surround invading species. Therefore, it is essential to consider the herbivore community when attempting to restore

  5. Mammalian Herbivores Alter the Population Growth and Spatial Establishment of an Early-Establishing Grassland Species.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Danielson, Brent J; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions influence the establishment context of plant species, as herbivores alter the community context in which individual species establish, and the spatial relationship between individuals and their source population as plants invade. This relationship can be described using an establishment kernel, which takes into account movement through seed dispersal, and subsequent establishment of adults. Mammalian herbivores are hypothesized to influence plant population growth and establishment through a combination of consumption of seeds and seedlings, and movement of seeds. While the movement abilities of plants are well known, we have very few empirical mechanistic tests of how biotic factors like mammalian herbivores influence this spread potential. As herbivores of all sizes are abundant on the landscape, we asked the question, how do mammalian herbivores influence the population growth, spatial establishment, and the community establishment context of an early-recruiting native prairie legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata? We planted C. fasciculata in source populations within a four-acre tallgrass prairie restoration in plots with and without herbivores, and monitored its establishment with respect to distance from the source populations. We found that herbivores decreased population growth, and decreased the mean and range establishment distance. Additionally, C. fasciculata established more often without herbivores, and when surrounded by weedy, annual species. Our results provide insight into how the interactions between plants and herbivores can alter the spatial dynamics of developing plant communities, which is vital for colonization and range spread with fragmentation and climate change. Mammalian herbivores have the potential to both slow rates of establishment, but also determine the types of plant communities that surround invading species. Therefore, it is essential to consider the herbivore community when attempting to restore

  6. Alkamides Isolated from Plants Promote Growth and Alter Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Molina-Torres, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    To date, several classes of hormones have been described that influence plant development, including auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and, more recently, brassinosteroids. However, it is known that many fungal and bacterial species produce substances that alter plant growth that, if naturally present in plants, might represent novel classes of plant growth regulators. Alkamides are metabolites widely distributed in plants with a broad range of biological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of affinin, an alkamide naturally occurring in plants, and its derivates, N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide, on plant growth and early root development in Arabidopsis. We found that treatments with affinin in the range of 10-6 to 10-4 m alter shoot and root biomass production. This effect correlated with alteration on primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation. Low concentrations of affinin (7 × 10-6–2.8 × 10-5 m) enhanced primary root growth and root hair elongation, whereas higher concentrations inhibited primary root growth that related with a reduction in cell proliferating activity and cell elongation. N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide were found to stimulate root hair elongation at concentrations between 10-8 to 10-7 m. Although the effects of alkamides were similar to those produced by auxins on root growth and cell parameters, the ability of the root system to respond to affinin was found to be independent of auxin signaling. Our results suggest that alkamides may represent a new group of plant growth promoting substances with significant impact on root development and opens the possibility of using these compounds for improved plant production. PMID:14988477

  7. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  8. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children’s inhibitory control from ages 2 to 4, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the Family Check-Up (FCU), children’s inhibitory control was assessed yearly at ages 2, 3, and 4. Inhibitory control was initially low and increased linearly to age 4. High levels of harsh parenting and male gender were associated with low initial status in inhibitory control. High levels of supportive parenting were associated with faster growth. Extreme family poverty and African American ethnicity were also associated with slower growth. The results highlight parenting as a target for early interventions in contexts of high socioeconomic risk. PMID:20376201

  9. Effects of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poupin, María Josefina; Timmermann, Tania; Vega, Andrea; Zuñiga, Ana; González, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) induce positive effects in plants, such as increased growth or reduced stress susceptibility. The mechanisms behind PGPR/plant interaction are poorly understood, as most studies have described short-term responses on plants and only a few studies have analyzed plant molecular responses under PGPR colonization. Here, we studied the effects of the PGPR bacterial model Burkholderiaphytofirmans PsJN on the whole life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We reported that at different plant developmental points, strain PsJN can be found in the rhizosphere and also colonizing their internal tissues. In early ontogeny, strain PsJN increased several growth parameters and accelerated growth rate of the plants. Also, an Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis revealed that 408 genes showed differential expression in PsJN-inoculated plants; some of these genes are involved in stress response and hormone pathways. Specifically, genes implicated in auxin and gibberellin pathways were induced. Quantitative transcriptional analyses of selected genes in different developmental stages revealed that the beginning of these changes could be evidenced early in development, especially among the down-regulated genes. The inoculation with heat-killed bacteria provoked a more severe transcriptional response in plants, but was not able to induce plant growth-promotion. Later in ontogeny, the growth rates of inoculated plants decreased with respect to the non-inoculated group and, interestingly, the inoculation accelerated the flowering time and the appearance of senescence signs in plants; these modifications correlate with the early up-regulation of flowering control genes. Then, we show that a single inoculation with a PGPR could affect the whole life cycle of a plant, accelerating its growth rate and shortening its vegetative period, both effects relevant for most crops. Thus, these findings provide novel and interesting aspects of these relevant

  10. Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

    2002-01-01

    Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future. PMID:11762911

  11. Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammig, A.; Jonas, T.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Rixen, C.

    2010-06-01

    Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored for almost a decade at 17 snow meteorological stations in different alpine regions along the Swiss Alps. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between mean air temperature in May/June and snow melt out, onset of plant growth, and plant height. These correlations were used to project plant growth phenology for future climate conditions based on the gridded output of a set of regional climate models runs. Melt out and onset of growth were projected to occur on average 17 days earlier by the end of the century than in the control period from 1971-2000 under the future climate conditions of the low resolution climate model ensemble. Plant height and biomass production were expected to increase by 77% and 45%, respectively. The earlier melt out and onset of growth will probably cause a considerable shift towards higher growing plants and thus increased biomass. Our results represent the first quantitative and spatially explicit estimates of climate change impacts on future growing season length and the respective productivity of alpine plant communities in the Swiss Alps.

  12. Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammig, A.; Jonas, T.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Rixen, C.

    2009-11-01

    Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored for almost a decade at 17 snow meteorological stations in different alpine regions along the Swiss Alps. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between mean air temperature in May/June and snow melt-out, onset of plant growth, and plant height. These correlations were used to project plant growth phenology for future climate conditions based on the gridded output of a set of regional climate models runs. Melt-out and onset of growth were projected to occur on average 17 days earlier by the end of the century than in the control period from 1971-2000 under the future climate conditions of the low resolution climate model ensemble. Plant height and biomass production were expected to increase by 77% and 45%, respectively. The earlier melt-out and onset of growth will probably cause a considerable shift towards higher growing plants and thus increased biomass. Our results represent the first quantitative and spatially explicit estimates of climate change impacts on future growing season length and the respective productivity of alpine plant communities in the Swiss Alps.

  13. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation. PMID:26361480

  14. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation. PMID:26361480

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  16. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  17. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  18. Life history biology of early land plants: Deciphering the gametophyte phase

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Thomas N.; Kerp, Hans; Hass, Hagen

    2005-01-01

    The ca. 400-million-year-old Rhynie chert biota represents a benchmark for studies of early terrestrial ecosystems. The exquisite preservation of the organisms documents an ancient biodiversity that also includes various levels of biological interaction. Absent from the picture until recently has been detailed information about the development of the gametophyte phase and the alternation of generations of the macroplants in this ecosystem. Here, we trace the development of the gametophyte phase of Aglaophyton, an early land plant with an unusual complement of structural and morphological characters. Mature gametophytes consist of a fleshy protocorm attached to the substrate by basal rhizoids; arising from the upper surface are one to several upright gametangiophores bearing multiple gametangia. Stomata are present on the upper surface of the protocorm and gametangiophore, and endomycorrhizal fungi extend throughout the gametophyte. Gametophytes are unisexual, producing either antheridiophores or archegoniophores. There is no evidence that gametophytes later become hermaphroditic. The sexual dimorphism of the Rhynie chert gametophytes is inconsistent with theoretical ideas about the haploid phase of early land plants. The gametophyte phase of early land plants can now be considered within an ecological and evolutionary framework that, in turn, can be used to develop hypotheses about some aspects of the population dynamics and growth of these early land plants. PMID:15809414

  19. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  20. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  1. Plant growth and architectural modelling and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Fourcaud, Thierry; Jaeger, Marc; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Li, Baoguo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, a growing number of scientists around the world have invested in research on plant growth and architectural modelling and applications (often abbreviated to plant modelling and applications, PMA). By combining physical and biological processes, spatially explicit models have shown their ability to help in understanding plant–environment interactions. This Special Issue on plant growth modelling presents new information within this topic, which are summarized in this preface. Research results for a variety of plant species growing in the field, in greenhouses and in natural environments are presented. Various models and simulation platforms are developed in this field of research, opening new features to a wider community of researchers and end users. New modelling technologies relating to the structure and function of plant shoots and root systems are explored from the cellular to the whole-plant and plant-community levels. PMID:21638797

  2. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  3. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  4. Arctic plant diversity in the Early Eocene greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Guy J.; Eberle, Jaelyn; Le-Page, Ben A.; Dawson, Mary; Hutchison, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    For the majority of the Early Caenozoic, a remarkable expanse of humid, mesothermal to temperate forests spread across Northern Polar regions that now contain specialized plant and animal communities adapted to life in extreme environments. Little is known on the taxonomic diversity of Arctic floras during greenhouse periods of the Caenozoic. We show for the first time that plant richness in the globally warm Early Eocene (approx. 55–52 Myr) in the Canadian High Arctic (76° N) is comparable with that approximately 3500 km further south at mid-latitudes in the US western interior (44–47° N). Arctic Eocene pollen floras are most comparable in richness with today's forests in the southeastern United States, some 5000 km further south of the Arctic. Nearly half of the Eocene, Arctic plant taxa are endemic and the richness of pollen floras implies significant patchiness to the vegetation type and clear regional richness of angiosperms. The reduced latitudinal diversity gradient in Early Eocene North American plant species demonstrates that extreme photoperiod in the Arctic did not limit taxonomic diversity of plants. PMID:22072610

  5. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

  6. PROPERTIES AND PLANT GROWTH POTENTIAL OF MINELAND OVERBURDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overburden materials from surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Plant growth potential of selected materials, with and without sewage sludge and fertilizer amendments, was evaluated in greenhouse pot culture and outdoor con...

  7. Clinostat Delivers Power To Plant-Growth Cabinets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushong, Wilton E.; Fox, Ronald C.; Brown, Christopher S.; Biro, Ronald R.; Dreshel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinostat rotates coaxial pair of plant-growth cabinets about horizontal axis while supplying cabinets with electric power for built-in computers, lamps, fans, and auxiliary equipment, such as nutrient pumps. Each cabinet self-contained unit for growing plants in controlled environment. By rotating cabinets and contents about horizontal axis, scientists simulate and study some of effects of microgravity on growth of plants. Clinostat includes vertical aluminum mounting bracket on horizontal aluminum base. Bearings on bracket hold shaft with V-belt pulley. At each end of shaft, circular plate holds frame mount for cabinet. Mounting plates also used to hold transparent sealed growth chambers described in article, "Sealed Plant-Growth Chamber For Clinostat" (KSC-11538).

  8. Experiments with Corn To Demonstrate Plant Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Gray, Margarit S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores using corn seeds to demonstrate plant growth and development. This experiment allows students to formulate hypotheses, observe and record information, and practice mathematics. Presents background information, materials, procedures, and observations. (SAH)

  9. An engineering analysis of a closed cycle plant growth module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickford, G. H., Jr.; Jakob, F. E.; Landstrom, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The SOLGEM model is a numerical engineering model which solves the flow and energy balance equations for the air flowing through a growing environment, assuming quasi-steady state conditions within the system. SOLGEM provides a dynamic simulation of the controlled environment system in that the temperature and flow conditions of the growing environment are estimated on an hourly basis in response to the weather data and the plant growth parameters. The flow energy balance considers the incident solar flux; incoming air temperature, humidity, and flow rate; heat exchange with the roof and floor; and heat and moisture exchange with the plants. A plant transpiration subroutine was developed based plant growth research facility, intended for the study of bioregenerative life support theories. The results of a performance analysis of the plant growth module are given. The estimated energy requirements of the module components and the total energy are given.

  10. Early History of Arthropod and Vascular Plant Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labandeira, Conrad C.

    Although research on modern plant-arthropod associations is one of the cornerstones of biodiversity studies, very little of that interest has percolated down to the fossil record. Much of this neglect is attributable to dismissal of Paleozoic plant-arthropod interactions as being dominated by detritivory, with substantive herbivory not emerging until the Mesozoic. Recent examination of associations from some of the earliest terrestrial communities indicates that herbivory probably extends to the Early Devonian, in the form of spore feeding and piercing-and-sucking. External feeding on pinnule margins and the intimate and intricate association of galling are documented from the Middle and Late Pennsylvanian, respectively. During the Early Permian, the range of external foliage feeding extended to hole feeding and skeletonization and was characterized by the preferential targeting of certain seed plants. At the close of the Paleozoic, surface fluid feeding was established, but there is inconclusive evidence for mutualistic relationships between insect pollinivores and seed plants. These data are gleaned from the largely separate trace-fossil records of gut contents, coprolites, and plant damage and the body-fossil records of plant reproductive and vegetative structures, insect mouthparts, and ovipositors. While these discoveries accentuate the potential for identifying particular associations, the greatest theoretical demand is to establish the spectrum and level of intensity for the emergence of insect herbivory in a range of environments during the Pennsylvanian and Permian.

  11. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  12. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  13. Plant Growth and Morphogenesis under Different Gravity Conditions: Relevance to Plant Life in Space.

    PubMed

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The growth and morphogenesis of plants are entirely dependent on the gravitational acceleration of earth. Under microgravity conditions in space, these processes are greatly modified. Recent space experiments, in combination with ground-based studies, have shown that elongation growth is stimulated and lateral expansion suppressed in various shoot organs and roots under microgravity conditions. Plant organs also show automorphogenesis in space, which consists of altered growth direction and spontaneous curvature in the dorsiventral (back and front) directions. Changes in cell wall properties are responsible for these modifications of growth and morphogenesis under microgravity conditions. Plants live in space with interesting new sizes and forms. PMID:25370193

  14. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  15. Multiscale Models in the Biomechanics of Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth occurs through the coordinated expansion of tightly adherent cells, driven by regulated softening of cell walls. It is an intrinsically multiscale process, with the integrated properties of multiple cell walls shaping the whole tissue. Multiscale models encode physical relationships to bring new understanding to plant physiology and development. PMID:25729061

  16. Growth of Woody Plants in Clean Chip Residual Substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clean chip residual (CCR) is a potential replacement for pine bark (PB) in nursery crop substrates. It is a by-product of in-field forestry harvesting practices and has been shown to produce annual plants and perennials similar in size to plants grown in PB. This study evaluated growth of woody orna...

  17. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor.

  18. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor. PMID:27043180

  19. WHOLE-PLANT GROWTH STAGE ONTOLOGY FOR ANGIOSPERMS AND ITS APPLICATION IN PLANT BIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth stages are identified as distinct morphological landmarks in a continuous developmental process. The terms describing these developmental stages record the morphological appearance of the plant at a specific point in its life cycle. The widely differing morphology of plant species conse...

  20. Atmosphere control for plant growth flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sudar, Martin; Timm, Marc; Yost, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    An atmosphere exchange system (AES) has been designed to provide a conditioned atmosphere supply to plant specimens in flight without incurring the large weight and volume associated with bottled gases. The paper examines the atmosphere filter cartridge (AFC) designed to remove trace organic atmosphere contaminants from the Space Shuttle cabin and to condition the cabin atmosphere prior to exposure to plant specimens. The AES and AFC are described and illustrated. The AFC design requirements are discussed and results are presented from tests on the performance of the AFC. Also, consideration is given to the potential applications of the AFC and future design concepts for atmosphere control.

  1. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. PMID:26307440

  2. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  3. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  4. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  5. Factors affecting plant growth in membrane nutrient delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the tubular membrane plant growth unit for the delivery of water and nutrients to roots in microgravity has recently focused on measuring the effects of changes in physical variables controlling solution availability to the plants. Significant effects of membrane pore size and the negative pressure used to contain the solution were demonstrated. Generally, wheat grew better in units with a larger pore size but equal negative pressure and in units with the same pore size but less negative pressure. Lettuce also exhibited better plant growth at less negative pressure.

  6. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  7. Design and Construction of an Inexpensive Homemade Plant Growth Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K.; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140–250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  8. Understanding growth and development of forage plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the developmental morphology of forage plants is important for making good management decisions. Many such decisions involve timing the initiation or termination of a management practice to a particular stage of development in the life cycle of the forage. The life cycles of forage pl...

  9. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

  10. Plant growth-promoting bacteria for phytostabilization of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Grandlic, Christopher J; Mendez, Monica O; Chorover, Jon; Machado, Blenda; Maier, Raina M

    2008-03-15

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal contenttailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals. PMID:18409640

  11. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

    2009-05-19

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

  12. Manufactured soils for plant growth at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    1989-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of synthetic soils are discussed. It is pointed out that synthetic soils may provide the proper physical and chemical properties necessary to maximize plant growth, such as a toxic-free composition and cation exchange capacities. The importance of nutrient retention, aeration, moisture retention, and mechanical support as qualities for synthetic soils are stressed. Zeoponics, or the cultivation of plants in zeolite substrates that both contain essential plant-growth cations on their exchange sites and have minor amounts of mineral phases and/or anion-exchange resins that supply essential plant growth ions, is discussed. It is suggested that synthetic zeolites at lunar bases could provide adsorption media for separation of various gases, act as catalysts and as molecular sieves, and serve as cation exchangers in sewage-effluent treatment, radioactive-waste disposal, and pollution control. A flow chart of a potential zeoponics system illustrates this process.

  13. The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz-Castro, Randy; Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth and development involves a tight coordination of the spatial and temporal organization of cell division, cell expansion and cell differentiation. Orchestration of these events requires the exchange of signaling molecules between the root and shoot, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The interactions that occur between plants and their associated microorganisms have long been of interest, as knowledge of these processes could lead to the development of novel agricultural applications. Plants produce a wide range of organic compounds including sugars, organic acids and vitamins, which can be used as nutrients or signals by microbial populations. On the other hand, microorganisms release phytohormones, small molecules or volatile compounds, which may act directly or indirectly to activate plant immunity or regulate plant growth and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of signals from free-living bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in a beneficial way. Evidence has accumulated indicating that classic plant signals such as auxins and cytokinins can be produced by microorganisms to efficiently colonize the root and modulate root system architecture. Other classes of signals, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, which are used by bacteria for cell-to-cell communication, can be perceived by plants to modulate gene expression, metabolism and growth. Finally, we discuss the role played by volatile organic compounds released by certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant immunity and developmental processes. The picture that emerges is one in which plants and microbes communicate themselves through transkingdom signaling systems involving classic and novel signals. PMID:19820333

  14. [Plant growth with limited water]. Performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    When water is in short supply, soybean stem growth is inhibited by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. The extensibility then becomes the main limitation. With time, there is a modest recovery in extensibility along with an accumulation of a 28kD protein in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 3lkD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. In the stem, growth was inhibited and the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 3 1 kD protein did not. The roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 28kD protein did not accumulate but the mRNA for the 3lkD protein did. Thus, there was a tissuespecific response of gene expression that correlated with the contrasting growth response to low water potential in the same seedlings. Further work using immunogold labeling, fluorescence labeling, and western blotting gave evidence that the 28kD protein is located in the cell wall as well as several compartments in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments indicate that the 28kD protein is a phosphatase.

  15. Microsensor Technologies for Plant Growth System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo

    2004-01-01

    This document covered the following: a) demonstration of feasibility of microsensor for tube and particulate growth systems; b) Dissolved oxygen; c)Wetness; d) Flexible microfluidic substrate with microfluidic channels and microsensor arrays; e)Dynamic root zone control/monitoring in microgravity; f)Rapid prototyping of phytoremediation; and g) A new tool for root physiology and pathology.

  16. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    PubMed Central

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14–169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400–1300 mg L−1). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  17. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  19. The Growth of Early Galaxies and Reionization of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Chary, Ranga

    2012-07-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium about a billion years after the Big Bang was an important event which occurred due to the release of ionizing photons from the growth of stellar mass and black holes in the early Universe. By leveraging the benefits of field galaxy surveys, I will present some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how the earliest galaxies in the Universe evolved. I will present evidence that unlike in the local Universe where galaxy growth occurs through intermittent cannibalism, star-formation in the distant Universe is a more continuous if violent process with an overabundance of massive stars. Implications for the reionization history of the Universe will also be discussed.

  20. Release characteristics of encapsulated formulations incorporating plant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Slawomir; Schwartz, Liliana; Wiesman, Zeev; Markus, Arie; Wolf, David

    2002-05-01

    The release characteristics of encapsulated formulations containing a combination of plant growth factors (PGF)--plant hormones (IBA, paclobutrazol), nutrients (fertilizers, microelements), and fungicide (prochloraz)--were studied. The formulations were prepared by encapsulating the active ingredients in a polyethylene matrix and, in some cases, subsequently coating the product with polyurethane. Dissolution experiments were carried out with both coated and non-coated formulations to determine the sustained release patterns of the active ingredients. The PGF controlled-release systems obtained have been shown to promote development of root systems, vegetative growth, and reproductive development in cuttings, potted plants, or garden plants of various plant species. These beneficial effects are attributable to the lasting and balanced PGF availability provided by these systems. PMID:12009194

  1. Helical growth in plant organs: mechanisms and significance.

    PubMed

    Smyth, David R

    2016-09-15

    Many plants show some form of helical growth, such as the circular searching movements of growing stems and other organs (circumnutation), tendril coiling, leaf and bud reversal (resupination), petal arrangement (contortion) and leaf blade twisting. Recent genetic findings have revealed that such helical growth may be associated with helical arrays of cortical microtubules and of overlying cellulose microfibrils. An alternative mechanism of coiling that is based on differential contraction within a bilayer has also recently been identified and underlies at least some of these growth patterns. Here, I provide an overview of the genes and cellular processes that underlie helical patterning. I also discuss the diversity of helical growth patterns in plants, highlighting their potential adaptive significance and comparing them with helical growth patterns in animals. PMID:27624832

  2. Directional auxin transport mechanisms in early diverging land plants.

    PubMed

    Viaene, Tom; Landberg, Katarina; Thelander, Mattias; Medvecka, Eva; Pederson, Eric; Feraru, Elena; Cooper, Endymion D; Karimi, Mansour; Delwiche, Charles F; Ljung, Karin; Geisler, Markus; Sundberg, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2014-12-01

    The emergence and radiation of multicellular land plants was driven by crucial innovations to their body plans. The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin represents a key, plant-specific mechanism for polarization and patterning in complex seed plants. Here, we show that already in the early diverging land plant lineage, as exemplified by the moss Physcomitrella patens, auxin transport by PIN transporters is operational and diversified into ER-localized and plasma membrane-localized PIN proteins. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses revealed that PIN-dependent intercellular auxin transport in Physcomitrella mediates crucial developmental transitions in tip-growing filaments and waves of polarization and differentiation in leaf-like structures. Plasma membrane PIN proteins localize in a polar manner to the tips of moss filaments, revealing an unexpected relation between polarization mechanisms in moss tip-growing cells and multicellular tissues of seed plants. Our results trace the origins of polarization and auxin-mediated patterning mechanisms and highlight the crucial role of polarized auxin transport during the evolution of multicellular land plants. PMID:25448004

  3. Effect of site on growth of hybrid poplar clones planted on a commercial scale

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Two-, four-, and five-year height growth of Populus hybrids were measured over a full range of USDA Soil Conservation Service natural and altered soil drainage and texture classes on fields planted by Packaging Corporation of America using intensive culture. Five clonal trials with 40 clones each were examined for 4-year height growth and were analyzed for effects of site, clone and site by clone interaction. Substantial soil variability became an important factor on the previously-planted sites and had to be considered in the statistical analysis. Ten clones with the best 4-year height growth were identified. Four- and five-year height growth of several of the most promising clones from the clonal trials were then examined over a range of soil/site conditions in commercial-size plantations using a tillage plus herbicide management system. Two-year growth was evaluated using a no-till system. Height growth under both management systems significantly decreased on sites other than those with the most optimum conditions for agricultural crops. Using the results from the clonal trials and the two tillage system studies, soil/site factors which affected establishment and early growth of hybrid popular plantings were summarized and outlined in detail, and a practical field guide was formulated for evaluating the potential of agricultural fields for the intensive culture of hybrid poplars.

  4. Growth Characteristics of Rhizophagus clarus Strains and Their Effects on the Growth of Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2015-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous in the rhizosphere and form symbiotic relationships with most terrestrial plant roots. In this study, four strains of Rhizophagus clarus were cultured and variations in their growth characteristics owing to functional diversity and resultant effects on host plant were investigated. Growth characteristics of the studied R. clarus strains varied significantly, suggesting that AMF retain high genetic variability at the intraspecies level despite asexual lineage. Furthermore, host plant growth response to the R. clarus strains showed that genetic variability in AMF could cause significant differences in the growth of the host plant, which prefers particular genetic types of fungal strains. These results suggest that the intraspecific genetic diversity of AMF could be result of similar selective pressure and may be expressed at a functional level. PMID:26839504

  5. Growth Characteristics of Rhizophagus clarus Strains and Their Effects on the Growth of Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous in the rhizosphere and form symbiotic relationships with most terrestrial plant roots. In this study, four strains of Rhizophagus clarus were cultured and variations in their growth characteristics owing to functional diversity and resultant effects on host plant were investigated. Growth characteristics of the studied R. clarus strains varied significantly, suggesting that AMF retain high genetic variability at the intraspecies level despite asexual lineage. Furthermore, host plant growth response to the R. clarus strains showed that genetic variability in AMF could cause significant differences in the growth of the host plant, which prefers particular genetic types of fungal strains. These results suggest that the intraspecific genetic diversity of AMF could be result of similar selective pressure and may be expressed at a functional level. PMID:26839504

  6. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  7. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  8. Activated carbon decreases invasive plant growth by mediating plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Nicole E; Kulmatiski, Andrew; Beard, Karen H; Norton, Jeanette M

    2014-01-01

    There is growing appreciation for the idea that plant-soil interactions (e.g. allelopathy and plant-microbe feedbacks) may explain the success of some non-native plants. Where this is the case, native plant restoration may require management tools that change plant-soil interactions. Activated carbon (AC) is one such potential tool. Previous research has shown the potential for high concentrations of AC to restore native plant growth to areas dominated by non-natives on a small scale (1 m × 1 m plots). Here we (i) test the efficacy of different AC concentrations at a larger scale (15 m × 15 m plots), (ii) measure microbial responses to AC treatment and (iii) use a greenhouse experiment to identify the primary mechanism, allelopathy versus microbial changes, through which AC impacts native and non-native plant growth. Three years after large-scale applications, AC treatments decreased non-native plant cover and increased the ratio of native to non-native species cover, particularly at concentrations >400 g m(-2). Activated carbon similarly decreased non-native plant growth in the greenhouse. This effect, however, was only observed in live soils, suggesting that AC effects were microbially mediated and not caused by direct allelopathy. Bacterial community analysis of field soils indicated that AC increased the relative abundance of an unidentified bacterium and an Actinomycetales and decreased the relative abundance of a Flavobacterium, suggesting that these organisms may play a role in AC effects on plant growth. Results support the idea that manipulations of plant-microbe interactions may provide novel and effective ways of directing plant growth and community development (e.g. native plant restoration). PMID:25387751

  9. Harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Yu, Guanghui; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhong; Fu, Lin; Shen, Qirong; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of natural products on plant growth and protection will underpin new product development for plant production. The isolation and characterization of a known secondary metabolite named harzianolide from Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 were described, and the bioactivity of the purified compound as well as the crude metabolite extract in plant growth promotion and systemic resistance induction was investigated in this study. The results showed that harzianolide significantly promoted tomato seedling growth by up to 2.5-fold (dry weight) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm compared with the control. The result of root scan suggested that Trichoderma secondary metabolites may influence the early stages of plant growth through better root development for the enhancement of root length and tips. Both of the purified harzianolide and crude metabolite extract increased the activity of some defense-related enzymes to response to oxidative stress. Examination of six defense-related gene expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that harzianolide induces the expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid (PR1 and GLU) and jasmonate/ethylene (JERF3) signaling pathways while crude metabolite extract inhibited some gene expression (CHI-II and PGIP) related to basal defense in tomato plants. Further experiment showed that a subsequent challenge of harzianolide-pretreated plants with the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resulted in higher systemic resistance by the reduction of lesion size. These results indicate that secondary metabolites of Trichoderma spp., like harzianolide, may play a novel role in both plant growth regulation and plant defense responses. PMID:24080397

  10. Telomere dynamics in wild brown trout: effects of compensatory growth and early growth investment.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Joacim; Pauliny, Angela; Blomqvist, Donald; Johnsson, Jörgen I

    2015-04-01

    After a period of food deprivation, animals often respond with a period of faster than normal growth. Such responses have been suggested to result in decreased chromosomal maintenance, which in turn may affect the future fitness of an individual. Here, we present a field experiment in which a food deprivation period of 24 days was enforced on fish from a natural population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the start of the high-growth season in spring. The growth of the food-deprived fish and a non-deprived control group was then monitored in the wild during 1 year. Fin tissue samples were taken at the start of the experiment and 1 year after food deprivation to monitor the telomere dynamics, using reduced telomere length as an indicator of maintenance cost. The food-deprived fish showed partial compensatory growth in both mass and length relative to the control group. However, we found no treatment effects on telomere dynamics, suggesting that growth-compensating brown trout juveniles are able to maintain their telomeres during their second year in the stream. However, body size at the start of the experiment, reflecting growth rate during their first year of life, was negatively correlated with change in telomere length over the following year. This result raises the possibility that rapid growth early in life induces delayed costs in cellular maintenance. PMID:25698140

  11. The Rapid Growth of Fibroids during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benaglia, Laura; Cardellicchio, Lucia; Filippi, Francesca; Paffoni, Alessio; Vercellini, Paolo; Somigliana, Edgardo; Fedele, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies aimed to disentangle whether pregnancy influences the growth of uterine fibroids but results were inconsistent. In this study, we speculated that fibroid enlargement during pregnancy may not be linear and we hypothesized that this phenomenon may mainly occur during initial pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, we set up a prospective cohort study of women with fibroids undergoing IVF. Cases were women achieving a viable pregnancy. Controls were the subsequent women with fibroids but failing to become pregnant. Twenty-five cases and 25 controls were recruited. The total number of fibroids in the two groups was 46 and 41, respectively. The mean ± SD diameter of the fibroids was 17±10 and 20±11 mm, respectively (p = 0.18). A statistically significant enlargement emerged exclusively in pregnant women. The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the diameter of the lesions in cases and controls was +34% (+6%/+65%) and +2% (−6%/+12%), respectively (p<0.001). The median (Interquartile Range) modification of the volume of the lesions was +140% (+23%/+357%) and 0% (−18%/+37%), respectively (p<0.001). In pregnant women, we failed to document any significant correlation between the magnitude of the growth and ovarian responsiveness to hyper-stimulation, suggesting that steroids hormones are not the unique factors involved. In conclusion, fibroids undergo a rapid and remarkable growth during initial pregnancy. Reasons behind this phenomenon remain to be clarified. The early rise in steroids hormones during early pregnancy may not be sufficient to explain the process. Other pregnancy-related hormones and proteins may play also key roles. PMID:24465797

  12. Early growth response 1 regulates glucose deprivation-induced necrosis

    PubMed Central

    JEON, HYUN MIN; LEE, SU YEON; JU, MIN KYUNG; KIM, CHO HEE; PARK, HYE GYEONG; KANG, HO SUNG

    2013-01-01

    Necrosis is commonly found in the core region of solid tumours due to metabolic stress such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Necrosis promotes tumour growth and development by releasing the tumour-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); however, the molecular mechanism underlying necrotic cell death remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that early growth response 1 (Egr-1) is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner by GD in several cell lines such as A549, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells that exhibit necrosis upon GD. We found that Egr-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) prevented GD-induced necrosis and HMGB1 release. Necrosis-inhibiting activity of Egr-1 shRNA was also seen in multicellular tumour spheroids (MTSs), an in vitro tumour model system. In contrast, Egr-1 overexpression appeared to make tumour cells more susceptible to GD-induced necrosis. Finally, Egr-1 shRNA suppressed the growth of MTSs. These findings demonstrate that Egr-1 is implicated in GD-induced necrosis and tumour progression. PMID:23152075

  13. Multiple effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens volatile compounds: plant growth promotion and growth inhibition of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Asari, Shashidar; Matzén, Staffan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Biotic interactions through volatile organic compounds (VOC) are frequent in nature. This investigation aimed to study the role of ITALIC! BacillusVOC for the beneficial effects on plants observed as improved growth and pathogen control. Four ITALIC! Bacillus amyloliquefacienssubsp. ITALIC! plantarumstrains were screened for VOC effects on ITALIC! Arabidopsis thalianaCol-0 seedlings and ITALIC! Brassicafungal phytopathogens. VOC from all four ITALIC! Bacillusstrains could promote growth of ITALIC! Arabidopsisplants resulting in increased shoot biomass but the effects were dependent on the growth medium. Dose response studies with UCMB5113 on MS agar with or without root exudates showed significant plant growth promotion even at low levels of bacteria. ITALIC! BacillusVOC antagonized growth of several fungal pathogens ITALIC! in vitro However, the plant growth promotion efficacy and fungal inhibition potency varied among the ITALIC! Bacillusstrains. VOC inhibition of several phytopathogens indicated efficient microbial antagonism supporting high rhizosphere competence of the ITALIC! Bacillusstrains. GC-MS analysis identified several VOC structures where the profiles differed depending on the growth medium. The ability of ITALIC! Bacillusstrains to produce both volatile and soluble compounds for plant growth promotion and disease biocontrol provides examples of rhizosphere microbes as an important ecosystem service with high potential to support sustainable crop production. PMID:27053756

  14. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments. PMID:26905653

  15. Gravity related features of plant growth behavior studied with rotating machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    Research in plant physiology consists mostly of studies on plant growth because almost everything a plant does is done by growing. Most aspects of plant growth are strongly influenced by the earth's gravity vector. Research on those phenomena address scientific questions specifically about how plants use gravity to guide their growth processes.

  16. Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Freeman, D. Carl; McArthur, E.D.; Kim, Y.-O.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The growth and development of rice (Oryzae sativa) seedlings was shown to be regulated epigenetically by a fungal endophyte. In contrast to un-inoculated (nonsymbiotic) plants, endophyte colonized (symbiotic) plants preferentially allocated resources into root growth until root hairs were well established. During that time symbiotic roots expanded at five times the rate observed in nonsymbiotic plants. Endophytes also influenced sexual reproduction of mature big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) plants. Two spatially distinct big sagebrush subspecies and their hybrids were symbiotic with unique fungal endophytes, despite being separated by only 380 m distance and 60 m elevation. A double reciprocal transplant experiment of parental and hybrid plants, and soils across the hybrid zone showed that fungal endophytes interact with the soils and different plant genotypes to confer enhanced plant reproduction in soil native to the endophyte and reduced reproduction in soil alien to the endophyte. Moreover, the most prevalent endophyte of the hybrid zone reduced the fitness of both parental subspecies. Because these endophytes are passed to the next generation of plants on seed coats, this interaction provides a selective advantage, habitat specificity, and the means of restricting gene flow, thereby making the hybrid zone stable, narrow and potentially leading to speciation. ?? 2009 Landes Bioscience.

  17. Relationship between early growth and CVD risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Musa, M G; Kagura, J; Pisa, P T; Norris, S A

    2016-04-01

    Low birth weight and a rapid weight gain in early childhood may lead to an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease later in life, such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. In this study, we examined the associations between size at birth, relative weight gain in infancy and childhood with specific cardiovascular disease risk factors in early adulthood. Adolescents (n=1935) from the Birth to Twenty plus (BT20+) cohort were included in the analysis. The following were treated as exposure variables: weight at birth, and relative conditional weight gain (CW), independent of height, between ages 0-24 months and 24-48 months. Outcomes were serum lipids and body composition variables at age 18 years. After adjusting for sex and other confounders, early life exposures were not associated with adolescent lipid profile. Following adjustment for sex and height (body size), birth weight [β=0.704 (0.40, 1.01)], CW 0-24 [β=1.918 (1.56, 2.28)] and CW24-48 [β=1.485 (1.14, 1.82)] accounted for 48% of the variance in fat mass. However, birth weight [β=0.773 (0.54, 1.01)], CW 0-24 [β=1.523 (1.24, 1.80)] and CW24-48 [β=1.226 (0.97, 1.49)] were also positively predicted and accounted for 71% of the variance in fat mass in adolescence (P<0.05). Our data suggests that birth weight and weight gain during infancy and early childhood independent of linear growth are related to adolescent body composition but not blood lipid profiles in an urban African population. PMID:26810380

  18. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure Torch Plasma Irradiation on Plant Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, Yusuke; Hayashi, Nobuya; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2011-10-01

    Growth stimulation characteristics of plants seeds are investigated by an atmospheric discharge irradiation into plasma seeds. Atmospheric pressure plasma torch is consisted of alumina ceramics tube and the steel mesh electrodes wind inside and outside of the tube. When AC high voltage (8 kHz) is applied to the electrode gap, the barrier discharge plasma is produced inside the alumina ceramics tube. The barrier discharge plasma is blown outside with the gas flow in ceramics tube. Radish sprouts seeds locate at 1 cm from the torch edge. The growth stimulation was observed in the length of a stem and a root after the plasma irradiation. The stem length increases approximately 2.8 times at the cultivation time of 24 h. And the growth stimulation effect is found to be maintained for 40 h, after sowing seeds. The mechanism of the growth stimulation would be the redox reaction inside plant cells induced by oxygen radicals.

  19. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  20. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    PubMed

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. PMID:26967291

  1. Use of lunar regolith as a substrate for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for a lunar RLSS from resources on the Moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (1) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (2) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (3) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (4) sources of O2 and H2, which may be used to manufacture water, (5) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (6) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from harmful radiation. Use of indigenous lunar regolith as a terrestrial-like soil for plant growth could offer a solid support substrate, buffering capacity, nutrient source/storage/retention capabilities, and should be relatively easy to maintain. The lunar regolith could, with a suitable microbial population, play a role in waste renovation; much like terrestrial waste application directly on soils. Issues associated with potentially toxic elements, pH, nutrient availability, air and fluid movement parameters, and cation exchange capacity of lunar regolith need to be addressed before lunar materials can be used effectively as soils for plant growth.

  2. Use of lunar regolith as a substrate for plant growth.

    PubMed

    Ming, D W; Henninger, D L

    1994-01-01

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for a lunar RLSS from resources on the Moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (i) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (ii) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (iv) sources of O2 and H2, which may be used to manufacture water, (v) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (vi) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from harmful radiation. Use of indigenous lunar regolith as a terrestrial-like soil for plant growth could offer a solid support substrate, buffering capacity, nutrient source/storage/retention capabilities, and should be relatively easy to maintain. The lunar regolith could, with a suitable microbial population, play a role in waste renovation; much like terrestrial waste application directly on soils. Issues associated with potentially toxic elements, pH, nutrient availability, air and fluid movement parameters, and cation exchange capacity of lunar regolith need to be addressed before lunar materials can be used effectively as soils for plant growth. PMID:11538023

  3. Designing Extraterrestrial Plant Growth Habitats With Low Pressure Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    In-situ resource utilization, provision of human life support requirements by bioregenerative methods, and engineering constraints for construction and deployment of plant growth structures on the surface of Mars all suggest the need for plant growth studies at hypobaric pressures. Past work demonstrated that plants will likely tolerate and grow at pressures at or below 10 kPa. Based upon this premise, concepts are developed for the design of reduced pressure atmospheres in lightweight, inflatable structures for plant growth systems on Mars with the goals of maximizing design simplicity and the use of local resources. A modular pod design is proposed as it could be integrated with large-scale production systems. Atmospheric modification of pod clusters would be based upon a pulse and scrub system using mass flow methods for atmospheric transport. A specific modification and control scenario is developed for a lettuce pod to illustrate the dynamics of carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange within a pod. Considerations of minimal atmospheric crop requirements will aid in the development of engineering designs and strategies for extraterrestrial plant growth structures that employ rarefied atmospheres.

  4. Designing Extraterrestrial Plant Growth Habitats with Low Pressure Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    In-situ resource utilization, provision of human life support requirements by bioregenerative methods, and engineering constraints for construction and deployment of plant growth structures on the surface of Mars all suggest the need for plant growth studies at hypobaric pressures. Past work demonstrated that plants will likely tolerate and grow at pressures at or below 10 kPa. Based upon this premise, concepts are developed for the design of reduced pressure atmospheres in lightweight, inflatable structures for plant growth systems on Mars with the goals of maximizing design simplicity and the use of local resources. A modular pod design is proposed as it could be integrated with large-scale production systems. Atmospheric modification of pod clusters would be based upon a pulse and scrub system using mass flow methods for atmospheric transport. A specific modification and control scenario is developed for a lettuce pod to illustrate the dynamics of carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange within a pod. Considerations of minimal atmospheric crop requirements will aid in the development of engineering designs and strategies for extraterrestrial plant growth structures that employ rarefied atmospheres.

  5. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Bernard R.

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise. PMID:24278762

  6. Use of lunar regolith as a substrate for plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-11-01

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) will be required to regenerate air, water, and wastes, and to produce food for human consumption during long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. It may be possible to supplement some of the materials needed for a lunar RLSS from resources on the Moon. Natural materials at the lunar surface may be used for a variety of lunar RLSS needs, including (i) soils or solid-support substrates for plant growth, (ii) sources for extraction of essential, plant-growth nutrients, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, (iv) sources of O2 and H2, which may be used to manufacture water, (v) feed stock materials for the synthesis of useful minerals (e.g., molecular sieves), and (vi) shielding materials surrounding the outpost structure to protect humans, plants, and microorganism from harmful radiation. Use of indigenous lunar regolith as a terrestrial-like soil for plant growth could offer a solid support substrate, buffering capacity, nutrient source/storage/retention capabilities, and should be relatively easy to maintain. The lunar regolith could, with a suitable microbial population, play a role in waste renovation; much like terrestrial waste application directly on soils. Issues associated with potentially toxic elements, pH, nutrient availability, air and fluid movement parameters, and cation exchange capacity of lunar regolith need to be addressed before lunar materials can be used effectively as soils for plant growth.

  7. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds

  8. Growth protocols for model plants in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis is the dominating model species for plant developmental biology, but other species serve as models for processes that cannot be studied in Arabidopsis, such as compound leaf or wood formation, or to test the universality of developmental mechanisms initially identified in Arabidopsis. Research in plant developmental biology depends critically on robust growth protocols that will support reproducible development. Here, protocols are given to grow Antirrhinum, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, maize, Medicago, Petunia, rice, and tomato in the laboratory. PMID:20734250

  9. Effects of spring post-planting flooding on early soybean production systems in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    April planting of early-maturing soybean to avoid late-summer drought and to allow early harvest has become a common management practice in Mississippi. However, most of the early-planted soybeans on Sharkey clay soils in Mississippi are often exposed to waterlogged conditions during the early sprin...

  10. Magnetic fluids effect upon growth processes in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, F.

    1999-07-01

    The metabolic processes of plants growth and development take place according to some organic rules which are specific to their genetic potential. These processes may exhibit modifications of intensity, rhythm, sense, under the influence of the environmental conditions of agricultural systems, through certain factors and bioregulators artificially introduced by man. The results of some investigations regarding effects of biocompatible magnetic fluids (LMW 100 G) on the vegetal organism's (growth, development, fructifying, the level and quality of the yield precocity) are presented.

  11. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce>soybean>watermelon>corn>okra≈millet>sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  12. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, isolated from female gametophyte tissue of loblolly pine, inhibits growth of early-stage somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Sullards, M Cameron; Oldham, Charlie D; Gelbaum, Les; Lucrezi, Jacob; Pullman, Gerald S; May, Sheldon W

    2012-01-01

    • Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)), abundant in animals and plants, is well known for its anticancer activity. However, many aspects of InsP(6) function in plants remain undefined. We now report the first evidence that InsP(6) can inhibit cellular proliferation in plants under growth conditions where phosphorus is not limited. • A highly anionic molecule inhibitory to early-stage somatic embryo growth of loblolly pine (LP) was purified chromatographically from late-stage LP female gametophytes (FGs), and then characterized structurally using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. • Exact mass and mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS-MS) fragmentation identified the bioactive molecule as an inositol hexakisphosphate. It was then identified as the myo-isomer (i.e. InsP(6)) on the basis of (1)H-, (31)P- and (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and (1)H-(13)C HSQC. Topical application of InsP(6) to early-stage somatic embryos indeed inhibits embryonic growth. • Recently evidence has begun to emerge that InsP(6) may also play a regulatory role in plant cells. We anticipate that our findings will help to stimulate additional investigations aimed at elucidating the roles of inositol phosphates in cellular growth and development in plants. PMID:22023391

  13. Providing controlled environments for plant growth in space.

    PubMed

    Bula, R J; Ignatius, R W

    1996-12-01

    Providing a controlled environment for growth of plants in a space environment involves development of unique technologies for the various subsystems of the plant growing facility. These subsystems must be capable of providing the desired environmental control within the operational constraints of currently available space vehicles, primarily the US Space Shuttle or the Russian Space Station, MIR. These constraints include available electrical power, limited total payload mass, and limited volume of the payload. In addition, the space hardware must meet safety requirements for a man-rated space vehicle. The ASTROCULTURE (TM) space-based plant growth unit provides control of temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration of the plant chamber air. A light emitting diode (LED) unit provides red and blue photons with a total intensity adjustable from 0 to 500 micromoles m-2 s-1. Ethylene released by the plant material is removed with a non-consumable ethylene removable unit. A porous tube and rooting matrix subsystem is used to supply water and nutrients to the plants. The ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight unit is sized to be accommodated in a single middeck locker of the US Space Shuttle, the SPACEHAB module, and with slight modification in the SPACELAB module. The environmental control capabilities of the subsystems used in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight unit have been validated in a microgravity environment during five US Space Shuttle missions, including two with plants. The unique environmental control technologies developed for the space-based plant growth facility can be used to enhance the environmental control capabilities of terrestrial controlled environment plant chambers. PMID:11541567

  14. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa--Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water-lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C(4)-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm · y(-1) and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change. PMID:23267102

  15. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa—Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water–lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C4-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm·y−1 and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change. PMID:23267102

  16. Increased Plant Uptake of Nitrogen from 15N Depleted Fertilizer Using Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The techniques of 15N isotope have been very useful for determining the behavior and fate of N in soil, including the use efficiency of applied N fertilizers by plants. Our objective in this study was to use 15N isotope techniques to demonstrate that a model plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGP...

  17. The progress of early growth response factor 1 and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Li, Ziwei; Han, Yang; Jiang, Tao; Song, Xiaoming; Jiang, Guosheng

    2016-05-01

    Early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) widely exists in the cell nucleus of such as, zebrafish, mice, chimpanzees and humans, an it also can be observed in the cytoplasm of some tumors. EGR1 was named just after its brief and rapid expression of different stimuli. Accumulating studies have extensively demonstrated that the widespread dysregulation of EGR1 is involved in hematological malignancies such as human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and B cell lymphoma. With the deep research on EGR1, its expression, function and regulatory mechanism has been gradually elucidated, and provides more possibilities for treatment strategies of patients with leukemia. Herein, we summarize the roles of EGR1 in its biological function and relationship with leukemia. PMID:27195189

  18. The progress of early growth response factor 1 and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Li, Ziwei; Han, Yang; Jiang, Tao; Song, Xiaoming; Jiang, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Summary Early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) widely exists in the cell nucleus of such as, zebrafish, mice, chimpanzees and humans, an it also can be observed in the cytoplasm of some tumors. EGR1 was named just after its brief and rapid expression of different stimuli. Accumulating studies have extensively demonstrated that the widespread dysregulation of EGR1 is involved in hematological malignancies such as human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and B cell lymphoma. With the deep research on EGR1, its expression, function and regulatory mechanism has been gradually elucidated, and provides more possibilities for treatment strategies of patients with leukemia. Herein, we summarize the roles of EGR1 in its biological function and relationship with leukemia. PMID:27195189

  19. MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swallom, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation.

  20. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Nuclear Power Plant Siting Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-28

    This database is a repository of comprehensive licensing and technical reviews of siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. The program is designed to be used by applicants for an early site permit or combined construction permit/operating license (10CFRR522, Subparts A and C) as input for the development of the application. The database is a complete, menu-driven, self-contained package that can search and sort the supplied datamore » by topic, keyword, or other input. The software is designed for operation on IBM compatible computers with DOS.« less

  1. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  2. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Morrow, R. C.; Levine, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The 'Veggie' vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nm), blue, (455 nm) and green (530 nm) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows/baseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  3. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  4. All about Plant Structure & Growth. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    How does a tiny seed sprout and grow into a towering tree? Join the kids from M.A.P.L.E as they learn about some of the incredible transformations that a plant goes through during its lifetime. In All About Plant Structure & Growth, uncover the secrets of roots, stems and leaves - structures that are vital to a plant's role as an energy producer.…

  5. Nondestructive methods for early detection of damage to living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateyeva, Natalya L.; Matvienko, Gennadii G.; Shul'gina, Lidia A.

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the accomplish experiments determine, that by a method of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll it is possible to spot for cedar an early stage of the stressful factor, bound with presence in ground <>. In our case the laboratory researches provided learning a quantitative contents chlorophyll for plants found in normal and stressful conditions on a basis spectrophotometrical of a method. Natural measurement the observations behind dynamics of a photosynthetic state means of wood plants in vivo enable. For an estimation of this state the fluorescence of chlorophyll on wavelength 685 and 740 nm was used. The optical model of a green leaf was developed for methods of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll. A experiments series on remote research of processes violation of mineral power supply and exchange in plants is carried spent. Was considered the change of the ratios of intensity of a fluorescence of chlorophyll and carotenoids at deficiency. Was designed technique for detection infringement processes of mineral nutrition and change surveyed acidity grounds on laser-induce fluorescent responses of deciduous plants.

  6. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    M Weraduwage, Sarathi; Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; C Anozie, Fransisca; D Sharkey, Thomas; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. PMID:27208234

  7. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  8. Single-plant, Sterile Microcosms for Nodulation and Growth of the Legume Plant Medicago truncatula with the Rhizobial Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobial bacteria form symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of compatible host legume plants. One of the most well-developed model systems for studying these interactions is the plant Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 and the rhizobial bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Repeated imaging of plant roots and scoring of symbiotic phenotypes requires methods that are non-destructive to either plants or bacteria. The symbiotic phenotypes of some plant and bacterial mutants become apparent after relatively short periods of growth, and do not require long-term observation of the host/symbiont interaction. However, subtle differences in symbiotic efficiency and nodule senescence phenotypes that are not apparent in the early stages of the nodulation process require relatively long growth periods before they can be scored. Several methods have been developed for long-term growth and observation of this host/symbiont pair. However, many of these methods require repeated watering, which increases the possibility of contamination by other microbes. Other methods require a relatively large space for growth of large numbers of plants. The method described here, symbiotic growth of M. truncatula/S. meliloti in sterile, single-plant microcosms, has several advantages. Plants in these microcosms have sufficient moisture and nutrients to ensure that watering is not required for up to 9 weeks, preventing cross-contamination during watering. This allows phenotypes to be quantified that might be missed in short-term growth systems, such as subtle delays in nodule development and early nodule senescence. Also, the roots and nodules in the microcosm are easily viewed through the plate lid, so up-rooting of the plants for observation is not required. PMID:24121837

  9. Plant Classification by Growth Form for Field Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, David M.

    1982-01-01

    A simple classification system for terrestrial plants is presented. The method is based on growth forms and avoids the need for identification to genus or species, although students could be encouraged to follow the work through to this level if appropriate. (Author/JN)

  10. Cytokinin production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and selected mutants.

    PubMed

    García de Salamone, I E; Hynes, R K; Nelson, L M

    2001-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is through the production of plant growth regulators. Five plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains produced the cytokinin dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR) in pure culture. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18, a rifampicin-resistant mutant (RIF), and two TnphoA-derived mutants (CNT1, CNT2), with reduced capacity to synthesize cytokinins, was further characterized in pure culture using immunoassay and thin layer chromatography. G20-18 produced higher amounts of three cytokinins, isopentenyl adenosine (IPA), trans-zeatin ribose (ZR), and DHZR than the three mutants during stationary phase. IPA was the major metabolite produced, but the proportion of ZR and DHZR accumulated by CNT1 and CNT2 increased with time. No differences were observed between strain G20-18 and the mutants in the amounts of indole acetic acid synthesized, nor were gibberellins detected in supernatants of any of the strains. Addition of 10(-5) M adenine increased cytokinin production in 96- and 168-h cultures of strain G20-18 by approximately 67%. G20-18 and the mutants CNT1 and CNT2 may be useful for determination of the role of cytokinin production in plant growth promotion by PGPR. PMID:11400730